Truth lies and the internet
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Truth lies and the internet

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truth, lies and the internet a report into young people’s digital fluency

truth, lies and the internet a report into young people’s digital fluency

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    Truth lies and the internet Truth lies and the internet Document Transcript

    • truth, lies and the internet a report into young people’s digital fluency Jamie Bartlett Carl Miller September 2011
    • !"#!$%&'()*&+,-&!$)&(,!)",)!& "#$%&!'#()*&))!! +#(*!,%**&(! -&.)&$/&(!0122! ! !
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet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n collaboration with the Nominet Trust ;)).IOO@@@849$%4&))(>7)89(:8>AO ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! P>/*%7;&=!/D!C&$97!0122! Q!C&$978!-9$&!(%:;)7!(&7&(<&=8! F;%(=!R*99(! ,#:=#*&4!S9>7&! 2TU!F99*&D!-)(&&)! V94=94!-W2!0FX! F!!1YZ[!Z[Y![Z! R!!101!]TU]!Z012! ;&**9^=&$978698>A! @@@8=&$978698>A! 2
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet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`/99A7B!)(>7)@9();D! G9>(4#*%7$B!4%6;&!&M.&()%7&!#4=!#66>(#)&!?#6)7!#4=!?%:>(&7!#)!9>(! ?%4:&()%.7!);#4!&<&(!/&?9(&B!);&(&!#(&!&a>#**D!>4.(&6&=&4)&=! #$9>4)7!9?!$%7)#A&7B!;#*?`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a>&46&7!9?!);%7!94!796%&)D!#7!#!@;9*&!#(&! >4A49@48!34&!=#4:&(!%7!);#)!D9>4:!.&9.*&!#(&!$9(&!*%A&*D!)9!/&! 7&=>6&=!/D!&M)(&$%7)!#4=!<%9*&4)!%=&#78!57!@&!;#<&!#(:>&=! 3
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet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`)(>);7B!#4=! $%7)#A&7B!#4=!/&))&(!4#<%:#)&!);&!$>(A%&(!#4=!:(&D&(!@#)&(7!9?! #(:>$&4)!#4=!9.%4%948!! F;&!#/%*%)D!)9!G>=:&!);&!$&(%)7!9?!=%??&(&4)!.%&6&7!9?!%4?9($#)%94!%7! 49)!4&@b!%)!%7!);&!/#7%7!9?!$>6;!9?!6*#77%6#*!.;%*979.;D8!S9@&<&(B! );&!#(6;%)&6)>(&!#4=!?>46)%94#*%)D!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)!$#A&7!);&!G9/!9?! 7&.#(#)%4:!);&!@;&#)!?(9$!);&!6;#??!&<&4!;#(=&(8!5!7.&6%?%6!/9=D!9?! 7A%**7!#4=!A49@*&=:&!%7!(&a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    • Truth, Lies and the Internet 5*);9>:;!);&(&!#(&!$9(&!&`/99A7B!)(>7)@9();D!G9>(4#*%7$B!4%6;&! &M.&()%7&!#4=!#66>(#)&!?#6)7!#4=!?%:>(&7!);#4!&<&(!/&?9(&B!);%7!%7! #669$.#4%&=!/D!&a>#**D!>4.(&6&=&4)&=!#$9>4)7!9?!$%7)#A&7B! $%7)(>);7B!.(9.#:#4=#B!$%7%4?9($#)%94B!#4=!9);&(!:&4&(#*! 4947&47&8!54!&7)%$#)&=!Y!.&(!6&4)!9?!);&!21]!)(%**%94!&$#%*7!7&4)!%4! 0121!@&(&!7.#$`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a>%(&B!>4=&(7)#4=!#4=! <#*%=#)&!A49@*&=:&8!-%$.*D!.>)B!@;&);&(!9??*%4&!9(!94*%4&B!@&!4&&=! )9!=%7)%4:>%7;!:99=!?(9$!/#=!%4?9($#)%94!#4=!);#)!(&a>%(&7!);&! #..*%6#)%94!9?!/9);!.&(794#*!)&6;4%a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`(&<%&@&=!#6#=&$%6!G9>(4#*B!);&!&=%)&=! 13
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet 76;99*!)&M)`/99AB!);&!7.&6%#*%7)!#4);9*9:DB!#**!#6)!#7! :#)&A&&.&(7B!&M.&()*D!.97%4:!K#)!*&#7)!%4!);&9(DL!6&()#%4!)&7)7! 9?!<&(#6%)D!#4=!#>);&4)%6%)D!);#)!4&&=&=!)9!/&!.#77&=!/&?9(&! );&!694)&4)!%7!.&($%))&=!%4)9!);&!.>/*%6!7.;&(&8!,#4D!9?!);&7&! ;&*.?>*!$&=%#)9(7!#(&!#/7&4)!94*%4&8!3?!69>(7&B!);&(&!#(&! 79$&!<&(D!&??&6)%<&!%4)&(4&)`/#7&=!?%*)&(78!34&!?#$9>7!)&7)! 694=>6)&=!/D!-"#*)'!$#:#h%4&!69$.#(&=!@;&);&(!E%A%.&=%#! @#7!$9(&!#66>(#)&!);#4!W46D6*9.&=%#!'(%)#44%6#8!F;&!9*=! $#7)&(!7#@!9??!);&!6;#**&4:&(!!!/>)!49)!/D!$>6;80]!5*);9>:;! &'$($%.($%15()#8%#"2'%.#%<,7,>$+,.4#%$+,&,1-%>(52$+"($#8%&'$3% #(&!$9(&!%4?9($#*!#4=!94!$#4D!7%)&7B!494`&M%7)&4)8!H4!$#4D! .*#6&7B!);&!%4)&(4&)!%7!#!*#(:&*D!*#@*&77!#4=!#494D$9>7!#(&4#! );#)!%7!&#7D!)9!&4)&(B!@;&(&!);&(&!%7!*%))*&!/#6A*#7;!?9(! 7.(&#=%4:!$%7%4?9($#)%94!K#*);9>:;!);%7!$#D!/&!6;#4:%4:L80Y! F;&!>7>#*!@#D!9?!#6a>%(%4:!*&:%)%$#6D!!!7*%6A!@&/7%)&!=&7%:4! !!%7!&#7%*D!%4!);&!(&#6;&7!9?!$97)!>7&(78!!!! ! 7&"&'$)+'#%&(#+2.#0.()*5..#05">,.$## d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`?9(`#**8! ! ! 14
