COMMUNICATIVA ORAL ABILITIES

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COMMUNICATIVA ORAL ABILITIES

  1. 1. 2 PRELIMINARES Esta publicación se terminó de imprimir durante el mes de diciembre de 2011. Diseñada en Dirección Académica del Colegio de Bachilleres del Estado de Sonora Blvd. Agustín de Vildósola; Sector Sur. Hermosillo, Sonora, México La edición consta de 965 ejemplares. COLEGIO DE BACHILLERES DEL ESTADO DE SONORA Director General Mtro. Julio Alfonso Martínez Romero Director Académico Ing. Arturo Sandoval Mariscal Director de Administración y Finanzas C.P. Jesús Urbano Limón Tapia Director de Planeación Ing. Raúl Leonel Durazo Amaya COMMUNICATIVE ORAL ABILITIES Módulo de Aprendizaje. Copyright ©, 2011 por Colegio de Bachilleres del Estado de Sonora todos los derechos reservados. Primera edición 2011. Impreso en México. DIRECCIÓN ACADÉMICA Departamento de Desarrollo Curricular Blvd. Agustín de Vildósola, Sector Sur Hermosillo, Sonora. México. C.P. 83280 COMISIÓN ELABORADORA: Elaborador: Jesús Moisés Galaz Duarte Revisión Disciplinaria: Edna Elinora Soto Gracia Corrección de Estilo: Viridiana Vidal Trasviña Apoyo Metodológico: Jesús Moisés Galaz Duarte Supervisión Académica: Luz María Grijalva Díaz Diseño: Joaquín Rivas Samaniego Edición: Cynthia Deyanira Meneses Avalos Coordinación Técnica: Claudia Yolanda Lugo Peñúñuri Diana Irene Valenzuela López Coordinación General: Ing. Arturo Sandoval Mariscal
  2. 2. 3PRELIMINARES Ubicación Curricular HORAS SEMANALES: 03 CRÉDITOS: 06 DATOS DEL ALUMNO Nombre: _______________________________________________________________ Plantel: __________________________________________________________________ Grupo: _________________ Turno: _____________ Teléfono:___________________ E-mail: _________________________________________________________________ Domicilio: ______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ COMPONENTE: FORMACIÓN PARA EL TRABAJO CAPACITACIÓN PARA EL TRABAJO: IDIOMAS (INGLES)
  3. 3. 4 PRELIMINARES
  4. 4. 5PRELIMINARES Presentación .........................................................................................................................................................7 Mapa de asignatura..............................................................................................................................................8 BLOCK 1: IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION..................................................9 Didactic Sequence 1: The purpose of speaking and communication ..............................................................10 • Start up activity............................................................................................................................................10 • Development activities................................................................................................................................12 • Closing activity ............................................................................................................................................18 Didactic Sequence 2: Tips for effective communication in English...................................................................20 • Start up activity............................................................................................................................................20 • Development activities................................................................................................................................21 • Closing activity............................................................................................................................................29 Didactic Sequence 2: Intercultural communication ...........................................................................................32 • Start up activity............................................................................................................................................32 • Development activities................................................................................................................................37 • Closing activity ............................................................................................................................................46 BLOCK 2: PURPOSE AND TONE.........................................................................................................53 Didactic Sequence 1: Using correct intonation..................................................................................................54 • Start up activity............................................................................................................................................54 • Development activities................................................................................................................................56 • Closing activity ............................................................................................................................................61 Didactic Sequence 2: Linking, idioms and slang in American English .............................................................63 • Start up activity............................................................................................................................................63 • Development activities................................................................................................................................64 • Closing activity ............................................................................................................................................76 BLOCK 3: ENGLISH PRODUCTION AND PRACTICE .........................................................................79 Didactic Sequence 1: Spoken accomplishments “Job-related” .......................................................................80 • Start up activity............................................................................................................................................80 • Development activities................................................................................................................................82 • Closing activity ............................................................................................................................................91 Didactic Sequence 2: Spoken accomplishments “Social, daily life”.................................................................94 • Start up activity............................................................................................................................................94 • Development activities................................................................................................................................96 • Closing activity ..........................................................................................................................................106 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................110 Content
  5. 5. 6 PRELIMINARES
  6. 6. 7PRELIMINARES “Una competencia es la integración de habilidades, conocimientos y actitudes en un contexto específico”. El enfoque en competencias considera que los conocimientos por sí mismos no son lo más importante, sino el uso que se hace de ellos en situaciones específicas de la vida personal, social y profesional. De este modo, las competencias requieren una base sólida de conocimientos y ciertas habilidades, los cuales se integran para un mismo propósito en un determinado contexto. El presente Módulo de Aprendizaje de la asignatura Communicative Oral Abilities, es una herramienta de suma importancia, que propiciará tu desarrollo como persona visionaria, competente e innovadora, características que se establecen en los objetivos de la Reforma Integral de Educación Media Superior que actualmente se está implementando a nivel nacional. El Módulo de aprendizaje es uno de los apoyos didácticos que el Colegio de Bachilleres te ofrece con la intención de estar acorde a los nuevos tiempos, a las nuevas políticas educativas, además de lo que demandan los escenarios local, nacional e internacional; el módulo se encuentra organizado a través de Blocks de aprendizaje y secuencias didácticas. Una Didactic Sequence es un conjunto de actividades, organizadas en tres momentos: Inicio, desarrollo y cierre. En el inicio desarrollarás actividades que te permitirán identificar y recuperar las experiencias, los saberes, las preconcepciones y los conocimientos que ya has adquirido a través de tu formación, mismos que te ayudarán a abordar con facilidad el tema que se presenta en el desarrollo, donde realizarás actividades que introducen nuevos conocimientos dándote la oportunidad de contextualizarlos en situaciones de la vida cotidiana, con la finalidad de que tu aprendizaje sea significativo. Posteriormente se encuentra el momento de cierre de la Didactic Sequence , donde integrarás todos los saberes que realizaste en las actividades de inicio y desarrollo. En todas las actividades de los tres momentos se consideran los saberes conceptuales, procedimentales y actitudinales. De acuerdo a las características y del propósito de las actividades, éstas se desarrollan de forma individual, binas o equipos. Para el desarrollo del trabajo deberás utilizar diversos recursos, desde material bibliográfico, videos, investigación de campo, etc. La retroalimentación de tus conocimientos es de suma importancia, de ahí que se te invita a participar de forma activa, de esta forma aclararás dudas o bien fortalecerás lo aprendido; además en este momento, el docente podrá tener una visión general del logro de los aprendizajes del grupo. Recuerda que la evaluación en el enfoque en competencias es un proceso continuo, que permite recabar evidencias a través de tu trabajo, donde se tomarán en cuenta los tres saberes: el conceptual, procedimental y actitudinal con el propósito de que apoyado por tu maestro mejores el aprendizaje. Es necesario que realices la autoevaluación, este ejercicio permite que valores tu actuación y reconozcas tus posibilidades, limitaciones y cambios necesarios para mejorar tu aprendizaje. Así también, es recomendable la coevaluación, proceso donde de manera conjunta valoran su actuación, con la finalidad de fomentar la participación, reflexión y crítica ante situaciones de sus aprendizajes, promoviendo las actitudes de responsabilidad e integración del grupo. Nuestra sociedad necesita individuos a nivel medio superior con conocimientos, habilidades, actitudes y valores, que les permitan integrarse y desarrollarse de manera satisfactoria en el mundo social, profesional y laboral. Para que contribuyas en ello, es indispensable que asumas una nueva visión y actitud en cuanto a tu rol, es decir, de ser receptor de contenidos, ahora construirás tu propio conocimiento a través de la problematización y contextualización de los mismos, situación que te permitirá: Aprender a conocer, aprender a hacer, aprender a ser y aprender a vivir juntos. Presentación
  7. 7. 8 PRELIMINARES COMMUNICATIVEORAL ABILITIES BLOCK 1: Importance of improving oral communication. DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 1 The purpose of speaking and communication. DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 2 Tips for effective communication in english. DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 3 Intercultural communication. BLOCK 2: Purpuse and tone. DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 1 Using correct intonation. DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 2 Linking, idioms and slang in american english. BLOCK 3: English production and practice. DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 1 Spoken accomplishments "job- related". DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 2 Spoken accomplishments "social, daily life".
