Sc2220 lecture 12 2011
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Lecture 12: Gender and You

Lecture 12: Gender and You

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    Sc2220 lecture 12 2011 Sc2220 lecture 12 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • SC2220: Gender StudiesLecture 12: Gender and YouMaking Sense of Gender Studies
      Eric C. Thompson
      Semester 2, 2010/2011
    • Where We Have Been…
      History of Gender Studies
      Sex/Gender Distinction
      Becoming Male or Female
      Gender socialization; paths to learning gender.
      Gender Systems
      Masculinity/Femininity
      Gender as systems of beliefs and behaviors
    • Where We Are Going…
      Gender in Popular Culture
      Gender in Advertising
      Popular Culture
      Gender in Social Relations
      Gender and Power
      Gender and Work
      Gender, Here and Now
      Gender in Singapore
      Finish Line!
      YOU ARE
      HERE
    • Today’s Lecture
      How to Prepare for the Exam
      Overview of Key Themes
      Gender and You
    • Exam Format
      The examination consists of TWO Sections, A and B.
      Each section has two questions.
      Answer ONE question from Section A and ONE question from Section B.
      You must answer a total of TWO questions.
      All questions are weighted equally.
      The questions are essay questions…
      Aim to write a good essay!
    • How to Write a Good Essay
      Outline your essay before you start writing.
      An essay should have an overall thesis or argument…
      What is your answer to the question?
      What is the topic of your essay?
      What do you have to say about the topic?
      The thesis of your essay should be clearly stated in the introduction (first paragraph).
      The body of the thesis should weigh evidence for and against your thesis.
      The conclusion should reiterate (restate) the thesis, in light of the arguments and evidence you have provided.
    • How to Score Points with your Essay
      Make your essay clear and coherent!
      See “How to Write a Good Essay” above!
      Demonstrate that you know the course material
      Draw on examples used in readings, lecture, films
      Refer to ideas, theories and perspectives covered in class
      Demonstrate that you understandthe course content
      Apply ideas coherently, clearly and creatively
      Do not throw ideas into your essay just for show
      Use specifics (authors names, etc.), but do not stress about them – ideas matter more than memorization.
      Do not give up… write something for each question!
      Do not try to b--- s---- your way through the exam!
    • Mugging for Gender Studies
      Review all the key themes of the course.
      Focus on issues highlighted in lectures.
      Hint: In all your courses, the lecturer writes the questions – not the authors or film-makers!
      Relate key examples to those themes.
      Identify key arguments in the readings and films.
      Answer the question:
      Why did he make us read this?!
      Relate those arguments to key themes in the course.
    • QUESTIONS?
    • Overview of the Course
      Lectures 1-3: Gender, Sex, Sexuality
      The Basis of Gender in Biology and Socialization
      Lectures 4-6: Gender, Culture and Ideology
      Ways We Think about Gender.
      Lectures 7-10: Gender, Economics and Power
      Ways We Do Gender.
      Lectures 11-12: Gender Here and Now
      Gender Issues in Singapore
      Gender and You!
      Yeah… I remember some of that. 
    • Questions to Answer:
      What is Gender Studies? How/why did it come about?
      What is the relationship between sex and gender?
      How do we learn gender identities and behavior?
      Why are ideas of masculinity and femininity important?
      Why is gender a performance more than an identity?
      How is gender portrayed in (popular) culture?
      Why do men often have more power and status than women in society?
      What explains the gender gap in wages?
      What are the most important gender issues in Singapore? How can gender studies help us to understand these issues?
    • Development of Gender Studies
      Sociology of Women
      “Additive”… sought to make women ‘visible’ in sociology; Research about women’s experience.
      Up to 1970s
      Feminist Sociology
      Reconceptualization of society; Focus on patriarchy and gendering of all aspects of social life; Explicitly political
      1970s-1990s
      Sociology of Gender
      Questioning the category “women”; Focus on gender rather than women; Including men, masculinities,intersexed, and sexualities.
      1990s-present
      Franklin pp. xiv & xxvii
    • The Sex / Gender Distinction
      Human sexuality is the basis for gender but it does not determine gender.
      SEX is a biological construct.*
      GENDER is a social and cultural construct.
      Sex is the same among all societies.*
      Gender varies widely.
      *Sex is more complex and varied than we often learn!
      E.g. about one-percent of the population is “intersexed”.
    • Gender Socialization(“Becoming Male or Female”)
      TV
      DIRECT TEACHING
      GENERAL
      CULTURAL
      INFLUENCES
      ADVERTISING
      POPULAR CULTURE
      MODELING BEHAVIOR
      PEER SOCIALIZATION
    • “Doing Gender”
      Performing Gender
      Gender is something we do (a performance) not something we are (an identity).
      Masculinity and Femininity are beliefs and guidelines for appropriate behavior – they are beliefs that guide us in doing gender.
      Because gender is something we do all the time, everyday, we experience it as identity – as something we “are” rather than something we “do”.
    • Advertising, Femininity & Masculinity
      Advertising plays a powerful role in gender beliefs.
      Advertising reinforces stereotypes and gender polarization; playing on evolved psychology:
      Women appear as “sex objects”
      Men appear as “success objects”
      Beauty has both culturally consistent and culturally consistent elements
      Gender systems are “overdetermined” – by culture, social relations and biology; they cannot be reduced to single causes.
    • Gender and Popular Culture
      Gender ideals change over time and across cultures
      Transgender ritual specialists in Southeast Asia
      Masculinity in Hollywood Films
      The Male Gaze (in advertising & elsewhere)
      Women subjected to the male gaze must learn to control their own bodies in public.
      The Female Tease?
      Second wave versus Third wave Feminism
      Is sexual assertion by women empowering?
    • Gender, Power & Social Relations
      The Patriarchal Tendency
      Explanations for the patriarchal tendency.
      The “baby burden” and “sexual exchange”
      Socioeconomic systems
      Other explanations
      Gender, Work and Division of Labor
      The double shift & domestic marginalization of men.
      Explaining the gender gap in wages.
      Gendered organizations and institutions.
    • Gendered Issues in Singapore
      Is Singapore a “Patriarchal Society”?
      National Service: What is at stake?
      The “Flight from Marriage”
      Importing Female Labor
      Emergence of “Transnational Patriarchy”
    • QUESTIONS?
    • Gender and You…(Final Thoughts on Gender Studies)
    • Implications of Gender Studies…
      Gender permeates all aspects of life…
      Relationships
      Family
      Entertainment (Popular culture)
      Education
      Employment
      Economics
      Politics (Power)
    • Insights from Gender Studies…
      Gender is not “natural”… and sex is not a simple binary.
      Be aware of your own and others’ gender performance.
      Do not accept gender stereotypes uncritically.
      Recognize the “cultural scripts” – especially in your relationships with others. Rewrite, revise and choose these thoughtfully to live a good life.
      Allow others to do the same.