truth, lies and the
internet a report into
young people’s digital
fluency
Jamie Bartlett
Carl Miller
September 2011
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Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
Truth lies and the internet
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Transcript of "Truth lies and the internet"

  1. 1. truth, lies and the internet a report into young people’s digital fluency Jamie Bartlett Carl Miller September 2011
  2. 2. !"#!$%&'()*&+,-&!$)&(,!)",)!& "#$%&!'#()*&))!! +#(*!,%**&(! -&.)&$/&(!0122! ! !
  3. 3. Truth, Lies and the Internet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n collaboration with the Nominet Trust ;)).IOO@@@849$%4&))(>7)89(:8>AO ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! P>/*%7;&=!/D!C&$97!0122! Q!C&$978!-9$&!(%:;)7!(&7&(<&=8! F;%(=!R*99(! ,#:=#*&4!S9>7&! 2TU!F99*&D!-)(&&)! V94=94!-W2!0FX! F!!1YZ[!Z[Y![Z! R!!101!]TU]!Z012! ;&**9^=&$978698>A! @@@8=&$978698>A! 2
  4. 4. Truth, Lies and the Internet )0)/#!(1)&*#22+"3& F;&!%4)&(4&)!%7!49@!#*$97)!6&()#%4*D!);&!:(&#)&7)!79>(6&!9?! %4?9($#)%94!?9(!.&9.*&!*%<%4:!%4!);&!X_!)9=#D8!E&!>7&!%)!)9!(&#=!>.! 94!@;#)!%7!;#..&4%4:!%4!);&!@9(*=B!)9!:&)!#=<%6&!#/9>)!);%4:7!);#)! @9((D!>7B!)9!#(:>&!#4=!69**#/9(#)&B!)9!=&6%=&!@;9!)9!<9)&!?9(!#4=! @;9!)9!=#)&8!F;&!%4?9($#)%94!@&!#66&77!#4=!6947>$&!94!);&! %4)&(4&)!%7!6&4)(#*!)9!?9($%4:!9>(!#))%)>=&7B!9>(!/&*%&?7B!9>(!<%&@7! #/9>)!);&!@9(*=!#(9>4=!>7!#4=!9>(!7&47&!9?!@;9!@&!#(&!@%);%4!%)8!!!! F;&!#$9>4)!9?!%4?9($#)%94!#<#%*#/*&!)9!>7!#)!);&!6*%6A!9?!#!$9>7&! @;&4!$#A%4:!);&7&!=&6%7%947!6#4!/&!/9);!*%/&(#)%4:!#4=! #7.;DM%#)%4:8!5*);9>:;!);&(&!#(&!$9(&!&`/99A7B!)(>7)@9();D! G9>(4#*%7$B!4%6;&!&M.&()%7&!#4=!#66>(#)&!?#6)7!#4=!?%:>(&7!#)!9>(! ?%4:&()%.7!);#4!&<&(!/&?9(&B!);&(&!#(&!&a>#**D!>4.(&6&=&4)&=! #$9>4)7!9?!$%7)#A&7B!;#*?`)(>);7B!$%7)(>);7B!.(9.#:#4=#B! $%7%4?9($#)%94B!=%7%4?9($#)%94!#4=!:&4&(#*!4947&47&8!! ,#A%4:!7&47&!9?!#**!);%7!!!A49@%4:!;9@!)9!=%76(%$%4#)&!);&!:99=B! (&*%#/*&B!)(>7)@9();D!9(!>7&?>*!%4?9($#)%94!?(9$!);&!/#=!!!%7! );&(&?9(&!9?!)(&$&4=9>7!%$.9()#46&8!F;&!#/%*%)D!)9!$#A&!);&7&! =%??%6>*)!G>=:$&4)7!$#))&(7!)9!&<&(D94&!/>)!&7.&6%#**D!D9>4:!.&9.*&B! ?9(!@;9$!);&!%4)&(4&)!%7!#!$9(&!%$.9()#4)!$&=%>$!);#4!#4D!9);&(! :(9>.8!! 3>(!(&7&#(6;!7;9@7B!;9@&<&(B!);#)!$#4D!D9>4:!.&9.*&!#(&!49)! 6#(&?>*B!=%76&(4%4:!>7&(7!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)8!F;&D!#(&!>4#/*&!)9!?%4=!);&! %4?9($#)%94!);&D!#(&!*99A%4:!?9(!9(!)(>7)!);&!?%(7)!);%4:!);&D!=98! F;&D!=9!49)!#..*D!?#6)!6;&6A7!)9!);&!%4?9($#)%94!);&D!?%4=8!F;&D!#(&! >4#/*&!)9!(&69:4%7&!/%#7!#4=!.(9.#:#4=#!#4=!@%**!49)!:9!)9!#!<#(%&=! 4>$/&(!9?!79>(6&78!57!#!(&7>*)B!);&D!#(&!)99!9?)&4!%4?*>&46&=!/D! %4?9($#)%94!);&D!7;9>*=!.(9/#/*D!=%76#(=82!F;%7!$#A&7!);&$! <>*4&(#/*&!)9!);&!.%)?#**7!#4=!(#//%)!;9*&7!9?!%:49(#46&B!?#*7&;99=7B! 6947!#4=!76#$78!H4#66>(#)&!694)&4)B!94*%4&!$%7%4?9($#)%94!#4=! 6947.%(#6D!);&9(%&7!K7>6;!#7!);97&!@;%6;!7>((9>4=&=!);&!=&#);!9?! 37#$#!/%4!V#=&4L!#(&!#..&#(%4:!%4!);&!6*#77(99$8!!! F;&!.9)&4)%#*!6947&a>&46&7!9?!);%7!94!796%&)D!#7!#!@;9*&!#(&! >4A49@48!34&!=#4:&(!%7!);#)!D9>4:!.&9.*&!#(&!$9(&!*%A&*D!)9!/&! 7&=>6&=!/D!&M)(&$%7)!#4=!<%9*&4)!%=&#78!57!@&!;#<&!#(:>&=! 3
  5. 5. Truth, Lies and the Internet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`)(>);7B!#4=! $%7)#A&7B!#4=!/&))&(!4#<%:#)&!);&!$>(A%&(!#4=!:(&D&(!@#)&(7!9?! #(:>$&4)!#4=!9.%4%948!! F;&!#/%*%)D!)9!G>=:&!);&!$&(%)7!9?!=%??&(&4)!.%&6&7!9?!%4?9($#)%94!%7! 49)!4&@b!%)!%7!);&!/#7%7!9?!$>6;!9?!6*#77%6#*!.;%*979.;D8!S9@&<&(B! );&!#(6;%)&6)>(&!#4=!?>46)%94#*%)D!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)!$#A&7!);&!G9/!9?! 7&.#(#)%4:!);&!@;&#)!?(9$!);&!6;#??!&<&4!;#(=&(8!5!7.&6%?%6!/9=D!9?! 7A%**7!#4=!A49@*&=:&!%7!(&a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
  6. 6. Truth, Lies and the Internet 45675689& @"(%/,&$(.&"($%($9,$:%($9$./$+%&'.&%*+,-,&./%1.&,9$#4%ABC`2Y!D&#(!9*=7L! #(&!<&(D!694?%=&4)!>7&(7!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)B!/>)!#(&!49)!.#()%6>*#(*D! 69$.&)&4)8!F;&(&!%7!79$&!&<%=&46&!)9!7;9@!);#)!79$&!D9>4:!.&9.*&! #(&!=%76&(4%4:B!6#(&?>*!%4)&(4&)!>7&(7B!/>)!$>6;!&*7&!);#)!%4=%6#)&7! );#)!);&!7A%**7!9?!=%:%)#*!4#)%<&7!=9!49)!$#)6;!);&%(!9@4!7&*?` (&.9()#:&I!! ! !""#$%&'#()*)+%,#&%+)-./#("#&"+#%00,'#12.13/#"&#+2.# )&4"5$%+)"&#+2.'#%11.//6##(9>4=!94&!%4!?9>(!20`2[!D&#(! 9*=7!$#A&!49!6;&6A7!"#!"$$!@;&4!<%7%)%4:!#!4&@!@&/7%)&B!#4=! *&77!);#4!94&!%4!)&4!#7A!@;9!$#=&!);&!7%)&!#4=!@;D8! ! 7./+2.+)1/#"-.5#89%,)+'6#=&6%7%947!#/9>)!%4?9($#)%94! a>#*%)D!%7!/#7&=!94!7%)&!=&7%:4B!(#);&(!);#4!$9(&!#66>(#)&! 6;&6A7!!!#(9>4=!94&`);%(=!9?!20`2[!D&#(!9*=7!/&*%&<&!);#)!%?!#! 7&#(6;!&4:%4&!*%7)7!%4?9($#)%94!);&4!%)!$>7)!/&!)(>);?>*b!#4=! BD%>$(%2$1&%+514&%251#,+$(%&'$%9$(.2,&3%50%($#"/&#%6"&%E"#&%9,#,&% &'$%#,&$#%&'$3%*/,7$%&'$%/557%504?! ! :%13#"4#+.%12)&*6#94*D!94&`);%(=!9?!`2!D&#(!9*=7!;#<&! /&&4!)#>:;)!;9@!)9!G>=:&!);&!(&*%#/%*%)D!9?!94*%4&! %4?9($#)%948!R%?)D`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b!#4=!);&!7)#)&!9?!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!@%);%4!);&! 76;99*8!F9!);%7!&4=B!#!7#$.*&!@%);!#!(&#794#/*&!7.(&#=!9?!)&(7! K/D!7&4%9(%)DB!7>/G&6)!#4=!6*#77`#:&L!#4=!76;99*7!K/D!:&9:(#.;%6#*! *96#*&B!76;99*`)D.&!#4=!7&6)9(LB!(#);&(!);#4!#!69$.*&)&*D! 5
