RAFFLES INSTITUTION RESEARCH EDUCATION 2011 DESIGN FOR CHANGETopic: Educating Primary School Pupilsabout Obesity in ChildrenTeam Leader: Deon Kiew (12) 2KTeam Members: Ng Chek Guan (18) 2K Aaron Phuay (20) 2K Bryan Ong (2) 2K
Content Page:The Chapters of CHANGEChange?---------------------------------------------3How? Why?-----------------------------------------5Answers----------------------------------------------8Next time…------------------------------------------9Graduation and Experience--------------------10Annex 1: Survey-----------------------------------11Annex 2: Proposal to Tao Nan-----------------12Annex 3: Powerpoint presentation-------------14
Chapter 1: Change? (Did We?)Tier 1: Design for ChangeThe team, before we do anything else, must confess this. We did not want the Design forChange initiative to be our RE for this year. However, as much as we hated the project atfirst, over time, we came to love it.Design for Change started out 2 years ago in India, as a platform for children to be thecatalyst of change in India’s developing society. It is the result of the children’s initiative thatthis project has grown to a worldwide event.In Singapore, the emphasis is for students to go beyond donating to the poor, and activelystepping out to help our society. Thus, it is with this objective in mind that we set out to workon DfC.Tier 2: IdeasIt was slightly unsettling for us that our first setback came so early. In the eagerness tochange, the four of us ran away from realism. We had some ideas that were just unrealistic,illogical or unfeasible. One idea that stood out was that of creating sheltered linkways. Wehonestly believed that we would have the budget for it, and when we realized how difficult itwould be, we had already wasted a lot of time. Thus, we settled on a scope of simple butmeaningful projects, to ensure we do not get caught in such a situation again.Tier 3: DefianceWe spent one whole month trying to come up with ideas, sometimes meeting for hours atend. For some reason or another, the meetings usually ended up with a blank sheet of paper,and our notebooks scribbled with various comments on how nothing got done. For everygood idea, there was a veto. Somebody would be defiant, refuse to cooperate, and until wecould find a common goal, there was no way we could settle the divide.The common goal came when the team leader went to train Tao Nan in debating as his ownvoluntary work. After the session, he was inspired to do something more for his alma mater.We found one thing in common about us at that point of time—we were all fiercely loyal. Wewere thus able to narrow the scope even further.
Tier 4: Waking upAt the point of time where we narrowed the scope to primary schools, we had already spenta good 3 weeks or so not doing anything. Thus, with time against us, we went into severeoverdrive. There was the possibility of hosting an assembly programme, which was quicklysupported by all sides.Our target audience was 3 schools at first, but that was quickly shortened down to oneschool due to time circumstances. We then sent a proposal to Tao Nan, our target school, toconsider.Tier 5: Every plan needs a backupThe one thing that we needed that we didn’t have was a contingency plan. On hindsight, thatwas a very bad move. Our project was dependent on the school’s approval. If they decidedto not take us, we had no backup. That was a failure on your end, and really, we came closeto not being able to complete the project. But at that point of time, there was no longer anydoubt on whether we can pull it off. It was no longer ―Change?‖ but ―Change!‖
Chapter 2: How? Why? (Method)Tier 1: EvolutionBut before we could go to do an assembly programme, we had to get some backgroundinformation and research regarding obesity. So we did.Background Research:Causes of Obesity:Environmental CausesIn view of the sudden rise in weight levels - which is a worldwide trend as reflected in thenew word "globesity" - environmental factors must be the prime cause of modern obesity.Genetic ReasonsFamilies share common dietary, physical exercise, attitude and lifestyle habits that may alsocontribute to obesity.Parental behavioral patterns concerning shopping, cooking, eating and exercise, have animportant influence on a childs energy balance and ultimately their weight. Thus family dietand lifestyle are important contributory causes to modern child obesity, especially at a timeof rising affluence. Since obese children and adolescents frequently grow up to becomeobese adults, its clear that family influence also extends to adult obesity.More children today are overweight or obese than ever before. "Overweight" means that theindividual weighs more than is recommended for a given height; when this excess weight isin the form of fat, health problems may develop. "Obesity" is an excess of body fat. Inchildren obesity has been variously defined as1. >=20% over the recommended weight for height;2. >=85th percentile for Body Mass Index3. >=25% of weight as fat for boys and >=30% of weight as fat for girls . This is of particular concern because body weight and overfatness in children are significantcardiovascular disease risk factors.Those who are more active are less likely to deposit fat in the abdominal(stomach) area.Physical activity is thus a key element in the prevention and treatment of obesity.In addition, obese children often experience exclusion from social groups and low self-esteem.