  8. 8. Time assigned: 15 hrs. Importance of Improving Oral Communication. Competencias profesionales: 1. Realiza comprensiones oral y auditiva de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. 2. Realiza comprensión escrita y de lectura de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. 3. Realiza expresión o producción oral en otro idioma. 4. Realiza interacción oral en otro idioma. 5. Realiza expresión o producción escrita de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. Unidad de competencia:  Observa y muestra el modo de comunicarse de forma oral en Ingles, con mayor eficacia, cubriendo aspectos como la comunicación efectiva relacionándola a diversas culturas de manera formal e informal. Atributos a desarrollar en el bloque: Durante el presente bloque se busca desarrollar los siguientes atributos de las competencias genéricas: 4.1 Expresa ideas y conceptos mediante representaciones lingüísticas, matemáticas o gráficas. 4.2 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los objetivos que persigue. 4.3 Identifica las ideas claves en un texto o discurso oral e infiere conclusiones a partir de ellas. 4.4 Se comunica en una segunda lengua en situaciones cotidianas. 4.5 Maneja las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para obtener información y expresar ideas. 6.4 Estructura ideas y argumentos de manera clara, coherente y sintética. 7.1 Define metas y da seguimiento a sus procesos de construcción de conocimiento. 8.2 Aporta puntos de vista con apertura y considera los de otras personas de manera reflexiva. 10.3 Asume que el respeto de las diferencias es el principio de integración y de convivencia de los contextos locales, nacional e internacional.
  9. 9. 10 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Didactic Sequence 1. The purpose of speaking and communication. Startup Activity 1. In teams of three, brainstorm ideas for a definition of communication. 2. Complete the following K W L chart with your ideas about what “Communication” is. 3. The last list will be finished at the end of the Sequence. Activity: 1
  10. 10. 11 BLOCK 1 Rubric Categories 1 2 3 4 5 Level of Engagement in Discussion The student actively participates in the discussion offering constructive input. Behavior and Listening Skills The student listens thoughtfully to what others have to say. Preparedness The student answers questions or responds to statements made by the teacher or the group. The student asks appropriate and thoughtful questions pertaining to the discussion. The student uses appropriate vocabulary during the discussion. Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: KWL chart and flipchart. Score: knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Remembers and recognizes by discussing in class a definition of communication. Selects and transfers in the product the differences and the importance of communication. Integrates previous knowledge while identifying. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher. 4. Create a group discussion. 5. Present and explain the discussion’s results to the class on a flip chart. 6. Evaluate one team assigned by your teacher. Activity: 1 (continuation)
  11. 11. 12 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Development Activities 1. In teams of three read the information presented. 2. Discuss the information and answer the question. Why is well spoken English an advantage? In your own words why do you think speaking well English is important? Which of the categories from the outline is more important and why? Present the team’s conclusions. Activity: 2 ImportanceofSpeakingWellinEnglish BySteveGreechie,eHowContributor English is the second most widely spoken language in the world (after Mandarin Chinese). It’s an official language in 53 countries. In many countries, it’s a second language. Well- spoken English is more than an advantage it’s a cultural necessity. Basic Needs Whether you’re shopping or asking directions, you need to communicate with others. With a billion speakers globally, English is the language that gives you the best chance of getting a response, wherever you are. Safety Migrant workers in the United States have to pass an English-language test on safety. In an emergency, there’s no time to consult a dictionary. Such phrases as "emergency exit" must be instantly understood. Etiquette A badly chosen word can be a serious social blunder or indiscretion . It’s possible to be insulting without realizing it, if you don’t understand common usage. Career Anyone who works in a field that involves international communication needs a good English résumé. Moreover, English is the universal language of business and science. Travel Whether you’re traveling for business or pleasure, you don’t want to feel isolated. Nearly every world city and international airport has signs in English.
