Raffles Institution      Year 2 Research EducationDesign for Change School Challenge 2011  Operation Pearly Whites        ...
AcknowledgementsWe would like to acknowledge the following people for their contributions withoutwhich this project would ...
ContentsAcknowledgements ....................................................................................................
IntroductionThe Design for Change (DFC) Challenge is an innovative program that aims to give9-14 year old children an oppo...
health care knowledge and hence, neglected their oral health. Oral diseases andproblems could cause extreme discomfort and...
Preparation for Action WeekThe Design For Change project involves an “Action Week” which is an intensiveseven-day period w...
Background ResearchThe young and old are notable victims of poor oral healthcare. In Singapore it isquite a common sight t...
Literature ReviewsStandard advice given by dentists to maintain healthy teethArticles:   a)     Hoon, C. U. (2009, October...
Consequences of poor oral hygieneArticles:   a)   Hoon, C. U. (2009, October 24). Take your teeth seriously . The Business...
Current state of oral health in SingaporeArticle:Survery suggests 85% of Singaporeans have suffered from gum disease | Den...
SurveysTwenty surveys were given out to a small group of 20 students from a variety ofschools with ages ranging from 13-16...
2. Do you rinse your mouth after meals?a) All the time b) Frequently c) Sometimes d) Never                                ...
How frequently do you visit the dentist for checkups?a) Never, only when you have a oral health problem b) Once in 6 month...
Do you change your toothbrush often (every three months)?a) Yes b) No. If no, how often then                              ...
InterviewsIntroductionAs part of our research in developing our lessons and informative brochures andactivity books, we de...
Next, in the interview with Mdm Lim, we also realised that there were manyproblems and inconveniences caused by tooth deca...
Next, he also mentions that one should try to visit the dentist at least once a year ortwice a year if possible as a denti...
Action PlanLesson Plan for Kindergarten ChildrenWe will be at each kindergarten for around 3 hours. These 3 hours will be ...
For the first part of Action Week, we designed a booklet for children 6 and youngeras well as a lesson plan to teach them ...
ReflectionsOverall, we thought that the project was a great success. Not only did we do make achange to help better the so...
Bibliography  a) Hoon, C. U. (2009, October 24). Take your teeth seriously. The Business     Times, p. L15.,  b) Spitz, K....
Appendix ASample Questionnaire                                                                                Raffles Inst...
Appendix BTranscript of interview with Lily Lim Interview Interviewer: Daniel Tan              Relationship: Interviewer’s...
Appendix CTranscript of Interview with Dr Chan Meng Yeong                                                  Page | 24
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Sin eng-54 - operation pearly white

  1. 1. Raffles Institution Year 2 Research EducationDesign for Change School Challenge 2011 Operation Pearly Whites By Team Leader: Russell Tan 2I Team Members: Daniel Tan 2H Remus Lai 2E Zhang You Sheng 2F Teacher Mentor: Mr David Han Page | 1
  2. 2. AcknowledgementsWe would like to acknowledge the following people for their contributions withoutwhich this project would not have been a success:  Our teacher mentor Mr David Han for his help and guidance  Dr Chan Meng Yeong and Mdm Lily Lim for their valuable information and input.  The 20 respondents to our survey questionnaire  Our parents who guided and supported us all the way  Anyone who has helped and supported us in one way or another Page | 2
  3. 3. ContentsAcknowledgements .................................................................................................... 2Introduction ................................................................................................................ 4  Why Design for Change? ............................................................................. 4  What is Operation Pearly Whites? ............................................................... 4  Why Operation Pearly Whites? .................................................................... 4Preparation for Action Week ...................................................................................... 6  Work Allocation ............................................................................................ 6  Timeline of Tasks ......................................................................................... 