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Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation
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Facebook ROI for brands - The value of fans, engagemend and conversation

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Research by Social Embassy - Facebook ROI for brands – a study that looks at the impact of brand engagement on Facebook in relation to brand commitment, brand preference, NPS and spend.

Research by Social Embassy - Facebook ROI for brands – a study that looks at the impact of brand engagement on Facebook in relation to brand commitment, brand preference, NPS and spend.

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  • 1. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDSTHE VALUE OF ENGAGEMENT, FANS AND CONVERSION FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 2. WHAT IS THE VALUEOF A FACEBOOKFAN PAGEFOR A BRAND? FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 3. Facebook marketing is popular amongst brands.67% of top brands run a fan page (Source: SocialMedia Monitor 4). This percentage has once againrisen in recent months.However, in practice, attracting and activatingFacebook fans can require considerable investment.Brands are therefore looking to discover what thetrue value of a Facebook fan page is. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 4. FURTHER 10DEVELOPMENT OFSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 8Academic research* based on a fictitious brandhas already shown that interaction with a brandon Facebook has a positive effect on the brand 6commitment that the fan feels for the brand.And as well as the brand commitment, theintent to purchase and the community feeling 4are also positively influenced. BRAND COMMITMENTAs a follow-up to this initial study, additionalpractical research has been carried out for 2six brands. 0 DEGREE OF PASSIVES INTERACTION CONTRIBUTORS CONSUMER No interaction ‘Liking’ fan pages and Liking fan pages, reading messages reading messages and Positive reaction responding to messages Negative reaction* http://www.socialembassy.nl/bewijs-interactie-met-een-merk-op-facebook-leidt-tot-brand-commitment/ FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 5. QUANTITATIVE PRACTICALRESEARCH: 6 BRANDS,3,009 RESPONDENTS, 1,272 FANS,1,737 NON-FANSIn a study involving six brands, the relationship between brandinteraction (engagement) on Facebook and brand commitment inpractice was investigated.Via an external panel, an online survey was set up in which fans andnon-fans were asked a series of questions. The fans interviewed forthe study were found via the fan pages of the participating brands. Total Fans Non-Fans Total 3,009 1,272 1,737 3FM 772 474 298 Chocomel 436 173 263 Essent 318 53 265 KPN 433 136 297 Optimel 536 242 294 UPC 514 194 320*The research justification can be found towards the end of this publication. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 6. RESEARCHQUESTIONS INTERACTION BRAND COMMITMENTTo what extent does interaction with abrand on Facebook result in strengtheningof brand commitment? FANS OF BRANDS...To what extent is brand commitmentstronger amongst fans than non-fans? ...USE THE BRAND MORE OFTEN. ...SPEND MORE MONEY ON THE BRAND. ...HAVE A STRONGER PREFERENCE FOR THE BRAND.To what degree does being a fan and ...RECOMMEND THE BRAND MORE OFTEN.interaction result in conversion? FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 7. INFLUENCE OF FANS ONBRAND COMMITMENTYou could say that fans are more valuable for brands thannon-fans, simply because being a fan is by definition a causalrelationship between interaction and brand commitment.Within the research structure, the influence of ‘being a fan’ hasbeen minimised. Incentives, for example, are used to get non-active fans to participate and hence to realise an appropriaterepresentation of the fan base.In this respect, a great deal of focus is given to changes inbehaviour since the respondents became fans of the brand. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 8. CONCLUSIONS FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 9. This backs up the conclusion that building up a fan com- THE VALUE OF munity on Facebook does indeed add value. However, an even more interesting aspect of this study is the A FACEBOOK FAN PAGE relationship between brand interaction and brand com- mitment. Fans who interact more with a particular brand have a higher level of brand commitment. Furthermore, FOR BRANDS fans themselves say that they have become more com- mitted to the brand since becoming a fan. This shows that brand interaction on Facebook can contribute to the strengthening of brand commitment. This study, which involved 3,009 respondents, showed the impact of brand interaction/engagement on brand Furthermore, the research shows that a proportion of commitment. the fans make more usage of the brand after becoming fans. This is also explained by the interaction that the The positive relationship between brand commitment brand initiates with fans. After all, engagement boosts and trading results such as usage, spend, preference brand commitment, and brand commitment has been and NPS has been common knowledge for some time. shown to increase conversion. Furthermore, it has been The results of this study show that brand interaction on shown that Facebook updates increase usage/purchas- Facebook can lead to an increase in brand commitment ing amongst a proportion of fans. In this way, interaction in practice, which confirms the correlation between via Facebook has a very concrete effect on the brand’s engagement and trading results. bottom line. The results show that fans have a significantly higher This gives greater relevance to engagement/brand level of brand commitment than non-fans. Fans interaction via Facebook, due to the positive correlation spend more on the brand, use the brand more often, between brand commitment and results. have a stronger brand preference and a higher NPS.FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 10. KEYINSIGHTSFACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 11. #1 THE VALUEOF ENGAGEMENT FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 12. PERCENTAGE OF FANS FOR WHICH BRANDENGAGEMENT COMMITMENT HAS INCREASEDREINFORCES BRANDCOMMITMENT 18 %We asked fans to what extent they think their brand commit- 30%ment has increased since they became fans of the brand on 34 %Facebook. 3FM (N=474) CHOCOMEL (N=173) ESSENT (N=53)The research shows that 30% of the fan base thinks that theirbrand commitment has increased since becoming fans of thebrand.For KPN, no less than 56% of fans believe that their brand com- 20%mitment to KPN has grown since becoming fans of the com-pany on Facebook. 28%The research also shows that there is a correlation betweenthe degree of interaction and the degree of brand commitment. 56%Brands can therefore significantly boost brand commitment by KPN (N=136) OPTIMEL (N=242) UPC (N=194)interacting with fans. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 13. PERCENTAGE OF BRAND-COMMITTED FANS COMPAREDINCREASED WITH THE DEGREE OF INTERACTIONINTERACTION RESULTS NO INTERACTION OCCASIONAL INTERACTION FREQUENT INTERACTION 100%IN STRONGERBRAND COMMITMENT 77%The higher the level of interaction with a brand, thehigher the percentage of fans that claim to be com-mitted to that particular brand. 43 %When there is no interaction, 43% of fans say that theyare brand committed, while 100% of fans who say thatthey often interact with the brand via Facebook say that PERCENTAGE OF FANS FOR WHOM BRAND COMMITMENTthey are brand committed. HAS INCREASED BASED ON THE DEGREE OF INTERACTIONFurthermore, the research shows that the more that NO INTERACTION OCCASIONAL INTERACTION FREQUENT INTERACTIONfans interact, the stronger the fan’s rise in brand com-mitment is since he/she became a fan. The increase forfans who interact a great deal was 77% higher thanfor fans who do not interact. 19%The research therefore shows that there is a correlation 24% 74%between the degree of interaction and the strength ofbrand commitment. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 14. #2 THE INFLUENCEOF ENGAGEMENT ON CONVERSION FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 15. 