Sc2220 lecture 7 2011
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Sc2220 lecture 7 2011

on

  • 1,058 views

Lecture 7: The Patriarchal Tendency

Lecture 7: The Patriarchal Tendency

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,058
Views on SlideShare
1,058
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
36
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Sc2220 lecture 7 2011 Sc2220 lecture 7 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • SC2220: Gender StudiesLecture 7: The Patriarchal Tendency
    Eric C. Thompson
    Semester 2, 2010/2011
  • Where We Have Been…
    History of Gender Studies
    Sex/Gender Distinction
    Becoming Male or Female
    Gender socialization; paths to learning gender.
    Gender Systems
    Masculinity/Femininity
    Gender as systems of beliefs and behaviors
  • Where We Are Going…
    Gender in Popular Culture
    Gender in Advertising
    Popular Culture
    Gender in Social Relations
    Gender and Power
    Gender and Work
    Gender, Here and Now
    Gender in Singapore
    YOU ARE
    HERE
    View slide
  • Gender: Biological, Cultural & Social
    Biology: We are a biological species. We are a sexually reproducing species. We are mammals. These influence, but do not determine, gender.
    Culture: We communicate and understand the world through symbolic signaling and abstract categorization. Ideas.
    Social: We interact with each other through exchange, cooperation, alliances, competition and conflict. Relationships and Resources.
    Gender: What we make socially and culturally of biological sex differences.
    View slide
  • Social Dynamics of Gender
    Lectures on “cultural constructions” of gender (popular culture, advertising) focused on ideas (what we think) about gender and representations of gender.
    In Social Relations, we are focusing on how society is organized: exchange relationships, hierarchies, roles, etc.
    In particular, we will discuss the patriarchal tendency in human societies.
  • Gods of Our Fathers
    This film is a critique of “patriarchy.” Based on the film, how would you define patriarchy?
    What evidence does the film provide of a patriarchal order?
    Is patriarchy natural to human beings? Why or why not?
    Why did patriarchy develop, according to the film?
    Why was it necessary for patriarchal systems to reduce the status of women?
    Patriarchal states seem to mainly benefit a small number of elite men. What stake do women and most men (who are not elites) have in patriarchy?
    What is the paradox of early Christianity and Islam, according to the film?
    How and why is patriarchy being challenged in industrial societies? Are most industrial societies patriarchal? Why or why not?
  • Gender, Power and Patriarchy
    What is Patriarchy?
    Is patriarchy universal?
    Why does patriarchy exist?
    Why is there a patriarchal tendency among human societies?
  • Patri- and Matri-(Some Terminology)
    Examples:
    -archy
    (rule, govern)
    Patriarchy: society in which power is disproportionately held by men
    Patri-
    (male)
    Matri-
    (female)
    -lineal
    (in the line of)
    Matrilineal: society in which property, names, status, etc. is inherited through women
    -local
    (residence,
    location)
    Patrilocal: society in which married couples live with the man’s side of the family
    *These are all different things; a society can be matrilineal but patriarchal
  • Terminology You Should Know
    Patrilineal – inheritance through fathers
    Matrilineal – inheritance through mothers
    Bilateral – inheritance through both
    Patrilocal – living with father’s side
    Martilocal – living with mother’s side
    Neolocal – living in a new place
    Patriarchal – society in which men are more empowered
    Matriarchal – society in which women are more empowered
    Egalitarian – society in which men and women are (more-or-less) equally empowered
  • Example #1
    Boys and girls have a clan name, based on their mother’s clan name. Brothers move out to live with their wives. Sisters’ husbands move in with them. The youngest sister inherits the house. Other sisters and their husbands build houses nearby. Brothers have an important say in what is done with the families land (for example, selling it). Husbands do not.
    How would you describe this society?
  • Example #2
