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Campus Alcohol Presentation
 

Campus Alcohol Presentation

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  • Services and Philosophy
  • BAR Lab = Behavioral Alcohol Research LabThe University of Washington create the BAR Lab to evaluate how alcohol and the environment can influence the behavior of a person. The study utilized college students 21 and over who already drank. The participants were asked the same three questions we just discussed (see Slide 8) and were then told that at some point during the study they may be provided with alcohol. The participants were then asked to sign a consent form.
  • This is a picture of the BAR Lab at the University of Washington. It was designed to look and feel like a bar as much as possible.Before moving forward, ask class what the positives and negatives are about alcohol/drug consumption.What do you expect to happen when you drink?BAR Lab = Behavioral Alcohol Research LabThe University of Washington create the BAR Lab to evaluate how alcohol and the environment can influence the behavior of a person. The study utilized college students 21 and over who already drank. The participants were asked the same three questions we just discussed (see Slide 8) and were then told that at some point during the study they may be provided with alcohol. The participants were then asked to sign a consent form.
  • Camera in the middle of this sign, microphones hidden in fire sprinklers.
  • Balanced Placebo DesignThe study utilized a balanced placebo design with intent of separating the chemical effects of alcohol from the psychological effects of drinking. The balanced placebo design involves two conditions in which participants (in this case college students who were age 21 and over and had signed a consent release) received a beverage that was not what it seemed. Some expected to receive alcohol and others expected non-alcoholic drinks.The placebo beer was a blend of several different “Near Beers.” It tasted like beer, but it didn’t actually contain a significant amount of alcohol. The drinks participants were given that appeared to be liquor were really just tonic water with lime.This study has been replicated numerous times with the same results.
  • How do you think participants who expected to receive alcohol and did receive alcohol acted?Pretty much the way you would think they might ask. The students became more talkative, louder, and more flirtatious.
  • How do you think the students who expected to receive no alcohol and actually received no alcohol behaved?Pretty much the way you expect. They primarily kept to themselves, were fairly quite, and did not exhibit much socialization.
  • This group expected alcohol, but got placebo insteadHow do you think the participants who expected to receive alcohol but actually received no alcohol acted?This was the first introduction to the powerful impact of expectancies. By the 20 minute mark, you couldn’t tell the difference between the Alcohol/Alcohol group and this group. The students began showing many of alcohol’s social effects — they became louder, more talkative, and more flirtatious. By the 40 minute mark, students began reporting physical side effects consistent with alcohol consumption.“Alcoholic” beverage= tonic/near beer with rim of alcohol** You could mention the story of the student who acted as though the drinks were really strong.
  • How do you think the students who expected to not receive alcohol but who actually received alcohol behaved?In this group, students were told they were only being served tonic water. Based on each participant’s height and weight, the researchers concocted one drink to get each student to a 0.06% BAL (enough to keep you intoxicated for 4 hours after the study ends). The participants were then given tonic water for the second drink. At the 20 minute mark, the participants indicated that they wanted study to be over. By the 40 minute mark, the physical effects (e.g. fatigue, flushing, lack of coordination) had set in, and people attributed it to not getting enough sleep, having a long day of class, etc. At the end of the experiment (one hour), everyone was required to blow a breathalyzer at to verify that they received alcohol.
  • Example: Perhaps if you’re funny when you drink at a party, you’re actually just a funny person in general.Review influences of set and settingBe sure to ask what questions they have, what they make of these findings, and what they would do with this information.Possible, the main “take away” message might be that if someone chooses to cut down, he won’t be “missing out” on the positives typically attributed to alcohol.If we’ve just talked about what alcohol doesn’t do, let’s talk about what we know alcohol does do.
