Major Genetically Modified Crops

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Major Genetically Modified Crops

Major Genetically Modified Crops

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  • 1. Major GM Crops
  • 2. GM Rice
    • Golden rice is a type of GM rice. It contains a large amount of Vitamin-A due to beta-carotene which is found in carrots. This beta-carotene is changed by the body into Vitamin-A, which is absorbed by the body and can help the eyes.
    •     Beta-carotene is what gives carrots their orange color and the reason why GM Rice is a shade of orange (golden). Three genes are implanted into the GM rice, two from daffodils and one from a bacterium. These genes allow the rice to produce beta-carotene on their own.
    http://beta.irri.org/solutions/images/news/golden_rice2.jpg http://sekolahku.net:29437/pages/DoyouknowPic/carrot1.jpg
  • 3. GM Rice: Advantages & Disadvantages
    • Advantages
    • In poor and developing countries, the staple of many peoples food diet is rice. The meals of the people in such countries provide them with very few nutrients. Also, a deficiency of the Vitamin-A can lead to blindness, which is common in these countries as well. Golden rice is a special advantage to these countries whose everyday meal is rice as it provides more nutrients their and helps those limit blindness.
    • Disadvantages
    • The problem with Golden Rice is that it is just another way to have developing countries to be dependent on those that are developed, such as the western world. Companies in the west, such as Monsanto, are the owners of the GM patents. With this power, such companies can force farmers to buy new rice or can altogether stop the usage of seeds.
    • It also makes genetic engineering more wide spread. To those against genetic engineering, it is a problem as when the GM crops spread, it is hard to take them back, especially if a country becomes to dependent on the crops. The opponents feel that soon, with all the farmers using their crops, they can invent more and more and soon own rights to every farmers’ crops.
  • 4. GM Soybeans
    • The US, in 1996, was the first country to plant GM soybeans. The US is the worlds leading producer of soybeans, producing 33% of the soybeans overall in 2007. The US is followed by Brazil. GM soybean crops cover more than 60 million hectares of farm land around the world. These soybeans are genetically modified to be herbicide resistant such as the Roundup Ready® Soybean variety from Monsanto.
    • The GM soybeans are mainly used as livestock feed. They are used in products of tofu and soy sauce. Soybeans are important for their use as an emulsifier, which aids in the mixture of oil and water, which is put in products such as ice cream, chocolate, and margarine.
    http://www.foodmag.com.au/Uploads/PressReleases/food/Images-20090323/soya.jpg http://www.treehugger.com/gm-soybeans.jpg
  • 5. GM Soybeans: Advantages & Disadvantages
    • Advantages
    • These soybeans help farmers in that they provide for easier weed management. The GM crops makes spraying herbicides less damaging to the crop. There is also no limit on rotation of the crops and the make growing soybeans cheaper for the farmers.
    • These crops also allow for a larger crop size as it is easy to fight pests.
    • The environment can also be helped as the farmers can use an environmentally friendly crops spray. The farmers can also protect the environment by using less crop spray.
    • Disadvantages
    • GM soybeans are a growing problem in Latin America. The world's most grown GM crop has a need for more fertilizer due to the a gene that provides a resistance to glyphosphate, a herbicide.
    • The problem with GM soybeans that have a built in resistance to a herbicide is that the soybeans can spread its genes to surrounding organisms.
    • GM soybeans are a growing problem in Latin America. The world's most grown GM crop has a need for more fertilizer due to the a gene that provides a resistance to glyphosphate, a herbiside.
  • 6. GM Tomatoes
    • The symbol for GM food has used to be the tomato. The first food that was available to consumers was the transgenic FlavrSavr, which was a long lasting tomato. This GM tomato was brought out in the market in 1994 after vigorous testing by the FDA for two years. The trait the GM tomatoes were given a deactivated gene. This gene allowed for the tomatoes to stay firm for a longer time as the gene made the tomato crop unable to produce the enzyme, polygalacturonase, which softens fruit. The tomato puree that came out in the mid 1990’s turned out to be very profitable and was made out of GM tomatoes, such as the FlavrSavr. The Tomato Puree said that they were made of GM tomatoes on its label.
    • These days there are modified tomatoes with traits such as resistance to insects and resistance to fungal and viral pathogens and traits that add to a more nutritious tomato.
    http://www.tomatocasual.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/genticallay-modified-tomato.jpg http://img2.photographersdirect.com/img/27/wm/pd1654528.jpg
  • 7. GM Tomatoes: Advantages & Disadvantages
    • Advantages
    • This is great for the tomato companies because it means tomatoes can stay ripe for longer while being transported, allowing workers to not have to pick the tomatoes green. Therefore, tomatoes are allowed to sun ripen longer which creates a tastier tomato. 
    • Disadvantages
    •     This is great for the tomato companies because it means tomatoes can stay ripe for longer while being transported, allowing workers to not have to pick the tomatoes green. Therefore, tomatoes are allowed to sun ripen longer which creates a tastier tomato. 
  • 8. GM Corn: Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt)
    • Bt corn is a GM corn variety that produces its own pesticide. It has been approved for the use in corn since 1996.
    • A gene from the soil bacterium that  is toxic to the insects is inserted into the corn crop. From then on, the corn is protected from pests throughout its life, specifically the European corer. In 2003, another variety of Bt corn came out that also protects the crops from the corn root worm.
    http://www.scq.ubc.ca/quarterly023/0203hall.html
  • 9. GM Corn: Herbicide-Tolerant (Ht)
    • Herbicide-tolerant (Ht) crops were developed to help a crop survive the use of specific herbicides and targeted weeds that are harmful to the crops.
    • A gene from a soil bacterium that is tolerant to glyphosate, a herbicide, is inserted into the corn crops. There after, the modified corn crops become resistant to the herbicides and can grow without being affected by the herbicide sprayings and the weeds.
    http://www.trendhunter.com/images/phpthumbnails/951_1_230.jpeg
  • 10. GM Corn: Advantages & Disadvantages
    • Advantages
    • This is great for the tomato companies because it means tomatoes can stay ripe for longer while being transported, allowing workers to not have to pick the tomatoes green. Therefore, tomatoes are allowed to sun ripen longer which creates a tastier tomato. 
    • Disadvantages
    • This is great for the tomato companies because it means tomatoes can stay ripe for longer while being transported, allowing workers to not have to pick the tomatoes green. Therefore, tomatoes are allowed to sun ripen longer which creates a tastier tomato. 
  • 11. References
    • http://www.bionetonline.org/English/Content/ff_cont3.htm
    • http://www.scidev.net/en/opinions/growing-problem-gm-soybeans-in-latin-america.html
    • http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/grocery_shopping/fruit_vegetables/15.genetically_modified_tomatoes.html
    • http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/25504/1/pp062623.pdf
  • 12. Image Reference
    • Image1: http://beta.irri.org/solutions/images/news/golden_rice2.jpg
    • Image 2: http://sekolahku.net:29437/pages/DoyouknowPic/carrot1.jpg
    • Image 3 : http://www.treehugger.com/gm-soybeans.jpg
    • Image 4: http://www.foodmag.com.au/Uploads/PressReleases/food/Images-20090323/soya.jpg
    • Image 5: http://www.tomatocasual.com/wpcontent/uploads/2008/02/genticallay-modified-tomato.jpg
    • Image 6: http://img2.photographersdirect.com/img/27/wm/pd1654528.jpg
    • Image 7: http://www.scq.ubc.ca/quarterly023/0203hall.html
    • Image 8: http://www.trendhunter.com/images/phpthumbnails/951_1_230.jpeg