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet ! !2.#*.&.5%+)"&%,#()-)(.! P#(&4)7!#(&!)D.%6#**D!);&!$#%4!:>#(=%#47!9?!%4?9($#)%94B!)9!#! :(&#)&(!9(!*&77&(!&M)&4)!&47>(%4:!);#)!);&!$#)&(%#*!6;%*=(&4! 6947>$&!%7!#:&`#..(9.(%#)&B!69$.(&;&47%/*&B!#4=!#66>(#)&8! E%);!);&!%4)&(4&)B!);%7!7>.&(<%7%94!%7!9?)&4!#/7&4)8!ZY!.&(! 6&4)!9?!.#(&4)7!);%4A!);&%(!6;%*=!A49@7!$9(&!);#4!);&$!#/9>)! );&!%4)&(4&)B!(%7%4:!)9!]1!.&(!6&4)!9?!.#(&4)7!9?!20`2[!D&#(`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a>#*%)#)%<&! +,#251&,1",&3%6$&:$$1%&'$%*T,-,&./%G.&,9$#4%.1+%*T,-,&./% S)),-(.1&#4?T[! ! !2.#0/.9("F/)+./#%&(#05"0%*%&(%! ,#4D!@&/7%)&7!#(&!49)!@;#)!);&D!7&&$8!-9$&!#(&!6(&#)&=!?9(! 4&?#(%9>7!&4=7!);#)!#(&!7.&6%?%6#**D!=&7%:4&=!)9!#..&#(! )(>7)@9();D8!F;&!@&/7%)&B!;)).IOO@@@8$#()%4*>);&(A%4:89(:B! >"(>5(&#%&5%>($#$1&%*.%&("$%',#&5(,2./%$=.),1.&,514%50%Z.(&,4! V>);&(!_%4:!"(8B!#4=!%7!#%$&=!7.&6%?%6#**D!#)!7)>=&4)7!@(%)%4:! &77#D7!?9(!);&!,#()%4!V>);&(!_%4:!C#D!W77#D!+94)&7)8!F;&! :$6#,&$%,#%.%9$,/$+%.&&.27%51%Q,1-4#%($>"&.&,51%.1+%&'$%R,9,/% f%:;)7!,9<&$&4)!%4!:&4&(#*B!#4=!%7!Ka>%&)*DL!;97)&=!/D!);&! E;%)&!7>.(&$#6%7)!:(9>.!-)9($R(94)8!F;&!H47)%)>)&!R9(! S%7)9(%6#*!f&<%&@!K;)).IOO%;(89(:O[%2/.,)#%&5%6$%.%*151` .#()%7#4B!494`%=&9*9:%6#*!#4=!494`#$2&.(,.14%05(%($9,#,51,#&% ;%7)9(%6#*!(&7&#(6;8!F;&!<&(D!.#()%7#4B!%=&9*9:%6#*!#4=! 7&6)#(%#4!.7&>=9`;%7)9(%6#*!694)&4)!.(9$9)&7!S9*96#>7)! =&4%#*8! ! 15
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet ! !2.#9/.#"4#)$%*.5'! E%);!N9>F>/&B!i%$&9B!R*%6A(!#4=!9);&(!796%#*!$&=%#!7%)&7! ;97)%4:!<%7>#*!694)&4)B!%$#:&!$#4%.>*#)%94!)&6;4%a>&7!#(&! %46(&#7%4:*D!#**9@%4:!$%7%4?9($#)%94!)9!/&!.9@&(?>**D!#4=! #))(#6)%<&*D!.#6A#:&=8!F;&!6947.%(#6%7)!?%*$!0//+'!1&"23'4! :',2'%2/.,)#%&'.&%YBB%:.#%.%*0./#$%0/.-4%.&&.27%>$(>$&(.&$+%63% &*&$&4)7!9?!);&!X-!%4)&**%:&46&B!/&6#$&!#4!%4)&(4&)! 7&47#)%94B!#))(#6)%4:!$%**%947!9?!<%&@78!F;&!*%)#4D!9?!&((9(7B! $%7#))(%/>)%947B!<#:>&!%47%4>#)%947B!7>/)*&!$%7a>9)&7!#4=! 9>)(%:;)!?#*7&;99=7!@&(&!$#7A&=!/D!#!699*!79>4=)(#6A!/D!C"! -A99*DB!#)$97.;&(%6!4#((#)%94!#4=!$&7$&(%7%4:!<%=&9! $+,&,1-?%I'$%0,/)4#%9.(,5"#%/,6$(&,$#%:,&'%&'$%&("&'%'.9$%15:% /&&4!6#(&?>**D!6#)#*9:>&=B!D&)!%)!%7!49!#66%=&4)!);#)!);%7! =&6&.)%<&B!%?!7A%*?>**D!.#6A#:&=B!<%=&9!/&6#$&!);&!?%(7)! %4)&(4&)!/*96A/>7)&(8TU!,9(&!.(97#%6#**DB!%4&M.&47%<&!D&)! ;>:&*D!&??&6)%<&!#4=!79.;%7)%6#)&=!%$#:&`&=%)%4:!79?)@#(&!!! )9!6(9.B!&4;#46&B!9(!9>)(%:;)!#*)&(!%$#:&7!!!&M%7)78! -9$&)%$&7!&<&4!4&@7.#.&(7!6#4!/&!?99*&=8!H4!">4&!0122B!);&! d&@7!9?!);&!E9(*=!.#%=!j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h&4!G9>(4#*%7)7!=9!);&!7#$&B! *%4&!/D!*%4&B!?9(!.9.>*#(!#4=!694)(9<&(7%#*!/99A7B!#4=!?%*$78! H4=&&=B!79$&B!7>6;!#7!W*%7&!d%6A&(794B!#(:>&!);#)!;9*96#>7)! =&4%#*!;#7!/&&4!@&#A&4&=!%4!);&!)(#47?&(!?(9$!/99A7!)9!);&! @&/8TY!N&)!#7!%4)&(&7)!:(9>.7!#4=!69$$>4%)%&7!9?!?&**9@! )(#<&**&(7!;#<&!69#*&76&=B!$>6;!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)!;#7!49@! ?9($&=!%7*#4=7!9?!7&:(&:#)&=!9.%4%94!(#);&(!);#4!?*9@7!9?! =%77&4)%4:!#(:>$&4)!#4=!&4:#:&$&4)8!E%);%4!);&7&!9?)&4! 16
