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Sc2218 Lecture 5 (2008a)

Sc2218 Lecture 5 (2008a)



Lecture 5: Families and Kinship

Lecture 5: Families and Kinship



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    Sc2218 Lecture 5 (2008a) Sc2218 Lecture 5 (2008a) Presentation Transcript

    • SC2218: Anthropology and the Human Condition Lecture 5: Families and Kinship Eric C. Thompson Semester 2, 2008/2009
    • Where Are We Going?
      • Part 1: Anthropological Frameworks
        • Strangers Abroad; Evolution & Diversity; The Concept of Culture
      • Part 2: Social-Cultural Systems
        • Kinship , Gender, Economy, Community
      • Part 3: Revising Our Frameworks & Moving into the Future
        • Problem of Representation, History and Change, the Poetry of Culture, Anthropology in the 21 st Century
    • Lecture Outline: Kinship as a Social and Cultural System
      • What is Kinship?
      • Ju/’hoansi kinship (a study in Cultural Complexity).
      • Cultural Rules, Social Organization and Power.
        • Patrilineality, Partrilocality, and Patriarchy
        • Matrilineality, Matrilocality, and Egalitarianism
      • Changing Patterns of Modern Kinship
        • Bilateral Inheritance, Neolocal Residence, and Attenuated Kinship
        • Technological Innovations and New Horizons of Kinship
    • What is Kinship?
      • Kinship = Social-Cultural Elaborations of Biological Reproduction
      • Marriage = Cultural recognition of a sexual relationship; legitimization of paternity.
      • Ordering (arranging) social relationships through cultural interpretations of biological reproduction.
      • Kinship is “based in” biology.
      • But kinship is not determined by biology.
    • Kinship as an Organizing Principle of Society*
      • Kinship is a primary organizing principle in many (most) societies.
      • In complex agricultural, industrial, and ‘post-industrial’ societies, other institutions displace kinship.
        • States (“State Fatherhood”; Citizenship; Patronage)
        • Ethnic Groups, Races,Nations (“Fraternal” Democracy; Imagined Community)
        • Organized Religion (“Brotherhood” of Monks)
        • Corporations (“Salary Man”; “Company Man”)
      *Cultural Principles ordering Social Relationships
    • Complexity of Kinship* among Dobe Ju/’hoansi *Many thanks to Dr. Stephanie Rupp for creation and use of the slides to follow.
    • !kun!a !kun!a tun tun !kuma !kuma tuma tuma !ko !kwi tsin tsin !hai =hai ba tai Basic Kin Relations – Dobe Ju/’hoansi ego 1 2 3 4 5 tsiu
    • !kun!a !kun!a tun tun !kuma !kuma tuma tuma !ko !kwi tsin tsin !hai =hai ba tai Reciprocal Relations – Dobe Ju/’hoansi “ old name” grandfather “ small name” grandson ego grandmother granddaughter
    • !kun!a !kun!a tun tun tsin !kuma !kuma tuma tuma !ko !kwi tsin !hai =hai ba tai tsu tsu //ga //ga !kun!a !kun!a tun tun !kun!a !kun!a tun tun ego Joking Avoidance Joking Avoidance Joking Reciprocal Relations between Alternate Generations
    • Man’s perspective Woman’s perspective Affinal* Relations **************************************************************************************************** Joking Kin Joking Affines Avoidance Kin Avoidance Affines =tum =tum /otsu /otsu /otsu /otsu *Related by Marriage
    • Patterns of Marriage
      • Monogamy: One spouse at a time.
        • Strict Monogamy: One and only one spouse over a lifetime (“until death do we part”)
        • Serial Monogamy: Culturally acceptable to have more than one spouse over a life time (but only one at a time; divorce and remarriage)
      • Polygamy: More than one spouse at a time.
        • Polygyny: Multiple wives allowed.*
        • Polyandry: Multiple husbands allowed.
      *Polygyny is the most common cultural pattern. But usually only a few men, not all, have multiple wives.
    • Dobe Camp Composition: Social Organization and Rights to Waterholes Based on Kinship core siblings spouses of core siblings siblings of spouses of core siblings spouses of siblings of spouses of core siblings
    • Another Layer of Complexity: Name Relationships Common Pattern - Naming Children after Grandparents, Aunts and Uncles 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    • When a Man Is Named after His Father’s Brother … 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Joking Joking Avoidance Joking Avoidance Avoidance
    • Complicated Intersections of Kinship: Can =Toma and Chu/o Marry? (They must have a ‘joking’ relationship) =Toma Chu/o Joking Joking Chu/o =Toma Avoidance Avoidance
    • Concept of Wi – Relative Age Lee to !Xam: “When two people are working out what kin term to employ, how do they decide whose choice is to prevail? !Xam to Lee: “… it is always the older person who wi s the younger person. Since I am older than you, I decide what we should call each other.” (Lee 2003: 72)