100 HIGHER BRAND COMMITMENT80 MEANS MORE FREQUENT60 USAGE, GREATER SPEND, HIGHER PREFERENCE AND HIGHER NPS.40 Brand-committed respondents score higher than non- brand-committed respondents for all business variables.20 Fans spend more on the brand, use the brand more often, have a stronger brand preference and a higher NPS. 90% 66% 30% 18% 93% 48% 79% 26% 0 Achieving brand commitment amongst fans is therefore Frequency of use / Spend / Preference / NPS / a relevant objective. For this purpose, the encouragement Weekly Above Will opt for Promoter of engagement amongst fans has been shown to be an average the brand again important tool. brand committed not brand committed FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 16. MORE PURCHASES SINCE BECOMING A FAN 2% 5% 4% 4%A PROPORTION OF 5% 16% 94% % 91THE FANS SAYS THAT much more frequently 79%THEY HAVE BOUGHT/ more frequently the sameLISTENED MORE SINCEBECOMING FANS. 3FM Chocomel Optimel (n=772) (n=436) (n=536)During this study, we have also researchedchanges in behaviour since becoming fans. 1% 19% 10% 2% 11% 4%Many fans say that they have bought/listened %more since becoming fans. 9% of Optimel fans % 14 14say that they have used the brand more often.For Chocomel, the figure is 21% and for 3FM, it 77%is 6% (3FM already had a very high usage level 75%amongst fans). 73%UPC, KPN and Essent fans also indicated thatthey had used the services more often.25% of UPC fans said that they had alreadybought a new product/service or package exten- Essent KPN UPCsion. The same was true for 24% of KPN fans. (n=318) (n=433) (n=514) Yes, I have purchased new products/services.Another noticeable point was that of all theFMCG brands nobody reported purchasing/ Yes, I have broadened my package.listening less. No, I have not purchased any new products/services. Don’t know. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 17. The study shows that Facebook posts can result in conversion. FANS BUY/ For Optimel, 45% of fans have bought at least one product as a result of a Facebook post. For Chocomel, this figure was as high LISTEN MORE IN as 53%, and 42% of 3FM fans report having tuned in as a result of a message on Facebook. RESPONSE TO Facebook posts were also shown to create conversion for UPC Essent and KPN. For UPC, 12% of fans have definitely bought new products/services as a result of a Facebook message. This FACEBOOK UPDATES figure was 20% for Essent and 12% for KPN.100 10080 8060 6040 4020 20 Yes, always Yes, definitely Yes, frequently Yes, maybe 1% 8% 33% 4% 11% 38% 3% 8% 34% Yes, sometimes 20% 10% 12% 33% 12% 10% 0 0 3FM Chocomel Optimel Essent KPN UPC (n=772) (n=436) (n=536) (n=318) (n=433) (n=514) PURCHASED/LISTENED AS A RESULT OF FACEBOOK UPDATES PURCHASED AS A RESULT OF FACEBOOK UPDATES FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 18. #3 THE VALUE OF FANS FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 19. FANS SCORE HIGHER THAN NON-FANSWITH REGARD TO BRAND COMMITMENT,PREFERENCE, USAGE, SPEND AND NPS. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 20. 100 FANS HAVE STRONGER BRAND 80 32% COMMITMENT 60 THAN NON-FANS 40 80% For all brands included in the study, brand 20 commitment amongst fans was significantly higher than amongst non-fans. 68% 20% 0 Of all of the fans, 68% say that they are com- mitted to the brand for which they took part FANS NON-FANS in the study. Amongst non-fans, this figure was 20%. PERCENTAGE WHO SAY THAT THEY ARE BRAND COMMITTED N.B. Significance level: p < .001 brand committed not brand committedFACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 21. CHOCOMEL AND 3FM (N=772) 81% 21%3FM HAVE THE CHOCOMEL (N=436) 79% 22%STRONGEST BRAND ESSENT (N=318) 49% 18%COMMITMENT KPN (N=433) 57% 18%AMONGST FANS OPTIMEL (N=536) 63% 27% 46% UPC (N=514)Of all of the brands in the study, 3FM had the 15%highest level of brand commitment amongst itsfans (81%), followed by FMCG brand Chocomel 0 20 40 60 80 100(79%). Furthermore, 3FM and Chocomel dis-played the most significant difference in brandcommitment between fans and non-fans. BRAND COMMITTED FANS/NON-FANS PER BRAND N.B. Significance of differences: All differences are significant at p < .001A noticeable factor is that brand commitment fansamongst non-fans is more or less the same for non-fansall brands. This already indicates that the beinga fan has a significant effect on brand commit-ment. For all brands, the difference betweenfans and non-fans is significant. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 22. FANS SPENDMORE ON AVERAGE 36% CHOCOMEL (N=436)THAN NON-FANS 14% 75% ESSENT (N=318) 67%For nearly all of the brands, fans spend more thannon-fans. In all cases, with the exception of Essent, 63% KPN (N=433)the difference is significant. 44%For example, on average, 36% of Chocomel fans spend 56% OPTIMEL (N=536)over €11 per month on the product, compared to 14% 20%of non-fans. Furthermore, consumption is higheramongst fans than non-fans. 68% of Chocomel fans 86% UPC (N=514)consume the product on a weekly basis, compared to 70%19% of non-fans. 0 20 40 60 80 100On average, 56% of Optimel fans spend over €11 permonth on the product, compared to 20% of non-fans.82% of Optimel fans consume the product on a weekly FANS SPEND MORE ON AVERAGE THAN NON-FANSbasis, compared to 43% of non-fans. N.B. Significant differences: UPC, Optimel, KPN, Chocomel: p < .001 Essent: n.s.The differences are significant for all brands except fansEssent. In the case of electricity, spend is dependent on non-fansmany other factors such as size of family, and there ismuch less variation in expenditure. To a degree, this isalso the case for UPC and KPN. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 23. FANS ARE FAR MORE FRE- 3FM (N=772) 97% 59% QUENT USERS OF PRODUCTSCHOCOMEL (N=436) 68% THAN NON-FANS, ESPECIAL- 19% 96% LY FOR FMCG BRANDS. KPN (N=433) 94% The research shows that fans use the products/services 82% of the brands investigated more often than non-fans. OPTIMEL (N=536) 43% For UPC and KPN, there is little to no significance in the 98% differences in usage between fans and non-fans. How- UPC (N=514) ever, the usage of these brands is so high amongst both 99% fans and non-fans that becoming a fan cannot really instigate extra usage. 0 20 40 60 80 100 The FMCG brands Chocomel and Optimel, and the radio station 3FM, on the other hand, display much more USE AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK interesting figures. These show that usage amongst fans N.B. Significant differences: 3FM, Chocomel, Optimel: p < .001 is/can be much higher than usage amongst non-fans. KPN: p < .05 UPC: n.s. Essent was not included in this part of the research, as fans neither fans or non-fans have any choice in whether or non-fans not to use the product. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 24. FANS ARE MORE 3FM (N=772) 95% 31%LOYAL TO A BRAND CHOCOMEL (N=436) 95% 71%THAN NON-FANS ESSENT (N=318) 76% 59% 75%The research shows that fans are more loyal to KPN (N=433) 47%brands than non-fans. Once again, in all cases,fans choose the brand in question more often 82%than non-fans. OPTIMEL (N=536) 47%Loyalty amongst 3FM, Optimel and Chocomel 79%fans is the highest. For 3FM and Chocomel, at UPC (N=514) 53%least 95% of the fan base states that they wouldchoose this brand again the next time. 0 20 40 60 80 100For KPN and UPC, loyalty amongst fans is alsosignificantly higher than amongst non-fans. WILL CHOOSE BRAND AGAIN NEXT TIME N.B. Significant differences: UPC, Optimel, KPN, Chocomel, 3FM: p < .001 Essent: p < .05 fans non-fans FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 25. FANS HAVE 3FM (N=772) 49% 9%A HIGHER NPS CHOCOMEL (N=436) 64% 20%Amongst fans, there is a significantly higher 21% ESSENT (N=318)number of promoters than amongst non-fans. 8%This results in a significantly higher NPS scorefor fans than for non-fans. 32% KPN (N=433) 6%Amongst fans, UPC and KPN have a positiveNPS (+12 and +17), which is rare in the market. 42% OPTIMEL (N=536)Amongst non-fans, UPC and KPN have an NPS 13%of -36% and -41% respectively. 