6  Resource Management ................................................................................ 6Background Research ................................................................................................ 7  Surveys ...................................................................................................... 11  Interviews ................................................................................................... 15Action Plan ............................................................................................................... 18Reflections ............................................................................................................... 20Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 21Appendix A ............................................................................................................... 22Appendix B ............................................................................................................... 23Appendix C ............................................................................................................... 24 Page | 3
  4. 4. IntroductionThe Design for Change (DFC) Challenge is an innovative program that aims to give9-14 year old children an opportunity to express and put into action their own ideasfor a better world. The program encourages children to explore and identify aspectsin their immediate surroundings or elsewhere, which they like to make a difference to.They then get directly involved in designing and leading change in their community.In our Design for Change challenge, our group initiated the Operation Pearly Whiteschallenge which aimed to spread the knowledge of good oral hygiene to two maintarget groups, pre-primary children and the elderly.Why Design for Change?The Design for Change project was initially not chosen by us, it would be fitting tosay that it was fate that bestowed this opportunity for us to help the people around usby giving us the chance to undertake the Design for Change Challenge for ourResearch Education project. As we slowly learnt more about the project and its aim,we soon developed a new found passion for it. After doing some research, werealised that there were many people around us that were plagued by problems andwe felt that as ambassadors of the Design for Change Challenge, we had theresponsibility of solving some of the problems.What is Operation Pearly Whites?Operation Pearly Whites is a project idea conceived by our group in which we plan tovisit a minimum of three kindergartens and three nursing homes to educate both pre-primary children and the elderly on good oral health care habits. During our visits, wewould also give out toothbrushes, toothpaste and mouthwash and a booklet tofurther encourage the habit of practising good oral hygiene.Why Operation Pearly Whites?As we brainstormed through the problems which we feel that urgently need to besolved, one problem stood out from the rest, and that was the problem of the elderlyhaving poor oral health. All four of us had realised that many senior citizens eitherhad incomplete and decaying sets of teeth or were already wearing dentures. Thissignified that a large number of the elderly in Singapore were facing oral healthproblems. Oral health problems usually stem from the lack of oral hygiene and carewhich meant that a large number of the elderly were not equipped with proper oral Page | 4
  5. 5. health care knowledge and hence, neglected their oral health. Oral diseases andproblems could cause extreme discomfort and pain in the long run and would greatlyaffect the quality of life for a person. In addition, making a set of dentures would alsocost a lot and would result in great inconvenience for him or her.Hence, we decided to embark on a project to educate the elderly on proper oralhealth care habits. In addition to this, we felt that targeting children of a young agewould also be beneficial as oral health care is not a one off thing, but rather a longterm process one would have to go through to ensure that he or she has a healthyset of teeth throughout his lifetime and hence, educating younger children wouldequip them with the knowledge of how to look after their teeth from a young age andhopefully, having inculcated good oral health care habits from young, they practisethem throughout their adolescent and adult years and more and hence, allowingthem to have a healthy set of teeth throughout their lives, without having the problemof an unhealthy set of teeth when they grow older. Page | 5