    Brothers and sisters have a family name from their father. When they marry, sisters move to live near their husband’s family and change their family name to that of their husband. The oldest son in the family inherits all the property, but they have to take care of their brothers and sisters. Men are the head of the household.
    How would you describe this society?
  • Patrilineal, Patrilocal* Systems
    Patrilineal inheritance (a cultural rule):
    Property passes from fathers to sons
    Patrilocal residence (a cultural rule):
    Women live with husband’s family
    Common in China, India, Europe
    While the cultural basis of much “Asian Values” talk, it is clearly not exclusively “Asian”
    *Also called “virilocal”: living with the man/husband
  • Matrilineal, Matrilocal* Systems
    Matrilineal inheritance (a cultural rule):
    Property passes from mothers to daughters
    Matrilocal residence (a cultural rule):
    Men live with wife’s family
    Common in Southeast Asia, Africa, Native America
    Found in China (Yunnan, Sichuan), India
    *Also called “uxorilocal”: living with the uncle/mother’s-brother
  • Why have patrilineal or matrilineal inheritance?What are the effects of these cultural rules?
  • Thought Question
    Why would any parents or any society be so mean as to give all their property to only one child or only to one gender?
    Parents
    Large Plot
    4 Children
    Medium Plot
    16 Grandchildren
    Small Plot
    32 Great-
    Grandchildren
    Tiny Plot!
  • Patrilineal, PatrilocalRules produce“Classical Patriarchy”*
    Women are dependent on men. Their social status (and livelihood) depends on marrying a husband and producing sons.
    Girls are of little value to their families; they are “married off” and join husband’s family.
    The system provides an incentive for women to support it (the goal of becoming a mother-in-law); even though it is systemically oppressive to women. (*See: Kandiyoti 1988)
  • Matrilineal Systems: Minangkabau
    Daughters inherit land and houses from Mothers.
    Sons “merantau” – leave the community, go abroad to seek their fortune.
    Men return with wealth, marry into women’s families.
  • Matrilineal, Matrilocal Rules produce Egalitarian Relationships
    Women are not dependent on husbands or sons – they own property in their own right. Girls are of value to their parents.
    Men are not dependent on women; they must “make their fortune” to be eligible husbands – but that wealth is “theirs”.
    Mother’s-brothers (uncles) are more important figures of authority than fathers.
  • Other Effects of Matrilineality
    Minangkabau men are renowned traders (Matrilineality inspires entrepreneurship!).
    Much less rape and domestic violence.
    Gender relationships are more equal.
    Authority figures in boy’s lives (uncles) are not their mother’s sexual partners (father/husband); sex and power are not as strongly linked in men’s sense of masculinity.
    See: Watson-Frank (2002) “Where Women Walk Freely”
    Divorce more common (marriage less enduring).
    Easier for both men and women to “walk away”.
  • Bilateral, Neolocal Systems
    Bilateral inheritance (a cultural rule):
    Property passes from parents to children (without respect to gender)
    Neolocal residence (a cultural rule):
    Couples live in a new place; away from parents
    Common in Industrial and Post-Industrial Societies around the World
    Very commonly accompanied everywhere with talk about the loss of “traditional family values”
  • Why Shift to Bilateral, Neolocal Systems?
    Shift away from need to maintain large plots of land for agriculture (most people work in cities).
    Without this need, parents are not inclined to discriminate between their children based on gender (bilateral inheritance).
    Systems of mass production and mass consumption reorganize society (e.g. factories).
    Children are incorporated into new institutions (e.g. companies, nation-states) and rely less on kinship systems (neolocal residence).
  • Patterns of Patriarchy
    Patrilineal, Patrilocal patterns tend toward patriarchy (men having more power than women).
    Matrilineal, Matrilocal patterns tend toward egalitarianism.
    What is the effect of Bilateral inheritance and Neolocal residence? (Open to Debate)
  • How To Know Patriarchy When You See It?
    Patrilineal and Matrilineal inheritance easy to identify.
    Patriarchy is much more difficult.
    Some cues are:
    Who controls wealth, property, etc.?