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    • Truth, Lies and the Internet ! <$%.#7$+%>.(&,2,>.1&#%&5%(.&$%&'$,(%>">,/#4%+,-,&./%0/"$123%.2(5##%.% 4>$/&(!9?!=9$#%478!! ! PH1.,,.&+# S""(# 7-.5%*.# E""5# J.5'# 0""5# 8*4&2' 3&"?# 2T8]n! T[8Tn! T18n! 208n! 08Tn! T8Zn! K228UnL! KTT8UnL! KT08nL! K2T8]nL! K[82nL! KT82nL! N&(.5/+%&(#+2.# ()44.5.&1.#)&#89%,)+'#"4# )&4"5$%+)"&=#4"5# .H%$0,.#>.+?..&# /+%+)/+)1/#%&(# %&.1("+./# 080n! 2T8n! T]81n! T[8Tn! Y8]n! 08n! 700,'#4%1+F12.13/#"5# "+2.5#/"951.# -.5)4)1%+)"&#"&#+2.# "&,)&.#)&4"5$%+)"&# +2.'#1"&/9$.# 280n! ]81n! 0Z8Tn! ZZ8Yn! 28[n! T82n! 281n! 2Z81n! TT82n! TY8Zn! 228Un! 28n! K18ZnL! KY8nL! KTZ8YnL! KTY8TnL! K2Z8YnL! K08YnL! 080n! 2282n! T080n! TU8Tn! 2[82n! T82n! ! N&(.5/+%&(#2"?# /.%512#.&*)&./#"0.5%+.# T.1"*&)/.#>)%/#"5# 05"0%*%&(%# J)/)+#%#?)(.#-%5).+'#"4# ?.>/)+./#?)+2#()44.5.&+# 0.5/0.1+)-./# ! ! 30
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet <'$1%.9$(.-$%(.&,1-#%.($%&.7$1%AB%6$,1-%*$=2$//$1&48%D%6$,1-%*9$(3% >55(4[8%,&%,#%>5##,6/$%&5%(.17%&'$#$%#7,//#%.225(+,1-%&5%&'$,(%/$9$/%50% .&(6&%<&=!.(9?%6%&46DI!! ! ;&+.5&.+#M3),,# 7-.5%*.#T%+)&*# X4=&(7)#4=!;9@!7&#(6;!&4:%4&7!9.&(#)&! 08[]! X4=&(7)#4=!);&!=%??&(&46&!%4!a>#*%)D!9?! %4?9($#)%94B!?9(!&M#$.*&!/&)@&&4!7)#)%7)%67!#4=! #4&6=9)&7! T8T[! f&69:4%7&!/%#7!9(!.(9.#:#4=#! T8Z[! i%7%)!#!@%=&!<#(%&)D!9?!@&/7%)&7!@%);!=%??&(&4)! .&(7.&6)%<&7! T8[T! 5..*D!?#6)`6;&6A7!9(!9);&(!79>(6&!<&(%?%6#)%94!94! );&!94*%4&!%4?9($#)%94!);&D!6947>$&! T8]]! ! S&46&B!)&#6;&(7!);9>:;)!);&%(!7)>=&4)7!/&7)!#/*&!)9!>4=&(7)#4=!;9@! 7&#(6;!&4:%4&7!9.&(#)&B!#4=!*&#7)!#/*&!)9!#..*D!?#6)`6;&6A7!9(!79>(6&! 9$(,0,2.&,51?%<,&'%.1%*.9$(.-$4%>(50,2,$123%#25(,1-%.%c8%&$.2'$(#% );9>:;)B!@%);!);&!&M6&.)%94!9?!>4=&(7)#4=%4:!;9@!#!7&#(6;!&4:%4&! @9(A7B!);#)!);&%(!.>.%*7!@&(&!/&*9@!#<&(#:&!#)!#**!9);&(!7A%**78!! ! 31
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    • Truth, Lies and the Internet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` ;9>7&!K#4=!@#7!);&(&?9(&!$9(&!#!a>&7)%94!9?!)%$&B!?9(!%47)#46&!H47&)! C#D7!#**96#)%94L!9(!@;&);&(!&M)&(4#*!7>.&(<%7%94!@#7!(&a>%(&=8! S9@&<&(B!);&(&!@#7!#:(&&$&4)!);#)!);&!)(#%4%4:!7;9>*=!/9);!/&! :&4&(#*!#4=!7>/G&6)`7.&6%?%6!!!@%);!/9);!:&4&(#*!.(%46%.*&7!9?!=%:%)#*! ?*>&46DB!#4=!#*79!;9@!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!)&#6;%4:!69>*=!/&!%4)&:(#)&=!)9! );&%(!7.&6%?%6!7>/G&6)!#(&#78!! F&#6;&(7!?&*)!#!(#4:&!9?!$#)&(%#*7!@9>*=!/&!%$.9()#4)8!F;&7&!@9>*=! %46*>=&!7)(#)&:%6!=96>$&4)7!!!7>6;!#7!#!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!7D**#/>7!#4=! &M.*#4#)%94!9?!694)&M)!!!#4=!#*79!6*#77(99$`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d$.([?! ,#4D!7>::&7)&=!$#)&(%#*7!#4=!)&#6;%4:!#%=7!@9>*=!/&!$97)!;&*.?>*! %?!);&D!@&(&!;97)&=!94*%4&B!#4=!>4%<&(7#**D!#66&77%/*&8!-9$&! 7>::&7)&=!#**!$#)&(%#*7!7;9>*=!/&!9(:#4%7$+%.(5"1+%*251#&("2&$+% :$6#,&$#%&'.&%>(59,+$%.%251&$=&%05(%&$.2',1-%+,-,&./%/,&$(.23%e%,1%.1% ,1&$(.2&,9$%:.34%AQKBYC8%T$>"&3%X$.+[?%K5)$%#"--$#&$+%&'.&%&'$% $#)&(%#*!/&!7>/G&6)`7.&6%?%6B!&M.*9%)%4:!);&!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!*&#(4%4:! 5>>5(&"1,&,$#%,1%$.2'%#"6E$2&?%@&'$(#%&'5"-'&%.%*#3//.6"#%50% 34
