College Students and gambling

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For January 2011 Residential Programs and Services Conference at Indiana University

For January 2011 Residential Programs and Services Conference at Indiana University

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  • IPGAP= Indiana Problem Gambling Awareness Program
  • LINK- Gambling/games definition on Wikipedia Beer pong= gambling with health (of value)
  • Many college students are exposed to gambling from and early age, in their families and in the media. Just like cigarettes, gambling is marketed to children in gaming, candy, and on daytime television (cartoons depicting casino games).
  • Hoosier Lottery, pari-mutuel, charity= 18 years old Casino- 21 Example of pari-mutuel betting = horse or dog races, sports betting . “The participants essentially wager against each other, and the odds for the wagers are a function of the distribution of the total dollars wagered over the set of betting options available. The total prize pool is made up of the amount bet on all options less a percentage for the operator of the game.” McClellan and Winters, 2006.
  • There’s more than corn in Indiana! LINK- In 2009, Indiana overtook longtime gambling hot spot Mississippi as the state with the third-highest commercial gambling adjusted gross revenue in the country. Indiana taxes its casinos up to 40 percent of their gross gaming revenue, while Nevada only taxes their casinos up to 6.75 percent of their revenue.
  • UIGEA= Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act = **Congress had been attempting to pass anti-online gaming legislation since 1998. All of these efforts, however, had failed due the immense hurdles entrenched in the law making process. Each year the bill would be held up in committees by lobbyists from various interest groups wanting their piece of the pie. As a result, every legislative session Congress would run out of time before the Bill could be passed. ** Elements of a Violation of the UIGEA To establish that an individual or entity is in violation of the UIGEA, it must be proven that, (1) A "person" was engaged in the business of betting or wagering; (2) That person knowingly accepted a financial instrument or proceeds thereof; AND (3) That instrument was accepted (by the person) in connection with the participation of another person in "unlawful Internet gambling." Thus, when a person (individual or company) that is actively involved in the "business of betting or wagering" (as defined by § 5362(1) and § 532(2)) accepts a financial instrument that they know stems from that business AND it is from another person who is engaged in unlawful Internet gambling , then the UIGEA has been violated. The problem thus becomes, what constitutes "unlawful Internet gambling?" Unlawful Internet Gambling= To place, receive, or otherwise knowingly transmit a bet or wager by any means which involves the use, at least in part, of the Internet where such bet or wager is unlawful under any applicable Federal or State law in the state or tribal lands in which the bet or wager is initiated, received, or otherwise made. Thus, the UIGEA is simply a focused enforcement of the current Internet gambling laws in existence within specific jurisdictions. The Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 did not change any of the existing laws regarding interstate gambling, only the enforcement of those that do exist.
  • The National Annenberg Survey of Youth (NASY) was first fielded in 2002 with 900 young people ages 14 to 22. This in-depth telephone interview with a randomly selected sample of youth (including Spanish speakers) covers a range of both risky and protective behaviors as well as potential targets of intervention. The survey provides the only nationally representative picture of trends in youth gambling. Also covered are beliefs and attitudes regarding the stigma of mental illness, uses of media for entertainment and information and knowledge about the political system.
  • Source: IPRC Indiana Problem Gambling Awareness Program 24/7 Access, links to online credit and ability to be anonymous increase an individuals likelihood to take risks and feel at ease during online gambling. However, these place more than just the individual at risk. (Technological infrastructure at risk, increased debt and family fund drainage)
  • ***College is, for many, the first time they are fully independent. While still attached to guardians financially, they make decisions for themselves. ***Dorm Video Games- “Whoever said "you won't get rich playing video games," never played Entropia Universe -- an online computer game where players adventure, build, buy and sell everything from real estate and services to weapons and armor for real dollars.’” LINK Examples at IU: Hoosier Poker Club at IU (HPC) RAW- Revitalizing Animal Well-Being poker tournament for Earth Day
  • DSM= Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders LINK- NCAA College Sports Betting - NCAA Official Statement NCAA Official Position/Statement “ The NCAA opposes all forms of legal and illegal sports wagering on college sports. Sports wagering has become a serious problem that threatens the well-being of the student-athlete and the integrity of college sports.”