  12. 12. 13 BLOCK 1 Evaluation Activity: 2 Product: Flipchart with conclusions. Score: knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Clarifies, understands and interprets information based on the reading and deeds presented in the activity. Discusses, classifies and relates the reading in the group’s product, creating a conclusion. Shows openness for group and teacher’s feedback and integrates organized group work to the activity. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher 1. Brainstorm the different ways of communicating in English. 2. List all the written, verbal and non-verbal communications the team can encounter in daily living while using the language. 3. Use the schedule to enumerate examples of verbal and non-verbal communication. Each member of the team can come across in daily life situations while using the language. (Mainly English). 4. Present a flipchart with your team’s schedule and conclusions. Write on it some key words for your presentation. Activity: 2 (continuation)
  13. 13. 14 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION 1. Pay close attention to the short film clips your teacher will be presenting in class; focus on the identification and discussion of verbal and non-verbal communication such as gesture, facial expression eye contact, posture etc. After watching the videos, in teams of three: a. Offer your overall impression of the short films and summarize the arrangement of the films. b. How did the actors represent key character roles? c. Did they fulfill your expectations taking into account that you were to focus on the identification and discussion of verbal and non-verbal communication such as gesture, facial expression eye contact, posture etc.? d. Briefly comment how well the films represent the types of communications addressed in the exercise. e. What three or four sequences are most important in the films? f. Why? g. Is sound used in any vivid way either to enhance the communication process? (I.e. Enhance drama, heighten tension, disorient the viewer, etc.) h. How does this short film relate to the issues and questions evoked by the topic? i. Does the short film present a clear point-of-view on the topic? j. How? k. Are there any aspects of the theme which are left ambiguous at the end? l. Why? 2. Make a video report following the following steps: a. Use the questions answered and practice talking about the short videos; for one minute in an interview format (give your own responses). b. At the end of the video, each team includes a conclusion with their review. Activity: 3
  14. 14. 15 BLOCK 1 c. After the reviews have been recorded and checked by the class and the teacher; the videos can be uploaded to “YouTube” or “Google Video”. They can then be watched by all the students in another lesson. The videos can also be watched by other students around the world! d. If your school or class has a website, perhaps you can upload the best productions there so that other students can listen to the reviews too. Activity: 3 (continuation)
  15. 15. 16 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Rubric for videos Activity Exemplary Proficient Partially Proficient Incomplete Content/ Organization. The content includes a clear statement of purpose or theme and is creative, compelling and clearly written. A rich variety of supporting information in the video contributes to the understanding of the project’s main idea. Events and messages are presented in a logical order. Includes properly cited sources. Information is presented as a connected theme with accurate, current supporting information that contributes to understanding the project’s main idea. Details are logical and persuasive information is effectively used. The content includes a clear point of view with a progression of ideas and supporting information. Includes properly cited sources. The content does not present a clearly stated theme, is vague, and some of the supporting information does not seem to fit the main idea or appears as a disconnected series of scenes with no unifying main idea. Includes few citations and few facts. Content lacks a central theme, clear point of view and logical sequence of information. Much of the supporting information is irrelevant to the overall message. The viewer is unsure what the message is because there is little persuasive information and only one or two facts about the topic are articulated. Information is incorrect, out of date, or incomplete. No citations included. Quality. Video was completed and had all required elements. The video was well edited and moves smoothly from scene to scene with proper use of transitions. Audio and other enhancements were well used. Video was completed and contained all required items. Editing was not done as well as it should have been. Some poor shots remain. Movie is still somewhat choppy. Audio and other enhancements were utilized, but not for maximum effect. Video was made, but had very little if any editing. Many poor shots remain. Video was very fragmented and choppy with little to no audio reinforcement. There was no video, or tape was totally unedited with no transitions or audio support of any kind. Teamwork. Student met and had discussions regularly. All students on the team contributed to the discussion and were part of the project. Team members showed respect with each other. Students met and had discussions. Most of the students on the team contributed to the discussion and were part of the project. Team members mostly showed respect with each other. Only a couple of team meetings were held. Most of the students on the team contributed at some level, but a majority of the work was done by one or two. Meetings were not held and/or some of the team members did not contribute at all to the project. Low levels of respect were evident within the team. Evaluation Activity: 3 Product: Video. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyses and recognizes in the videos presented verbal and non-verbal communication. Develops and describes knowledge using own conclusions of a video and combines ideas in a product. Appreciates team work and shows openness to feedback provided by the teacher and classmates. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher
  16. 16. 17 BLOCK 1 Role Play Rubric Student: Criteria 4 Excellent 3 Proficient 2 Adequate 1 Limited Participation in Preparation and Presentation. Always willing and focused during group work and presentation. Usually willing and focused during group work and presentation. Sometimes willing and focused during group work and presentation. Rarely willing and focused during group work and presentation. Presentation of Character. Convincing communication of character’s feelings, situation and motives. Competent communication of character’s feelings, situations and motives. Adequate communication of character’s feelings, situation and motives. Limited communication of character’s feelings, situation and motives. Achievement of Purpose. Purpose is clearly established and effectively sustained. Purpose is clearly established and generally sustained. Purpose is established but may not be sustained. Purpose is vaguely established and may not be sustained. Use of Non- Verbal Cues (voice, gestures, eye contact, props, costumes). Impressive varieties of non-verbal cues are used in an exemplary way. Good varieties of non-verbal cues are used in a competent way. Satisfactory variety of non-verbal cues used in an acceptable way. Limited variety of non-verbal cues are used in a developing way. Imagination and Creativity. Choices demonstrate insight and powerfully enhance role play. Choices demonstrate thoughtfulness and completely enhance role play. Choices demonstrate awareness and developing acceptably enhance role play. Choices demonstrate little awareness and do little to enhance role play. Evaluation Activity: 4 Product: Role play. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Remembers and recognizes information and ideas. Identifies verbal and non-verbal communication forms though role plays prepared by them. Practices and implements verbal and non-verbal communication and ideas presented in a role play. Collaborates and appreciates team work and shows openness to feedback. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher 1. Gather in teams of three or four. 2. Create role plays (one or two) using various forms of verbal and non-verbal communication. 3. Exaggeration is important to be aware of communication so whatever slight element is being expressed, to bring attention to it; have the protagonists exaggerated the movement or voice element. 4. Analyze the factors which contribute to effective and ineffective communication process. 5. At the end of the role play, one of the members presents the team analysis. 6. Finally use the rubric bellow to evaluate the activity. Activity: 4