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  9. 9. Truth, Lies and the Internet %)8!c%<&4!);#)!#4!%46(&#7%4:!4>$/&(!9?!76;99*7!@%**!/&!9.&(#)%4:! 9>)7%=&!);&!d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c99:*&!#4=!N#;99e!7;9>*=!6(&#)&!$#)&(%#*7!);#)! 6#4!/&!>7&=!%4!);&!6*#77(99$B!#4=!@;&(&!.977%/*&B!)%4:! #77%7)#46&8!5!/&7.9A&!@&/!.(&7&46&!7;9>*=!/&!6(&#)&=!)9!.(9<%=&!#4! 9<&(#(6;%4:!694)&M)!?9(!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!)%4:B!9(:#4%7%4:!);&! *%4A7B!$#)&(%#*7B!*&7794!.*#47!#4=!&M#$.*&7!4&6&77#(D!?9(!6*#77(99$! )%4:8! ,%7%4?9($#)%94!9?)&4!);(%<&7!/&6#>7&!%)!%7!$9(&!#))(#6)%<&*D! .#6A#:&=!#4=!=%77&$%4#)&=!#7!7;#(#/*&B!796%#*!$&=%#`?(%&4=*D! .(9=>6)78!F%4:!(&79>(6&7!$>7)!>7&!);&!7#$&!)&6;4%a>&7!)9! )!#7!D9>4:!.&9.*&!>7&I!N9>F>/&!<%=&97B!@&/%4#(7B!%4)&(#6)%<&! )#7A7!#4=!.9=6#7)78!,9(&9<&(B!%4)&(4&)`/9(4&!$%7%4?9($#)%94!9?)&4! );(%<&7!94!#4)%`&7)#/*%7;$&4)!A>=97B!#7!#!@#D!?9(!D9>4:!.&9.*&!)9! #77&()!%4=&.&4=&46&!9?!$%4=8!5!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!6#$.#%:4!$>7)!49)! 9<&(*D!%=&4)%?D!@%);!#>);9(%)DB!#4=!7;9>*=!#*79!%46*>=&!$#)&(%#*!);#)! .(9<%=&!);&!9..9()>4%)D!)9!6(%)%a>&!#4=!=%76>77!&7)#/*%7;$&4)!K/&!%)! 9??%6%#*B!:9<&(4$&4)!9(!76;99*L!=&6%7%947!9(!#6)%9478!! E%5.&+/#&..(#+"#+%3.#%#$"5.#%1+)-.#5",.#)&#$%&%*)&*#%&(# 3"#0#43'2)-#.'()#$0.-4&%'*4$#4-'(*4%"5!2#*46'+40' .&1"95%*.#15)+)1%,#+2)&3)&*D#5!=&6#=&!#:9B!$97)!6;%*=(&4!?%(7)! &469>4)&(&=!)&6;49*9:D!#)!76;99*!!!49@!%)!%7!%4!);&!;9$&8]!F;%7!%7!#! =(#$#)%6!6;#4:&B!/&6#>7&!%4)&(4&)!>7&!#)!;9$&!%7!(&*#)%<&*D! >47>.&(<%7&=!?9(!D9>4:!.&9.*&I!9<&(!;#*?!9?!20`2[!D&#(!9*=7!7#D!);&D! *)5#&/3%"#$%&'$%,1&$(1$&%./51$48%.1+%HB%>$(%2$1&%50%>.($1&#%50%&',#%.-$% :(9>.!7#D!);#)!);&%(!6;%*=!;#7!#66&77!)9!);&!%4)&(4&)!%4!);&%(! 8
  10. 10. Truth, Lies and the Internet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
  11. 11. Truth, Lies and the Internet /$+.!)"&@&A&(,!"B-#/!(B,&& ! ,:C&?:;D6<E<8F&& R&#(!#/9>)!69((>.)%4:!D9>4:B!%4496&4)!$%4=7!#*@#D7!#669$.#4%&7! 4&@!)&6;49*9:D8!-96(#)&7!%4!J/.&54#%%&"'()*+!?#$9>7*D!@#(4&=! .-.,1#&%*/$&&$(#48%6$2."#$%'$%&'5"-'&%,&%:5"/+%>(5)5&$%05(-$&0"/1$##?% J$5>/$8%'$%>($+,2&$+8%:5"/+%6$25)$%*&'$%'$.($(#%50%).13%&',1-#%.1+% :,//%'.9$%/$.(1$+%15&',1-4?!E;&4!);&!.(%4)&=!/99A!7)#()&=!(9**%4:! 9??!"9;#44&7!c>)&4/$(-4#%>($##8%).13%#"#>$2&$+%,&%:5"/+%6$% *2510"#,1-%.1+%'.()0"/48%59$(:'$/),1-%35"1-%>$5>/$%:,&'%+.&.?21! d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`?(&&B!&<&4!.7D6;9*9:%6#**D!>4%)&=!);#4!&<&(! /&?9(&B!<&(D!?&@!9?!>7!69>*=B!9(!@9>*=!@#4)!)9B!%$#:%4&!#!@9(*=! &4)%(&*D!9??*%4&822!! '>)B!*%A&!);&!.(%4)&=!/99AB!);&(&!%7!#*79!#!*9>=&4%4:!6;9(>7!9?!<9%6&7! (#%7%4:!);&!#*#($!#/9"&%.%*+.(7$(4%#,+$%50%&'$%,4)&(4&)8!,97)!9?!);&7&! 6946&(47!(&*#)&!)9!D9>4:!.&9.*&B!7>6;!#7!);&!@%=&!#<#%*#/%*%)D!9?! .9(49:(#.;DB!6D/&(`/>**D%4:B!%4)&(4&)!.(%<#6DB!#4=!94*%4&!7)#*A&(7! #4=!:(99$&(78!-9$&!@(%)&(7!;#<&!.9%4)&=!)9!.977%/*&!*94:`)&($! =&)(%$&4)#*!'$./&'%$00$2&#%50%51/,1$%#&,)"/.&,518%#"2'%.#%*&$2'15` #&($##48%*+.&.%.#>'3=,.&,5148%*,105().&,51%0.&,-"$%#31+(5)$48% *25-1,&,9$%59$(/5.+48%.1+%*&,)$%0.),1$4?20!d%6A!+#((B!?9(!&M#$.*&B! @9((%&7!);#)!);&!%4)&(4&)!;#7!$#=&!9>(!);%4A%4:!7;#**9@&(!#4=!*&77! (&?*&6&,9$8%:',/$%K"#.1%L($$10,$/+%#"--$#&#%&'.&%&'$%6(.,14#% 10
  12. 12. Truth, Lies and the Internet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`>.! (&.9()!/D!P(9?&779(!'D(948!5!/(9#=!.9*%)%6#*!6947&47>7!;#7!&$&(:&=! %4!(&6&4)!D&#(7!);#)!);&!:9<&(4$&4)B!.#(&4)7B!#4=!%4=>7)(D!#**!4&&=! )9!.*#D!#!(9*&!)9!&47>(&!6;%*=(&4!#(&!7#?&!94*%4&8!! (6G<H=>?5<6&<I:HE<>7J&& F;&(&!%7!#49);&(!#7.&6)!9?!);&!=%:%)#*!#:&!);#)!%7!*&77!(&$#(A&=!>.94B! />)!G>7)!#7!7%:4%?%6#4)I!;9@!);&!%4)&(4&)!%7!6;#4:%4:!);&!@#D!.&9.*&! ?9($!/&*%&?7!#4=!$#A&!=&6%7%9478! H4!011B!)9!6&*&/(#)&!);&!Z1);!#44%<&(7#(D!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)B!);&! C&?&47&!5=<#46&=!f&7&#(6;!P(9G&6)7!5:&46D!KC5fP5L!(&*&#7&=!)&4! (&=!@&#);&(!/#**9947!#6(977!4%4&!5$&(%6#4!7)#)&78!H)!9??&(&=! gZ1B111!)9!@;%6;&<&(!)&#$!69>*=!*96#)&!);&$!#**!?%(7)82U!5?)&(!G>7)! 4%4&!;9>(7!#!)&#$!?(9$!,HF!;#=!7699.&=!);&!.(%h&B!/D!&7)#/*%7;%4:! #4!94*%4&!.*#)?9($!?9(!<%(#*!69**#/9(#)%94B!.(9$%7%4:!6#7;!?9(!! .&(794!)9!:%<&!);&$!#!69((&6)!/#**994!*96#)%94B!#4=!7$#**&(! %46&4)%<&7!?9(!);97&!@;9!;99A&=!);&7&!.&9.*&!%4)9!);&%(!4&)@9(A8! F;&D!>7&=!R#6&/99A!#4=!F@%))&(!)9!7.(&#=!);&!.(9$%7&!9?!(&@#(=! ?#(!#4=!@%=&8!57!%)!%4)&4=&=B!);&!69$.&)%)%94!7;9@&=!);&!.9@&(!9?! 94*%4&!69**#/9(#)%94!@;&4!%)!69$&7!)9!79*<%4:!=%??%6>*)!.(9/*&$7! a>%6A*D8!R(9$!69$.*&M!<%7>#*!(&69:4%)%94!#*:9(%);$7!)(#@*%4:! $%**%947!9?!%$#:&7B!)9!796%#*!$&=%#!6#$.#%:47!:&4&(#)%4:!&49>:;! *'3>$4%5(%*6"VV4%&5%,10/"$12$%&$1#%50%&'5"#.1+#8%.//!);&!694)&4=&(7! ?96>7&=!94!94*%4&!7)(#)&:%&78!H)!@#7!);&!94*D!@#D!)9!/&!%4!);&! (>44%4:8! 11
  13. 13. Truth, Lies and the Internet F;&!.97)`$9()&$!(&<&#*&=!#4!%4)&(&7)%4:!*&77948!F;&!*&#=%4:!)&#$7! #:(&&=!);&!$#%4!=%??%6>*)D!@#7!49)!:&))%4:!;9*=!9?!:99=!%4?9($#)%94! !!%)!@#7!;9@!)9!A49@!@;#)!%4?9($#)%94!)9!)(>7)8!F;&!,HF!)&#$! (&6&%<&=!$9(&!);#4!011!7>/$%77%947!9?!/#**994!7%:;)%4:7B!94*D!T1! 9(!Z1!9?!@;%6;!)>(4&=!9>)!)9!/&!#66>(#)&82]!-9$&!@&(&!:&4>%4&! $%7)#A&7!K9==*DB!#!*#(:&!(&=!494`C5fP5!/#**994!;#..&4&=!)9!/&! ;#4:%4:!9<&(!f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`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a>#*%)D!9?!);%7!%4?9($#)%94!6#4!/&!?#(!?(9$!.&(?&6)8! 12
  14. 14. Truth, Lies and the Internet 5*);9>:;!);&(&!#(&!$9(&!&`/99A7B!)(>7)@9();D!G9>(4#*%7$B!4%6;&! &M.&()%7&!#4=!#66>(#)&!?#6)7!#4=!?%:>(&7!);#4!&<&(!/&?9(&B!);%7!%7! #669$.#4%&=!/D!&a>#**D!>4.(&6&=&4)&=!#$9>4)7!9?!$%7)#A&7B! $%7)(>);7B!.(9.#:#4=#B!$%7%4?9($#)%94B!#4=!9);&(!:&4&(#*! 4947&47&8!54!&7)%$#)&=!Y!.&(!6&4)!9?!);&!21]!)(%**%94!&$#%*7!7&4)!%4! 0121!@&(&!7.#$`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a>%(&B!>4=&(7)#4=!#4=! <#*%=#)&!A49@*&=:&8!-%$.*D!.>)B!@;&);&(!9??*%4&!9(!94*%4&B!@&!4&&=! )9!=%7)%4:>%7;!:99=!?(9$!/#=!%4?9($#)%94!#4=!);#)!(&a>%(&7!);&! #..*%6#)%94!9?!/9);!.&(794#*!)&6;4%a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`(&<%&@&=!#6#=&$%6!G9>(4#*B!);&!&=%)&=! 13