    • Marriage – New Horizons of Kinship Based on Name Relationships All women named N=isa could call him “ husband” All husbands of women named N=isa could call him “ brother” or “co-husband”. All fathers of women named N=isa could call him “son-in-law”. All siblings of women named N=isa could call him “brother-in-law”. ego N=isa
    • Frameworks of Analysis Looking back over the description of Dobe Ju/’hoansi kinship, can you identify functional, structural, and structural-functional aspects of the system?
    • Examples
      • Functional: Joking and avoidance patterns provide guidelines for behavior and therefore moderate potential conflicts.
      • Structural: Joking and avoidance patterns follow a clear pattern of reciprocal relations between alternate generations.
      • Structural-Functional: The “Wi” relationship provides guidelines for mediating conflicting criteria joking and avoidance relationships.*
      *Note how there is no need for “Wi” outside the structure of this particular kinship system. Its function is intrinsic to the structure .
    • “ Fictive Kinship”
      • In many (most?) societies, the role of kinship is so important, people do not know how to relate to one another unless they first establish their kin-relationship.
      • People who do not have a place in the kinship system are incorporated into it through “fictive kinship” (e.g. Richard Lee).
      • Does Singapore have “fictive” kinship?
    • Patri- and Matri- (Some Terminology) Patri- (male) Matri- (female) -archy (rule, govern) -lineal (in the line of) -local (residence, location) Patriarchy: society in which power is disproportionately held by men Examples: Matrilineal: society in which property, names, status, etc. is inherited through women Patrilocal: society in which married couples live with the man’s side of the family *These are all different things; a society can be matrilineal but patriarchal
    • Terminology You Should Know
      • Patrilineal – inheritance through fathers
      • Matrilineal – inheritance through mothers
      • Bilateral – inheritance through both
      • Patrilocal – living with father’s side
      • Martilocal – living with mother’s side
      • Neolocal – living in a new place
      • Patriarchal – society in which men more empowered
      • Matriarchal – society in which women are more empowered
      • Egalitarian – society in which men and women are (more-or-less) equally empowered
    • Patrilineal, Patrilocal* Systems
      • Patrilineal inheritance (a cultural rule):
        • Property passes from fathers to sons
      • Patrilocal residence (a cultural rule):
        • Women live with husband’s family
      • Common in China, India, Europe
        • While the cultural basis of much “Asian Values” talk, it is clearly not exclusively “Asian”
      *Also called “virilocal”: living with the man/husband
    • Matrilineal, Matrilocal* Systems
      • Matrilineal inheritance (a cultural rule):
        • Property passes from mothers to daughters
      • Matrilocal residence (a cultural rule):
        • Men live with wife’s family
      • Common in Southeast Asia, Africa (including !Kung San), Native America
      • Found in China (Yunnan, Sichuan), India
      *Also called “uxorilocal”: living with the uncle/mother’s-brother
    • Why have patrilineal or matrilineal inheritance? What are the effects of these cultural rules?
    • Thought Question
      • Why would any parents or any society be so mean as to give all their property to only one child or only to one gender?
      Parents 4 Children 16 Grandchildren 32 Great- Grandchildren Large Plot Medium Plot Small Plot Tiny Plot!
    • “ Dadi’s Family”
      • What cultural patterns can you identify in the marriage and kinship structures of “Dadi’s Family”?
      • What conflicts emerge because of those patterns?
      • How are those patterns changing? What social and economic forces are putting pressure on the kinship system of Dadi’s family?
      • What roles to different people in the family play? How does the cultural model of kinship influence what individuals in the family say and do?
    • Creating Mothers-in-law
      • Kinship (cultural rules) turns biological reproduction into social reality.
      • “ Mother-in-law” = mother of your spouse.
      • Mothers-in-law are very important in patrilineal, patrilocal systems; but not so much in matrilineal, matrilocal systems.
      • WHY?
    • Mothers-in-law & Daughters-in-law
      • As daughters-in-law, women move into families where they are newcomers, without connections and social support. They have little power.
      • Women gain power by producing sons; who in turn marry, creating new daughters-in-law.
      • Over their life cycle, vulnerable daughters-in-law become powerful mothers-in-law. (But only by giving birth to sons.)
    • Patrilineal, Patrilocal Rules produce Patriarchal Relationships
      • Women are dependent on men. Their social status (and livelihood) depends on marrying a husband and producing sons.
