Behaviorism• The prediction and control of human behavior in which introspection and/or independent thinking play no essential part of its teaching methods.• Behaviorism came into view during a period of time that coincided with the industrial revolution called modernism in which everything of value (including learning) was measured solely in terms of science.• To a behaviorist, human learning is purely an objective and experimental branch of natural science.• There is no internal cognitive process of information.
Positive Reinforcement VS.Negative Reinforcement• The learner starts off as a clean slate and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement.• Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again.• In contrast, punishment (both positive and negative) decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again.• Learning is therefore defined as a change in behavior in the learner.
People of Behaviorism: Ivan Pavlov• Behaviorism experiments conducted on dogs. Pavlov would ring a bell, then provide the dogs with food (stimulus). Then the dogs would salivate (reflex) because of the food.• Eventually the dogs realized that the bell equaled food so they would salivate when just the bell rang and no food was given.• This was called ‘classic conditioning’
People of Behaviorism: B.F. Skinner• Skinner conducted experiments on pigeons. He would give the pigeon a reward (response) after the pigeon did a trick (stimulus).• He believed that humans shape their behavior based on rewards or positivity as well.• This is called ‘operant conditioning.’
People of Behaviorism: Albert Bandura • Bandura’s research expresses the idea of social learning, when people learn by observing the behaviors of those around them. • He has conducted experiments through TV violence, on whether children would re-enact the violence they observed from watching TV.
Teachers and Behaviorism Without technology: • Teachers would reinforce socially acceptable actions in younger students. • An example: A teacher hands a piece of candy to a child who raises their hand and waits quietly to be called on to answer a question.With Technology: • Teachers could use programs, like excel, to have the children record how much time the student dedicates to school (homework,studying,reading, etc.). • This in turn will provide a positive or negative stimulus to promoting academic success.
Students and BehaviorismWithout Technology:• The students respond to positive or negative stimuli, and respond in a manner of increased or decreased actions• An example (negative stimulus): The student, Jimmy, sees his peer, Eddie, receive candy for raising his hand quietly while the teacher ignores little Jimmy who is shouting out the answers.With Technology• Students using excel to track their time they dedicate to school will provide a positive or negative stimulus depending on their grades within the class.
Our teaching and behaviorism• Behaviorism is a powerful tool that, if used properly, drives students to receive positive reinforcement and positively impact your classroom. In the beginning of the year you can inherit a very energetic class that lacks proper social behaviors.• By the end of the year you can have a class that is polite, lines up quietly, and answers when called upon.