  15. 15. Truth, Lies and the Internet 76;99*!)&M)`/99AB!);&!7.&6%#*%7)!#4);9*9:DB!#**!#6)!#7! :#)&A&&.&(7B!&M.&()*D!.97%4:!K#)!*&#7)!%4!);&9(DL!6&()#%4!)&7)7! 9?!<&(#6%)D!#4=!#>);&4)%6%)D!);#)!4&&=&=!)9!/&!.#77&=!/&?9(&! );&!694)&4)!%7!.&($%))&=!%4)9!);&!.>/*%6!7.;&(&8!,#4D!9?!);&7&! ;&*.?>*!$&=%#)9(7!#(&!#/7&4)!94*%4&8!3?!69>(7&B!);&(&!#(&! 79$&!<&(D!&??&6)%<&!%4)&(4&)`/#7&=!?%*)&(78!34&!?#$9>7!)&7)! 694=>6)&=!/D!-"#*)'!$#:#h%4&!69$.#(&=!@;&);&(!E%A%.&=%#! @#7!$9(&!#66>(#)&!);#4!W46D6*9.&=%#!'(%)#44%6#8!F;&!9*=! $#7)&(!7#@!9??!);&!6;#**&4:&(!!!/>)!49)!/D!$>6;80]!5*);9>:;! &'$($%.($%15()#8%#"2'%.#%<,7,>$+,.4#%$+,&,1-%>(52$+"($#8%&'$3% #(&!$9(&!%4?9($#*!#4=!94!$#4D!7%)&7B!494`&M%7)&4)8!H4!$#4D! .*#6&7B!);&!%4)&(4&)!%7!#!*#(:&*D!*#@*&77!#4=!#494D$9>7!#(&4#! );#)!%7!&#7D!)9!&4)&(B!@;&(&!);&(&!%7!*%))*&!/#6A*#7;!?9(! 7.(&#=%4:!$%7%4?9($#)%94!K#*);9>:;!);%7!$#D!/&!6;#4:%4:L80Y! F;&!>7>#*!@#D!9?!#6a>%(%4:!*&:%)%$#6D!!!7*%6A!@&/7%)&!=&7%:4! !!%7!&#7%*D!%4!);&!(&7!9?!$97)!>7&(78!!!! ! 7&"&'$)+'#%&(#+2.#0.()*5..#05">,.$## d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`?9(`#**8! ! ! 14
  16. 16. Truth, Lies and the Internet ! !2.#*.&.5%+)"&%,#()-)(.! P#(&4)7!#(&!)D.%6#**D!);&!$#%4!:>#(=%#47!9?!%4?9($#)%94B!)9!#! :(&#)&(!9(!*&77&(!&M)&4)!&47>(%4:!);#)!);&!$#)&(%#*!6;%*=(&4! 6947>$&!%7!#:&`#..(9.(%#)&B!69$.(&;&47%/*&B!#4=!#66>(#)&8! E%);!);&!%4)&(4&)B!);%7!7>.&(<%7%94!%7!9?)&4!#/7&4)8!ZY!.&(! 6&4)!9?!.#(&4)7!);%4A!);&%(!6;%*=!A49@7!$9(&!);#4!);&$!#/9>)! );&!%4)&(4&)B!(%7%4:!)9!]1!.&(!6&4)!9?!.#(&4)7!9?!20`2[!D&#(`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a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f%:;)7!,9<&$&4)!%4!:&4&(#*B!#4=!%7!Ka>%&)*DL!;97)&=!/D!);&! E;%)&!7>.(&$#6%7)!:(9>.!-)9($R(94)8!F;&!H47)%)>)&!R9(! S%7)9(%6#*!f&<%&@!K;)).IOO%;(89(:O[%2/.,)#%&5%6$%.%*151` .#()%7#4B!494`%=&9*9:%6#*!#4=!494`#$2&.(,.14%05(%($9,#,51,#&% ;%7)9(%6#*!(&7&#(6;8!F;&!<&(D!.#()%7#4B!%=&9*9:%6#*!#4=! 7&6)#(%#4!.7&>=9`;%7)9(%6#*!694)&4)!.(9$9)&7!S9*96#>7)! =&4%#*8! ! 15
  17. 17. Truth, Lies and the Internet ! !2.#9/.#"4#)$%*.5'! E%);!N9>F>/&B!i%$&9B!R*%6A(!#4=!9);&(!796%#*!$&=%#!7%)&7! ;97)%4:!<%7>#*!694)&4)B!%$#:&!$#4%.>*#)%94!)&6;4%a>&7!#(&! %46(&#7%4:*D!#**9@%4:!$%7%4?9($#)%94!)9!/&!.9@&(?>**D!#4=! #))(#6)%<&*D!.#6A#:&=8!F;&!6947.%(#6%7)!?%*$!0//+'!1&"23'4! :',2'%2/.,)#%&'.&%YBB%:.#%.%*0./#$%0/.-4%.&&.27%>$(>$&(.&$+%63% &*&$&4)7!9?!);&!X-!%4)&**%:&46&B!/&6#$&!#4!%4)&(4&)! 7&47#)%94B!#))(#6)%4:!$%**%947!9?!<%&@78!F;&!*%)#4D!9?!&((9(7B! $%7#))(%/>)%947B!<#:>&!%47%4>#)%947B!7>/)*&!$%7a>9)&7!#4=! 9>)(%:;)!?#*7&;99=7!@&(&!$#7A&=!/D!#!699*!79>4=)(#6A!/D!C"! -A99*DB!#)$97.;&(%6!4#((#)%94!#4=!$&7$&(%7%4:!<%=&9! $+,&,1-?%I'$%0,/)4#%9.(,5"#%/,6$(&,$#%:,&'%&'$%&("&'%'.9$%15:% /&&4!6#(&?>**D!6#)#*9:>&=B!D&)!%)!%7!49!#66%=&4)!);#)!);%7! =&6&.)%<&B!%?!7A%*?>**D!.#6A#:&=B!<%=&9!/&6#$&!);&!?%(7)! %4)&(4&)!/*96A/>7)&(8TU!,9(&!.(97#%6#**DB!%4&M.&47%<&!D&)! ;>:&*D!&??&6)%<&!#4=!79.;%7)%6#)&=!%$#:&`&=%)%4:!79?)@#(&!!! )9!6(9.B!&4;#46&B!9(!9>)(%:;)!#*)&(!%$#:&7!!!&M%7)78! -9$&)%$&7!&<&4!4&@7.#.&(7!6#4!/&!?99*&=8!H4!">4&!0122B!);&! d&@7!9?!);&!E9(*=!.#%=!j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h&4!G9>(4#*%7)7!=9!);&!7#$&B! *%4&!/D!*%4&B!?9(!.9.>*#(!#4=!694)(9<&(7%#*!/99A7B!#4=!?%*$78! H4=&&=B!79$&B!7>6;!#7!W*%7&!d%6A&(794B!#(:>&!);#)!;9*96#>7)! =&4%#*!;#7!/&&4!@&#A&4&=!%4!);&!)(#47?&(!?(9$!/99A7!)9!);&! @&/8TY!N&)!#7!%4)&(&7)!:(9>.7!#4=!69$$>4%)%&7!9?!?&**9@! )(#<&**&(7!;#<&!69#*&76&=B!$>6;!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)!;#7!49@! ?9($&=!%7*#4=7!9?!7&:(&:#)&=!9.%4%94!(#);&(!);#4!?*9@7!9?! =%77&4)%4:!#(:>$&4)!#4=!&4:#:&$&4)8!E%);%4!);&7&!9?)&4! 16
  18. 18. Truth, Lies and the Internet ?#%(*D!6*97&=!69$$>4%)%&7B!);&!)@9`@#D!?*9@!9?!%4?9($#)%94! +5$#14&%'.>>$1?%T5-).&,2%:$6#,&$%.+),1,#&(.&5(#%.1+%05(")% $9=&(#)9(7!9?)&4!694)(9*!694)&4)!@%);!#4!%(94!:(%.8! F&6;49*9:%7)7!*%A&!W);#4!k>6A&($#4!#(&!49)%6%4:!);#)! %4)&(4&)!>7&!%7!49)!&'$%*0($$%.1+%5>$1%$=2'.1-$%50% ,105().&,514%05(%:',2'%,#%:.#%5(,-,1.//3%2512$,9$+?T!H4)&(4&)! >7&!%7!'#*A#4%7&=!!!%)!#6)>#**D!6947%7)7!9?!.(&))D!7%$%*#(!)D.&7! 9?!.&9.*&B!)#*A%4:!);&!7#$&!*#4:>#:&B!94!);&!7#$&!A%4=7!9?! )9.%68!f&6&4)!(&7&#(6;!94!F@%))&(B!?9(!&M#$.*&B!?9>4=!);#)! *&($1+,1-4%&5>,2#%:$($%$,&'$(%59$(:'$/),1-/3%<',&$%5(% 5?(%6#4!5$&(%6#4!!!#4=!(#(&*D!/9);8Z1!5!(&6&4)!7)>=D! #77&77&=!);&!7)(#)&:%&7!.&9.*&!>7&!?9(!6;997%4:!4&@7B!#4=! ?9>4=!);#)!);&(&!6&()#%4*D!%7!$9(&!4%6;&!)#(:&)%4:!9?!4&@78! F;&D!?%4=!)'.&%*94&!6*&#(!$#44&(!%4!@;%6;!);&!%4)&(4&)! #..&#(7!)9!=%??&(!?(9$!9);&(!$#77!$&=%#!%7!);&!=&:(&&!9?! 4%6;&!)#(:&)%4:!9?!.9*%)%6#*!%4?9($#)%94`5(,$1&$+%:$6#,&$#?4Z2!! -585?>E&GEL:6;F&& F;%7!=9&7!49)!$&#4!);#)!);&!%4)&(4&)!7;9>*=!/&!6&479(&=8! +94)(9**%4:!);&!%4?9($#)%94!);#)!.&9.*&!6#4!#66&77!%7!#)!);&!<&(D! *&#7)!&);%6#**D!=>/%9>7B!#4=B!?(9$!#!.(#6)%6#*!.9%4)!9?!<%&@B!.(9/#/*D! %$.977%/*&8!,9(&!?>4=#$&4)#**DB!);&(&!#(&!<#(%9>7!#(6;%)&6)>(#*! .(%46%.*&7!94!@;%6;!);&!@&/!%7!?9>4=&=!);#)!@&!)(#47:(&77!#)!9>(! .&(%*I!! ! *256')+"$5#74!);&!#/%*%)D!)9!*%4A!)9!#4D);%4:B!);#)!694)&4)!%7! #66&77%/*&!/D!#4D94&! ! ('8'2#)"$5+"#5/24!35"%+514&%1$$+%."&'5(,#.&,51%0(5)%.1351$% /&?9(&!#==%4:!#!.#:&!9(!$#A%4:!#!*%4A! ! #4=!2'#!2'*#)"$5#78%S1&$(1$&%K$(9,2$%J(59,+$(#%2.14&%>($0$(% 79$&!=#)#!)(#47?&(!!!#"2'%.#%&'$,(%2/,$1&4#%!!9<&(!9);&(7B!);>7! 7&(<&(7!;#<&!)9!)(&#)!#**!%4?9($#)%94!);&!7#$&8!! P(9?&779(!'D(94!%4!;&(!011Y!%4=&.&4=&4)!(&<%&@!;#7!#*(&#=D!*#%=! 9>)!#!.9@&(?>*!&);97!?9(!$#4#:%4:!(%7A!&4)#%*&=!/D!:9%4:!94*%4&I!)9! );%4A!*&77!#/9>)!);&!%4)&(1$&%*2."#,1-4%'.()8%.1+%)5($%052"#,1-%51% @;#)!D9>4:!.&9.*&!/(%4:!)9!);&7&!)&6;49*9:%&7B!4#$&*D!&$.9@&(%4:! 17
  19. 19. Truth, Lies and the Internet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`7#?&)DB! 6(&#)%<%)DB!)&6;4%6#*!7A%**7B!#4=!6>*)>(#*!>4=&(7)#4=%4:8ZZ!! 34&!%$.9()#4)!&*&$&4)!9?!=%:%)#*!*%)&(#6D!%7!@;#)!@&!;#<&!)&($&=! (535#"$!9$*'287I!);&!#/%*%)D!)9!?%4=!#4=!6(%)%6#**D!&<#*>#)&!94*%4&! %4?9($#)%948Z[!F;%7!(&a>%(&7!#!69$/%4#)%94!9?!4&@!#4=!9*=! )&6;4%a>&7I!#!$%M!9?!);&!6*#77%6!)(9.&7!9?!#4D!=%76&(4%4:!;%7)9(%#4!9(! G9>(4#*%7)!@%);!79$&!<&(D!7.&6%?%6!A49@*&=:&!#/9>)!;9@!);&!%4)&(4&)! ?>46)%9478! 18