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet 1.&,51.//3%.-($$+%251&$1&4%AQKcYH8%T$>"&3%X$.+%I$.2'$([%:5"/+%6$% $9(&!>7&?>*8!! 5!7$#**&(B!/>)!7)%**!7%:4%?%6#4)!4>$/&(!9?!)&#6;&(7!);9>:;)!);#)!)%$&! %4!#4!9);&(@%7&!#*(&#=D!6(9@=&=!6>((%6>*>$!@#7!);&!94*D!/#((%&(I!! >9!.)5##'2!52#/!#&'!8*))58*$*B!>!8/*$(!'"+5$7!=*#!"+5('!"!$'++/2!9/)! (5+8*++523!(535#"$!$5#')"87!"2(!&/.!#/!'99'8#56'$7!*+'!#&'!52#')2'#!9/)! )'+'")8&! -&694=#(D!76;99*B!C&7%:4!o!F&6;49*9:D!)&#6;&(! ! ,#4D!7>::&7)&=!&'.&%+,-,&./%0/"$123%#'5"/+%'.9$%.%#&(.&$-,28%*:'5/$% 50%#2'55/4%,)>/$)$1&.&,51%!!@%);!*&#(4%4:!9..9()>4%)%&7!79>:;)!%4! $.2'%#"6E$2&^%*T,-,&./%/,&$(.23%1$$+#%&5%6$%$)6$++$+%,1%.//%.($.#%50% &'$%2"((,2"/")%63%&$.2'$(#%.1+%#$1,5(%).1.-$(#f4AL$5-(.>'38%SRI% #4=!PWB!C&.>)D!S&#=L8!! 57!#!S&#=!9?!C&.#()$&4)!69$$&4)&=I!! G'"8&')+!@2''(A!#/!)'8/325+'!#&'!5B=/)#"28'!/9!(535#"$!$5#')"87!"2(! *55(3%)$%$"%$0')&%#,+7'-$%*26%2"$%$0)28%)$1#%$0'%7"+%"9%$0'%:;%6'5*&$!'2$%% /)!I23$5+&N! ! R%4#**DB!#!=%7)>(/%4:!$%49(%)D!9?!)&#6;&(7!(&.9()&=!#!*#6A!9?!/#7%6! H+F!%4?(#7)(>6)>(&B!9(!#66&77!)9!69$.>)&(7O*#.)9.7!94!#!(&:>*#(! /#7%7B!@%);!#..(9.(%#)&!79?)@#(&!#4=!(&*%#/*&!%4)&(4&)!#66&778!3);&(! 9(:#4%7#)%947B!49)#/*D!);&!W`*&#(4%4:!R9>4=#)%94B!;#<&!.9%4)&=!)9! &'$%*T,-,&./%T,9,+$4%!!#!*#6A!9?!#66&77!)9!69$.>)&(7!#4=!);&!%4)&(4&)! !!#7!#!.&(4%6%9>7!#4=!%$.9()#4)!A%4=!9?!%4&a>#*%)D8]!3/<%9>7*DB!49! #$9>4)!9?!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!)&#6;%4:!6#4!;&*.!7)>=&4)7!*&<&(#:&!);&! %4)&(4&)!#7!#!*&#(4%4:!#%=!%?!);&D!6#449)!#66&77!%)8!! 35
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    • Truth, Lies and the Internet ! M9>A.1+# E5"0"5+)"&#"4#/9>A.1+#+"#.&+)5.# +.%12.5#?"534"51.# W4:*%7;! 2[80n! ,#);&$#)%67! 2T8]n! -6%&46&! 2T8n! +%)%h&47;%.! Z8]n! f&*%:%9>7!W=>6#)%94! U8[n! 5()!#4=!C&7%:4! [82n! c&9:(#.;D! [8Un! S%7)9(D! U8Tn! H+F! ]8]n! ,9=&(4!V#4:>#:&7! 208Un! ! H4!);97&!a>&7)%947!@;&(&!);&(&!@&(&!(&7.947&7!:(&#)&(!);#4!)@%6&! );&!7)#4=#(=!=&<%#)%94!!!@;%6;!7>::&7)7!9>)*%&(7!!@&!694=>6)&=!#! .97)`7)(#)%?%6#)%94!@&%:;)%4:8!F;&!?9**9@%4:!a>&7)%947!(&a>%(&=!(&` @&%:;)%4:I!sZ!K-Cm1821[Lb!s8[#!K-Cm182Z2Lb!s[6!K-Cm1802Lb!s[=! K-Cm18TTULb!s]#!K-Cm1822ULb!s]=!K-Cm182T0Lb!#4=!s6! K-Cm181YL8!F;&!.&(6&4)#:&7!7;9@4!%4!);&!.#.&(!#(&!.97)`@&%:;)&=8! & *:EGA9:E:;?5<6&>67&6<6AH:9K<69:&H>?:&T5>9& H4)&(4&)!7>(<&D7!;#<&!/9);!7)(&4:);7!#4=!@&#A4&77&7!%4!(&7.&6)!9?! 7&*?`7&*&6)%94!#4=!(&7.947&O494`(&7.947&!/%#78!F;&!$#%4!6946&(4!%7! );#)B!/&6#>7&!);&!7>(<&D!%7!9.)%94#*B!94*D!.&9.*&!@;9!#(&!%4)&(&7)&=! %4!);&!7>/G&6)B!9(!69$?9()#/*&!@%);!%4)&(4&)!7>(<&D7B!#(&!*%A&*D!)9! 69$.*&)&!%)!K?9(!&M#$.*&B!)&#6;&(7!@;9!)#>:;)!H+FL8!!5**!7>(<&D7! @;&(&!);&!(&7.94=&4)7!7&*?`7&*&6)B!#7!9..97&=!)9!(&6(>%)&=!.#4&*! 7>(<&D7B!7>??&(!?(9$!);%7!.9)&4)%#*!/%#78!H4!9(=&(!)9!$%4%$%7&!);&! (%7A!9?!)&#6;&(7!7&*?`7&*&6)%4:B!@&!=%<>*:&=!<&(D!*%$%)&=!%4?9($#)%94! #/9>)!);&!7>(<&D!/&?9(&!#7A%4:!)&#6;&(7!)9!69$.*&)&!%)8!H4)&(4&)! 40
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    • Truth, Lies and the Internet l"27$().18%;&'.18%*F;&!P#()%7#4!H4)&(4&)!#4=!);&!E%=&(!E9(*=4B!0Z! ,#D!0121B!@@@8&);#4h>6A&($#4869$O/*9:O0121O1[O0ZO);&` .#()%7#4`%4)&(4&)`#4=`);&`@%=&(`@9(*=8! ! 50
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet -:=<9&!&'5;:6;:&?<&.LTE59D& The work (as defined below) is provided under the terms of this licence ('licence'). The work is protected by copyright and/or other applicable law. Any use of the work other than as authorized under this licence is prohibited. By exercising any rights to the work provided here, you accept and agree to be bound by the terms of this licence. Demos grants you the rights contained here in consideration of your acceptance of such terms and conditions. 1 Definitions a 'Collective Work' means a work, such as a periodical issue, anthology or encyclopedia, in which the Work in its entirety in unmodified form, along with a number of other contributions, constituting separate and independent works in themselves, are assembled into a collective whole. 