Eating Too Many High-Fat or Refined Sugary FoodsThe type of food eaten may also play an important role in the rise of obesity. These eatingpatterns are known to interfere with food and energy metabolism in the body, and causeexcessive fat storage. Associated health disorders include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetesas well as obesity. Incidence of these "modern" diseases is increasing worldwide.Overconsumption - A Possible Root CauseEating too many calories for our enery needs must be a major candidate for the main causeof the modern obesity epidemicReduced Energy Expenditure - A Possible Root CausePeople who eat more calories need to burn more calories, otherwise their calorie surplus isstored as fat. For example, if we eat 100 more food calories a day than we burn, we gainabout 1 pound in a month. That’s about 10 pounds in a year. Over two decades this energysurplus causes a weight gain of 200 pounds!Solutions: Prevention could be the solution. This includes prevention of weight regains following weightloss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Untilnow, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet andexercise.
Tier 2: ThesisBefore we could ensure that we knew what we were going to talk about, we had to gounderstand the knowledge of our target audience. We created surveys we wouldsubsequently distribute to our target audience, the Primary 1 and 2 students, to assess theirprior knowledge on the main topic of our project – childhood obesity. The results, as detailedlater, proved that our project was justified, most of the cohort we surveyed possessinginadequate or almost no background knowledge on the consequences and methods ofprevention of childhood obesity. Then, using these results, we constructed a PowerPointpresentation to cater to the gaps in the students’ knowledge on the subject, placing moreemphasis on the negative side effects of obesity and what they could do to prevent thisproblem.Tier 3: HypothesisWe had no hypothesis. Rather we had more of a goal to accomplish. Our goal was toeducate. Be it one school, or a whole community, if we educate one student, he can educateothers. It is a chain reaction. But we want to be the catalyst.Tier 4: Observing through their eyesThe observations from the survey were quite astonishing. For question 1 ( Do you knowwhat obesity is?) the overwhelming response was ―No‖, with 97% answering that. That wasthe only response that we predicted correctly. Whereas whilst we thought students knowhow to exercise, eventually it became quite obvious they did not.Tier 5: Doing a SkitAfter receiving confirmation from the school that we would be allowed to conduct our projectand were allocated a suitable timeslot for this, we went to the school itself during one of theirassembly periods to conduct our project, which consisted of two parts: a talk and aninteractive session to show the students how they could lose weight. The talk itself consistedof an educational presentation, as mentioned earlier (refer to Annex 3), and a short skitperformed by seniors of the target school, warning of the detrimental effects of obesity. Thischoice of cast would be justified by the fact that many of the students knew their seniors andlook up to them, and would boost our credibility. Also, we also organized an interactiveexercise session to teach the students which kinds of exercises are convenient yet havelarge benefits to their fitness (i.e. weight).
Chapter 3: AnswersPart 1: SurveyOur survey was 2-pronged. One group was given the survey before the programme, whilethe other group was given the survey afterwards. The results from the first survey shows thatnot many students knew what obesity was, or knew how to effectively counter obesity. Ourgoal of course, was for more people to understand what obesity was. In this respect, wehave succeeded. The results conclusively show that we have successfully managed toeducate them in our own way.For the first question, while there was an overwhelming majority who didn’t know whatobesity was, by the end, a clear majority knew what obesity was. More importantly, morepeople promised that they would exercise to stay fit.Part 2: ProgrammeThe assembly programme in itself was a success. We had a lot of fun, and so did both theactors and the students. Also, we achieved our aim of education, and are comforted by theknowledge that one person can actually make a big difference.
Chapter 5: Next time…(Limitations and Problems)Tier 1: Bad timingThe first problem was, of course, our time management. Towards the end of the project, wewere really rushing for time. We should have had much more time. We rushed a proposal toTao Nan and they replied quite late, so if we had gave them the proposal earlier it wouldhave been better for the team.Tier 2: AnnouncingWe also did not inform each other on the doings and development of our research. Thiscame in fundamentally later, after we created 2 separate proposals and 2 separatepowerpoints. This created strains within our team. Procrastinations also let to a split in ourteam. However, it is credit to the team that they managed to pull through and work together,but this split shouldn’t have happened in the first place.Tier 3: DecisionsSome decisions we made was quite irrational. For example, we went to Tao Nan on coolingoff Day of the Presidential Elections, basically wasting a trip, which could be spentfundamentally developing our project. Something minor, but many minor things lead tosomething extremely major.