  • Examples:12 oz. beer – Bud Light10 oz. wine cooler or microbrew – Sam Adams8 oz. malt liquor, Canadian beer, or ice beer – Olde English “800,” Mike’s Hard Lemonade, Smirnoff Ice, Natty Ice6 oz. ice malt liquor – Mickey’s Ice2.5 oz. fortified wine – wine in which a distilled beverage (usually brandy) has been added (e.g. port, sherry)1.25 oz. 80-proof hard alcohol – Smirnoff vodka1 oz. 100-proof hard alcohol – Captain MorganWhat is ice beer?One step in creating beer is allowing parts to evaporate, turn into water droplets, and then slowly fall back into the container. In ice beer, the water droplets are flash frozen and removed, thus increasing the alcohol content of the beer.Quick Conversions:1 pint = 16 oz.a “40” of Olde English “800” = 40 oz. = 5 standard drinksMost people think drinks are counted by containers, rather than by standard drink. Knowing what a standard drink is can help you determine how much alcohol you are actually consuming.CALCULATING A STANDARD DRINK SIZE BASED ON PROOF:0.5 oz. of ethyl alcohol goes in the numerator; alcohol percentage by volume goes in the denominatorExample: 80-proof alcohol (40% ABV)  0.5 / 0.4 = 1.25 oz. is a standard drink wine (12.5% ABV)  0.5 / 0.125 = 4.00 oz. is a standard drink something with 6.2% ABV  0.5 / 0.062 = 8.06 oz. is a standard drink
  • When you swallow a drink the alcohol first travels to your stomach.Some of the alcohol (approximately 20%) begin going through the stomach wall and into your bloodstream through a process called absorption.The rest of the alcohol then travels to the small intestine, where it enters the bloodstream rapidly and completely, regardless of the food content in the small intestine at the time.Therefore, once alcohol reaches the intestine, the rate of absorption is fairly standard.
  • Slower- eatingFaster- effervescence and drinking faster (games, shots, etc.)The higher the concentration of alcohol in your beverage, the faster it is absorbed into your bloodstream.When you have eaten recently and there is still food in your stomach, the movement of alcohol from the stomach into the small intestine is delayed. Thus, the absorption of alcohol will be slower than if you are drinking on an empty stomach.The faster you drink, the faster the alcohol will get into your bloodstream.For example, playing drinking games increases your rate of absorption.Effervescence also increases the rate of absorption.A bubbly drink, such as champagne, will absorb faster. The same holds true for drinks mixed with soda or tonic water.It can take as little as 10 seconds for alcohol to go from the stomach to the bloodstream.
  • Approximately 90% of alcohol is broken down — or metabolized — in the body primarily by the liver and to a lesser extent in the stomach lining.When alcohol is metabolized, it is first changed into a toxic chemical called acetaldehyde; but it is quickly changed into a less toxic chemical called acetate.Eventually, acetate is changed into carbon dioxide and water, which were returned to the bloodstream to be filtered out by the kidneys and eventually excreted as urine.The 10% of the alcohol that is not oxidized in the livers leaves the body through sweat, breath, or directly through urine.
  • Compared with how quickly your body can absorb alcohol, the rate of metabolism is very constant.The liver can only metabolize alcohol at a rate of 0.016% per hour. The rate of metabolism can be thought of as the speed at which a person “sobers up.”There is no way to speed up the “sobering up” process.Coffee, water, exercise, etc. might cause a shock to the system, but it won’t impact your blood alcohol level.Q: When you drink, how long does it take for the alcohol to be detected in your brain?A: 10 secondsQ:What about throwing up?A: Alcohol is in your blood. Throwing up will not impact your BAL. Instead, you feel better when you throw up because the nausea is gone and you feel relief.
  • Sober, an individual can consider the full range of values, thoughts, concerns, and rules.
  • As the person’s BAL continues to rise, however…
  • S/he begins focusing more and more…
  • On the “here and now.” Thus the term, MYOPIA mean nearsightedness. Alcohol myopia refers to the phenomenon that affects cognitive processing as a person’s BAL increases, resulting in a narrow focus on the “here and now.”At higher BALs, the usual concerns, values, thoughts, and rules may be out of “focus.”Alcohol myopia begins at a 0.06% BAL.As the person drinks more, their range of consideration narrows.Example: Beer goggles – the focus shifts to the immediate feeling of wanting to hook up with someone (but not always the someone immediately in front of the student). Because of alcohol myopia, the person does not consider the other factors surrounding the situation.Alcohol myopia is also why suicidal feelings and/or manifestations of depression can be more pronounced at higher BALs. The person focuses on immediate feelings and nothing else.
  • Why does the woman attain a BAL twice that of the man?Different fluid volume – It is estimated that, whereas an average male body is composed of approximately 60% water, an average female body is only 50% water (because women have a higher body fat content than men). Lower fluid volumes in women result in a higher concentration of alcohol in the bloodstream.Different enzyme levels – Levels of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase — an enzyme that aids in the decomposition of alcohol — are significantly lower in women than in men.Different hormone levels – A woman’s hormone level change during the luteal phase of her menstrual cycle (typically days 23-28), such that she will get more intoxicated and stay intoxicated longer during this phase. This is also true for women taking oral contraceptives.** BAL is affected by birth sex rather than gender identity
  • There is frequently a lot of “drink matching” at parties between men and women. Thus, it is important to recognize that women are not on the same level as men when it comes to the affects of alcohol on their bodies.