  17. 17. 18 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Closing Activity Class 1 1. Create 5 teams with the help of your teacher 2. The task of the team is to create a song (in English) based on what you have learned about communication and the importance of speaking well in English. 3. Identify and describe 5 important facts you feel others need to know about the topic, explain and show them in your song. Use the rubric as your guide. 4. The type of songs presented will be: i. Team 1 Rock. ii. Team 2 Rap. iii. Team 3 Ranchero (Mexican folk). iv. Team 4 Ballad. v. Team 5 Cumbia (South American folk music). Class 2 5. Each team presents the lyric from the song. 6. Each team (all members) sings the song to the class. 7. The whole group evaluates the activity giving feedback for each song presented. Activity: 5
  18. 18. 19 BLOCK 1 Song Rubric Category Excellent Proficient Limited Inadequate Content Accuracy The song is supported by creative details. The song/poem shows a high understanding of topic. The song is supported by creative details. The song/poem shows a moderate understanding of topic. The song is not supported by creative details. The song/poem shows a little understanding topic. The song is not supported by creative details. The song/poem shows no understanding of topic. Effort The song has a very high level of effort and description. The song has a moderate level of effort and description The song/has a very little level of effort and description The song/ has no level of effort and description Creativity The song was extremely creative and all aspects were original. The song was creative and some aspects were original. The song was creative and some aspects were original. The song was not creative and none of the aspects were original. Information Shows totally correct information about topic. Shows more correct information than incorrect information about topic. Shows some correct information about the topic. Shows mostly incorrect information about the topic. Script The student wrote a complete script of the song. The student wrote an incomplete song leaving out some important details. The student wrote an incomplete song. Song was missing. Spelling & proofreading No spelling errors in the script. No more than 1-2 spelling errors in the script. No more than 3-4 spelling errors in the script. Several spelling errors in the script. Writing and grammar There are no grammatical mistakes in the script. There are 1-2 grammatical mistakes in the script. There are 3-4 grammatical mistakes in the script. There are several grammatical mistakes in the script. Evaluation Activity: 5 Product: Song. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Identifies and interprets information by creating a song based on prior knowledge. Integrates and combines ideas into a song created by the team and introduced to the group to link the knowledge on the subject. Shows respect and positive attitude by listening to other teams. Is open to feedback. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher
  19. 19. 20 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Didactic Sequence 2. Tips for effective communication in English. Startup Activity Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: Graphic organizer. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Recognizes and describes the information based on the text and graphics presented. Designs and combines ideas into a graphic organizer created by the pair and introduced to the group to link the knowledge on the subject. Collaborates and appreciates team work and shows openness to feedback. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher Read the following paragraph and discuss with a partner. Learning to speak English well may be the best thing you can do to improve your life. Do you think it would be fun to have access to information that other people can’t get? Talk and write letters to interesting people that others can’t communicate with? Impress people around you whenever you opened your mouth? Make big jumps in your career, leaving others miles behind? You can get all this, if you speak English well. English is the most widespread language in the history of the planet. Discuss in pairs the following questions. 1. Why do you need to learn English? 2. Why is the world “extremely small” nowadays? 3. Where do people speak English? 4. Do you like English? Once you have discussed the questions, use that information to make a graphic organizer in pairs. Your teacher will chose the five best to be presented. Activity: 1
  20. 20. 21 BLOCK 1 Development Activities Tips for effective communication in English You may already know many of the things that should be done in order to effectively prepare yourself for a situation in a foreign language. Yet most people do not do it. Take a close look at the following list the next time before you go to a meeting. Then make a conscious effort to try them out. You will be surprised how much they can help you to communicate effectively. Some DOs •Prepare vocabulary and phrases for important meetings and events when necessary. Check any difficult words in advance. Make notes to take with you. •if you are talking with somebody and you are struggling with your understanding, ask people to speak slowly. English speakers may forget that you are a “nonnative” speaker and sometimes need to be reminded of this several times! •Having good eye contact with the person you are speaking to often helps communication. Nonverbal communication (body language) plays an important part in the communication process. It helps us to understand what is being said and also gives us important feedback as to whether we have been understood. At a meeting, try and choose a seat where you can easily see all other participants and have good eye contact. •If you are listening to a presentation or attending a training course, try and sit at the front of the room near the speaker. Don’t hide at the back, where it will be more difficult to hear and understand what is being said. Some DON’Ts •Don’t expect to follow every single word; otherwise you will soon get frustrated! Remember that when having a group conversation in your mother tongue you may also not always catch every single word that is said. •Don’t try to translate every word. There is no time for this. By the time you have translated everything, the group will be discussing a new topic! •Don’t be afraid to say you don’t understand something. •Groups of English speakers may use slang expressions that you do not know. Again, don’t be afraid to ask for an explanation! •English speakers love abbreviations and acronyms. You may hear whole sentences made up of them! Don’t be afraid to ask for an explanation. •You will often be speaking English with other nonnative speakers from around the world. This can present additional challenges. •Pronunciation will vary and it may take you time to adjust. Don’t be afraid to tell the other person that you are having difficulty understanding them. 1. Form five teams in the group and read the following text. 2. Study the Dos and Don’ts and discuss for a few minutes about them. 3. Present on a flipchart a conceptual map with the inferences of the team’s discussion. Activity: 2
  21. 21. 22 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Rubric for Evaluation Class Participation Performance Elements or Criteria Inadequate (0 point) Developing but below expectations (1 points) Accomplished/ Meets Expectations (2 points) Exemplary/Displays leadership (3 points) Score Level of Engagement and active participation Student never contributes to class discussion; fails to respond to direct questions. Few contributions to class discussion; Seldom volunteers but responds to direct questions. Proactively contributes to class discussion, asking questions and respond to direct questions. Proactively and regularly contributes to class discussion; Initiates discussion on issues related to class topic. Listening Skills Does not listen when others talk, interrupts, or makes inappropriate comments. Does not listen carefully and comments are often nonresponsive to discussion. Listens and appropriately responds to the contributions of others. Listens without interrupting and incorporates and expands on the contributions of other students. Relevance of Contribution to topic under discussion Contributions, when made, are off-topic or distract class from discussion. Contributions are sometimes off- topic or distracting. Contributions are always relevant. Contributions are relevant and promote deeper analysis of the topic. Preparation Student is not adequately prepared; Does not appear to have read the material in advance of class. Student has read the material but not closely or has read only some of the assigned material in advance of class. Student has read and thought about the material in advance of class. Student is consistently well-prepared; Frequently raises questions or comments on material outside the assignment. Note: Points are only a reference the score is given by your teacher. Evaluation Activity: 2 Product: Conceptual map. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Understands and describes the information based on the text presented for analyses. Designs and combines ideas into a conceptual map created by the teams. Appreciates and collaborates team work and shows openness to feedback. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher
  22. 22. 23 BLOCK 1 I. In pairs, read and discuss the following text: What are you interested in? Is it science, music, computers, health, business, and sports? Today’s media such as the Internet, television, and the press give you almost unlimited access to knowledge about your favorite subjects. After all, we live in the information age, don’t we? There’s only one problem. Most of this knowledge is in English. If you want a good job in business, technology, or science, start learning English now! (If you already have a good job, start learning before you lose it!) English is everywhere. You can easily access English-language television, music, websites, magazines, etc. You don’t have to learn from boring textbooks. You can learn and use your English at the same time. Using your English is especially important because it increases your desire to learn. Do you agree with the text? What else would you add to this text? Why? II. Discuss the text and the answers in pairs for 4 minutes. III. Organize a round table discussion. 1) Divide the class in two teams. 2) Name a moderator. 3) Each team will choose representatives. 4) One team agrees with the text the other competes against. 5) Important: Make sure that groups are put into the group with the opposite opinion of what they seemed to believe in the warm-up conversation. All round table members are responsible for helping the class achieve its stated goals for this project, and for the overall conduct of the round table. Some vocabulary you can use: Opinions, Preferences: I think..., In my opinion..., I’d like to..., I’d rather..., I’d prefer..., The way I see it..., As far as I’m concerned..., If it were up to me..., I suppose..., I suspect that..., I’m pretty sure that..., It is fairly certain that..., I’m convinced that..., I honestly feel that, I strongly believe that..., Without a doubt,..., Disagreeing: I don’t think that..., Don’t you think it would be better..., I don’t agree, I’d prefer..., Shouldn’t we consider..., But what about..., I’m afraid I don’t agree..., Frankly, I doubt if..., Let’s face it, The truth of the matter is..., The problem with your point of view is that... Giving Reasons and offering explanations: To start with, The reason why..., That’s why..., For this reason..., That’s the reason why..., Many people think...., Considering..., Allowing for the fact that..., When you consider that... IV. Finish with conclusions from each team and feedback from your teacher. (Use the rubric for evaluation) Activity: 3
  23. 23. 24 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Roundtable Discussion Rubric 5 Level Participation Participant offers enough solid analysis, without prompting, to move the conversation forward. Participant, through her/his comments, demonstrates a deep knowledge of the text and an understanding of the question. Participant has come prepared for the discussion with notes and a marked/annotated text. Participant, through his/her comments, shows that he/she is actively listening to other participants. Participant offers clarification and/or follow-up that extends the conversation. Participant’s remarks often refer back to specific parts of the text in question. 4 Level Participation Participant offers solid analysis without prompting. Through comments, participant demonstrates a good knowledge of the text and question. Participant has come prepared for the discussion with notes and a marked/annotated text. Participant shows that he/she is actively listening to others and offers clarification and/or follow- up. 3 Level Participation Participant offers some analysis, but needs prompting from the discussion leader or other participants. Through comments, participant demonstrates a general knowledge of the text and question. Comments may be fairly undeveloped, moderately unclear, and/or unsupported by specific reference to the text. Participant is actively listening to others, but does not offer clarification and/or follow-up to others’ comments. Participant relies more upon opinion than on the text to drive comments. 2 Level Participation Participant speaks only once or not at all in the discussion. Participant comes to the discussion ill-prepared without notes. Participant does not listen to others, offers no commentary to further the discussion. Participant distracts the group by interrupting other speakers or by offering off-topic questions and comments. Participant ignores the discussion and its participants. Evaluation Activity: 3 Product: Roundtable. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Infers main ideas from the text presented in a roundtable activity. Comments and clarifies the information through the activity. Values with a positive attitude when listening to others. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher
  24. 24. 25 BLOCK 1 Seven Ways to Stop Interrupting by Kevin Eikenberry It happens all day, every day. We see it on television interviews. We hear it on the radio. We experience it at home and at work; one person talking over the other, not letting people finish what they were saying. In short, interrupting! Interrupting can cause a whole stream of problems and challenges. It reduces our effectiveness as a listener, negatively impacts relationships, shuts down communication, reduces our ability to learn and much more. If interrupting causes all of these problems, and we all seem to do it, the logical question is, how can we stop interrupting? Read on, because the rest of this article offers seven ways to change your approach to listening and to kick your interrupting habit. Don’t talk! •If you aren’t talking, it is hard to be interrupting. The goal is to develop the habit of not interrupting. So just stop interrupting. This could be called the Nike™ approach Just Do It (just stop interrupting). Seems simple enough, but unfortunately this is a habit that many of us haven’t yet developed (if we had, I likely wouldn’t be sharing these ideas). Close your mouth •Believe me; this is different than "don’t talk." In the last point I said, “If you aren’t talking, it is hard to be interrupting.” This is generally, though not universally, true. Many times (including several times yesterday) I find myself not audibly interrupting someone, but I do open my mouth as if I’m signaling to the other person that I am ready to talk. •Is this better than talking over them? Perhaps slightly, but you still have communicated to the other person that you are done listening and are ready to talk. I read once that the best thing we could do to be a better listener is to imagine that we have a drop of glue on our lips. Keeping our mouth closed, whether we speak or not, will definitely keep us from interrupting. Open your mind •This is also known as losing your “but.” You’ve been here. You are listening to someone and you have an opinion about what they are saying. You may not interrupt (or open even open your mouth), but your mind is closed. You’ve already decided what the right answer is and are just politely waiting for your turn to speak. •This problem typically shows itself by a quick paraphrase of the other person’s thought followed by a “but . . .” In this case you may not be literally interrupting, but you certainly aren’t listening. Open your mind to everything the other person is saying hear it all then formulate your thoughts and comments. 1. Form teams of three. 2. Read attentively the text and search in a dictionary for new words. Activity: 4
  25. 25. 26 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Remember the irony. Often we interrupt because we want to be helpful; we want to supply a critical point, emphasize something or persuade the other person in some way. As it turns out, by interrupting we are hurting our chances to be understood, to persuade, to influence and to have our ideas accepted. The irony is that as we stop interrupting we will be more influential. Remembering this irony and our true intentions can help us reduce our tendency to interrupt. Chances are one of these points speaks to you directly at this moment. Focus on that method starting right now. Don’t go into your next conversation trying to remember all seven ways to stop interrupting. Just pick one. One, well executed, is all you need to change your interrupting habit. Potential Principle to be a better listener, to be more persuasive, and to learn more from others we must stop interrupting. Stop talking and start listening. Stop talking and start persuading. Stop talking and start learning. http://www.hodu.com/stop-interrupt.shtml Make a note •Our brains operate much faster than others can speak, so it is natural that we will have ideas that we don’t want to “lose.” I believe this is one of the major reasons we interrupt. To combat this urge, and to not lose the thought, write it down. Continue to listen, but make a note of the points you want to make when it is your turn to talk. Change your focus •Think about listening more than talking. Simply change your goal for the conversation to listen more than you speak. This change in focus can have a drastic impact on your success in curbing your interruptions. Make it about them •The conversation doesn’t have to be about making you look good or getting your point across first. Seek to understand first. Make the conversation about the other person. When you do this you will interrupt less. Why? Because all of the reasons we interrupt are about us. When we make the conversation about the other person we will naturally interrupt less.
