Browne demonstrates: The most significant gap is between women who are married or have children and all others.
The gap between Single Childless Women and All Men is much less substantial.
Married Men earn more than Unmarried Men.
Singapore 2008 report claimed only 2% wage gap among new graduates … BUT, these are almost certainly Single Childless Women! (A very biased sample for trying to claim that there is little or no “gender gap in wages”!)
“ Gendered” Institutions are not (only) the result of gender difference; Institutions produce gender difference.
Gender difference in one institution is affected by gender in other institutions in a society.
For example, gender differences in a corporate office will be affected by the production of gender in family life; and the gender in family life will be affected by the production of gender in corporate offices.
No institution is “gender neutral” (even if it formally declares itself to be). Gender is a pervasive social and cultural system. Its effects can be reduced (or amplified) but no society is “free from gender.”
Most professions (corporations, universities, law firms) expect individuals to spend their 20s obtaining professional degrees; their 30s “building” their career; and becoming “established” in their 40s.
Is it fair to expect this equally of men and women?
Is it “fair” to ignore the relatively larger commitments women have to make to childbearing during these years (if they want to have children of their own)?
On top of Browne’s choice theory and Acker’s gendered organizations, there is often strong evidence of overt gender bias.
When given mock job applications for gender neutral and traditional male jobs, more applicants with male names or male characteristics were offered the jobs, even when the applications (resumes) were identical in content.
When applying for child care jobs, the bias favored women (men were not offered the jobs).