  6. 6. Preparation for Action WeekThe Design For Change project involves an “Action Week” which is an intensiveseven-day period when we implement our ideas and put them into action. All ourprevious efforts came down to these seven days.Work AllocationThere was much work to be done before Action Week as seven days was just notenough for us to do research, conduct interviews and surveys and then implementour ideas. Hence those precious seven days were set aside just for implementation.The allocation was like this, Daniel was in charge of conducting interviews withpeople he knew to get an insight on how much young and old know about theimportance of oral health and care. Remus and You Sheng were in charge of thesurvey portion and the newspaper reviews to find out about the current situation inSingapore. Russell was in charge of drafting letters for various organizations andteachers as well as contacting the various preschools and organizations which wewould have to work with during the Action Week.Timeline of TasksAs there are many tasks to do, we believe that it is important to have a timeline setso that we can complete all the work in time and it is also a lot easier fordocumenting our progress. First we started by gathering as many newspaper articlesthat we could by searching through article searches provided by the school such asNewsbank for the first month. Next, we aim to complete our interviews with anelderly person with a history of oral diseases and an oral health care professionaland also surveys with twenty teenagers during the June holidays. Lastly, we aim tocreate our products (lesson plans, activity booklet, tooth brush and tooth paste setand brochures) by the start of August and conduct our Action Plan in the month ofSeptember by contacting at least two kindergartens and one nursing home.Resource ManagementWe had to acquire donations to fund the products, mainly printing of the activitybooklets and the toothbrush and toothpaste set. There was much effort requiredespecially because we had to juggle this with other projects as well as tests andexams. Hence good time management was required. Page | 6
  7. 7. Background ResearchThe young and old are notable victims of poor oral healthcare. In Singapore it isquite a common sight to see teenagers having to “fill” their teeth and some needingto extract decayed teeth at a young age. On the other hand, elderly are seenwearing dentures or having incomplete or decaying sets of teeth. These are a few ofthe problems the young and old face because they lack the proper knowledge ofgood oral healthcare habits. To get a more in-depth understanding behind some ofthese phenomena, we decided to conduct a considerable amount of backgroundresearch to better understand the issue at hand. Firstly, we conducted literaturereviews pertaining to various issues regarding oral health.We divided the literature reviews into three sections:  Standard advice given by dentists to maintain healthy teeth  Consequences of poor oral hygiene  Current state of oral health in SingaporeGetting more information through articles, we thought it would allow us to betterunderstand the current situation of oral health care and at the same time, learn moreabout the actual mechanics behind oral diseases and ways to prevent themNext, to find out more about the current state of such problems, we have decided todo a survey targeting teenagers aged 13-16 to get a gauge of the extent of oralhealth care knowledge among teenagers and also how highly they rate theimportance of good oral hygiene. In addition, interviews on a dentist and an elderlywere also carried out. This was conducted not only to examine the current problemsamong the elderly and also the effects of various oral diseases but also to get aprofessional view on the topic.In all, the various background research carried out was done to get a betterunderstanding of the current situation of oral health care in Singapore. It was alsodone to gather information regarding oral health care and some of the commondiseases so as to improve the quality of our products (lessons, activity booklet andbrochures). Page | 7
  8. 8. Literature ReviewsStandard advice given by dentists to maintain healthy teethArticles: a) Hoon, C. U. (2009, October 24). Take your teeth seriously . The Business Times, p. L15., b) Spitz, K. (2004, April 6). AS YOUR TEETH AGE - YEARS OF WEAR AND TEAR CATCH UP IN MIDDLE AGE. YOU CAN HELP KEEP TEETH INTACT . The Akron Beacon Journal (OH) , p. 5. c) How Often Should I Replace My Toothbrush?. (n.d.).Toothbrush Toothbrushes Replacement Heads Floss. Retrieved September 4, 2011, from http://www.toothbrushexpress.com d) Total Health and Fitness information and articles - Looking after your teeth. (n.d.). Total Health and Fitness information and articles - diets, skincare, weightloss, health. Retrieved September 4, 2011, from http://gogethealthynow.com/looking-after-your-teeth/ e) How to care for your