Human Infant Care – Need for investment of a lot of resources to raise children
Sexual Exchange – Social bonding of males (fathers) to females (mothers), which channels resources from males to children (unusual among mammals).
This is biologically driven (e.g. by hormones) and culturally shaped (e.g. by rules of marriage). But it is primarily social (relationships of exchange).
The Dual Economy: The Shift from Provisioning to Prestige Provisioning Economy Prestige Economy Provisioning Subsistence Use Value Prestige Status Exchange Value
Foraging Systems (Typical of Most of Human History) Provisioning Economy Prestige Economy Most Activity is Provisioning. “ Prestige Economy” is relatively small. Most Adults are Economically Independent. Very little Socio- Economic Hierarchy. Women have relatively Independent Spouse Choices. Men who provide “Prestige” Items are favored (e.g. Meat, Honey).
Agricultural and Industrial Economies (from 10,000 Years Ago) Prestige Economy Provisioning Economy Prestige economy becomes far larger than the provisioning economy. Most activity aims to produce and acquire surplus, for exchange. Exchange systems create concentration of wealth, and status hierarchies and more competition. “Have nots” are dependent on those with wealth, and must follow their orders. This includes women in “ sexual exchange” relationships.
Is it possible to “desire” someone without “objectifying” them? Is it wrong for someone to be your “object of desire”?
Are only women “objectified”?
Are men “objectified” differently than women?
Model of Individual Subjectivity/Objectivity Humans as Subjects and Objects Subjectivity Reflexive Cognition, Attitudes, Desires Objectivity Embodied Physical Presence People are both subjects and objects. As objects, we are embodied beings. In part, this is merely physical presence. But socially, and especially sexually, we are objects in relationship to the subjectivity of others. In complex economic arrangements, for example, our labor can be bought, sold, and utilized not only by ourselves but by others. In sexual relations, we are the embodied objects of others’ desires. “ Objectivity” (in this sense) is the quality of being an embodied physical presence. “ Subjectivity” is the quality of reflective cognition, attitudes and desires (which motivate activity and behaviors).