  20. 20. Truth, Lies and the Internet /$+.!)"&M&!&!$)&*!+!)&B4&-(N(!+'&4'#),/3& <$%'.9$%"#$+%&'$%>'(.#$%*+,-,&./%0/"$1234%&5%+$#2(,6$%&'.&% 69$/%4#)%94!9?!6(%)%6#*!);%4A%4:B!&<#*>#)%<&!7A%**7!#4=!7.&6%?%6! A49@*&=:&!#/9>)!94*%4&!?>46)%947!);#)!#(&!(&a>%(&=!)9!/&!#/*&!)9! $&&)!;#h#(=7!.#()%6>*#(!)9!);&!94*%4&!(&#*$8!C%:%)#*!?*>&46D!(&?&(7!)9! );&!7A%**7!4&6&77#(D!?9(!);&!%4=%<%=>#*!)9!>7&!);&!%4)&(4&)!)9!7&#(6;B! (&)(%&<&B!694)&M)>#*%7&B!#4#*D7&B!<%7>#*%7&!#4=!7D4);&7%7&! %4?9($#)%94!&??&6)%<&*D8!H)!;#7!);(&&!69$.94&4)7I! ! -'#:+"6652'++B!#!.(#6)%6#*!>4=&(7)#4=%4:!9?!);&!@#D!);&! %4)&(4&)!@9(A7B!?9(!%47)#46&!!!);&!/#7%67!9?!;9@!7&#(6;! &4:%4&7!(&)>(4!(&7>*)7B!;9@!>7&(`:&4&(#)&=!?&&=/#6A! ?>46)%947B!;9@!@&/`7%)&7!#(&!=&7%:4&=!#4=!/>%*)B!;9@!%=&4)%)D! 6#4!/&!&7)#/*%7;&=!#4=!?#A&=B!;9@!%$#:&7!#4=!<%=&97!6#4!/&! #*)&(&=8! ! 1)5#58"$!'6"$*"#56'!#'8&25;*'+B!);&!A49@*&=:&!#4=!>7&!9?! /#7%6!6;&6A7B!)&6;4%a>&7!#4=!.(%46%.*&7!);#)!6#4!/&!#..*%&=!)9! #77&77!);&!)(>7)@9();%4&77!#4=!#66>(#6D!9?!%4?9($#)%948! F;&7&!#(&!/9);!:&4&(#*!6(%)%6#*!);%4A%4:!7A%**7!K7>6;!#7! @;&);&(!>7&(7!?#6)`6;&6AB!)(%#4:>*#)&!79>(6&7B!>4=&(7)#4=!);&! =%??&(&46&!/&)@&&4!a>#*%)D!9?!&<%=&46&B!7&#(6;!?9(! .(9<&4#46&B!9(!=%7)%4:>%7;!/&)@&&4!=%??&(&4)!a>#*%)%&7!9?! %4?9($#)%94L!#4=!7.&6%?%6!94*%4&!7A%**7!7>6;!#7!;9@!?%*)&(! >(5-(.))$#%:5(78%'5:%&5%).7$%9,+$5#%.1+%<,7,>$+,.4#% .(96&77!9?!.&&(`&=%)%4:8! ! <56')+5#7B!&'$%$=&$1&%&5%:',2'%"#$(#4%51/,1$%251#")>&,51%,#% /(9#=B!<#(%&=!#4=!=%<&(7&8!C9!>7&(7!#66&77!#4=!6947>$&! =%??&(&4)!#4=!69$.&)%4:!.%&6&7!9?!%4?9($#)%94l!5(&!);&D! #@#(&!9?!);&!69:4%)%<&!/%#7&7!);#)!@&!#(&!&M.97&=!)9l!+#4! >7&(7!%=&4)%?D!);&!"!=)5/)5!%=&9*9:%6#*!/#7%7!9?!#!.#()%6>*#(! 69$$&4)!9(!9.%4%94!.%&6&B!#4=!.*#6&!%)!@%);%4!);&!@%=&(! ?#/(%6!9?!#!=&/#)&l!5(&!);&D!#@#(&!9?B!#4=!=9!);&D!>7&B!);&! @&/7%)&7!);#)!;#<&!:(9@4!>.!7.&6%?%6#**D!)9!69>4)&(!);&!>(/#4! *&:&4=7B!;9#M&7!#4=!76#$7!);#)!);&!%4)&(4&)!;#7!#**9@&=!)9! /*99$lZU!! 19
  21. 21. Truth, Lies and the Internet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`4&>)(#*! .(96&77&7!)9!?%4=!D9>!%4?9($#)%94B!);&!#/%*%)D!)9!(&69:4%7&!#>);&4)%6! @&/7%)&7!?(9$!?#A&=!94&7B!;9@!.%6)>(&7!#4=!<%=&9!?99)#:&!6#4!/&! $#4%.>*#)&=B!;9@!);&!.(9<&4#46&!9?!>7&(`:&4&(#)&=!694)&4)!6#4!/&! )(#6&=8!! -&#(6;!&4:%4&7!#(&!9?!.#()%6>*#(!%$.9()#46&B!/&6#>7&!9?!);&!6&4)(#*! (9*&!);&D!.*#D!%4!.(%9(%)%7%4:!);&!%4?9($#)%94!);#)!.&9.*&!<%&@8! -&#(6;!&4:%4&7!(#4A!(&7>*)7!%4!=%??&(&4)!@#D7B!#4=!%)!%7!%$.9()#4)!)9! >4=&(7)#4=!#)!*&#7)!);&!(>=%$&4)7!9?!;9@!);&D!@9(A8!R%(7)B!7&#(6;! 7A%**7!#(&!%$.9()#4)I!7>/)*&!=%??&(&46&7!%4!);&!7&$#4)%6!6947)(>6)%94! 9?!7&#(6;!a>&(%&7B!%46*>=%4:!);&!9(=&(%4:!9?!'99*&#4!9.&(#)9(7B!);&! >7&!9?!7D494D$7B!#4)94D$7!#4=!#//(&<%#)&7!6#4!(&)>(4!;>:&*D! +,00$($1&%($#"/&#?%K$251+8%,&4#%,#%,)>5(&.1&%&5%715:%&'$%1.&"($%50%&'$% (&)>(47!)9!);&7&!7&#(6;&78!F;&!$&6;#4%7$7!9?!7&#(6;!&4:%4&7!6#4!/&! !!#4=!9?)&4!#(&!/D!Pf!#:&46%&7!!!$#4%.>*#)&=!)9!%4?*#)&!);&! (&*&<#46&!9?!@&/7%)&7B!#!*%))*&!*%A&!#4!#=<&()%7&(!;%G#6A%4:!);&!C&@&D! C&6%$#*!-D7)&$8!F;&(&!%7!#*79!#!69$$&(6%#*!&*&$&4)!)9!@&/.#:&! (.17,1-8%.1+%#$.(2'%$1-,1$#%50&$1%500$(%*#>51#5($+%/,17#4%&5%:$6#,&$#% );#)!.#D!)9!/&!&*&<#)&=8!C%??&(&4)!7&#(6;!&4:%4&7!#..*D!=%??&(&4)! $&6;#4%7$7!)9!7&#(6;!=%??&(&4)!%4=&M&7!#4=!);&(&?9(&B!9?!69>(7&B! (&)>(4!=%??&(&4)!(&7>*)78Z]!d9!7&#(6;!&4:%4&!.(9=>6&7!#!4&>)(#*B! =&?%4%)%<&B!9(!(&.(&7&4)#)%<&!(&?*&6)%94!9?!@;#)!%7!94!);&!%4)&(4&)8!! 20
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  23. 23. Truth, Lies and the Internet '>)!);%7!694?%=&46&!$%:;)!/&!$%7.*#6&=8!34*D!TT!.&(!6&4)!9?!`2! D&#(!9*=7!;#<&!/&&4!)#>:;)!;9@!)9!G>=:&!);&!(&*%#/%*%)D!9?!94*%4&! %4?9($#)%948[0!H4!011[B!T1!.&(!6&4)!9?!`2!D&#(!9*=!.>.%*7!(&.9()! ;#<%4:!(&6&%<&=!49!*&77947!#)!#**!94!>7%4:!);&!%4)&(4&)8[T!! ,#4D!D9>4:!.&9.*&!=9!49)!A49@!;9@!&#7%*D!);&D!6#4!/&! $#4%.>*#)&=B!#4=!=9!*%))*&!)9!&47>(&!);#)!);&D!#(&!49)8!34&!(&6&4)! 7>(<&D!#7A&=!@;#)!6;&6A7!6;%*=(&4!#:&=!20`2[!@;9!>7&!);&!%4)&(4&)! #)!;9$&!#..*D!/&?9(&!<%7%)%4:!#!4&@!@&/7%)&8!5(9>4=!#!a>#()&(!7#%=! );&D!$#=&!49!6;&6A7!#)!#**8!34*D!Y!.&(!6&4)!9?!20`2[!D&#(!9*=!6;&6A! @;9!6(&#)&=!);&!7%)&!#4=!@;Db!94*D!2]!.&(!6&4)!69$.#(&!%4?9($#)%94! #6(977!7%)&7b!#4=!0U!.&(!6&4)!#7A!79$&94&!&*7&!%?!);&D!;#<&!/&&4!)9! );&!@&/7%)&8[Z! I'$%*2'$27#4%&'.&%.($%).+$%2.1%6$%#">$(0,2,./^%#"2'%.#%:'$&'$(%&'$% @&/7%)&!*99A7!#4=!?&&*7!*&:%)%$#)&8!f&7&#(6;!;#7!(&<&#*&=! %4?9($#)%94!a>#*%)D!=9&7!49)!#..&#(!)9!/&!9?!7%:4%?%6#46&!)9!$#4D! =%:%)#*!4#)%<&7B!#4=!);#)!=&6%7%947!#/9>)!%4?9($#)%94!a>#*%)D!%7! /#7&=!94!7%)&!=&7%:4B!(#);&(!);#4!$9(&!#66>(#)&!6;&6A78[[!! F(>7)!%4!);&!%4)&(4&)!%7!49)!#/79*>)&!#4=!>4(&7&(<&=!9?!69>(7&8!5! 011[!7)>=D!7;9@&=!);#)!TY!.&(!6&4)!9?!.>.%*7!#:&=!`2!)(>7)!$97)! 9?!);&!%4?9($#)%94!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)B!Z!.&(!6&4)!)(>7)!79$&!9?!%)B!#4=! 94*D!21!.&(!6&4)!#(&!7A&.)%6#*!#/9>)!$>6;!9?!);&!%4?9($#)%94! 94*%4&8[U!34&!7)>=D!7;9@&=!);#)!@;%*7)!.&9.*&!(#)&=!);&%(! 694?%=&46&!%4!);&!(&*%#/%*%)D!9?!94*%4&!%4?9($#)%94!#7!U!9>)!9?!21B! 94*D!T!.&(!6&4)!9?!(&7.94=&4)7!&M.(&77&=!)9)#*!694?%=&46&B! 7>::&7)%4:!(&69:4%)%94!9?!79$&!9?!);&!.977%/*&!/%#7&7!#4=! %4#66>(#6%&78[]! +;%*=(&4!#(&!#*79!#/*&!)9!(>=%$&4)#(%*D!=%76&(4!a>#*%)D!9?! %4?9($#)%948!R9(!&M#$.*&B!%4!);&!Y`22!#4=!20`2[!#:&!:(9>.7B! 6;%*=(&4!#(&!$9(&!*%A&*D!)9!/&*%&<&!);#)!=96>$&4)#(D!9(!4&@7! .(9:(#$$&7!#(&!#!/&))&(!(&?*&6)%94!9?!(&#*!*%?&!);#4!(&#*%)D!Fi! .(9:(#$$&7!7>6;!#7!'%:!'(9);&(8[Y!-9$&);%4:!7%$%*#(!966>(7! 94*%4&B!)998!20`2[!D&#(!9*=7!#(&!$9(&!*%A&*D!)9!/&*%&<&!);#)!$97)!9?! );&!%4?9($#)%94!#<#%*#/*&!94!4&@7!7%)&7!%7!)(>&!KY]!.&(!6&4)L!#4=! 7%)&7!>7&=!?9(!;9$&@9(A!KYY!.&(!6&4)LB!);#4!/*9:7!9(!>7&(!:&4&(#)&=! 7%)&7!KZY!.&(!6&4)L8!F;&(&!#(&!49!=%??&(&46&7!%4!/&*%&?!/D!:&4=&(!9(!/D! 22