27% UPC (N=514)Once again, the FMCG brands achieved an 8%excellent score. For example, NPS amongstChocomel fans is +60%, compared to -14% 0 20 40 60 80 100amongst non-fans. WOULD RECOMMEND TO FAMILY, FRIENDS OR ACQUAINTANCES PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS WHO ARE PROMOTERS N.B. Significant differences: All brands: p < .001 fans non-fans FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 26. However, an even more interesting aspect of thisSUMMARY study is the relationship between brand interac- tion and brand commitment. Fans who interact more with a particular brand have a higher level of brand commitment. Furthermore, fans themselves say that they have become more committed toThis study, which involved 3,009 respondents, the brand since becoming a fan. This shows thatshowed the impact of brand interaction/engage- brand interaction on Facebook can contribute to thement on brand commitment. strengthening of brand commitment.The positive relationship between brand commit- Furthermore, the research shows that a proportionment and trading results such as usage, spend, of the fans make more usage of the brand after be-preference and NPS has been common knowledge coming fans. This is also explained by the interactionfor some time. The results of this study show that that the brand initiates with fans. After all, engage-brand interaction on Facebook can lead to an in- ment boosts brand commitment, and brand commit-crease in brand commitment in practice, which ment has been shown to increase conversion. Fur-confirms the correlation between engagement and thermore, it has been shown that Facebook updatestrading results. increase usage/purchasing amongst a proportion of fans. In this way, interaction via Facebook has a veryThe results show that fans have a significantly concrete effect on the brand’s bottom line.higher level of brand commitment than non-fans.Fans spend more on the brand, use the brand This gives greater relevance to engagement/brandmore often, have a stronger brand preference and interaction via Facebook, due to the positive corre-a higher NPS. This backs up the conclusion that lation between brand commitment and results.building up a fan community on Facebook doesindeed add value. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 27. WANT TO KNOWABOUT THIS RESEARCH MORE? If so, contact Steven Jongeneel or Martin Kloos.THANK YOU!This study would not have been possible without the Social Embassyco-operation and contributions of UPC, 3FM, Optimel, Huys Azie, Floor 1-aChocomel, Essent and KPN. You rock! Jollemanhof 8-a 1019 GW Amsterdam 020 435 0290SHARE THE KNOWLEDGE www.socialembassy.nlAll parts of this report can be reproduced provided the @socialembassy.nlsource Social Embassy is quoted.ABOUT SOCIAL EMBASSYSocial Embassy connects brands and people via socialmedia. We support brands with social-media strategy,implementation and community management.We arevery proud to work for over 25 top brands includingRabobank, Unilever and Volkswagen.Every year, Social Embassy publishes the Social MediaMonitor, which researches the use of social media by thetop 100 brands (www.socialmediamonitor.nl). FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 28. RESEARCHJUSTIFICATION FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 29. RESEARCHSTRUCTUREThis research was carried out in the period May- The fans were recruited via Facebook updates pub-June 2012. Two groups - fans and non-fans lished on the brands’ fan pages. For each brand,- were defined for each of the six participating two to three posts were enough to recruit a suffi-brands. For each brand, the respondents were cient number of respondents via Facebook.provided with a brand-specific online survey.Fans and clients of UPC, for example, would Non-fans were located via a Multiscope researchtherefore only answer questions relating to UPC. panel.• Fans are Facebook users that have ‘liked’ the For this publication, the results of the six separatefan page of the brand in question. surveys were aggregated in order to give us results• Non-fans are respondents who have not ‘liked’ for all six surveys. The aggregates of the six sets ofthe fan page of the brand in question, but who research results resulted in a data set of 3,009 re-are customers of the brand. For the purposes of spondents: 1,272 fans and 1,737 non-fans.this survey, the term ‘customer’ applies to peoplewho have used the product/brand within the lastthree months. FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 30. of analyses. If the groups differ by a