  • When someone develops tolerance, it means that over time, he has to drink more alcohol to get the effects he would normally expect at a lower BAL. Or, consequently, the same amount of alcohol does not produce the effect it did in the past.Tolerance is not the same as BAL. Thus, someone who is not experiencing the expected effects at his current BAL is not any less drunk.Two people or the same weight and sex who have been drinking at the same rate will reach the same BAL, even if one has developed tolerance and the other hasn’t.A majority of tolerance is due to environment.
  • Who is familiar with Pavlov’s study? What do you know about it?Pavlov studied the impact of environmental cues on his dog’s behavior. In his experiment, the ringing of a bell made the dog’s mouth water, even in the absence of food.What connection can we make between Pavlovian conditioning and tolerance?The bell used in Pavlov’s experiment could be some environmental cue for us. This experiment illustrates the adage, “Know what you bring to the table and what the table brings to you.”One study showed that participants failed to exhibit the same level of tolerance when drinking a smurf blue liquid as they did when drinking a liquid perceived as “beer-like.”Another study showed that smokers who re-arranged their houses when they quit smoking experienced fewer cravings and had increased success with quitting.Siegel, S. & Ramos, B.M.C. (2002). Applying laboratory research: Drug anticipation and the treatment of drug addiction. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, 162-183. (http://alcoholism.about.com/cs/alerts/l/blnaa28.htm)
  • Current research on tolerance shows that while tolerance is part physiological, it is largely influenced by the environment.Studies show that in a novel or new setting, people failed to exhibit the same amount of tolerance they did in their usual or familiar settings.How does this concept of tolerance impact if you usually drink at home and but then drink in unfamiliar settings (i.e. tail gates, spring break trips)?
  • Perceived Advantages – Remember that there are no scientific advantages to an increased tolerance. Thus, the advantages a student will share will be perceived advantages.Disadvantages – When people with a low-to-average tolerance have too much alcohol, their bodies let them know (they get dizzy, nauseated, etc.). In essence, they receive cues that suggest they should slow down or stop drinking. Because people who have developed tolerance don’t experience these negative reactions, they drink without the cues that would alert many to stop.Tolerance can give people a false sense of security. People with tolerance may be unaware of how impaired they really are (i.e. how high their BAL actually is) and may drink to a near-lethal dose without getting the cues that would normally prompt them to stop.It’s also more expensive to drink five drinks in order to feel a buzz, compared to only have to drink two drinks.Thus, tolerance results in an increase in negative health risks.A person can gain or lose tolerance. How do you lose it? Take time away form consuming alcohol.Take Aways:Decision making worsens the more you drink, including decisions about when you should call it a night.Numerous factors contribute to alcohol affecting men and women differently.Tolerance does not mean that a person can “handle their alcohol better.”Tolerance in one setting may not follow the person to another setting.
  • The biphasic (two phase) of effect of alcohol says that the body experiences an energizing (perhaps “positive”) component followed by the introduction of the depressant (“negative”) effects of alcohol.
  • Thus, there is a point of diminishing returns.This is the point as which the “positives” have been maximized and the “negatives” have been minimized — one more drink will NOT do the person any good.What is a hangover?There are three hypotheses: (1) The blow to the system that gets more pronounced after 0.06%; (2) Dehydration – alcohol is a diuretic; and (3) Congeners (imperfections in the alcohol – more in dark liquors than light liquors)
  • The point of diminishing returns occurs between 0.05% and 0.06% BAL.What does this mean for you?If you currently drink at or below the point of diminishing returns, you should stay at this point if you haven’t experienced problems associated with drinking.Most importantly, everyone has to find his own limit based on what he wants to get out of drinking.Demonstrate why tolerance results in increase in negative health risks (i.e. the “buzz” isn’t as good, but the depressant effects are more pronounced).