  24. 24. Truth, Lies and the Internet 796%9`&6949$%6!:(9>.!#4=!);&(&!;#7!/&&4!49!6;#4:&!%4!#))%)>=&7! #$94:!20`2[!D&#(!9*=7!7%46&!0118[! f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`#5"(2$%($.+,1-?%<$%*65"12$48%9,#,&,1-%51/3%51&!)9!);(&&!.#:&7! ?(9$!);&!);9>7#4=7!);#)!#(&!#<#%*#/*&B!.(9.&**&=!#*94:!/D!.9@&(?>*! #$.(2'%$1-,1$#?%<$%./#5%*#7,&&$(48%9,$:,1-%)5($%&'.1%($.+,1-?%_1% #()%6*&!%7!94!#<&(#:&!<%&@&=!?9(!#(9>4=!?%<&!$%4>)&7B!#4=!7>$$#(%&7! #(&!(&#=!$>6;!$9(&!);#4!);&!?>**!694)&4)8!F;&!>7&(!$9<&7! ;9(%h94)#**D!#6(977!);&!%4)&(4&)B!@%);!?(&a>&4)!#4=!*%:;)!694)#6)7! (#);&(!);#4!.(9:(&77%<&*D!=&&.&(!(&7&#(6;!9?!#!7%4:*&!79>(6&8U0!F;%7! ,#%*.##52,.&,9$4%(.&'$(%&'.1%*/,1$.(4%&',17,1-?UT!!! )I57:6;:P&75I:H95?F&>67&I>H5:?F&& H)!%7!#4!&77&4)%#*!#4=!>4=&(*D%4:!)&4&)!9?!);&!.;%*979.;D!9?!76%&46&! );#)!)9!&7)#/*%7;!#!(>*&B!@&!$>7)!)(D!)9!.(9<&!%)!?#*7&8!F;%7!%7!_#(*! J5>>$(4#%0.)5"#%*0./#,0,.6,/,&34%&$#&?UZ!X5:$9$(8%>$5>/$%+514&%./:.3#% @9(A!*%A&!);#)8!H4!?#6)B!@&!)&4=!)9!=9!);&!.(&6%7&!9..97%)&8U[! d>$&(9>7!7)>=%&7!;#<&!7;9@4!);#)!@&!7&#(6;!?9(!&<%=&46&!)9!.(9<&! 9>(!);&9(%&7B!#4=!@#4)!)9!/&*%&<&!@&!;#<&!?9>4=!%)b!);#)!@&!#(&!$9(&! #@#(&!9?!?*#@7!%4!7)>=%&7!);#)!.(&7&4)!&<%=&46&!);#)!6;#**&4:&!9>(! /&*%&?7!);#4!);97&!);#)!694?%($!);&$b!#4=!);#)!@&!#(&!%4?*>&46&=! &49($9>7*D!/D!@;#)!.&9.*&!#(9>4=!>7!#(&!7#D%4:!#4=!=9%4:8UU!H4! 7;9()B!@;&4!%)!69$&7!)9!#77&77%4:!%4?9($#)%94!#4=!#((%<%4:!#)! =&6%7%947B!;>$#4!/&%4:7!#(&!<&(D!(#(&*D!&4)%(&*D!*9:%6#*B!=&=>6)%<&! #4=!(#)%94#*8! 23
  25. 25. Truth, Lies and the Internet I'$%'").1%>($+,/$2&,51%05(%*'5)5>',/34%!!);&!.(%46%.*&!);#)! 7%$%*#(%)D!/(&&=7!6944&6)%94!!!%4!796%#*!4&)@9(A7!:&4&(#**D!%7!@&**! &<%=&46&=8U]!-96%#*!$&=%#!$#D!&M#6&(/#)&!);&!.(9/*&$8!!34&!9?!);&! @#D7!%4!@;%6;!.&9.*&!$#4#:&!);&%(!%4)&(4&)!6947>$.)%94!%7!);(9>:;! &'$%*#52,./%:$64%!!#!7&*&6)%94!9?!?%*)&(%4:B!:(#=%4:!#4=!9(=&(%4:!7%)&78! F;&(&!#(&!$#4D!4&@!.(9:(#$$&7!#4=!?%*)&(7!);#)!;&*.!.&9.*&!)9! =%7)%4:>%7;!/&)@&&4!%4?9($#)%94!9?!<#(D%4:!a>#*%)D8!+#77!->47)&%4! ;#7!#(:>&=!);#)!.&9.*&!%46(&#7%4:*D!)#%*9(!);&%(!9@4!6947>$.)%94!)9! $#)6;!);&%(!.(&?&(&46&7B!#!4&@!?9($!9?!4&@7.#.&(!;&!6#**7!);&!<"5$7! D',UY!! F;&!:&4&(#*!)(&4=!)9@#(=!%4)&(4&)!.&(794#*%7#)%94!$&#47!@&!#(&! 7&&%4:!);&!E/)$(!E5('!D'!)998!;/,%J.(,#$(4#%/.&$#&%:5(78%05(% %47)#46&B!%4=%6#)&7!);#)!#7!7&#(6;!&4:%4&7B!94*%4&!(&)#%*&(7!#4=!796%#*! $&=%#!%46(&#7%4:*D!?%*)&(!#669(=%4:!)9!);&%(!%4)%$#)&!%47%:;)!9?!@;9! @&!#(&!#4=!@;#)!@&!*%A&B!@&!%46(&#7%4:*D!*%<&!%4!9>(!9@4B!6>7)9$` ).+$%*0,/&$(%6"66/$#48%5(%.%*"1,`"$%"1,9$(#$%50%,105().&,51%05(%$.2'% 50%"#4?U! '&%4:!7>((9>4=&=!/D!:#)&`A&&.&(7!.(&`&$.)%4:!9>(!=&6%7%947!#/9>)! );&!A%4=7!9?!%4?9($#)%94!@&!@#4)!)9!7&&!!!@;#)!P#(%7&(!6#**7! *,19,#,6/$%."&5`>(5>.-.1+.4%!!;#7!7&(%9>7!6947&a>&46&78!F;&! .977%/%*%)D!9?!7&(&4=%.%)D!!!9?!?9()>%)9>7*D!7)>$/*%4:!#6(977! #5)$&',1-%51$%+,+14&%$=>$2&%!!=&6(&#7&78!c99:*&!%7!=&<&*9.%4:!#! -&(&4=%.%)D!-&#(6;!W4:%4&B!#*);9>:;!);%7!7&&$7!)9!6947)%)>)&! c99:*&!A49@%4:!&49>:;!#/9>)!9>(!.(&?&(&46&7!)9!A49@!#/9>)! );%4:7!);#)!@&!=9!49)!A49@!/>)!@9>*=!*%A&!)98]1!,9(&!7&(%9>7*DB!#4=! )#A&4!)9!&M)(&$&7B!49)!/&%4:!694?(94)&=!/D!#*)&(4#)%<&!4&@7B!%=&#7B! 9(!<%&@.9%4)7!6#4!/&!=#4:&(9>7!!!*&#=%4:!)9!:(&#)&(!.9*#(%7#)%94B! &<&4!(#=%6#*%7#)%94B!9?!.9*%)%6#*!<%&@78]2!+#77!->47)&%4!6#**7!);%7! *-(5">%>5/.(,#.&,514%!!@;&(&!*%A&!$%4=&=`.&9.*&B!#?)&(!=%76>77%4:B! 694?%($%4:!#4=!<#*%=#)%4:!);&7&!.97%)%947B!#**!&4=!>.!)#A%4:!#! .97%)%94!$9(&!&M)(&$&!);#4!#4D!7)#()&=!@%);8]0!_#%>$5>/$4#%9,$:#% ?%4=!796%#*!&469>(#:&$&4)B!);&D!/&69$&!$9(&!694?%=&4)!;9*=%4:!#! $9(&!&M)(&$&!.97%)%948!F;%7!;#7!/&&4!&<%=&46&=!);(9>:;!;>4=(&=7! 9?!7)>=%&78]T!,#4D!6#>)%94B!->47)&%4!%46*>=&=B!);#)!);&7&!.(96&77&7! #(&!%46(&#7%4:*D!;#..&4%4:!%4!%4)&(4&)!?9(>$78!!! 24
  26. 26. Truth, Lies and the Internet S9@&<&(B!->47)&%4!'#!"$!#(&!49)!@%);9>)!);&%(!6(%)%678!34&!P&@! 7>(<&D!7;9@&=!);#)!.&9.*&!@;9!:&)!);&%(!4&@7!94*%4&!;#=!#!B/)'! =%<&(7&!<%&@!9?!.9*%)%6#*!%77>&7!);#4!);97&!@;9!:9)!%)!9??*%4&8]Z! ,#));&@!c&4)h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c&9(:&!F%**&(B!);&!*#)&`)&($!#/9()%94!=96)9(8!F;&D!?9>4=! );#)B!*99A%4:!#)!);&!694<&(7#)%947!#$94:!.(9`*%?&!#4=!.(9`6;9%6&! .(9.94&4)7B!(&.*%&7!/&)@&&4!*%A&`$%4=&=!%4=%<%=>#*7!7)(&4:);&4! :(9>.!%=&4)%)DB!@;%*7)!(&.*%&7!/&)@&&4!%4=%<%=>#*7!9?!=%??&(&4)! .97%)%947!(&%4?9(6&!%4`:(9>.!#4=!9>)`:(9>.!#??%*%#)%948!W<&4!@;&4! &M.97&=!)9!/(9#=&(!<%&@.9%4)7!#4=!#(:>$&4)7B!.&9.*&!6#4!/&! *%$%)&=!%4!);&%(!#/%*%)D!)9!&4:#:&!%4!$&#4%4:?>*!=%76>77%948]]! 25
  27. 27. Truth, Lies and the Internet G"H#I#7#C%/.#/+9('6#!"#"$%&'!"()*+$",-#%&(#G",(#C5.%+)-.# F;&!6(&#)%<&!=&7%:4!#:&46D!'9*=!+(&#)%<&!(>4!#!.(9G&6)!6#**&=! <535#"$!<5+)*=#5/2,!E9((%&=!#/9>)!);&!&76#*#)%94!9?!.>/*%6!=%79(=&(! #7!#!(&7>*)!9?!94*%4&!.(9.#:#4=#!K7>6;!#7!);&!011!S#((9@!,97a>&! (%9)7B!@;&(&!#!69??&&!7;9.!@#7!)(#7;&=!/&6#>7&!%)!@#7!7>7.&6)&=!9?! ?>4=%4:!);&!9..(&77%94!9?!,>7*%$7!%4!);&!,%==*&!W#7)L!);&!.(9G&6)! #%$7!)9!&a>%.!D9>4:!.&9.*&!@%);!);&!7A%**7!);&D!4&&=!)9!6(%)%6#**D! #4#*D7&!$&77#:&7!94*%4&8!'9*=!+(&#)%<&!;#7!=&<&*9.&=!94*%4&!<%(#*! ?%*$7!@%);!#!:(9>.!9?!)&&4#:&(7!?(9$!,%*&!W4=!&M.*9(%4:!;9@!94*%4&! ?%*$7!#??&6)&=!);&%(!.&&(7B!;9@!%4?*>&4)%#*!94*%4&!$&=%#!@#7B!;9@! <>*4&(#/*&!D9>4:!.&9.*&!@&(&!)9!);%7!A%4=!9?!$#4%.>*#)%94!#4=!@;#)! D9>4:!.&9.*&!4&&=!)9!A49@!)9!.(9)&6)!);&$7&*<&78!34&!9?!);&!?%*$7B! .(9.#:#)%4:!#!=&*%/&(#)&*D!/9:>7!);&9(D!9?!#!:9<&(4$&4)!69<&(`>.!!! *I'$%a.)>,($%R51#>,(.234%6$2.)$%$)6$++$+%,1&5%251#>,(.23%#,&$7! #4=!?9(>$7!);(9>:;9>)!);&!%1&$(1$&?%_%*($9$./4%&'$1%#'5:$+%5&'$(% D9>4:!.&9.*&!;9@!&#7D!%)!@#7!)9!/&!?99*&=!/D!);%7!<%=&98!'9*=! R($.&,9$4#%.>>(5.2'%,#%,)>5(&.1&%6$2."#$%,&%+5$#%15&%&$//%35"1-% .&9.*&!@;#)!)9!);%4AB!/>)!)(%&7!)9!.(9$9)&!6(%)%6#*!#4=!%4=&.&4=&4)! );9>:;)!);(9>:;!&M.97%4:!#4=!=&6947)(>6)%4:!);&!)&6;4%a>&7!);#)! 6#4!/&!>7&=!)9!$#4%.>*#)&!);&$8! 26