  26. 26. 27 BLOCK 1 3. Re-read the text; create a talking web by filling in the structure bellow with your ideas for a discussion according to what you have read on the text.
  27. 27. 28 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION 4. Based on the talking web, create a discussion about the topic for a few minutes (according to your teacher’s indications) and conclude creating a short paragraph where the team will present their ideas and deductions. This action (the paragraph) will be presented in class. Category The Good Paragraph The Borderline Paragraph The "Needs Help" Paragraph The Failing Paragraph Idea Promising, but may be slightly unclear, or lacking in insight or originality. Paragraph title does not connect as well with idea or is not as interesting. May be unclear (contains many vague terms), appears unoriginal, or offers relatively little that is new. Paragraph title and idea do not connect well or title is unimaginative. Difficult to identify at all, may be bland reiteration of obvious point. Shows obviously lack of effort or comprehension of the assignment. Structure Generally clear and appropriate, though may wander occasionally. May have a few unclear transitions. Generally unclear, often wanders or jumps around. Few or weak transitions. Unclear, often because idea is weak or non- existent. Transitions confusing and unclear. Few topic sentences. Very difficult to understand due to major problems with mechanics, structure and analysis. Analysis Evidence often related to topic sentence, though links perhaps not very clear. Some description, but more critical thinking. Quotes appear often without analysis, there is a weak idea to support, and analysis offers nothing beyond the quote. Even balance between critical thinking and description. Very little or very weak attempt to relate paragraph to argument; may be no identifiable argument, or no nothing to relate it to. More description than critical thinking. Has no identifiable idea, or absolutely incompetent idea. Logic and argumentation Argument of Paragraph is clear, usually flows logically and makes sense. Some evidence that counter-arguments acknowledged, though perhaps not addressed. Mostly creates appropriate level, academic tone. Logic may often fail, or argument may often be unclear. May not address counter- arguments. Occasionally creates appropriate level, academic tone, but has some informal language or inappropriate slang. Ideas do not flow at all, usually because there is no argument to support. Simplistic view of topic; no effort to grasp possible alternative views. Does not create appropriate level, academic tone, and has informal language or inappropriate slang. Does not follow paragraph guidelines for length and format. Mechanics Sentence structure, grammar, and diction strong despite occasional lapses; punctuation and citation style often used correctly. Some (minor) spelling errors; may have one run-on sentence or comma connection. Problems in sentence structure, grammar, and diction (usually not major). Some errors in punctuation, citation style, and spelling. May have some run-on sentences or comma connections. Big problems in sentence structure, grammar, and diction. Frequent major errors in citation style, punctuation, and spelling. May have many run-on sentences and comma connections. Plagiarizes. Evaluation Activity: 4 Product: Talking web and discussion. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Interprets the talking web and discusses about what happened before and after the conversation. Nourishes from a lecture and constructs diagram to build arguments. Internalizes discussion and values with a positive attitude when listening to others. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher
  28. 28. 29 BLOCK 1 Closing Activity 6 English Speaking Tips You Must Know March 21, 2011 // English Speaking Tips Visiting a new place can be a scary experience for a lot of people, not only because it could entail speaking in a language that most people are not comfortable with English. If you are born a native English speaker, then you will have no problem speaking English naturally. But for those people whose mother tongue is not English, this can be a problem. So how can you avoid this kind of situation? Learn how to speak English fluently. Most people think that this is easier said than done, but in reality, it is actually easy to speak fluent English. English is the universal language, and this universal concept makes it one of the easiest languages to master. Here are 7 English speaking tips you must know to become a more confident English speaker. 1.Listenfirst •One of the best English speaking tips is to listen carefully to understandable English EVERY DAY. Most people turn to textbooks to study English grammar rules, but you cannot learn the correct English pronunciation of the words by just mere reading them. Instead, listen to how native English speakers enunciate their words and observe their mouth movements. Try to imitate the intonation and rhythm of their speech. Also watch English shows and movies to build on your English accent and improve your vocabulary. 2.Donotbetooconsciousonthegrammar •Yes, it is important to learn the basic grammar rules in English. Most people tend to concentrate more on not committing any grammatical errors while talking, so oftentimes, their accents become stilted. Grammar rules make you think about English when what you want to do is to speak better English naturally without sounding too forced. 3.Practicemakesperfect •The cardinal rule in English speaking practice, practice, practice! Studies show that you’ll probably spend three months of practice every day in order to have strong mouth muscles and get the hang of in speaking a new language. Read aloud in English for 15 to 20 minutes a day in front of the mirror. Try articulation exercises which help in accent reduction or neutralization in order for you to improve your English communication skills. (you can find some of those exercises on your “Listening and Speaking” book from last semester)Also, practice with your friends and family. Talking with a good English speaker can help improvise your usage of words and formation of sentences. 1. Form teams of five. 2. Read attentively the text and search in a dictionary for new words. 3. Students analyze each tip. Activity: 5
  29. 29. 30 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION 4. Each member must explain each tip. Then identify what they have in common. 5. Now answer "HOW CAN YOU IMPROVE YOUR COMMUNICATIVE ABILITY IN ENGLISH?" 6. Write your answer here and share your opinion with the team. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.ThinkinEnglish •One of the most effective English speaking tips is to think in English. What most English learners do in the early stages of learning is that they think of what they have to say in their native language, translate and then tell it in English. This can be mentally exhausting and time consuming. And oftentimes, the English sentences that are constructed are inconsistent. If your goal is to speak English fluently, you need to learn “thinking “in English. Construct the sentences in English as you think about them before saying them. With practice, you will be able to respond automatically in English. 5.Bemoreconfident •All these English speaking tips will be in vain if you are not that confident on your English speaking skills. It is quite natural to commit errors when learning a new language. Even native English speakers commit grammatical errors every now and then. Do not be too hesitant when speaking because this can make you stammer or make the conversation sound unnatural and too forced. But, do not also speak too fast because it will be difficult for people to understand you. Try to relax if you’re speaking in English. When you speak at a normal speed, you’ll discover that you will be able to pronounce the words correctly and automatically. And if ever you did make a mistake, do not stay on it so much. Most of the time, the person you are talking to is not even aware of your errors. 6.Bepatient •Just remember to be patient. Learning English does not happen overnight. It takes a lot of time, effort and practice. Don’t get too frustrated and never give up. Follow these English speaking tips and practice daily. Soon, you would learn to speak English fluently as if it is your own dialect.