      • Girls are of little value to their families; they are “married off” and join husband’s family.
      • Structurally and functionally , the system provides an incentive for women to support it (becoming a mother-in-law); even though it is systemically oppressive to women.
    • Matrilineal Systems: Minangkabau
      • Daughters inherit land and houses from Mothers.
      • Sons “merantau” – leave the community, go abroad to seek their fortune.
      • Men return with wealth, marry into women’s families.
    • Matrilineal, Matrilocal Rules produce Egalitarian Relationships
      • Women are not dependent on husbands or sons – they own property in their own right. Girls are of value to their parents.
      • Men are not dependent on women; they must “make their fortune” to be eligible husbands – but that wealth is “theirs”.
      • Mother’s-brothers (uncles) are more important figures of authority than fathers.
    • Other Effects of Matrilineality
      • Minangkabau men are renowned traders (Matrilineality inspires entrepreneurship!).
      • Much less rape and domestic violence.
        • Gender relationships are more equal.
        • Authority figures in boy’s lives (uncles) are not their mother’s sexual partners (father/husband); sex and power are not as strongly linked in men’s sense of masculinity.
      • Divorce more common (marriage less enduring).
        • Easier for both men and women to “walk away”.
    • Bilateral, Neolocal Systems
      • Bilateral inheritance (a cultural rule):
        • Property passes from parents to children (without respect to gender)
      • Neolocal residence (a cultural rule):
        • Couples live in a new place; away from parents
      • Common in Industrial and Post-Industrial Societies around the World
        • Very commonly accompanied everywhere with talk about the loss of “traditional family values”
    • Why the Shift to Bilateral, Neolocal Systems?
      • Shift away from need to maintain large plots of land for agriculture (most people work in cities).
      • Without this need, parents are not inclined to discriminate between their children based on gender (bilateral inheritance).
      • Systems of mass production and mass consumption reorganize society (e.g. factories).
      • Children are incorporated into new institutions (e.g. companies, nation-states) and rely less on kinship systems (neolocal residence).
    • Loss of Complexity in Industrial Societies
      • In industrial societies, kinship becomes less important than foraging or agrarian societies.
      • Complexity of kinship is lost as its organizational importance is displaced by other cultural principles and social institutions.
      • “ Anglo-American” kinship in the 19 th century (Gillis)
      • Contemporary China under the one-child policy.
    • 1980 2000 2020 China’s kinship structure – “One Child Policy” “ Uncle” “ Aunt” “ Cousin” Will All Structurally Cease to Exist (At least in theory)
    • New Horizons of Kinship
      • What are the implications of new reproductive technology?
      • What are the implications of completely decoupling sex and reproduction?
        • Highly effective birth control; abortion
        • Sperm donation
        • Surrogate Motherhood
        • Commodification
        • (Men pay for sex; Women pay for sperm)
    • Meet the Donor 66 Family
      • The Donor Sibling Registry: Creating “Donor Families” (Started by Wendy and Ryan Kramer)
      • Donor 66 Family: Ryan, his 10 to 25 siblings, their mothers.
      • 30,000 children every year in the United States.
      • Up to 1 Million children so far.
      • The DSR has identified up to 20 Siblings from 1 Donor.
      • Cases of over one hundred offspring from single donors
      Front Row: Women who share a Donor Back Row: Siblings and half-siblings 6 Brothers & Sisters of 5 Mothers & Donor 66
    • 48QAH
      • Donor #48-QAH (“Quite a Hunk”)
      • 150-200 Donations @ $50 each.
      • Paid $10,000 to father up to 200 children. (Surrogate mothers get more to give birth to just one child.)
      • Implications?
      • Relationship with Donor; Siblings?
      • Paternal Responsibilities?
      • “ Surrogate Fathers”?
      • Accidental Incest?
      • Industry Regulation?
    • Kinship & Cultivation of the Heart
      • Kinship, like all cultural systems, is a conceptual structure that people are born into, live through, and which remains after the death of any individual.
      • Kinship (and other cultural systems) are perpetuated through the struggles, triumphs, creativity and cultivation of the people who live them . . . Think of…
        • The experimentation with family and kinship in America and Europe during the early 19 th century (Gillis)
        • The struggle of Dadi to simultaneously hold her family together and to see her children thrive (“Dadi’s Family”).
      Two TUN with their TUMA BA and !HAI