Chapter 5: Graduationand Experience(Conclusion)At the end of the day, we believe in change. We allchanged lives. We changed ourselves. That’s what wefeel is most important. We feel that we have hopefullychanged the lives of others, and we have given back toour alma mater in the process. As the seniors, with theresponsibilities to help our juniors. To that end, wesucceeded. That’s really all that matters.
SURVEY OF A HEALTHY LIFESTYLEHi. We are your brothers from Secondary School and we need your help! :)We will be doing an assembly programme for you but we need you toanswer these questions and return this to your form teacher. Thanks! use afew minutes of your time to fill in the survey. Names and Classes areconfidential and optional.Q1. Do you know what OBESITY is? Yes ___ No ___Q2. Do you know what being fat mean? Yes __ No ___Q3. Do you know how to not get fat? If so, how? Yes ____ (How? ___________________) No ____Q4.Do you exercise? Yes ___ No ____Q5. What type of exercise ?
Q6. (Only given when Programme was over) Did we help you understandhow to stay healthy? Yes! _____ A bit. _____ No ______THANKS!:D
RAFFLES INSTITUTION Year 2 Design for Change Initiative 2011 ‘Keeping Fit’ Primary School Assembly ProgrammeBy: Deon Kiew Aaron Phuay Ng Chek Guan Bryan OngPROPOSAL- Tao Nan SchoolOverview:On Raffles and the DfC Programme:Design for Change is the largest global movement designed to give children an opportunityto express their own ideas for a better world and put them into action.Design for Change Singapore is being managed by SoCh in Action, a social enterprise thatfocuses on creating opportunities for people to be involved in social change around them.As a strong supporter of social change, Raffles Institution adopted Design for Change in2010 as one of the options for Year 2 Research Education. After strong support for theprogramme, the school has decided to continue this initiative for 2011On our role in DfC, and the ‘Keeping Fit’ Initiative:As Year 2 Students participating in DfC, we aim to spread messages of change. We believethat habits should be cultivated from a young age and we wish to spread the message ofKeeping Healthy and fit to our juniors, for they will one day be a role model for their family,and possibly their employees and their subordinates. As such, grasping responsibility fortheir own lifestyle is what we feel to be one of the most important factors in determiningone’s image to others. Also, having a responsible lifestyle will lead to health benefits and wewish to cultivate such habits in them from young. As seniors who will eventually pass on themantle of leadership to these children, we feel it our responsibility to help students withunderstanding the necessity to stay healthy. Furthermore, some of our members areactually alma maters of the school, and it is our duty to contribute back to the school whichhas nurtured us.
SO WHAT DO WE INTEND TO DO?Our Primary Targets are Students from the Lower Primary Section. This is because we feelthat these students are most receptive to ideas, and we can have a more lasting impressionover them. As such, we have designed our presentation ( which we will send if you expressinterest in the proposal), to be very child-friendly, and we have engaged the help ofteachers to ensure that we do not sound overly complicated.Because of our use of a PowerPoint presentation, we would prefer if the assembly programcould take place in the school hall. We can, however, modify our program should the hall beunavailable for the day. Should our normal program take place, we will have a presentation,basic Warm-Up session and Finally a Q&A. The program is not expected to last any morethan 45 minutes. We are currently exploring the possibility of requesting that Primary 6students act a skit in replacement of the Warm- Up session for Tao Nan. As the GroupLeader is also the Debate Coach for the school, he will be talking to Mrs Ng Den Mui aboutthe possibility of asking his debate students to help out in the assembly program.Do note that our program is not set in stone, and we are always receptive to new ideas.Should you have any suggestions, do feel free to contact us via email or SMS. For example, ifyou wish that we have a separate program for upper primary school students as well, do letus know.Our contact numbers are as follows:Deon Kiew (Overall Leader) 90033328 email@example.comBryan Ong Junyu 85002603 firstname.lastname@example.orgNg Chek Guan 82287080 email@example.comPhuay Zhan Hui, Aaron 90402362 firstname.lastname@example.org