  • Problem Gambling Phases: Winning Phase: Fun, excitement, feeling on top of the world, gambling is everything! Losing Phase: Large losses, using credit to bet, borrowing money, selling possessions (pawning), arguing, missing school or work Desperation Phase: Obsessed with next win/next game, lying, depressed, crime, suicidal ideation “ Studies have shown that individuals who are ethically diverse tend to gamble more often than their European American Counterparts, but far too few studies have been conducted to make any definitive conclusions.” Lesieur and others, 1991, Stinchfield, 2000 and Welte and others, 2004
  • “ Gambling can best be understood and measured on a continuum of risk- no gambling, social gambling, problem gambling and pathological gambling…” -”Most of us can gamble responsibly, but some fail to control their level of playing, or are unable to stop and fail to set and maintain reasonable limits.” 2 types of gamblers: Action: prefer games of skill, typically males that start gambling early in life, describe gambling experiences as euphoric and comparable to being “high” Escape: prefer games of luck (slot machines, video poker or lottery), typically females that begin later in life, describe gambling experiences as hypnotic or numbing, use gambling to escape from other problems Lie-Bet Tool: The Lie-Bet tool (Johnson et al., 1988) has been deemed valid and reliable for ruling out pathological gambling behaviors. The Lie-Bet’s two questions consistently differentiate between pathological gambling and non-problem gambling and are useful in screening to determine whether a longer tool (e.g., SOGS, DSM-IV) should be used in diagnostics. Lie-Bet screening instrument: 1. Have you ever felt the need to bet more and more money? 2. Have you ever had to lie to people important to you about how much you gambled? Problem Gambling (like problematic drinking or drug use, substance abuse) is not defined by how often someone gambles or how much money the person loses, it is defined by the disruption gambling causes. A current workgroup on the DSM 5 (new edition due for release in May 2013) is proposing moving Pathological Gambling from Impulse Control Disorders to new category “Addiction and Related Disorders.”
  • Be aware that gambling is popular. Statements need to be made on campus about IU’s position explicitly about gambling.
  • LINKS- GA= 12 step program SAGA- Materials available for RA and RPS staff NCAA Website suitable for students, administrators, visitors to learn about sports betting and the athletic or sports


  • 1. Jackie Daniels, MSW, LCSW Office of Alternative Screening and Intervention Services AAIP, SMART and MIP Programs Eigenmann Hall West 726 Indiana University, Bloomington January 7 th , 2011 College Students and Gambling What You Need to Know Special Thanks to IPGAP and Dani Marlette Perkins
  • 2. What Are The odds?
    • 1 in 571,787 pregnancies result in the birth of identical quadruplets
    • 1 in 750,000 people will be struck by lightning in 2011
    • 1 in 4 people will be in a car accident in their lifetime
    • Lottery Jackpot? Matching 6 of 6 odds:
            • 1:12,271,512 (Mary Lay, IPRC)
    ??How many of you have ever gambled??
  • 3. Overview
      • Definitions
      • Brief History and Prevalence
      • College Students: Venues, Availability, Exposure
      • Horror Stories
      • Concerns and Implications for Higher Education
      • Recommendations and Resources
  • 4. Games Vs. Gambling
    • Games are activities that involve one or more people, have a goal that is trying to be reached and rules to establish what can and cannot be done. They are played primarily for enjoyment, but can also have an educational role.
    • Gambling is any behavior that involves risking something of value (“the stakes”). It can be a game or contest outcome is dependent upon chance or the ability to do something.
    • Bingo at Moose Lodge
    • State Lottery
    • Beer Pong
    • Monopoly
    • Football
    • NCAA Pool for March Madness/Final Four
  • 5. Types of Gambling Gateway Gambling? “ Play Money.  It looks real but this paper money is intended to be played with instead of spent! Gamble with it at your casino night party! Let little kids tuck it into wallets and purses!” -Oriental Trading Company Casino Lottery Sports Betting Poker Wagering on Horses or Dogs Internet “gaming” Children’s Roulette Wheel Chocolate Poker Chips "Anyone who has ever been with a child who is playing games that would be illegal if they paid out in cash knows how quickly money disappears into these devices, and how mesmerizing they are to children.“ - I. Nelson Rose, law professor at Whittier Law School in California
  • 6. Gambling History in Indiana George Caleb Bingham, Raftsmen Playing Cards , 1847. (Dido Image Bank, Indiana University)
    • October 13th, 1989- First day of scratch-off ticket sales
    • (12:10pm)
    • July 1 st , 1993- Indiana Riverboat Gaming Act was passed (10 riverboats allowed). 10 opened in 1995.