  28. 28. Truth, Lies and the Internet /$+.!)"&Q&A&R$+!&!$)&!)+/$)"*&!$(,S&& '&)@&&4!,#D!2U);!#4=!">4&!T1);!0122B!C&$97!694=>6)&=!#!7>(<&D!9?! .(%$#(D!#4=!7&694=#(D!76;99*!)&(7!%4!W4:*#4=!#4=!E#*&7!#/9>)! &'$,(%9,$:#%51%&'$,(%>">,/#4%+,-,&./%E"+-)$1&8%.1+%'5:%,&%),-'&%6$% )#>:;)!%4!76;99*8!F;(9>:;!#!)#(:&)&=!749@/#**!7#$.*%4:!)&6;4%a>&B! @&!(&6&%<&=![1!(&7.947&78!F;%7!%7!);&!*#(:&7)!7>(<&D!9?!%)7!A%4=!&<&(! 694=>6)&=8!5!?>**!$&);9=9*9:D!%7!#<#%*#/*&!%4!);&!#44&M8!57!@&! 49)&=!%4!);&!&M&6>)%<&!7>$$#(DB!);&!(&7>*)7!7;9>*=!/&!7&&4!#7!#4! $=>/5(.&,51%50%6(5.+%&($1+#%,1%&$.2'$(#4%.&&,&"+$#%&5:.(+#%.%#$(,$#%50% )(&4=78!H)!%7!49)B!#4=!7;9>*=!49)!/&!7&&4!#7B!#!.&(?&6)*D! (&.(&7&4)#)%<&!7#$.*&!9?!)&(78!! E&!.(&7&4)!);&!9<&(#**!=#)#!/&*9@B!#4=!%4!.*#6&7!.(&7&4)!79$&! 7%$.*&!6(977`)#/>*#)%947!)9!=&)&($%4&!%?!.#()%6>*#(!7>/`:(9>.7!9?! 9>(!7#$.*&!(&7.94=&=!%4!#!7%:4%?%6#4)*D!=%??&(&4)!@#D!)9!);&!)9)#*! 7#$.*&8!57!49)&=!%4!);&!$&);9=9*9:DB!#!.97)`7)(#)%?%6#)%94! @&%:;)%4:!@#7!#..*%&=!#669(=%4:!)9!7>/G&6)!)#>:;)B!94!a>&7)%947! @;&(&!);&(&!@#7!#!<#(%#)%94!9?!)@%6&!);&!7)#4=#(=!=&<%#)%94! Ka>&7)%947!ZB![#B![6B![=B!]#B!]=B!#4=!6!!!7&&!);&!*%7)!9?!a>&7)%947!%4! );&!#44&ML8!P97)`@&%:;)%4:!.&(6&4)#:&7!?9(!);&7&!a>&7)%947!#(&! :%<&4!%4!/(#6A&)78! & -:=<8H>KD5;9&& E&!#7A&=!)&(7!);&%(!$97)!(&6&4)!)%4:!.97%)%94B!);&!7>/G&6)! );&D!)#>:;)B!#4=!@;#)!*&<&*!);&D!)#>:;)!#)!K4mZ[L8!! F;&!$97)!69$$94!.97%)%94!;&*=!@#7!9?!7&694=#(D!76;99*!)&(! KZ[!.&(!6&4)LB!#4=!*&<&*!9?!7&4%9(%)D!@#7!;&#=!9?!=&.#()$&4)!K0]!.&(! 6&4)L8!F;&!$97)!69$$94!)&(!7>/G&6)!%7!W4:*%7;!K0Z!.&(!6&4)LB! (&*%:%9>7!&=>6#)%94!K0U!.&(!6&4)L!#4=!$#);&$#)%67!K00!.&(!6&4)L8!! Y1!.&(6&4)!)!#)!_&D!-)#:&!ZB!Y1!.&(!6&4)!#)!_&D!-)#:&!TB!#4=![2! .&(!6&4)!#)!5!9(!5O-!*&<&*8!-$#**&(!4>$/&(7!)!#)!_&D!-)#:&7!2! #4=!0B!9(!.(9<%=&!<96#)%94#*!)(#%4%4:!#4=!#=>*)!&=>6#)%948!! 27
  29. 29. Truth, Lies and the Internet (6?:H6:?&>67&9;D<<E& P#()%6%.#4)7!@&(&!#7A&=!;9@!%$.9()#4)!);&D!(&:#(=!%4)&(4&)`/#7&=! ($#$.(2'%05(%&'$,(%#&"+$1&#4%#2'55/:5(7%A1bHNN[?%! ! J.5'#)$0"5+%&+# K9)+.# )$0"5+%&+# K9)+.# 9&)$0"5+%&+# J.5'# 9&)$0"5+%&+# 8*4&2'94*/# TY81n! [18Yn! 81n! 081n! 18Tn! KTU8UnL! ! K[28nL! K81nL! K080nL! K180nL! !"+%,#/%$0,.# ! P#()%6%.#4)7!@&(&!#7A&=!;9@!%$.9()#4)!);&D!(&:#(=!%4)&(4&)`/#7&=! 694)&4)!)9!/&!%4!);&!?9($#)%94!#4=!<#*%=#)%94!9?!);&!/&*%&?7!);&%(! 7)>=&4)7!;9*=!K4mZ1ZL8! ! J.5'# )$0"5+%&+# !"+%,# /%$0,.# K9)+.# )$0"5+%&+# K9)+.# 9&)$0"5+%&+# J.5'# 9&)$0"5+%&+# 8*4&2' 3&"?# 008Tn! ! [Z80n! 2U82n! 08[n! [81n! ! P#()%6%.#4)7!@&(&!#7A&=!@;&);&(!);&D!;#=!&<&(!&M.&(%&46&=!#! 4>$/&(!9?!%4)&(4&)!(&*#)&=!%77>&7!%4!);&!6*#77(99$B!#4=!%?!79B!;9@! 9?)&48!K4mZ00L!! ! M.+#)&+.5&.+#>%/.(# 5./.%512#4"5# 2"$.?"53# M+9(.&+/#>5)&*# )&4"5$%+)"&#+2.'# 2%-.#()/1"-.5.(#45"$# +2.#)&+.5&.+#)&+"#1,%//# ()/19//)"&/# L&#%# (%),'# >%/)/# L&#%# ?..3,'# >%/)/# L&#%# $"&+2,'# >%/)/# L11%/)"& F%,,'# B.-.5# 8*4&2' 3&"?# T82n! 0Z8Tn! T28]n! T[82n! [8[n! 180n! K282nL! K0[8YnL! K0[8ZnL! KTU8]nL! K2282nL! K181nL! [8Tn! 0]8Un! 0]82n! TU80n! T8Yn! 181n! 28
  30. 30. Truth, Lies and the Internet ! "#$#%&'(&)*)+%,-&.+/+01%&(%*#234&& E&!.(9<%=&=!.#()%6%.#4)7!@%);!#!=&?%4%)%94!9?!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!);#)! @#7!>7&=!);(9>:;9>)!);&!7>(<&D8!F;%7!@#7!*&'$%.6,/,&3%&5%2(,&,2.//3% .##$##%.1+%"1+$(#&.1+%+,00$($1&%#5"(2$#%50%51/,1$%,105().&,51?4]Y! E&!#7A&=!.#()%6%.#4)7!%?!);&D!);9>:;)!=%:%)#*!?*>&46DB!=&?%4&=!#/9<&! @#7!#4!%$.9()#4)!7A%**!)9!.977&77!K4mZ22L8!! ! J.5'# )$0"5+%&+# !"+%,# /%$0,.# K9)+.# )$0"5+%&+# K9)+.# N&)$0"5+%&+# J.5'# 9&)$0"5+%&+# 8*4&2' 3&"?# ]8Yn! ! 28[n! 18]n! 181n! 181n! ! E&!#7A&=!.#()%6%.#4)7!%?!#4D!9?!);&!?9**9@%4:!);%4:7!;#=!966>((&=!%4! );&%(!6*#77(99$B!#4=!%?!79!;9@!?(&a>&4)*D!K4mZ00L8! ! ! P&1"9&+.5#%5*9$.&+/# ?)+2)&#,.//"&/#"5# /9>$)++.(#/12"",?"53# +2%+#1"&+%)&#)&%1195%+.# )&+.5&.+F>%/.(#1"&+.&+# '"9#5.*%5(#%/#>.)&*# (.,)>.5%+.,'#0%13%*.(#>'# +2.#05"(91.5/#+"#>.# $)/,.%()&*#"5#(.1.)+49,# Q4"5#.H%$0,.=#2","1%9/+# (.&)%,)/$#0%13%*.(#+"#>.# 5%()1%,#2)/+"5)1%,# 5.-)/)"&)/$R! P&1"9&+.5#%5*9$.&+/# ?)+2)&#,.//"&/#5.,%+)&*#+"# 1"&/0)5%1'#+2."5)./# @%),'# >%/)/# O..3,'# >%/)/# <"&+2,'# >%/)/# L11%/)"F &%,,'# B.-.5# @*4&2' 3&"?# 28]n! Y8n! ]8]n! Z28[n! T[8[n! Z8Yn! K282nL! KU82nL! KZ81nL! KT[8YnL! KZ]8]nL! K[80nL! 18[n! ]8n! 208[n! T]8Yn! T[82n! [8n! K18[nL! KZ8YnL! K]8TnL! KT[8]nL! KZ28[nL! K2182nL! !! 29
  31. 31. Truth, Lies and the Internet ! <$%.#7$+%>.(&,2,>.1&#%&5%(.&$%&'$,(%>">,/#4%+,-,&./%0/"$123%.2(5##%.% 4>$/&(!9?!=9$#%478!! ! PH1.,,.&+# S""(# 7-.5%*.# E""5# J.5'# 0""5# 8*4&2' 3&"?# 2T8]n! T[8Tn! T18n! 208n! 08Tn! T8Zn! K228UnL! KTT8UnL! KT08nL! K2T8]nL! K[82nL! KT82nL! N&(.5/+%&(#+2.# ()44.5.&1.#)&#89%,)+'#"4# )&4"5$%+)"&=#4"5# .H%$0,.#>.+?..&# /+%+)/+)1/#%&(# %&.1("+./# 080n! 2T8n! T]81n! T[8Tn! Y8]n! 08n! 700,'#4%1+F12.13/#"5# "+2.5#/"951.# -.5)4)1%+)"&#"&#+2.# "&,)&.#)&4"5$%+)"&# +2.'#1"&/9$.# 280n! ]81n! 0Z8Tn! ZZ8Yn! 28[n! T82n! 281n! 2Z81n! TT82n! TY8Zn! 228Un! 28n! K18ZnL! KY8nL! KTZ8YnL! KTY8TnL! K2Z8YnL! K08YnL! 080n! 2282n! T080n! TU8Tn! 2[82n! T82n! ! N&(.5/+%&(#2"?# /.%512#.&*)&./#"0.5%+.# T.1"*&)/.#>)%/#"5# 05"0%*%&(%# J)/)+#%#?)(.#-%5).+'#"4# ?.>/)+./#?)+2#()44.5.&+# 0.5/0.1+)-./# ! ! 30
  32. 32. Truth, Lies and the Internet <'$1%.9$(.-$%(.&,1-#%.($%&.7$1%AB%6$,1-%*$=2$//$1&48%D%6$,1-%*9$(3% >55(4[8%,&%,#%>5##,6/$%&5%(.17%&'$#$%#7,//#%.225(+,1-%&5%&'$,(%/$9$/%50% .&(6&%<&=!.(9?%6%&46DI!! ! ;&+.5&.+#M3),,# 7-.5%*.#T%+)&*# X4=&(7)#4=!;9@!7&#(6;!&4:%4&7!9.&(#)&! 08[]! X4=&(7)#4=!);&!=%??&(&46&!%4!a>#*%)D!9?! %4?9($#)%94B!?9(!&M#$.*&!/&)@&&4!7)#)%7)%67!#4=! #4&6=9)&7! T8T[! f&69:4%7&!/%#7!9(!.(9.#:#4=#! T8Z[! i%7%)!#!@%=&!<#(%&)D!9?!@&/7%)&7!@%);!=%??&(&4)! .&(7.&6)%<&7! T8[T! 5..*D!?#6)`6;&6A7!9(!9);&(!79>(6&!<&(%?%6#)%94!94! );&!94*%4&!%4?9($#)%94!);&D!6947>$&! T8]]! ! S&46&B!)&(7!);9>:;)!);&%(!7)>=&4)7!/&7)!#/*&!)9!>4=&(7)#4=!;9@! 7&#(6;!&4:%4&7!9.&(#)&B!#4=!*&#7)!#/*&!)9!#..*D!?#6)`6;&6A7!9(!79>(6&! 9$(,0,2.&,51?%<,&'%.1%*.9$(.-$4%>(50,2,$123%#25(,1-%.%c8%&$.2'$(#% );9>:;)B!@%);!);&!&M6&.)%94!9?!>4=&(7)#4=%4:!;9@!#!7&#(6;!&4:%4&! @9(A7B!);#)!);&%(!.>.%*7!@&(&!/&*9@!#<&(#:&!#)!#**!9);&(!7A%**78!! ! 31