    Who is invested with political authority or has socially recognized high-status roles?
    Who has more freedom (e.g. fewer restrictions placed on their mobility or activities)?
  • Range of Matriarchy/Patriarchy
    All things being equal, we would expect a range of societies – from Highly Matriarchal to Highly Patriarchal.
    In fact, we find a range of societies from more-or-less Egalitarian to Highly Patriarchal.
    Egalitarian
    Very Matriarchal
    Very Patriarchal
    Societies That Do Not Exist
    Societies That Do Exist
    WHY?
  • Is Patriarchy “Universal”?
    Problems with saying patriarchy is “universal”:
    Now and in the past there are many examples of relatively egalitarian societies.
    Patriarchy is not a unitary state, but rather a variation with a range (of possibilities).
    Patriarchy is not “universal”, rather there is a patriarchal tendency in human societies…. Why?
  • Why Patriarchy?Common (but wrong) Answers
    Patriarchy is the result of sex differences.
    Physical Strength
    Testosterone
    Patriarchy is the result of capitalism.
    Men are just nasty critters (misogyny or the “hatred of women”).
  • Physical Strength = Power??
    Arnold Schwarzenegger:
    Governor of California
    George W. Bush:
    President of the United States
  • Bill Gates: Power Broker
  • Patriarchy as Result of Sex Differences
    Men are physically stronger:
    Mistakes physical strength for social power. Physical strength alone is only (very) weakly correlated with social power (even in “low-tech” societies).
    The evolutionary basis for men’s greater size and strength is competition between men; NOT male dominance over females.
    Power is Relational. It is not a characteristic of individuals. It is a characteristic of social relationships among individuals.
  • Patriarchy as Result of Sex Differences (2)
    Men have more testosterone, which makes them more competitive, which leads them to seek out more power:
    More valid than the physical strength theory; but testosterone is only one element of social competition.
    Recall problems with “testosterone theory” from Lecture 2.
  • Problems with Sex Difference Arguments
    They do not account for the range of societies (egalitarian to patriarchal); if sex difference arguments alone explain patriarchy, then ALL societies should be equally patriarchal, which they are not.
    They sneak social and cultural construction in through the back door, as follows:
    The sex differences are mostly overlapping normative differences.
    Patriarchal norms (such as gendered rules about who can have political power) are often absolute.
    Sex difference theories assume that average differences are turned into absolutes (which is a social and cultural process).
  • Patriarchy as a Result of Capitalism
    Argument proposed mainly by Marxist Feminists.
    Why does capitalism cause/support patriarchy:
    The “Male Breadwinner” model makes families dependent on capitalist production.
    Capitalism benefits from the “free” reproductive labor of women (the labor force is reproduced for “free”)
    Problems:
    Patriarchy was around long, long before capitalism!!
    Capitalism can thrive while undermining patriarchy (for example, in female-oriented factory work).
  • Men are Nasty Critters (Misogyny)
    “For radical feminists, patriarchy is . . . the structure and process of men’s misogynist domination of women through violent control of their sexuality and childbearing.” (Lorber, The Paradoxes of Gender, p.4)
    Problem: This holds true for some (patriarchal) but not other (egalitarian) societies.
    Patriarchy produces misogyny (and nasty men), not the other way around!
  • Patriarchy and the Problem of Explanation
    Radical and Marxist Feminists identify patriarchy as a problem, but they have poor explanations of why it comes about.
    For example, Jeff Hearn The Gender of Oppression (a radical/Marxist feminist analysis).
  • Hearn on Patriarchy
    Men control women’s reproduction. Men exact a “human tithe” from women and children.
    How do they do this?
    Hearn’s answer is that men use violence to control women (and children).
    Problems:
    Why do women put up with this? Are they stupid or weak?
    Almost the same as the “strength = power” argument; a superficial and flawed understanding of power.
    Violence is a remarkably poor way to control people.
  • So, How DO We Explain the Patriarchal Tendency?
    The answer is:
    To be continued next week… 