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    • Truth, Lies and the Internet ,B!)*& ! 1 J Bartlett, C Miller, Power of Unreason, 2010, Demos: London This is a weighted value. Un-weighted, the figure was 59.8 per cent. See the annex for more information. 3 This is a weighted value. Un-weighted, the figure was 56 per cent. See the annex for more information. 4 This is a weighted value. Un-weighted, the figure was 85 per cent. See the annex for more information. 5 Futurelab, Digital Literacy in Practice, 2010, p 34 6 Futurelab, Digital Literacy in Practice, 2010, p 53 7 Futurelab, Digital Literacy in Practice, 2010, p 11 Y! !OfCom, 'UK Children's Media Literacy' (April 2011) p 4, ! ;)).IOO7)#A&;9*=&(789?69$89(:8>AO/%4#(%&7O(&7&#(6;O$&=%#`*%)&(#6DO$&=%#`*%)22O6;%*=(&478.=?!! 9 Plato, Phaedrus, tr B Jowett (Project Gutenberg, 30 October 2008), !!!!!!!;)).IOO@@@8:>)&4/&(:89(:O?%*&7O2UTUO2UTU`;O2UTU`;8;)$v0SuZu1110! 10 V Bell, 'Don't touch that dial! A history of media technology scares, from the printing press to Facebook', Slate 15 Feb 2010, ;)).IOO@@@87*#)&869$O%=O00ZZ2Y! 11 For instance, C Shirky, Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age (Allen Lane, 2010); A Clark Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action and Cognitive Extension (Oxford University Press 2008); RK Logan The Sixth Language: Learning a Living in the Internet Age (Stoddart Pub, 2008) 12 !>!,#?@*)%+!-'$,*''.A#'**#B&99&16#C!;*,'#&+#Hamlet's Blackberry. The other terms are respectively attributable to William van Winkle, David Lewis, Eric Schmidt and Leslie Perlow. See ?D)%36-*$*,.A#?@!!#63)% E+"!,61$&!+=#F!;#$!#G!-*#;&$%#H1$1#IJ*,9!12.A#Economist, June th 30 2011, ;)).IOO@@@8&6949$%7)869$O49=&O2YY[ZUY!! 13 D#K,**+"&*92A#?Facebook and Bebo risk L&+"1+$&9&'&+0#$%*#%361+#6&+2M., Guardian, Feb 24 2009, @@@8:>#(=%#48698>AO>AO011O?&/O0ZO796%#*`4&)@9(A%4:`7%)&`6;#4:%4:`6;%*=(&47` /(#%47; S Greenfield, 'Is the web changing our brains?', BBC News, Sep 11 2009, @@@8//68698>AO/*9:7O=%:%)#*(&<9*>)%94O011O1O7>7#4`:(&&4?%&*=`%7`);&`@&/`6;87;)$* 14 D Gluckman, 'The Virtual Revolution N Homo Interneticus?', BBC, 19 Feb 2010, @@@8//68698>AO/*9:7O=%:%)#*(&<9*>)%94! 15 T Byron, 'Safer Children in a Digital World: The Report of the Byron Review', Byron Review: Children and New Technology (2008) 16 For a map of the balloon locations, see ;)).IOO>.*9#=8@%A%$&=%#89(:O@%A%.&=%#O&4O#O#1OC5fP5'#**994,#.8G.:! 17 JC Tang et al, 'Reflecting on the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge', Communications of the ACM 54, no 4 (April 2011), ;)).IOO=&*%<&(D8#6$89(:O21822Z[O2T1111O20ZZZ2O.]Y` )#4:8.=?lA&D2m20ZZZ2oA&D0m[YY]]T[1T2o69**mCVo=*m5+,o%.mYU8082TT80[To+RHCm0T1 1YUYo+RF3_Wdm[U21ZZ]1 18 For an example of a faked photograph, see ;)).IOO)@%).%6869$O7A>4! 19 WH Dutton, EJ Helsper, MM Gerber, Oxford Internet Surveys, 'The Internet In Britain 2009', 2009, p 19 and 35 20 Ibid. 21 Office for National S$1$&'$&)'A#?E+$*,+*$#O)cess 2010: Households and Individuals.A#PQRQ# ;)).IOO@@@89478:9<8>AO947O(&*O(=%)0O%4)&(4&)`#66&77```;9>7&;9*=7`#4=` %4=%<%=>#*7O;%7)9(%6#*`%4)&(4&)`#66&77O%4)&(4&)`#66&77`0121`;9>7&;9*=7`#4=`%4=%<%=>#*78.=? 22 A Smith, Pew Internet, 'The Internet and Campaign 2010', ;)).IOO@@@8.&@%4)&(4&)89(:Of&.9()7O0122OF;&`H4)&(4&)`#4=`+#$.#%:4`0121O-&6)%94` 0OF;&`%4)&(4&)`#4=`.9*%)%6#*`4&@7`79>(6&78#7.M! 23 J Catone, ?E+"!0,1-%&)=#@%*#D$1$*#!"#$%*#E+$*,+*$=#D366&+0#3-#PQRQSA#Mashable, 2011, ;)).IOO$#7;#/*&869$O0122O12O0[O%4)&(4&)`7%h&`%4?9:(#.;%6! 24 Cited in Digital Natives 25 CatoneA#?Infograp%&)=#@%*#D$1$*#!"#$%*#E+$*,+*$. 2 53