  • The effects of two drugs on the central nervous system can lead to an overdose, even if the dose is typical of previous doses consumed.Recent research on marijuana’s impact on the body:Hippocampus affects attention, concentration, motivation, and memoryEffects of marijuana on the brain: Impaired learning, attention memory; throws off sleepEffects of marijuana on heart rate and blood pressure: Increases heart rate; Raises blood pressureEffects of marijuana on the lungs: Vital lung capacity impacted; Carcinogen exposureAdditional Information on Marijuana and Cognitive Abilities:MTF (Johnston, et al., 2011) past year use of:Marijuana: 33%Tobacco cigarette: 28%Effects on the brain:Hippocampus – attention, concentration, memoryResearch with college students shows impact on these cognitive abilities even 24 hours after last use (Harrison Pope research)After daily use, takes 28 days of abstinence for cognitive performance to match that of non-users
  • Consuming drugs with an antagonistic interaction puts the central nervous system in a physiological “tug of war.”Cross-tolerance can lead to a potentially lethal situation due to the lack of an operative warning system.Additionally, if one drug leaves the system more quickly than the other, a person may be left with a lethal does of one of the drugs in his/her system.** If students ask if there is a negative impact of mixing alcohol and energy drinks, it can be useful to ask them how they feel at the end of the night compared to if they were drinking a beverage that didn’t have an antagonistic effect. They will likely say they feel worse. This is due, at least partially, to the masking effect of the presence of the depressant (alcohol) and stimulant (energy drink), along with dehydration.SPORTS DRINK INFORMATIONThe Higher Ed Center has a free downloadable document on "energy drinks" and the link is as follows: http://www.edc.org/hec/pubs/factsheets/energy-drinks.pdf.If they are energy drinks, they're usually loaded with caffeine so the diuretic properties are worsened (i.e., you're mixing caffeine, which dehydrates people, with alcohol, which dehydrates people). This can actually worsen day after effects. Additionally, the cues that would let someone know how much of a depressant they've ingested (e.g., alcohol), are being masked by the presence of a stimulant (in this case, caffeine). So, it could lead to drinking more. Morec alcohol can lead to obtaining a higher BAL which, in and of itself, can lead to feeling worse the next day.If the sports drinks in question are things like Gatorade, using it as a mixer would have no greater absorption implications than using juice as a mixer. It dilutes the alcohol, so doing anything to break up a person's alcohol consumption or lessen the concentration of what they're drinking could be good. As far as rehydration rates go, that's less an alcohol question and more an "effectiveness of sports drinks" question. They claim to rejuvenate the body, but the question is do these work any better than water does for this purposes? I know of no actual data suggesting these work as hangover remedies (particularly any better than water). One difficulty/danger with suggesting something can be a hangover "remedy" is the idea that the person asking the question is saying, "what if I still want to party like crazy...is there something that will let me do that and avoid feeling bad the next day?" Obviously, the best way to avoid a hangover is to not drink heavily. The hangover may still be there even if someone drinks tons of water (i.e., a hangover is more than just dehydration...it's the body's reaction to having had a toxic substance in one's system). NON-MEDICAL USE OF PRESCRIPTION STIMULANTSAdderallPast year use of Adderall not under a doctor’s order10.2% of students in 20099.0% of students in 2010McCabe and colleagues (2005, 2006)Most (70%) of students estimated rates of prescription stimulant misuse was higher than the actual dataStudents with a B or lower were almost twice as likely to report nonmedical use than students with a B+ or higherNonmedical use of prescription stimulants associated with lower grades by the end of the first year (Arria, 2008)
  • What strategies could you use to reduce your risks?

Campus Alcohol Presentation Campus Alcohol Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Alcohol and iYOUJackie Daniels Indiana University danieljm@indiana.edu
  • WHO WE ARE NOT WHO WE ARE
  • BARLAB (i.e.bestexperimentever!) the
  • EXPECT GET NOALCOHOLALCOHOL ALCOHOL NO ALCOHOL Design
  • THE RESULTS Expected to receive alcohol and did receive alcohol EXPECT GET ALCOHOL NO ALCOHOLALCOHOLNOALCOHOL How do you think these participants behaved?
  • THE RESULTS Expected no alcohol and actually received no alcohol EXPECTGET ALCOHOLNOALCOHOL NO ALCOHOLALCOHOL How do you think these participants behaved?
  • THE RESULTSEXPECTGET NOALCOHOLALCOHOL ALCOHOL NO ALCOHOL Expected alcohol, but got placebo (near beer) *Given mixture of tonic/near beer with rim of glass wiped with vodka How do you think this group behaved?
  • THE RESULTS *Expected no alcohol but actually received alcohol GET EXPECT ALCOHOLNOALCOHOL ALCOHOL NO ALCOHOL *Served one drink to get each participant to a 0.06% based on individual height and weight How do you think this group behaved?
  • SUMMARY The effects of substances are due to the drug itself, the setting a person is in, and his/her mindset. The expectancy effect is more powerful than the chemical or physiological effects of alcohol. The social and interpersonal things that happen with alcohol are a result of expectancies.