  33. 33. Truth, Lies and the Internet !:>;D568&7585?>E&GEL:6;F&& E&!#7A&=!.#()%6%.#4)7!@;&);&(!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!%7!)#>:;)!%4!);&%(! 76;99*7B!#4=!@;&);&(!9);&(!)D.&7!9?!6(%)%6#*!);%4A%4:!%7!)#>:;)!%4! );&%(!76;99*7!K4mZ2UL8! ! ! U./#7#%#,"+# U./#7#%#,)++,.# B"# 8*4&2'94*/# @)*)+%,#4,9.&1'# 2182n! [8n! 2Z81n! 2[8n! L+2.5#15)+)1%,# +2)&3)&*# TZ80n! [[8[n! Z8Un! [8Un! ! E&!#7A&=!.#()%6%.#4)7!%?!);&D!);9>:;)!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!7;9>*=!/&! :%<&4!:(&#)&(!.(9$%4&46&!%4!);&!4#)%94#*!6>((%6>*>$b!#4=!%?!79!;9@! $>6;!$9(&!K4mZ20L8! ! ! !"+%,# /%$0,.# # U./#7#%#,"+# U./#7#%#,)++,.# B"#7#)+#)/# %>"9+#5)*2+# B"#7#+2.5.#)/# +""#$912# %,5.%('# 8*4&2' 3&"?# ZY8Yn! TY8Tn! 228n! 28Tn! 08Zn! K[18[nL! KT]8TnL! K218UnL! K18[nL! K282nL! ! E&!#7A&=!.#()%6%.#4)7!%?!);&D!?&*)!694?%=&4)!)%4:!);&!7>/G&6)! );&$7&*<&7!K4mZ20L8! ! ! !"+%,#/%$0,.# J.5'# 1"&4)(.&+# K9)+.# 1"&4)(.&+# K9)+.# 9&1"&4)(.&+# J.5'# 9&1"&4)(.&+# B"+# %00,)1%>,.# 0Z81n! [T8Un! 2Y80n! T8Zn! 18]n! ! 32
  34. 34. Truth, Lies and the Internet H4)&(&7)%4:*DB!@;&4!#7A&=!%4!@;#)!7>/G&6)!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!$%:;)!/&! )#>:;)B!);&(&!@#7!#!(&$#(A#/*&!#((#D!9?!=%??&(&4)!7>/G&6)7!.(9.97&=8!! F;&!$97)!.9.>*#(!(&7.947&!@#7!K.&(;#.7!>47>(.(%7%4:*DL! H4?9($#)%94!F&6;49*9:DB!@%);!Y1!.&(!6&4)8!'>)!#!<&(D!*#(:&!4>$/&(! 9?!7>/G&6)7!#*79!769(&=!<&(D!;%:;*DI!W4:*%7;!KY1!.&(!6&4)LB!S%7)9(D! K]Z!.&(!6&4)LB!+%)%h&47;%.!K]0!.&(!6&4)LB!f&*%:%9>7!W=>6#)%94!KUZ!.&(! 6&4)L!#4=!P9*%)%67!KU0!.&(!6&4)L8!F;%7!7>::&7)7!);#)!)&(7!?&*)!);#)! =%:%)#*!?*>&46D!%7!#!69(&!69$.&)&46DB!94&!);#)!7;9>*=!/&!)#>:;)! #6(977!7&<&(#*!7>/G&6)78!57!94&!)&(!%4)&(<%&@&=!/D!C&$97! 69$$&4)&=I!! >#F+!;*5#'!(59958*$#!@#/!#'"8&!<535#"$!05#')"87A!?'8"*+'!7/*!")'!('"$523! .5#&!+/B'#&523!#&"#!5+!8$'")$7!8)/++:8*))58*$"),!G&'!"?5$5#7!#/!'23"3'! .5#&!#&'!52#')2'#!'99'8#56'$7!5+!+/B'#&523!#&"#!5+!)'$'6"2#!#/!"$$!+*?H'8#+!! 54=(&@!fD#4B!W4:*%7;!)&(B!,&**9@!V#4&!-6;99*! ! +9959?>6;:&6::7:7&& F;&!?%4#*!a>&7)%94!%4!9>(!7>(<&D!(&*#)&=!)9!);&!#77%7)#46&!);#)! )&(7!);9>:;)!);&D!@9>*=!4&&=!%?!);&D!@&(&!)9!)!=%:%)#*! *%)&(#6D!%4!);&%(!76;99*8! F;&!(&7.947&7!@&(&!9.&48!E&!69=&=!);&$!$#4>#**D!%4)9!:(9>.78! F;&!%4)&4)!%7!)9!%4=%6#)%<$/3%#'5:%&$.2'$(#4%5>,1,51#%.65"&%&'$%6$#&% @#D7!?9(@#(=B!;&46&B!@;&4!79$&!)&(7!:#<&!$9(&!);#4!94&! (&7.947&B!);&7&!@&(&!)(&#)&=!#7!7&.#(#)&!(&7.947&78! B9$>.5#"4#T./0"&/./# E5"0"5+)"&#"4#+"+%,# 5./0"&/./# !5%)&)&*# TY! T[8Yn! !.%12)&*#5./"951./# T2! 080n! !)$.#)&#+2.#1955)19,9$# 2Y! 2U8n! T.4.5.&1.#$%+.5)%,/# 22! 218Zn! ;C!#)&45%/+591+95.# Y! ]8[n! ! ! 33
  35. 35. Truth, Lies and the Internet F(#%4%4:!@#7!$97)!.9.>*#(*D!(&:#(=&=!)9!/&!4&6&77#(D!?9(!=%:%)#*! ?*>&46D!)%4:8!W<&4!79$&!&M.&(%&46&=!)&(7!@#4)&=!#! );9(9>:;!=&<&*9.$&4)!(&:%$&I!! I6'2!"+!"!+C5$$'(!D'(5"!J#*(5'+!#'"8&')4!>!9''$!>!./*$(!."2#!#)"52523,!>! #&52C!>!C2/.!KB/)'!/)!$'++L!&/.!+'")8&!'2352'+!./)C!"2(!&/.!#/!3'#!#&'! !"#$%&'()*+('%#",&-'#%.+,$/%$0*$1#%"2(3%$0&",40%5'&#"2*(%$&)*(%*26%'&&"&% "2(!'M=$/)"#5/2,!! -&694=#(D!-6;99*B!S&#=!9?!C&.#()$&4)! ! F;&(&!@#7!=%<%7%94!9<&(!@;&);&(!);&!)(#%4%4:!69>*=!/&!694=>6)&=!%4` ;9>7&!K#4=!@#7!);&(&?9(&!$9(&!#!a>&7)%94!9?!)%$&B!?9(!%47)#46&!H47&)! C#D7!#**96#)%94L!9(!@;&);&(!&M)&(4#*!7>.&(<%7%94!@#7!(&a>%(&=8! S9@&<&(B!);&(&!@#7!#:(&&$&4)!);#)!);&!)(#%4%4:!7;9>*=!/9);!/&! :&4&(#*!#4=!7>/G&6)`7.&6%?%6!!!@%);!/9);!:&4&(#*!.(%46%.*&7!9?!=%:%)#*! ?*>&46DB!#4=!#*79!;9@!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!)%4:!69>*=!/&!%4)&:(#)&=!)9! );&%(!7.&6%?%6!7>/G&6)!#(&#78!! F&(7!?&*)!#!(#4:&!9?!$#)&(%#*7!@9>*=!/&!%$.9()#4)8!F;&7&!@9>*=! %46*>=&!7)(#)&:%6!=96>$&4)7!!!7>6;!#7!#!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!7D**#/>7!#4=! &M.*#4#)%94!9?!694)&M)!!!#4=!#*79!6*#77(99$`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d$.([?! ,#4D!7>::&7)&=!$#)&(%#*7!#4=!)%4:!#%=7!@9>*=!/&!$97)!;&*.?>*! %?!);&D!@&(&!;97)&=!94*%4&B!#4=!>4%<&(7#**D!#66&77%/*&8!-9$&! 7>::&7)&=!#**!$#)&(%#*7!7;9>*=!/&!9(:#4%7$+%.(5"1+%*251#&("2&$+% :$6#,&$#%&'.&%>(59,+$%.%251&$=&%05(%&$.2',1-%+,-,&./%/,&$(.23%e%,1%.1% ,1&$(.2&,9$%:.34%AQKBYC8%T$>"&3%X$.+[?%K5)$%#"--$#&$+%&'.&%&'$% $#)&(%#*!/&!7>/G&6)`7.&6%?%6B!&M.*9%)%4:!);&!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!*&#(4%4:! 5>>5(&"1,&,$#%,1%$.2'%#"6E$2&?%@&'$(#%&'5"-'&%.%*#3//.6"#%50% 34
  36. 36. Truth, Lies and the Internet 1.&,51.//3%.-($$+%251&$1&4%AQKcYH8%T$>"&3%X$.+%I$.2'$([%:5"/+%6$% $9(&!>7&?>*8!! 5!7$#**&(B!/>)!7)%**!7%:4%?%6#4)!4>$/&(!9?!)&(7!);9>:;)!);#)!)%$&! %4!#4!9);&(@%7&!#*(&#=D!6(9@=&=!6>((%6>*>$!@#7!);&!94*D!/#((%&(I!! >9!.)5##'2!52#/!#&'!8*))58*$*B!>!8/*$(!'"+5$7!=*#!"+5('!"!$'++/2!9/)! (5+8*++523!(535#"$!$5#')"87!"2(!&/.!#/!'99'8#56'$7!*+'!#&'!52#')2'#!9/)! )'+'")8&! -&694=#(D!76;99*B!C&7%:4!o!F&6;49*9:D!)&(! ! ,#4D!7>::&7)&=!&'.&%+,-,&./%0/"$123%#'5"/+%'.9$%.%#&(.&$-,28%*:'5/$% 50%#2'55/4%,)>/$)$1&.&,51%!!@%);!*&#(4%4:!9..9()>4%)%&7!79>:;)!%4! $.2'%#"6E$2&^%*T,-,&./%/,&$(.23%1$$+#%&5%6$%$)6$++$+%,1%.//%.($.#%50% &'$%2"((,2"/")%63%&$.2'$(#%.1+%#$1,5(%).1.-$(#f4AL$5-(.>'38%SRI% #4=!PWB!C&.>)D!S&#=L8!! 57!#!S&#=!9?!C&.#()$&4)!69$$&4)&=I!! G'"8&')+!@2''(A!#/!)'8/325+'!#&'!5B=/)#"28'!/9!(535#"$!$5#')"87!"2(! *55(3%)$%$"%$0')&%#,+7'-$%*26%2"$%$0)28%)$1#%$0'%7"+%"9%$0'%:;%6'5*&$!'2$%% /)!I23$5+&N! ! R%4#**DB!#!=%7)>(/%4:!$%49(%)D!9?!)&(7!(&.9()&=!#!*#6A!9?!/#7%6! H+F!%4?(#7)(>6)>(&B!9(!#66&77!)9!69$.>)&(7O*#.)9.7!94!#!(&:>*#(! /#7%7B!@%);!#..(9.(%#)&!79?)@#(&!#4=!(&*%#/*&!%4)&(4&)!#66&778!3);&(! 9(:#4%7#)%947B!49)#/*D!);&!W`*&#(4%4:!R9>4=#)%94B!;#<&!.9%4)&=!)9! &'$%*T,-,&./%T,9,+$4%!!#!*#6A!9?!#66&77!)9!69$.>)&(7!#4=!);&!%4)&(4&)! !!#7!#!.&(4%6%9>7!#4=!%$.9()#4)!A%4=!9?!%4&a>#*%)D8]!3/<%9>7*DB!49! #$9>4)!9?!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!)%4:!6#4!;&*.!7)>=&4)7!*&<&(#:&!);&! %4)&(4&)!#7!#!*&#(4%4:!#%=!%?!);&D!6#449)!#66&77!%)8!! 35