significance lessANALYSIS OF than 0.05, then the difference is significant. This means that you can say with 95% certainty (or 99% certainty in the case of p< .001) that the groups differ from eachRESULTS other and that this can be generalised to the total popu- lation. REGRESSION ANALYSISSCALE VARIABLES In order to discover the degree to which X leads to Y,The questionnaire includes a variety of questions that regression analysis, including linear regression analy-measure a construct. For example, brand commitment sis, is carried out. In order to determine how strong theis measured using seven questions. By means of a correlation is, the R2 is examined. This figure indicatesfactor analysis, it is determined to what degree these what percentage of the variance of Y can be explainedseven questions all measure the same aspect. If they by the variance in X. The α indicates the direction andare deemed to measure the same aspect, then reliability the strength of the correlation. In this way, for example,analysis is carried out to determine that the scale varia- you can state that as X increases, Y will increase to theble is reliable and therefore whether it can be stated with same degree, e.g. the more somebody interacts withcertainty that when combined, the variables measure, brand X, the higher the degree of fan-page commit-for example, brand commitment. This is done if a scale ment will be.becomes more reliable upon removal of one or more ofthe variables. The following categorisation is used when The following rules are employed for determining theapplying the reliability analysis and creating the scales. strength of the correlation:α < .60 = Unreliable 0 – .10 = Little or no correlation.60 > α < .80 = Reasonably reliable .11 – .25 = Weak correlationα > .80 = Reliable .26 – .50 = Moderate correlation .51 – .75 = Strong correlation .76 – .90 = Very strong correlation .91 – 1 = Extremely strong correlationDIFFERENCE BETWEEN FANS AND NON-FANSIn order to establish whether there is a real differencebetween fans and non-fans, ANOVA carried out a number FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 31. ENGAGEMENT LEADS TO BRAND COMMITMENTRESEARCH DATA ß p< T F R² Total .39 .001 14.60 899.55 .15This slide and the following slides display the mostimportant results from the statistical analysis. 3FM .34 .001 7.70 59.23 .11The tables have been divided between the conclu- Chocomel .39 .001 5.40 29.16 .15sions drawn within this publication. Essent .65 .001 5.69 32.41 .41 KPN .48 .001 6.02 36.24 .22 Optimel .51 .001 8.91 79.33 .26 UPC .44 .001 6.68 44.70 .19 ENGAGEMENT LEADS TO CHANGES IN BRAND COMMITMENT ß p< T F R² Total .48 .001 19.17 367.62 .48 3FM .35 .001 8.01 64.23 .12 Chocomel .48 .001 6.92 47.95 .23 Essent .65 .001 5.73 32.86 .65 KPN .61 .001 8.45 71.35 .36 Optimel .51 .001 8.98 80.61 .26 UPC .46 .001 6.90 47.63 .20 FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS
  • 32. DIFFERENCES IN BRAND COMMITMENT BETWEEN FANS AND NON-FANS DIFFERENCES IN BRAND PREFERENCE BETWEEN FANS AND NON-FANS p< F df p< F df Total .001 972.98 1, 3007 Total .001 542.57 1, 3007 3FM .001 441.36 1, 770 3FM .001 655.20 1, 770 Chocomel .001 185.78 1, 434 Chocomel .001 46.92 1, 434 Essent .001 27.91 1, 316 Essent .05 4.47 1, 316 KPN .001 91.50 1, 431 KPN .001 44.08 1, 431 Optimel .001 129.91 1, 534 Optimel .001 109.65 1, 534 UPC .001 84.65 1, 512 UPC .001 44.87 1, 512DIFFERENCE IN FREQUENCY OF USE BETWEEN FANS AND NON-FANS DIFFERENCES IN NPS BETWEEN FANS AND NON-FANS* This question was not asked for Essent, as electricity is a product that is used every day. p< F df p< F df Total .001 556.85 1, 3007 Total .001 306.77 1, 2689 3FM .001 413.39 1, 770 3FM .001 280.42 1, 770 Chocomel .001 130.80 1, 434 Chocomel .001 174.88 1, 434 Essent .001 18.70 1, 316 KPN .05 5.62 1, 431 KPN .001 80.02 1, 431 Optimel .001 134.98 1, 534 Optimel .001 131.93 1, 534 UPC n.s. .03 1, 512 UPC .001 69.82 1, 512DIFFERENCES IN SPEND BETWEEN FANS AND NON-FANS p< F df Total .001 34.78 1, 2235 Chocomel .001 27.62 1, 434 Essent n.s. .10 1, 316 KPN .001 13.40 1, 431 Optimel .001 128.33 1, 534 UPC .001 30.00 1, 512 FACEBOOK ROI FOR BRANDS

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