  • stand ard drink [stan-derd dringk] n. 1. Anybeveragethatcontains0.5oz.ofethylalcohol 2. 12oz.beer 10oz.winecoolerormicrobrew 8oz.maltliquor,Canadianbeer,oricebeer 6oz.icemaltliquor 4oz.wine 2.5oz.fortifiedwine 1.25oz.80-proofhardalcohol 1oz.100-proofhardalcohol
  • HOWDOESALCOHOL GETINTOYOURSYSTEM?
  • WHATINFLUENCES the RATEOFABSORPTION?
  • HOWDOESALCOHOL LEAVETHESYSTEM?
  • HOWDOYOU SOBERUP? HINT: Not this way.
  • ALCOHOL MYOPIA “I have an exam I need to study for tomorrow. I can’t stay out too long.” “I have a boyfriend/girlfriend. I can’t hook up with someone else.” “Call me when you’re done, I can be your sober ride.” SOBER, an individual can consider a wide range of values, thoughts, concerns and rules. “No, I would never do any other drugs. I only like to drink.” Sure, I’m a good swimmer. But I wouldn’t swim when I’m wasted. “I’m having a hard time, but I can cope.”
  • ALCOHOL MYOPIA
  • ALCOHOL MYOPIA
  • ALCOHOL MYOPIA “Call me when you’re done, I can be your sober ride.” “I have an exam I need to study for tomorrow. I can’t stay out too long.” “No, I would never do any other drugs. I only like to drink.” “I have a boyfriend/girlfriend. I can’t hook up with someone else.” Sure, I’m a good swimmer. But I wouldn’t swim when I’m wasted.” “I’m having a hard time, but I can cope.” As someone drinks, their ability to focus on anything other than what’s in the “here and now” in decreased, becoming: “I want, I need, I feel” NOW!
  • 5 drinks over 3 hours 160 lbs. 120 lbs. 0.069% 0.140% Hormones Enzymes H2O Volume
  • WHY DO WENEED TOKNOW THIS?
  • WHATISTOLERANCE?
  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
  • WHYISTHISIMPORTANT? why is this • While tolerance is part physiological, it is largely influenced by the environment. • Studies show that in a novel or new setting, people failed to exhibit the same amount of tolerance they did in their usual or familiar settings. How could this concept of tolerance impact your drinking? (Examples?)
  • DISADVANTAGES the & ADVANTAGES
  • “Positive” “Negative”
  • “Positive” “Negative”
  • “Positive” “Negative”
  • “Positive” “Negative”
  • “Positive” “Negative”
  • “Positive” “Negative”
  • “Positive” “Negative” .05- .06
  • DIMINISHING point of RETURNS TIPS 1. If you haven’t experienced problems associated with drinking, drink at or below your current rate/amount 2. If you have experienced problems, drink less and space more! Or, take a break to decrease your physiological tolerance.
  • Protective Skills • Space and pace your drinking (remember .016% per hour) • Figure out your “point of diminishing returns” • Count your drinks • Alternate between non-alcoholic and alcoholic drinks • Eat before and during drinking • Make a decision about hooking up before you go out • Avoid drinking games • Avoid shots and/or mixed drinks (fizzy) • Stop drinking when you feel dizzy, nauseous, or tired • Arrange transportation before you go out!
  • drug drugINTERACTION
  • po ten ti a tion [puh-ten-shee-ey-shun] n. 1. theinteractionthatresultsfromthecombinationoftwodrugsthatactinthe samedirection,suchastwocentralnervoussystemdepressants;aninteraction mostcommonlysummarizedthroughthemathematicalequation1+1>2 2. alcohol+marijuana alcohol+vicodin alcohol+valium
  • an tag o nis tic [an-tag-uh-nis-tik] n. 1. theinteractionthatresultsfromthecombinationoftwodrugsthatactinthe oppositedirection,suchasonecentralnervoussystemdepressantandone centralnervoussystemstimulant 2. alcohol+cocaine alcohol+speed alcohol+ecstasy alcohol+energydrink
  • Indiana Lifeline Law www.indianalifelinelaw.org Mental Confusion Unresponsive Snoring/Gasping for Air Throwing Up Hypothermia Erratic Breathing Loss of Consciousness Paleness/Bluish Skin
  • Resources • IU Health Center: • CaPS- Mental Health • Health and Wellness • Sexual Assault Crisis Services • OASIS- Substance Use, Abuse, Addiction and Recovery
  • STRATEGIES What strategies will you use to reduce your risks?
  • FIND OASIS & Feedback FACEBOOK: OASISIUB TWITTER: @IUDRUGALCPREV WEBSITE: studentaffairs.iub.edu/oasis/