  37. 37. Truth, Lies and the Internet +,,)0&A&2)!$B-B'BN3&& ! *LHI:F&-:9586&& P(%9(!)9!);&!#=$%4%7)(#)%94!9?!);&!7>(<&DB!);&!a>&7)%947!@&(&!7)(&77` )&7)&=!/D!);&!(&7&#(6;!)&#$!?9(!(&*&<#46&!)9!);&!&M%7)%4:!*%)&(#)>(&! 94!=%:%)#*!*%)&(#6D8!F;&!.(9)9)D.&!7>(<&D!@#7!);&4!.%*9)&=!94!#!7$#**! 4>$/&(!9?!)&(7B!)9!)&7)!?9(!)(#47.#(&46D!9?!(&7&#(6;!.>(.97&B! 6*#(%)D!9?!a>&7)%94%4:B!#4=!&#7&!9?!#47@&(%4:8!+;#4:&7!@&(&!$#=&! #669(=%4:!)9!)&(!?&&=/#6AB!#4=!#..(9<&=!/D!);&!(&7&#(6;!*&#=&(8! F;&!?%4#*!7>(<&D!694)#%4&=!2Z!a>&7)%947!K@%);!T!=%<%=&=!%4)9!7>/` a>&7)%947L!9(:#4%7&=!#(9>4=!);&!/(9#=!);&$&7!9?!=&$9:(#.;%67O! (9*&!9?!);&!)&(B!%$.9()#46&!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)B!&M)&4)!9?!&<%=&46&!9?! *#6A!9?!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!#4=!.977%/*&!7)&.7!?9(@#(=8!F;&!a>&7)%944#%(&! %7!%46*>=&=!%4!?>**!#)!);&!&4=!9?!);%7!.#.&(8!!! *LHI:F&*>=KE568&& F;&!7>(<&D!@#7!#4!%4)&(4&)!7>(<&DB!;97)&=!/D!J*)6'7!D/2C'7! K@@@87>(<&D$94A&D869$L4!@;%6;!#**9@7!(&7.94=&4)7!)9!69$.*&)&! );&!7>(<&D!94*%4&!K#<#%*#/*&!#)I!;)).7IOO@@@87>(<&D$94A&D869$! O7O[R"_pC[L8!! H4)&(4&)`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d-!7>(<&D!7;9@7!);#)! #(9>4=!1!.&(!6&4)!9?!);97&!9?!@9(A%4:!#:&!=9!>7&!);&!%4)&(4&)8Y2!! 36
  38. 38. Truth, Lies and the Internet '&6#>7&!);&(&!%7!49!.9.>*#)%94!7#$.*&!?(#$&!K&8:8!&`$#%*!#==(&77&7! ?9(!&<&(D!)&(L!);#)!@9>*=!#**9@!?9(!#!(#4=9$!7#$.*&B!@&! +$2,+$+%&5%"#$%.%*#15:6.//,1-4%#.)>/,1-%&$2'1,`"$?%I',#%#&(.&$-3% &4)#%*7!)#(:&)%4:!#!@%=&!7#$.*&!9?!76;99*!*96#)%94B!76;99*!)D.&B! )&(!7>/G&6)!#(&#B!)&(!#:&!:(9>.!#4=!)D.&!9?!76;99*B!@%);9>)! #%$%4:!?9(!#!.&(?&6)!(&.(&7&4)#)%94!9?!);&!4#)%94#*!69;9()!9?! )&(78!E&!);&4!(&a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` /$.(1,1-%g5"1+.&,514#%:$6#,&$?! ! G")3'#'(!"(6')#+!#&)/*3&!G'"8&!O5)+#!2'#./)C+I!(&:%94#*! F!R%(7)!4&)@9(A7!694=>6)!6%(6>*#(!69$$>4%6#)%947!)9!#**! $&$/&(7!%4!);&%(!#(&#8!E&!(&6&%<&=!694?%($&=!);#)!);&!7>(<&D! @#7!.>/*%6%7&=!%4!#!d9();`E&7)!V94=94!$#%*`9>)B!#!V%<&(.99*! #(&#!$#%*`9>)!#4=!#!-9>);`W#7)!(&:%94!$#%*`9>)8!! ! J/85"$!D'(5"!=)/B/#5/2I!@&!#..(9#6;&=!#!4>$/&(!9?!;%:;` <%7%/%*%)D!:(9>.7!#4=!%4=%<%=>#*7!)9!.>/*%6%7&!);&!7>(<&D!);(9>:;! );&%(!796%#*!$&=%#!.(&7&46&8!5!4>$/&(!9?!);&7&!:(9>.7!#4=! %4=%<%=>#*7!=%=!);%7!);(9>:;!);&%(!R#6&/99A!.#:&7!#4=!F@%))&(! #669>4)78! ! <5)'8#!P'8)*5#B'2#I!@&!.*#6&=!&$.;#7%7!94!#7!=%<&(7&!#!=%(&6)! (&6(>%)$&4)!&??9()!#7!.977%/*&B!(#4:%4:!?(9$!?%(7)!D&#(!)&(7B! S&#=7!9?!C&.#()$&4)7B!P(%46%.#*7!#4=!->..*D!F&(7B!#4=!)9! #7!$#4D!C&.#()$&4)7!#7!.977%/*&B!%46*>=%4:!H+FB!S>$#4%)%&7B! 37
  39. 39. Truth, Lies and the Internet -6%&46&B!PW!#4=!5()8!E&!;#=!694?%($&=!7>66&77?>*!=%7)(%/>)%947! );(9>:;9>)!);&!76;99*!?9(!?%<&!'%($%4:;#$!%44&(`6%)D!7&694=#(D! 7)#)&!76;99*7B!7&<&4!V94=94!%44&(`6%)D!7&694=#(D!76;99*7B!?9>(! 7)#)&!7&694=#(D!76;99*7!%4!3>)&(!V94=94B!?9>(!V94=94!.(%<#)&! 76;99*7B!94&!+#$/(%=:&7;%(&!7)#)&!7&694=#(D!76;99*B!94&!V&&=7! 7)#)&!7&694=#(D!76;99*B!94&!WM&)&(!7&694=#(D!7)#)&!76;99*B!94&! V%<&(.99*!7&694=#(D!7)#)&!76;99*B!&%:;)!'%($%4:;#$!7)#)&! .(%$#(D!76;99*7B!)@9!,#46;&7)&(!7)#)&!.(%$#(D!76;99*7B!#4=! );(&&!+#$/(%=:&7;%(&!7)#)&!.(%$#(D!76;99*78! ! D"5$+&/#+Q!@&!#..(9#6;&=!9(:#4%7#)%947!)9!(&a>&7)!);#)!);&! 7>(<&D!@#7!%46*>=&=!%4!$#77!&$#%*7!)9!#**!)&(7!94!);&%(! $#%*%4:!*%7)78!F;%7!@#7!7>66&77?>**D!=94&!)9!);&!S&#=7!9?! f&*%:%9>7!-)>=%&7!#4=!P;%*979.;D!#)!#**!W4:*%7;!7%M);!?9($! 76;99*7!#4=!R>();&(!W=>6#)%94!+9**&:&7!q4m0Y11r8!! H)!%7!%$.9()#4)!)9!49)&!);&!@&#A4&77&7!%4!);%7!)D.&!9?!7#$.*%4:! )&6;4%a>&8!5*);9>:;!);&!7)#()%4:!.9%4)7!@&(&!%4)&4)%94#**D!<#(%&=B!%)! %7!49)!.977%/*&!)9!#76&()#%4!);&!?>**!=%7)(%/>)%94!9?!);&!7>(<&D!/&D94=! );&!?%(7)!.9%4)!9?!694)#6)8!f&7&#(6;!%4)9!%4)&(4&)!7#$.*%4:!7;9@7! );#)!@;&(&!>4%a>&!XfV7!#(&!.(9<%=&=!?9(!!.977%/*&!.#()%6%.#4)! );%7!#**9@7!:(&#)&(!$94%)9(%4:!9?!@;9!(&7.94=78!C>&!)9!(&79>(6&! 6947)(#%4)7B!@&!@&(&!49)!%4!#!.97%)%94!)9!=9!);%78!-%$%*#(*DB!%)!;#7! /&&4!&7)#/*%7;&=!);#)!494`(&7.947&!(#)&!6#4!/&!%$.(9<&=!);(9>:;! $#%*!?9**9@!>.B!#*);9>:;!);%7!@#7!49)!.977%/*&!#7!);&!7#$.*%4:! )&6;4%a>&!>7&=!=%=!49)!#**9@!?9(!);&!%=&4)%?%6#)%94!9?!%4=%<%=>#*! .#()%6%.#4)78Y0!! c%<&4!);&!%4&<%)#/*&!%4)(9=>6)%94!9?!7A&@&=!=%7)(%/>)%947!#4=! 7)#)%7)%6#*!#7D$$&)(%&7!=>&!)9!);&!>7&!9?!)#(:&)&=!749@/#**%4:B!@&! >4=&()99A!79$&!.97)`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
  40. 40. Truth, Lies and the Internet @9>*=!/&!/%`<#(%#)&78!E;%*&!#!7$#**!*%)&(#)>(&!=9&7!%4=%6#)&!);#)! (&*&<#4)!796%9`:&9:(#.;%6!%4&a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`69**&6)%94! @&%:;)%4:!9?!);&!=#)#B!@;&(&!);&!=#)#!7;9@&=!7%:4%?%6#4)!/%#78!! F9!6#*6>*#)&!@;&);&(!);&(&!@#7!7%:4%?%6#4)!<#(%#)%94!%4!);&!=#)#!7&)! #669(=%4:!)9!7>/G&6)!)#>:;)B!@&!694=>6)&=!#!)&7)!)9!6#*6>*#)&!);&! 7)#4=#(=!=&<%#)%94!?(9$!);&!49($B!#669(=%4:!)9!!)&(! 7>/G&6)!(&7.947&8! "&*A&!'&);*&;&$B!#!*&#=%4:!&M.&()!94!94*%4&!7#$.*%4:!)&6;4%a>&7B! ;#7!7>::&7)&=!);#)!(&*%#/%*%)D!6#4!/&!%46(&#7&=!/D!.97)`7)(#)%?%6#)%94! =#)#!@&%:;)%4:!#:#%47)!9??*%4&!=&$9:(#.;%678!H4!7;9()B!);%7!$&#47! );#)!%?!%4!9>(!7#$.*&!#!6&()#%4!)&(!)D.&!%7!9<&(`(&.(&7&4)&=B!);%7! %7!69((&6)&=!%4!);&!?%4#*!.&(6&4)#:&78YZ!E&!);&(&?9(&!69**&6)&=! /#7&*%4&!=#)#!9?!);&!)%4:!.(9?&77%94!%4!W4:*#4=!#4=!E#*&7B!#4=! (&`@&%:;)%4:!);&!=#)#!)9!69((&6)!<#(%#)%948!F;%7!@#7!#<#%*#/*&!?(9$! );&!-6;99*!E9(A?9(6&!+&47>78Y[! F;&!.(9.9()%947!9?!)&(7!/D`7>/G&6)!9?!);&!@;9*&!)&(! @9(A?9(6&B!:%<&4!%4!);&!-6;99*!E9(A?9(6&!+&47>7B!#4=!94!@;%6;!);&! @&%:;)%4:7!#(&!/#7&=B!#(&I!! 39

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