teeth. (n.d.). Health & Fitness News | Articles | Blog Network| Hive Health Media. Retrieved September 4, 2011, from http://www.hivehealthmedia.com/5-important-ways-care-for-teeth/First and foremost, it is common knowledge that one should brush his/her teeth atleast twice daily- when you wake up and before sleep at night. According to DrChung speaking to the business times, saliva flows down in the night, while bacteriain the mouth continues to flourish overnight – so when you wake up in the morningand take a drink of milk, or eat starches like toast, the teeth are subjected to an acidattack.Also, flossing of the teeth is important to remove bits and pieces of leftover foodstuck in between teeth. One is encouraged to visit the dentist once in 6 months or atleast every 12 months. Dentists say that when you have pain in the gums or teeth, itwould be too late to visit the dentist then. Food wise, one should eat fruits andvegetables to maintain strong bones and abstain from sugary food, at the same timeexercise regularly.Last but not least, the toothbrush is an integral part of maintain healthy teeth. Bristlesare often worn out after 3 months. By the time they look so, they are often wornenough. When bristles wear out they lose their effectiveness to remove plague fromthe teeth and are often breeding grounds for fungus, bacteria and germs. Thesetoothbrushes can damage gums. A new toothbrush is 30% more effective atremoving plague. Page | 8
  9. 9. Consequences of poor oral hygieneArticles: a) Hoon, C. U. (2009, October 24). Take your teeth seriously . The Business Times, p. L15., b) Spitz, K. (2004, April 6). AS YOUR TEETH AGE - YEARS OF WEAR AND TEAR CATCH UP IN MIDDLE AGE. YOU CAN HELP KEEP TEETH INTACT . The Akron Beacon Journal (OH) , p. 5. c) How Often Should I Replace My Toothbrush?. (n.d.).Toothbrush Toothbrushes Replacement Heads Floss. Retrieved September 4, 2011, from http://www.toothbrushexpress.com d) Total Health and Fitness information and articles - Looking after your teeth. (n.d.). Total Health and Fitness information and articles - diets, skincare, weightloss, health. Retrieved September 4, 2011, from http://gogethealthynow.com/looking-after-your-teeth/ e) How to care for your teeth. (n.d.). Health & Fitness News | Articles | Blog Network| Hive Health Media. Retrieved September 4, 2011, from http://www.hivehealthmedia.com/5-important-ways-care-for-teeth/Poor oral hygiene? Simple, you get toothache. This would be what parents anddentist will tell one. The teeth may not seem important but the consequences of poororal hygiene might require one to rethink, if he should really neglect his teeth. Poororal hygiene will result in toothache, tooth decay which might require extraction ofteeth, gum diseases (bleeding of gums) and hepatitis C. Also, poor oral hygiene willother diseases like heart diseases. Study shows that people who fail to brush theirteeth at least twice a day are putting themselves at risk of health diseases.According to the researchers, the link between gum disease (periodontal disease)and heart disease may not be obvious, but chronic inflammation is a hallmark of bothheart disease and gum disease. Inflammation in the body plays a major role in thebuild-up of plaque in the arteries, which can lead to a heart attack.In response to Today Newspaper, Dr Choy warned that bacteria in the mouth mayeven cause heart attacks or stroke. When they enter the blood stream, the bacteriamay contribute to the formation of blood clots by attaching themselves to fattyplaques in the blood vessels. Persistent bleeding gums may signal serious diseasessuch as leukaemia or platelet disorders.The bad news doesnt end there. If yourgums are chronically inflamed, your body releases cytokines, which can disruptinsulin function and lead to insulin resistance and then diabetes. Page | 9
  10. 10. Current state of oral health in SingaporeArticle:Survery suggests 85% of Singaporeans have suffered from gum disease | Dentistry news | Dental News | CosmeticDentistry Guide. (n.d.).Cosmetic dentistry Guide | Cosmetic dentists in London UK. Retrieved September 4, 2011, fromhttp://www.cosmeticdentistryguide.co.uk/news/survery-suggests-85-of-singaporeans-have-suffered-from-gum-disease-8884From the articles that we have seen, the current state of oral health of Singaporeansdoes not look good. A survey shows that more than 85% of Singaporeans above theage of 20 has suffered from or is suffering from gum disease. Statistics prove that 18%of Singaporeans do not brush their teeth twice a day and 65% of Singaporeans donot visit a dentist at least twice a year. To add on to this, 43% of Singaporeans onlyvisit the dentist when they experience tooth pains.These results are truly shocking and it may