    • September 1, 1995- First Horse track is opened in Anderson
    • 1995 - Off Track Horse Betting Parlors open in Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Merrillville (operated by Churchill Downs)
    • December 6, 2002- Shelbyville opens Hoosier Downs horse track
    • 2002-2004 - Off Track Horse Betting Parlors open in Evansville and Clarksville (operated by Indiana Downs)
    • French Lick Casino opens in 2006 , after legislation called for the addition of another riverboat casino in 2003
    • 2006 - Legislation for “charity gaming” transferred regulation from Indiana Department of Revenue to Indiana Gaming Commission (separate regulations for charity/non-profit gaming). Total value of prizes cannot exceed $1,000 in single event, or $3,000 in one year.
    • 2007 - “RACINOS” 2,000 slot machines added at each of the 2 horse racing tracks in Shelbyville and Anderson.
    • Do you know the legal age limit for?
    • Hoosier Lottery
    • Casino Gambling
    • Parimutuel Betting
    • Charity Gaming
  • 7. There’s More than Corn in Indiana Introduction to Indiana Gambling Laws “Indiana Moves Ahead of Mississippi in 3 rd Nationwide in Gambling”- IDS 3/2010
  • 8. Gambling and The Law
    • STATE
      • UIGEA (2006)
      • Anti-Lottery Laws Prohibit Use of Mail to Promote Lotteries
      • The Wire Wage Act outlaws the use of interstate telephone facilities by those in the gambling business to transmit bets or gambling-related information (1961)
    • Video/Cherry Picker games illegal
    • Internet Gambling, book-making, card games for money and numbers games are illegal
    According to the Indiana Department of Revenue: Playing for Money is illegal (felony) unless at a Casino or at a registered not-for-profit Bookie= an individual who takes bets and either holds them or passes them along to an illegal sports book. - Rockey and King,2006
  • 9. Prevalence of College Student Gambling
    • 400,000 male youth in the college age range (18 to 22) gamble for money at least once a week on the Internet, and over 1.7 million do so at least once a month
    • Gambling rates for females continue to be lower than for their male counterparts, but sports betting is on the rise for women
            • NASY- National Annenberg Survey of Youth
    There is no National Survey of Youth for gambling. Youth gambling studies are local and relatively new. - Winters, Anderson. Journal of Gambling Studies, 2000.   Male youth ages 14 to 17 Male youth ages 18 to 22 Type of Gambling Rate in 2008 Rate in 2010 Change Rate in 2008 Rate in 2010 Change   Cards   20.1   14.5   -5.6   31.6   33.3   1.7   Sports   28.9   24.1   -4.8   23.7   23.1   -0.6   Internet   2.7   6.2   4.5   4.4   16.0   11.6   Other   10.5   6.9   -3.6   33.0   32.1   -0.9   Total   41.7   38.2   -3.5   54.4   52.6   -1.8
  • 10. Why Should we be Concerned?
    • 85% of college students in the US report having been involved in some form of gambling and 23% report being involved on a weekly basis
    • Studies suggest that 4-8% of college students can be classified as problem/pathological gamblers
    • Studies show that another 10% of college students can be considered serious social gamblers where negative consequences occur
    • Problem Gambling among college students is more than DOUBLE that of the general adult population
            • IPRC Indiana Problem Gambling Awareness Program (IPGAP)
    • Technology and Security Issues (Anonymity and 24/7 Access
            • Brown, S. (2006)
  • 11. The Why and What of College Gambling
    • Why do students gamble?
    • Curiosity, experimentation
    • Independence
    • Quick riches
    • Boredom and Depression
    • Entertainment
    • Proximity to casinos
    • Availability of financial means (credit, parents, student loans)
    • Free alcohol in casinos
    • Adrenaline-induced high
    • Inability to regulate impulses
    • Availability of activity on campus
    • Availability
    • Local and campus poker tournaments
    • School/Student Organization sponsored events
    • On-line contests, gambling sites and sports betting sites
    • Family and Friends
    • Pull Tabs, lottery
    • Riverboats, casinos
    • Dorm video game playing
    • Websites to assist Sports Betting
    • Gamble on Grades!
