Feast of Restoration of Independence is our most important Polish national feast. It is associated with the recovery of independence in 1918, after 123 years Annexations. Strong Republic once, in the eighteenth century has begun to incline towards collapse, which led to the three partitions of Poland. The Partitions of Poland - three territorial divisions of the Polish state made in the years 1772, 1793 and 1795 by neighboring countries: Russia, Austria and Prussia. The last third of cutting lasted from 1795 up until 1918 when, 11 November, the Regent Council (the body which exercises authority over the Kingdom of Poland) sent the authority of the military Joseph Piłsudski , and three days later is solved, giving him full authority as the Main Commander of Poland. It was originate The Second Respublic . 11 November established a public holiday for the first time only in 1937. In the years 1939-45, during the Nazi occupation, and for the period from 1945 to 1989, when communist governments, handling holidays Nov. 11 was prohibited. It was not until 1989, the Parliament Act, restored the celebration of this feast, this year Independence Day is the most important public holiday. Let us remember all those who sacrificed their lives for the Motherland.
Mapa terytorium Polski Z czasu przed rozbiorami. 1 200 000 km 2
Land of Republic after the Second Partitions (200 000 km2 and 4mln inhabitants). - Rzeczpospolita - Prusy - Rosja
„ Rejtan – The Fall of Poland” oil on canvas by Jan Matejko
Poland was the 123 years under Annexations. . Over the decades, many Poles and pull the weapon against invaders . These actions named Nationally-Liberation Insurrections . In Poland has been following Insurrection: Kościuszko Uprising , 1794r. November Uprising , 1830- 1831r. Krakow Uprising , 1846r. Poznan Uprising , 1848r. January Uprising , 1863- 1865r. For the effort Nationally-Liberation Insurrections also include Spring Peoples , in in areas occupied by Prussia and Austria .
Tadeusz Kosciuszko - Leader of Insurrection of the 1794r. Roch III
Battle of Racławice; 1974 Oil painting of Jan Matejko
Image of the nineteenth century, representing an episode from the 1794 Kosciuszko Insurrection
Many historians consider that the main reason for the collapse of the country was an abuse of rights Liberum V eto , which from 1652r. allow every nobleman to rupture the Se y m and the rejection of all resolutions adopted by the S ey m. Only the so-called „ Conffederacys D iet ” was free from Liberum veto. Grand Sejm adopted the Constitution Third of May was just such Sejm and only allowed to adopt radical, as the then moved on reforms. Constitution of May 3, was to be a response to the worsening situation of internal and international Republic of Both Nations, which is not yet 150 years ago was one of the major European powers and the largest country in Europe. However, the idea of reform in the Republic of Lithuania was not comfortable for bordering countries. The weakness of the kingdom of Poland was advantageous for them. To prevent the emergence of modern Poland, tsarina Katarzyna the Great and King Frederick the Great of Prussia, provoked a conflict between „ conservatists " in the Sejm and the king of Poland , for the rights of religious minorities . This gives the beginning of the civil war, which lasted until 1772, when Polish forces have been overwhelming Russian forces and Poland ceased to exist on the map , however, remained in the hearts of Poles there and survived.
Piotr Wysocki(197-1875) Polish Army officer, a soldier of the November Uprising; the leader of the conspiracy of cadets
General Joseph Sowinsky one of the leaders of the November Uprising General Jozeph Chlopicky dictator of November Uprising Nieczuja Prawdzic
"Oath" from the series "Lithuania" Artur Grottger (Uprising January 1863)
„ Farewell to Europe ” Oil painting of Alexander Sochaczewski
„ Who does not respect and do not appreciate your the past , T his is not worthy respect of the present , and does not have the right for the future. ” -Józef Piłsudski-
"Jozef Pilsudski on Kasztanka" painted Wojciech Kossak
Pilsudski - 1917r. talking to the Commissioner of Military College.
First World War - pru sian soldiers in the trenches
Chamber of Polish Senate in Warsaw Royal Catle
Medal commemorating Constitution of May 3, 1791
1 939. - Ceremony on the occasion of 125 anniversary of the vote of the Constitution 3rd of Ma . y Marszałkowska Street. Students at the University of Warsaw, in the depths of the Church of the Savior ..
And so now we are celebrating the recovery of independence …
"We, the First Brigade", or rather the March of First Brigade , there was a song Polish Legions commanded by Jozef Pilsudski. he probable author of this song was a captain Andrzej Brzuchal-Sikorsk i, since 1905 he was bandmaster orchestra Fire-Department into Kielce and next in orchestra I Brigade ’ s of Polish Legions of Jozef Pilsudski. He just was the first properly, arranger and performer of the song. Here performed by the Choir of the Polish Army.
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