lead to dire consequences for the futureof Singapore and its people. The findings of the survey confirm that oral health is aproblem for many Singaporeans; however, many people are reluctant to get help.Patrick Tseng, chief dental officer at the Singapore Health Ministry, said that themajority of people were worried about going to the dentist and this attitude needs tochange; people need to be aware that dentists are there to help and that oral healthis very important.If the eyes are the window to the soul, then dental experts will say that goes on inyour mouth is a reflection of your overall health. Having oral diseases can lead toheart disorders, diabetes, stroke and many other diseases that affect the overallwell-being of our human body.Morever, recent surveys show that many Singaporeans are not willing to date thosewith bad breath or bad oral hygeine. This does not look good for Singapore, and ifSingaporeans do not change their bad oral habits soon, worse things are inevitable.The state of your oral health, therefore, is a great deal more important than was oncethought, and maintenance and regular dental check-ups can save you from muchmore than just a filling. Page | 10
  11. 11. SurveysTwenty surveys were given out to a small group of 20 students from a variety ofschools with ages ranging from 13-16 in the hope of having a better perspective ofthe standard of oral health and oral health care knowledge among teenagers. Thispiece of information was needed as we needed a gauge on the general standard oforal health care in Singapore and also to understand some of the reasons behind theabsences of good oral health habits in order to create a better lesson plan andactivity booklet for the preschoolers. In addition, the survey also aimed to evaluatethe importance of good oral health in the students’ opinion.(Please refer to Appendix A for a sample of the survey)1. How frequently do you brush your teeth every day?a) Once a day b) Twice a day c) Thrice a day or more d) Never/ Inconsistent (1) 5% (1) 5% (3) 15% a b (15) 75% c d Question 1The first question is aimed to find out how frequently the students brush their teeth.By doing this we can the relative oral hygiene standards of teenagers in Singapore.We realised that 75% of the respondents brush their teeth only once a day which isbelow the recommended number of times to maintain good dental health. Uponasking them casually, many claim that they are usually too tired and lazy to brushbefore they go to sleep. Page | 11
  12. 12. 2. Do you rinse your mouth after meals?a) All the time b) Frequently c) Sometimes d) Never (2) 10% (6) 30% (4) 20% a b (8) 40% c d Question 2The second question is aimed to find out how many of the students rinse theirmouths after meals as that helps to clear the mouth of any unwanted dirt particlesand improves the overall cleanliness of the mouth in the long run. It also helps inprevention of tooth decays and cavities. 70% of respondents seldom or don’t rinsetheir mouths at all after meals which leads us to the conclusion that they areunaware of the benefits of doing so or are just lazy to do so.3. How long, on average, do you take to brush your teeth?a) About thirty seconds or less b) About thirty seconds to a minute c) More than aminute (3) 15% (9) 45% a (8) 40% b cThe third question is aimed to find out how long someone spends each time hebrushes. This reflects the cleanliness of the teeth. It is appalling to see that 45% ofthe respondents spend less than 30 seconds each time they brush. This is below theideal 50 seconds recommended from our interview with Dr Chan (refer to interviewsbelow). Page | 12
  13. 13. How frequently do you visit the dentist for checkups?a) Never, only when you have a oral health problem b) Once in 6 months c) Oncein 12 months d) Once every two years 7, 35% 6, 30% 2, 10% a b 5, 25% c d Question 4The fourth question is aimed to find out the number of times one visits the dentistevery year. The minimum number is one and the recommended number is 2.However we realised that 60% of the respondents visit the dentist once every twoyears or never at all. According to Dr Chan (refer to interviews), the recommendednumber is twice or at least once a year.Have you experienced any oral health problems?a) Yes. If yes, please state what b) No 7, 35% 13, 65% a b Question 5The fifth question is aimed to find out who has experienced oral health problems. Outof the 13 who put a as their answer, 9 mentioned that they had experienced toothdecay, 2 people mentioned that they had gum disease while 1 person mentionedthat he had suffered from bad breath when he was younger. This could be due topoor oral health management since young. Page | 13