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet ! 26 D Emery, 'The Rise of Hate 2.0', BBC News 22 Jun 2009, ;)).IOO4&@78//68698>AO2O;%O)&6;49*9:DOY1]]87)$ 27 J Giles, 'Internet Encyclopaedias go head to head', Nature 438, 2005, pp 900-901 28 In a landmark legal case, a UK council forced Twitter to unmask the identity of an illegal blogger. See Channel 4 News, 29 May 2011, ;)).IOO@@@86;#44&*Z869$O4&@7O69>46%*`:9&7` )9`>7`)9`?9(6&`)@%))&(`)9`>4$#7A`$(`$94A&D! 29 J Hardwig, 'The Role of Trust in Knowledge', Journal of Philosophy 88 no. 22 (1991). 30 ! !!!!!A Vedder and R Wachbroit 'The reliability of information on the internet: some distinctions', Ethics and Information Technology, 5 (2004) p 211-215! 31 OfCom, 'UK Children's Media Literacy', 2011, p 59 32 D#(&J&+0'$!+*#1+2#T#U!8*,A#?UK Children Go Online: Final Report of Key Project Findings., London School of Economics and Political Science p 14 (April 2005), @@@8*7&8#68>AO69**&6)%947O6;%*=(&4`:9`94*%4&OX_+c3uR%4#*u(&.9()8.=?! 33 Ibid 34 BroadbandGenie, 05 Feb 2010, 'TalkTalk Survey Reveals Inappropriate Web Use by Children' @@@8/(9#=/#4=:&4%&8698>AO4&@7O)#*A`)#*A`7>(<&D`(&<&#*7``%4#..(9.(%#)&`@&/`>7&` /D`6;%*=(&4 (accessed June 2011) 35 M Prensky, 'Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1', On the Horizon 9, no 5 (October 2001a) p 1-6 (This journal was published by MCB University Press, now Emerald) 36 See Mark Robert's exhaustive minute-by-minute debunking of the film 'The Loose Change' www.loosechangeguide.com/LooseChangeGuide.html 37 Guardian, ?News of the World pays footballer £70,000 for libel.A 2011, ;)).IOO@@@8:>#(=%#48698>AO$&=%#O:(&&47*#=&O0122OG>4O2O4&@79?);&@9(*=`$&=%#*#@! 38 E Nickerson, 'From Books to the Web: A Comparative Analysis of Holocaust Denial in the Internet Age', University of Connecticut Honors Scholars Theses ;)).IOO=%:%)#*69$$9478>69448&=>O6:%O<%&@694)&4)86:%l#()%6*&m22[0o694)&M)m7(;949(7! u);&7&7! 39 V#W3):*,61+A#?(&'$*+&+0#$!#K9!819#X!&)*'., TEDGlobal 2010, July 2010, @@@8)&=869$O)#*A7O&);#4uh>6A&($#48;)$*! 40 V#W3):*,61+A#?@he Partisan Internet and the Wider World., 24 May 2010, @@@8&);#4h>6A&($#4869$O/*9:O0121O1[O0ZO);&`.#()%7#4`%4)&(4&)`#4=`);&`@%=&(`@9(*=! 41 TO#U136#1+2#@#K,!*9&+0A#?New Media and the Polarization of American Political Discourse., Political Communication 25, no. 4, p 347 (2008) 42 T Byron, ?Safer Children in a Digital World: @%*#Y*-!,$#!"#$%*#U7,!+#Y*J&*;., Byron Review: Children and New Technology (2008) 43 Futurelab (2010) Digital Literacy in Practice 44 Futurelab (2010) Digital Literacy in Practice, p 19 45 This definition draws on a useful distinction drawn between computer literacy and information literacy by the Joint Information Systems Committee. They referred to computer literacy as the ability to use certain applications and software; information literacy the ability to develop good search strategies for finding quality information and evaluate it. The latter is digital literacy, and it relates, ultimately to one's ability to exercise sound judgment. 46 For example, @@@8749.&7869$. In a crowdsourcing effort, people can enter the information they have heard online, and members of the Snopes community research the claim. Of course, it is possible that this site contains disinformation too, but the site fully publishes all the research material used to investigate each claim that people can check for $%*6'*9J*'=#?Checking controversial or extravagant against other sources, including debunking websites, should become second nature N as habitual 1'#'%,*22&+0#7!3,#8&99'. 47 You can compare the different search returns of different engines from the same query at ;)).IOO@@@8);>$/7;9)7869$OP(9=>6)7OF;>$/7;9)7H$#:&7Of#4A%4:8#7.M! 48 I"G!6A#?UK G%&92,*+S'#T*2&1#(&$*,1)7.A#-#Z[ 49 Dutton, Helsper and Gerber, ?@%*#E+$*,+*$#&+#U,&$1&+.A#-#R 54