  • 12. Gambling and College Sports NCAA
    • 35% of men and 10% of women admitted to gambling on sports, a direct violation of NCAA rules
    • 14-19% of male student athletes met at least 1 of 10 DSM criteria for pathological gambling
    • Approximately 67% of all college students bet on sports
    • Sports betting is 2 nd to poker in popularity of gambling games among college students
    • -Paskus and Derevensky, 2010, NCAA Research
    “ With gambling closely tied to collegiate athletics, it should come as no surprise that coaches, athletic administrators and even referees report much higher rates of gambling and the negative behaviors associated with it.” Festering Beneath the Surface: College Students and Gambling , Illinois Higher Education Center (2005)
  • 13. Gambling Horror Stories
    • Father Kills Himself, Wife, Children Over Gambling Debt
    • Tennessee Tech Tennis Coach
    • Tulane Point Shaving Scandal
    • Lehigh Student Class President charged with Robbery
    • 1919 World Series
  • 14. How Can You Help ?
    • Know the Signs
    • Frequency
    • Increasing amounts of money and time spent
    • Negative Consequences
    • Gambling to cope with stress, depression or loneliness
        • -Gambling Among College Students, Minnesota Institute of Public Health (MIPH)
    -Medical Advocates of Virginia
    • Debt
    • Missed classes
    • Security
    • Alcohol often involved (not causal, but linked)
    • Alienation and isolation
    • Depression
    • Interpersonal relationship difficulty
    • Addiction
    • Suicide
    • Problem Gambling
    • Term used to describe persons with problems in their lives due to gambling
    • Pathological Gambling
    • Clinical term used to describe Impulse Control Disorder in DSM-IV (312.31)
    Stinchfield, Hanson and Olson, 2006.
  • 16. Recommendations
    • If you choose to gamble: set a plan, stick to it and educate yourself about what you are up against
    • Become aware of problem gambling signs, and risks on campus (exposure, availability, technology and finances)
    • Talk to students, residents and co-workers about gambling (don’t be afraid!). Hold workshops, educate parents and students during orientation…
    • Talk to the IPRC, OASIS or the ADIC if you need resources
    • Enforce current IU related policies that can educate about the dangers of gambling and curb illegal gambling (i.e.- RPS Rules and Regulations D4) and NCAA Regulations
    • Consider development of IU Policy about gambling, involving all stakeholders in discussion (IT and Financial Aid included)
    • Change the Climate of Acceptance
    • Treat problem gambling as a social health issue
  • 17. Resources
    • Indiana Prevention Resource Center/IPGAP
    • Gambler’s Anonymous ( / )
    • National Council on Problem Gambling
    • Problem Gambling Help Line- 1-800-994-8448
    • Centerstone and Amethyst House
    • Florida Council on Problem Gambling- SAGA Program (Students Against Gambling Addiction)- Materials geared towards Residence Hall Staff
    • NCAA Sponsored Website
  • 18. References
    • Indiana Prevention Resource Center- Mary A. Lay, MPH, CHES, CPP- Coordinator of Indiana Problem Gambling Prevention Initiative & IPGAP website ( )
    • Indiana Prevention Resource Center. (2010). Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use by Indiana Children and Adolescents: The IPRC 2010 Prevalence Statistics Main Findings. Indiana Prevention Resource Center. Retrieved December, 2010 from
    • NCAA Office of Government Relations
    • American Gaming Association. (2010). 2010 State of the States . American Gaming Association. Retrieved December 15, 2010 from www. / survey /index.cfm
    • Indiana University Student Code of Conduct and A to Z Guide to Residence Hall Living
    • Brown, S. (2006) . The Surge in Online Gambling on College Campuses. Gambling on Campus . 113, 53-61.
    • Lesieur, H.R.. Cross, J., Frank, M., Welch, M., White, C.M, Rubenstein, G.. Mosely. K., and Mark, M. “Gambling and Pathological Gambling Among University Students .” Addictive Behaviors , 1001, 16 , 517-527.
    • McClellan, G & Winters, K. (2006). Gambling: An Old School New Wave Challenge for Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century. Gambling on Campus. 113, 9-23.
    • Rockey, D. & King, C. (2006) Sports Wagering. Gambling on Campus. 113, 43-51.
    • Stinchfield, R., Hanson, W., & Olson, D. (2006) Problem and Pathological Gambling Among College Students. Gambling on Campus . 113, 63-72.
    • Welte, J.W., et al. Risk Factors for Pathological Gambling. Addictive Behaviors , 2004, 29 , 323-335.
    • Several websites directly linked in presentation