  14. 14. Do you change your toothbrush often (every three months)?a) Yes b) No. If no, how often then 8, 40% 12, 60% a b Question 6The sixth question is aimed to find out how many change their toothbrush regularly.This is essential as toothbrush bristles get worn out overtime and are ineffective incleaning teeth resulting in more bacteria and more plague. Out of the 12 whoanswered b, 8 mentioned that they only changed their toothbrush when they bristlesstarted to spoil, 2 mentioned that they change their toothbrush every half a year, 1mentioned that he changed his when he felt like doing so while 1 mentioned that heonly changed his when his spoilt as he used an electric toothbrush.On a scale of 1 to 5, rate the importance of oral hygiene to you 2, 10% 4, 20% 4, 20% 3, 15% 1 7, 35% 2 3 4 Question 7The seventh question is aimed to find out the importance of good oral health from ateenager’s perspective. 20% of the respondents do not care about their oral healthwhile 35% of them are neutral about it. Only 10% of the respondents prioritise theiroral health. From the results of the survey, it is evident that teenagers do not takecare of their teeth, which is worrying. We think that the best way to solve this is toeducate children from a young age about the importance of oral healthcare. Page | 14
  15. 15. InterviewsIntroductionAs part of our research in developing our lessons and informative brochures andactivity books, we decided to conduct two interviews to gain a more in-depth,professional and personal views of two different people pertaining to two differentaspects of oral health care. Our first interviewee was a senior citizen who was agrandmother of one of the group members. Lily Lim, aged 68 was chosen to beinterviewed as she has had a known history was of oral health problems and wouldhence provide a firsthand account and description of the reasons behind and theexperience of her oral diseases. Our second interviewee was Dr Chan Meng Yeong,a dentist working at Thong Hoe Dental Surgery Clinic. He was chosen as we felt thathe would be able to provide professional views on some of the issues and questionspertaining to oral health care as he was a dentist by trade.Interview analysis 1The interview with Lily Lim was a largely fruitful one. Please refer to Appendix B.Through the interview with her, we were able to answer the questions listed below:  What are some of the reasons behind poor oral health in old age?  What are some of the many problems caused by decayed teeth?  What are some of the inconveniences caused by poor oral health care?In the interview with Mdm Lim, we found out that one of the main reasons behind herpoor oral health care was due to negligence on her part. When she was younger,she had often neglected her teeth and did not rinse or brush her teeth frequently. Inaddition, back in her childhood, teachers put little emphasis on oral health care andhence, she did not fully understand the various methods to look after her teeth andthe importance to do so. From this, we concluded that our activity booklets andlessons had to emphasize not only on the various methods to keep one’s teethhealthy but also the importance of doing so, and hence, by doing so, would hopefullylower the chances of the children neglecting their teeth. Page | 15
  16. 16. Next, in the interview with Mdm Lim, we also realised that there were manyproblems and inconveniences caused by tooth decay. Mdm Lim mentioned thatdecayed teeth caused a considerable amount of prolonged pain until she went toextract the teeth, which not only caused her to experience excruciating pain but alsoinconvenience as she had to visit the dentist repeatedly for follow ups. Next, she alsomentioned that tooth decay also caused her quite a lot of money as not only did shehad to fork out large amounts of money for her check up but also for her denturesafter she had extracted her teeth. This leaves us to conclude that oral diseases couldindeed bring about great amounts of suffering and pain and in addition, also greatinconvenience and financial burdens.Interview analysis 2In the interview with Dr Chan Meng Yeong, we managed to get a clearer and morein-depth understanding of the various results of oral diseases and also someimportant habits that one should adopt to ensure that he has a healthy set of teeth.Please refer to Appendix C. In the interview, we managed to answer the fewquestions below:  What are some important habits to ensure that one has good oral health?  How important are good oral health habits?  What are some of the problems tooth decay can cause?In the interview, Dr Chan mentioned that tooth decay can cause severe pain andswelling and if teeth are lost prematurely, chances are that the person wouldexperience decreased chewing efficiency, unsightly gaps, distorted speech patternsand various misalignments which could greatly affect the quality of the person’severyday life. Next, he listed out a few good oral habits that one should practise toensure that he has a healthy set of teeth. Firstly, he recommends daily brushingtwice everyday in the morning and night to remove food particles and the build up ofplague that could cause tooth decay and also to cut down on sweets and stickyfoods as they could result in decay as the increased amount of sugar in the mouthwould stimulate the growth of bacteria which cause decay. Page | 16