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet ! 50 G Blank, 'Trust on the Internet now exceeds trust in other major institutions', ;)).IOO$%6(97%)&789%%89M8#68>AO9M%7O/*9:O0121O)(>7)`%4)&(4&)`49@`&M6&&=7`)(>7)`9);&(`$#G9(` %47)%)>)%947! 51 B#H3$$!+#1+2#O#D%*-%*,2A#?Trust in the Inter+*$#1'#1+#V/-*,&*+)*#@*)%+!9!07.A Information, Communication & Society 9, no 4, p 434 (2006) 52 Livingstone and Bober, 'Children Go Online' p 2.! 53 Ibid! 54 OfCom, ?UK G%&92,*+S'#T*2&1#(&$*,1)7.A#-#]P 55 J Palfrey and U Gasser, Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives (Basic Books, 2009) p 161 56 Livingstone and B!8*,A#?G%&92,*+#K!#I+9&+*.#-#RZ 57 H3$$!+#1+2#D%*-%*,2A#?Trust in the Inter+*$#1'#1+#V/-*,&*+)*#@*)%+!9!07.A#-#ZZQ 58 OfCom, ?UK G%&92,*+S'#T*2&1#(&$*,1)7.A#-#Z^ 59 OfCom, ?UK G%&92,*+S'#T*2&1#(&$*,1)7.A#p 50 60 Futurelab (2010) Digital Literacy in Practice, p 9 61 @@@84&)7A%**78#68>A8!-&&!materials on plagiarism. 62 D Nicholas, 'Digital Information Consumers, with special reference to the Google Generation', University College London CIBER Project, ;)).IOO@@@8>6*8#68>AO%4?97)>=%&7O(&7&#(6;O6%/&(OCd%4=>6)%948.=? 63 Telegraph, Feb 11 2010, @@@8>6*8#68>AO%4?97)>=%&7O(&7&#(6;O6%/&(O)&*&:(#.;8.=?8! 64 See for instance, K Popper The Logic of Scientific Discovery (New York: Basic Books 1959) especially section 6. 65 For a study suggesting that humans tend to seek confirmation of hypotheses they hold, see PC Watson, 'Reasoning' in B Foss (ed) New Horizons In Psychology (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966) 66 In one study, four fictitious studies on capital punishment, each with serious flaws, were given to subjects that felt strongly either for or against capital punishment. People were much more likely to notice the flaws in the studies that contested their point of view, rather than the studies that supported it. For this, and other experiments establishing this bias, see S Sutherland, Irrationality (Pinter & Martin, 2007), particularly Chapter 11 p 104-112 67 M McPherson, L Smith-Lovin and JM Cook, 'Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks', Annual Review of Sociology 27 p 415-444 (Volume publication date August 2001).! 68 C Sustein, 'To become an extremist, hang around with people you agree with', Spectator, July 2009, @@@87.&6)#)9(8698>AO&77#D7O#**OT]T20ZYO)9`/&69$&`#4`&M)(&$%7)` ;#4:`#(9>4=`@%);`.&9.*&`D9>`!#:(&&`@%);8);)$* 69 E Pariser, The Filter Bubble: What the Internet is Hiding from You (Penguin, 2011); see 19'!#C1,&'*,S'#?TEH#@19:. at @@@8);&?%*)&(/>//*&869$O)&=`)#*A8!See also EconomistA#?E+J&'&89*# SieJ*=#F&22*+A#V'-*)&1997#"!,#7!3.A#PQRRA!;)).IOO@@@8&6949$%7)869$O49=&O2YYZ21!! 70 G#U!39$!+A#?Google Serendipitous Searc%#C91+'#F*96*2#87#T1,&''1#T17*,., eWeek, 17 Oct 2010, @@@8&@&&A869$O6O#O-&#(6;`W4:%4&7Oc99:*&`-&(&4=%.%)9>7`-&#(6;`P*#47` S&*$&=`/D`,#(%77#`,#D&(`[2T]2U 71 B Bosker, 'As Internet Use Grows, Is it Polarizing Political Views?', Huffington Post, 29 Mar 2011 @@@8;>??%4:)94.97)869$O0122O1TO0O%4)&(4&)`.9*#(%h%4:`.9*%)%67u4uYZ00UT8;)$*! 72 C Su+'$*&+A#?To become an extremist, hang around with people you agree with., Spectator, July 2009, @@@87.&6)#)9(8698>AO&77#D7O#**OT]T20ZYO)9`/&69$&`#4`&M)(&$%7)` ;#4:`#(9>4=`@%);`.&9.*&`D9>`!#:(&&`@%);8);)$* 73 R Brown, Social Psychology: Second Edition p 203-26 (2003) 74 J Horr&01+A#_#K1,,*$$#1+2#C#Y*'+&):A#?The E+$*,+*$#1+2#H*6!),1$&)#H*81$*., Pew Internet (2004) 75 U!':*,A#?As Internet Use Grows, Is &$#C!91,&`&+0#C!9&$&)19#X&*;'a. 76 M Gentzkow and JM Shapiro, 'Ideological Segregation Online and Offline', University Chicago Booth School of Business, (March 2011) p 1 ;)).IOO?#6>*)D86;%6#:9/99);8&=>O$#));&@8:&4)hA9@O(&7&#(6;O&6;9u6;#$/&(78.=?! 55
    • Truth, Lies and the Internet ! 77 S Yardi and D Boyd, 'Dynamic Debates: An Analysis of Group Polarization Over Time', Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 30 (2010) p 316 78 In the survey we referred to this as digital literacy, and not digital fluency 79 See ;)).IOO@@@8&`*&#(4%4:?9>4=#)%94869$O.(&77`(&*&#7&7 for their 19th February Press Y*9*1'*A#?H&0&$19#H&J&2*#N No Signs of Shrinking in UK Amongst Underprivile0*2. 80 Das, M., Ester, P & Kaczmirek, L (2011) Social and Behavioural Research and the Internet, European Association of Methodology, p 15 81 See ;)).IOO@@@87)#)%7)%678:9<8>AO7)#)/#7&OP(9=>6)8#7.l<*4Am[U]0 accessed 28 June 2011 82 M, Das, P, Ester and L, Kaczmirek (2011) Social and Behavioural Research and the Internet p 34 83 Ofcom, Social inclusion and communications: A review of the literature, November 2007, ;)).IOO@@@869$$>4%6#)%9476947>$&(.#4&*89(:8>AO=9@4*9#=7Of&7&#(6;OV9@H469$&+947> $&(7uf&7&#(6;O-96%#*n01%46*>7%94n01#4=n0169$$>4%6#)%947O-96%#*n01%46*>7%94n01#4 =n0169$$>4%6#)%9478.=? 84 Bethlehem, J (2007) Reducing the bias of Web Survey based estimates, Discussion paper 07001 85 @%*#-!-391$&!+#)!6*'#",!6#$%*#?D)%!!9#B!,:"!,)*#G*+'3'.#!"#1#81'*#!f 158,004 teachers, years 7-13 86 M, Das, P, Ester and L, Kaczmirek (2011) Social and Behavioural Research and the Internet p 31 56
    • This project was supported by:
    • The internet is the greatest source of information for people living in the UK today. But the amount of material available at the click of a mouse can be both liberating and asphyxiating. Although there are more e-books, trustworthy journalism, niche expertise and accurate facts at our fingertips than ever before, there is an equal measure of mistakes, half-truths, propaganda, misinformation and general nonsense. Knowing how to discriminate between them is both difficult and extremely important. Truth, Lies and the Internet examines the ability of young people in Britain to critically evaluate information they consume online. The report reviews current literature on the subject, and presents a new poll of over 500 teachers. It finds that the web is fundamental to pupils’ school lives but many are not careful, discerning users of the internet. They are unable to find the information they are looking for, or trust the first thing they see. This makes them vulnerable to the pitfalls of ignorance, falsehoods, cons and scams. This pamphlet recommends that teaching young people critical thinking and skepticism online must be at the heart of learning. Censorship of the internet is neither necessary nor desirable; the task instead is to ensure that young people can make careful, skeptical and savvy judgments about the internet content they encounter. This would allow them to better identify outright lies, scams, hoaxes, selective half-truths, and mistakes, and better navigate the murkier waters of argument and opinion. Jamie Bartlett is head of the Violence and Extremism programme at Demos. Carl Miller is an associate of Demos. 978-1-906693-81-7