  17. 17. Next, he also mentions that one should try to visit the dentist at least once a year ortwice a year if possible as a dentist would be able to examine and check thecondition of one’s gums and teeth to ensure that they are not diseased. In addition, adentist could also rectify any diseases if he finds them and also give advice on howone should look after his teeth to keep them healthy.Having picked up numerous tips on maintaining one’s oral health, we plan to includethese tips into our activity booklet, lessons and brochures to educate and raise theawareness of good oral health habits and the effects of oral health diseases amongpreschoolers and the elderly and hopefully, the knowledge would enable them tokeep their teeth healthy. In addition, from this interview, we realised the importanceof regular brushing and hence, we plan to include precise steps on how once shouldbrush their teeth into the lessons. Lastly, we also plan to include a toothbrush andtoothpaste set to encourage brushing among the preschoolers and elderly. Page | 17
  18. 18. Action PlanLesson Plan for Kindergarten ChildrenWe will be at each kindergarten for around 3 hours. These 3 hours will be divided into six 30 minuteperiods. 1st 30 Introduction – Explain to the children and their teachers what this minutes project is about and what we aim to achieve by doing this project. Get to know each of the children and find out about their oral healthcare patterns. nd 2 30 Activity 1 – Present to the children the six steps to good oral healthcare minutes and the consequences of not keeping their teeth clean. 3rd 30 Activity 2 – Learn and sing the song. Explain the song. Colouring and fill minutes in the blanks. 4th 30 Lunch Break minutes 5th 30 Post lunch brushing. Present the children with a toothbrush kit each. minutes Show children how to brush properly and effectively. 6th 30 Quiz them to see if they know the proper methods to keep their teeth minutes clean. Give out prizes. Page | 18
  19. 19. For the first part of Action Week, we designed a booklet for children 6 and youngeras well as a lesson plan to teach them how to keep their teeth in good shape. Thatwas a success. We intended to visit 3 Kindergartens and help to raise awarenessabout the importance of good oral health. However despite all the planning andcontacting of the various schools, we were unable to carry out the plan due to timeconstraints and CCA commitments. Furthermore, we changed topic halfway throughthe project and we were left with one third of the original time given for the projectand our CCA season ended a day before submission date. This led to manyproblems and there was hardly any time left. Hence, we were unable to complete thesecond half of Action Week. Page | 19
  20. 20. ReflectionsOverall, we thought that the project was a great success. Not only did we do make achange to help better the society of Singapore, we also gained many lessons andlearned alot about what is and the importance of oral hygeine. We definitely made achange for the better. Throughout this project, we faced many challenges andobstacles. At first, it was pretty hard to come up with an idea to better the society thatwas able to be done without much funds that was new and fresh. The originalconcept was that we would be providing dentures for the needy elderly who couldnot afford it otherwise. However, we had to end up changing the topic due to the factthat we did not receive and replies from companies that we seeked help from. Wewere also unable to find any elderly that was willing to participate in our project. Inthe end, the project was changed to teaching oral hygiene to the young and old. Oneaspect that I felt could be better for our group was that we could have communicatedbetter and have more teamwork. There was miscommunication throughout theprocess of completing the project, for example sometimes the deadlines for specificparts of the project was mixed up and we ended up having to rush parts of our work.We did not really work together or help each other as much as we could and weended up finsihing our own parts and being nonchalant about the others and theirprogress. All in all, I think that we did quite a good job on the “Design For Change”task project assigned to us, though we could have acheived slightly greater heights ifwe had more cooperation. Page | 20
  21. 21. Bibliography a) Hoon, C. U. (2009, October 24). Take your teeth seriously. The Business Times, p. L15., b) Spitz, K. (2004, April 6). AS YOUR TEETH AGE - YEARS OF WEAR AND TEAR CATCH UP IN MIDDLE AGE. YOU CAN HELP KEEP TEETH INTACT . The Akron Beacon Journal (OH), p. 5. c) How Often Should I Replace My Toothbrush?. (n.d.).Toothbrush Toothbrushes Replacement Heads Floss. Retrieved September 4, 2011, from http://www.toothbrushexpress.com d) Total Health and Fitness information and articles - Looking after your teeth. (n.d.). Total Health and Fitness information and articles - diets, skincare, weightloss, health. Retrieved September 4, 2011, from http://gogethealthynow.com/looking-after-your-teeth/ e) How to care for your teeth. (n.d.). Health & Fitness News | Articles | Blog Network| Hive Health Media. Retrieved September 4, 2011, from http://www.hivehealthmedia.com/5-important-ways-care-for-teeth/ f) Survey suggests 85% of Singaporeans have suffered from gum disease | Dentistry news | Dental News | Cosmetic Dentistry Guide. (n.d.).Cosmetic dentistry Guide | Cosmetic dentists in London UK. Retrieved September 4, 2011, from http://www.cosmeticdentistryguide.co.uk/news/survery-suggests- 85-of-singaporeans-have-suffered-from-gum-disease-8884 Page | 21
  22. 22. Appendix ASample Questionnaire Raffles Institution Design for Change Secondary 2 Research EducationWe are a group of 4 students from Raffles Institution embarking on a project “Design for Change”.Our project is entitled “Operation Pearly Whites” which aims to educate and improve oralhealthcare amongst the old and young. We would appreciate if you would take some time to answerthe following questions to let us know about your oral habits. 1. How frequent do you brush your teeth? a) Once a day. b) Twice a day(morning and before sleeping at night). c) Thrice a day or more. d) Not at all/ hardly brush my teeth. 2. Do you rinse you rinse your mouth after meals? a) All the time b) Frequently c) Sometimes d) Never 3. How long do you take to brush your teeth on average. a) About 30 seconds or less b) 30 seconds to one minute c) One minute or more 4. How frequent do you visit the dentist for checkups? a) Never b) Once in 6 months c) Once in 12 months d) Once every 2 years 5. Have you experience any oral health problems (e.g. Tooth decay, gum bleeding, bad breath) a) Yes. If yes, what are some of these problems _______________. b) No. 6. Do you change your toothbrush often? a) Yes. If yes, how often do you change them? ________________ b) No. If no, how often do you change your toothbrush 7. On a scale of 5, rate the importance of oral hygiene to you, with 5 being the most important. 1 2 3 4 5 Thank you for taking time to complete this survey. Your help is greatly appreciated and have a nice day  Page | 22
  23. 23. Appendix BTranscript of interview with Lily Lim Interview Interviewer: Daniel Tan Relationship: Interviewer’s grandmother Time of interview: 9.26pm Interviewee: Lily Lim (68) Date of interview: 5/6/2011 How would you describe the current state of your teeth? My teeth are quite worn out. Quite a few of my teeth have been extracted because they have decayed. Why do you think your teeth are in their current state? When I was younger, we were not taught by our teachers and parents how to look after our teeth. We were not told to rinse our mouth after eating or brushing our teeth before we went to bed. On some days, I was too lazy to brush my teeth before I slept and I think that is the reason behind my decayed teeth. Has your decayed teeth caused any problems for you? Before I extracted my decayed teeth, they caused a lot of pain for me. The extraction itself was also very painful. After I had my extraction, I had to get a pair of dentures fixed. I had to visit the dentist quite a few times. The implantation of the dentures also cost a lot too, about one thousand dollars for the implantation and the dentures. Dentures also do not feel like real teeth when I eat. I really regret not looking after my teeth when I was young. Would you like to convey any message out to the children and teens out there? I would like to tell all the children and teens out there that they really should look after their teeth. Teeth are very important, if they don’t look after their teeth when they are young, they will regret it when they grow older as they will encounter a lot of problems. Page | 23
  24. 24. Appendix CTranscript of Interview with Dr Chan Meng Yeong Page | 24

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