  30. 30. 31 BLOCK 1 7. Choose the best idea of the team. 8. One of the members of the team stands up, and walks over to the other teams and shares the idea and brings theirs to their own team. 9. The team chooses the 3 best ideas, from the ideas of their own. Then, create a 2-3 minutes video presentation of the ideas. 10. Your team will have 15 minutes to prepare the general idea in class and the rest of the day to prepare for next class. 11. Next class each group comes to the front of the classroom to deliver their presentation. 12. Continue working in teams and use the rubric to check your partners’ presentation. Activity Exemplary Proficient Partially Proficient Incomplete Content/ Organization The content includes a clear statement of purpose or theme and is creative, compelling and clearly written. A rich variety of supporting information in the video contributes to the understanding of the project’s main idea. Events and messages are presented in a logical order. Includes properly cited sources. Information is presented as a connected theme with accurate, current supporting information that contributes to understanding the project’s main idea. Details are logical and persuasive information is effectively used. The content includes a clear point of view with a progression of ideas and supporting information. Includes properly cited sources. The content does not present a clearly stated theme, is vague, and some of the supporting information does not seem to fit the main idea or appears as a disconnected series of scenes with no unifying main idea. Includes few citations and few facts. Content lacks a central theme, clear point of view and logical sequence of information. Much of the supporting information is irrelevant to the overall message. The viewer is unsure what the message is because there is little persuasive information and only one or two facts about the topic are articulated. Information is incorrect, out of date, or incomplete. No citations included. Quality Video was completed and had all required elements. The video was well edited and moves smoothly from scene to scene with proper use of transitions. Audio and other enhancements were well used. Video was completed and contained all required items. Editing was not done as well as it should have been. Some poor shots remain. Movie is still somewhat choppy. Audio and other enhancements were utilized, but not for maximum effect. Video was made, but had very little if any editing. Many poor shots remain. Video was very fragmented and choppy with little to no audio reinforcement. There was no video, or tape was totally unedited with no transitions or audio support of any kind. Teamwork Student met and had discussions regularly. All students on the team contributed to the discussion and were part of the project. Team members showed respect with each other. Students met and had discussions. Most of the students on the team contributed to the discussion and were part of the project. Team members mostly showed respect with each other. Only a couple of team meetings were held. Most of the students on the team contributed at some level, but a majority of the work was done by one or two. Meetings were not held and/or some of the team members did not contribute at all to the project. Low levels of respect were evident within the team. Evaluation Activity: 5 Product: Video presentation. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyses and recognizes in the text presented the tips and applies them in real situation. Develops and describes awareness by using the tips in a video with own conclusions and combines ideas in a product. Appreciates team work and shows openness to feedback provided by the teacher and classmates. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher
  31. 31. 32 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Didactic Sequence 3. Intercultural communication. Startup Activity 1. I find ________________inspiring. 2. I don’t like it when people ________ and __________ at me. 3. I like to learn about other ____________. 4. In most countries this is a positive__________. I. Complete the sentences with the words below: Scared, point, kiss, natural scenery, language, affectionate, cultures, stare, gesture, poor, advice Activity: 1
  32. 32. 33 BLOCK 1 Continue next page » » » » 5. You should get _________ before you travel to a country for the first time. 6. I would be too_________ to travel alone. 7. Before you travel to a country, you should learn its___________. 8. In some cultures, it’s not acceptable to be__________ and _____ in public. 9. I don’t like to travel to places where there are a lot of ________ people.
  33. 33. 34 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION 1. Discuss in teams of five whether you agree/disagree with each sentence. What is your personal opinion? Write it here: _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Now individually answer the following questions, write two or three quick impressions to complete the sentence. Write down the first ideas that come into your head. What do you think? I think that… 1. Korean people are: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Spanish people are: __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Arab people are: _____________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Irish people are: _____________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Japanese people are: _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. French people are: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Russian people are: __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  34. 34. 35 BLOCK 1 8. American people are: _________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Chinese people are: __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Indian people are: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Discussion Now in the team discuss your answers. Were there negative or positive comments? How does the group feel about the words or expressions used to describe each culture? Did the results surprise the group?
  35. 35. 36 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Organized with your teacher and the team, use the following rubric to evaluate the discussion in class. Class Discussion Rubric Criteria Exceeds Standard Meets Standard Needs Improvement Develop and demonstrate critical reading, listening, and viewing strategies. 1. Student gives passage attention, and detailed explanation of the text’s significance. 2. Student fully identifies and evaluates the primary focus, logic, style, and structure of a text. 1. Student gives general textual idea but cannot locate/identify passage for support. 2. Student adequately identifies and evaluates the primary focus, logic, style, and structure of a text. 1. Student cannot give textual support for discussion point. 2. Student cannot identify and/or evaluate the primary focus, logic, style, and structure of a text. Construct meaning beyond the literal level e.g., drawing inferences, confirming and correcting, making comparisons and connections, and drawing conclusions. Student responds to questions with full and specific knowledge, and often uses literary language in their response e.g., themes, imagery, symbolism, motifs, etc. Student demonstrates general idea in her or his responses, but without key details or deeper analyses. Student cannot answer questions about the topic. Participate as an active member of a reading, listening, and viewing community. 1. Student listens attentively and refers to relevant class materials to aid in full participation in the discussion. 2. Student records key ideas and revises her or his previous responses based on new findings from the discussion. 3. Student consistently volunteers to share knowledge with class. 1. Student is attentive but may not refer to class materials during the discussion. 2. Student may not record key ideas and information from the discussion. 3. Student occasionally volunteers to share knowledge with class. 1. Student is inattentive and does not have or refer to class materials related to the discussion at hand. 2. Student doesn’t take notes or revise his or her responses based on the discussion. 3. Student never volunteers to share knowledge with class. Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: Exercises and class Discussion Rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Identifies and infers ideas from the questions presented for discussion. Develops and comments the information over the activity. Values with a positive attitude when listening to others. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher
  36. 36. 37 BLOCK 1 Development Activities 1. Here are some issues to think about when you are a visitor or receive a visitor from abroad. Match the issues with the ideas by writing the number in the corresponding column. Then decide if the ideas are good or bad. Issue Possible Suggestion Good / Bad 1 Hand-shaking Use hand signs while you talk. 2 Bowing Touch visitors on the hand / head / foot. 3 Self-Introduction Dip your head to show respect. 4 Company Rank Wait a few seconds between sentences. 5 Use of Gestures Use a firm grip. 6 Interpersonal Distance Look people in the eye when speaking. 7 Pausing Explain your level in your company. 8 Eye Contact Offer tea / coffee / alcohol. 9 Physical Contact Stand close to the listener while talking. 10 Gifts Take visitors to late night bars / clubs. 11 Refreshments Give a little speech about yourself. 12 Entertaining Give expensive presents. 2. When we receive foreign visitors some actions are inappropriate. The following adjectives describe different types of such actions. Match each problem on the left with one of the likely results on the right. Problem Likely Result 1 Excessive Causing puzzlement and uneasiness. 2 Offensive Causing a mild negative reaction. 3 Off-putting Making visitors laugh. 4 Boring Lacking awareness of your visitor’s (senior) rank. 5 Disrespectful Sending your visitors to sleep. 6 Disconcerting Making an inappropriately large effort. 7 Culturally insensitive Causing an extreme negative reaction. 8 A source of amusement Lacking awareness of your visitor’s customs / manners. 3. Discuss the issues above with other class members. 4. Decide which four problems the following people should be most careful about. a) When a U.S. citizen or any other country visits your school or house. b) When a Cobach School in your city receives visitors from the U.S. 5. Share your ideas with the class by presenting a graphic organizer with your ideas and a solution. Activity: 2
  37. 37. 38 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Evaluation Activity: 2 Product: Graphic organizer. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Describes and understands the information presented for analyses. Plans and combines ideas into a graphic organizer created in teams. Collaborates and appreciates team work and shows openness to feedback. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher
  38. 38. 39 BLOCK 1 13 Examples of Good and Bad Manners around the World 1. Belching or eructing In China, Taiwan, and much of the Far East, belching is considered a compliment to the chef and a sign that you have eaten well and enjoyed your meal. 2. Watch Your Feet! In most of the Middle and Far East, it is considered an insult to point your feet (particularly the soles) at another person or to display them in any way, for example, by resting with your feet up. 3. Swapping Business Cards In most Asian countries, a business card is seen as an extension of the person it represents; therefore, to disrespect a card by folding it, writing on it, or just shoving it into your pocket without looking at it is to disrespect the person who gave it to you. 4. Crushing Handshake Nowadays, a bone-crushing handshake is seen as admirable in the United States and U.K., but in much of the East, particularly the Philippines, it is seen as a sign of aggression just as if you gave any other part of a person’s body a hard squeeze! 5. to Shake or Not to Shake Orthodox Jews will not shake hands with someone of the opposite sex, while a strict Muslim woman will not shake hands with a man. To confuse matters, a Muslim man will shake hands with a non-Muslim woman. People in these cultures generally avoid touching people of the opposite sex who are not family members. 1. Pay close attention to the graphics about “13 Examples of Good and Bad Manners around the World”. 2. In teams of three read them and discuss all the situations presented. Activity: 3
  39. 39. 40 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION 6. The "Peace" Salute Similarly, in the U.K., when the two-fingered "V for victory" or "peace" salute is given with the hand turned so that the palm faces inward, it is considered extremely rude, having a meaning similar to raising the middle finger to someone in the United States. 7. Exposing Your Palms In Greece, any signal that involves showing your open palm is extremely offensive. Such gestures include waving, as well as making a "stop" sign. If you do wish to wave goodbye to someone in Greece, you need to do so with your palm facing in, like a beauty pageant contestant or a member of the royal family. 8. Lose the Shoes In many countries, particularly in Asia and South America, it is essential to remove your shoes when entering someone’s home, while in most of Europe it is polite to ask your host whether they would prefer you to do so. The reason, as anyone who’s ever owned white carpet will attest, is simple hygiene and cleanliness. 9. Chewing Gum Chewing gum might be good for dental hygiene, but in many parts of the world, particularly Luxembourg, Switzerland, and France, public gum-chewing is considered vulgar, while in Singapore most types of gum have been illegal since 1992 when residents grew tired of scraping the sticky stuff off their sidewalks. 10. Left-handed Greetings In most Arab countries, the left hand is considered unclean, and it is extremely rude to offer it for a handshake or to wave a greeting. Similarly, it is impolite to pass food or eat with the left hand. If you must know why, let’s just say that, historically, people living in deserts didn’t have access to toilet paper, so the left hand was used for "hygienic functions," then cleaned by rubbing it in the sand.
  40. 40. 41 BLOCK 1 3. Compare these manners with the ones in your own environment. Can you find differences? 4. Prepare a two minutes presentation using role plays or videos to represent these “Examples of Good and Bad Manners around the World.” Evaluation Activity: 3 Product: Role play or video presentation. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Interprets and reads the text. Analyses all situations presented and uses imagination to build product. Dramatizes in a created role play or video the appraisal from the situations analyzed by the team. Shows respect while working in teams and positive attitude while receiving feedback. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher 11. Clearing Your Plate When dining in China, never force yourself to clear your plate out of politeness -- it would be very bad manners for your host not to keep refilling it. Instead, you should leave some food on your plate at each course as an acknowledgment of your host’s generosity. Manners that may be good in the United States may not be in other parts of the world. See the rest of our list to learn more. 12. No Tipping! In Japan and Korea, a tip is considered an insult, rather than a compliment, and for them, accepting tips is akin to begging. However, this tradition is beginning to change as more Westerners bring their customs with them to these countries. 13. Mixed Signals The "okay" sign (thumb and forefinger touching to make a circle) is very far from okay in much of the world. In Germany and most of South America, it is an insult, similar to giving someone the finger in the United States, while in Turkey it is a derogatory gesture used to imply that someone is homosexual.
  41. 41. 42 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Table Manners around the World By Gimundo Staff and Annie Tucker Morgan Here’s a fascinating look at dinnertime culture around the world. If you grew up in the United States and thought American table manners were tough to remember—Keep your elbows off the table! Don’t talk with your mouth full! Always pass the salt and pepper together!—think again, because you don’t know how good you’ve got it. Just try eating a “casual” group dinner in one of these other countries, where the slightest indiscretion with a pair of chopsticks or the position of your feet can land you in the doghouse with your host. Afghanistan Dinner guests are treated like royalty: they’re seated farthest from the door, they’re offered food first and expected to eat the most, and they’re always given the prime portion from each dish. If you drop bread on the floor while dining at a table, pick it up, kiss it, and touch it to your forehead before putting it somewhere other than the floor. Chile Dishes should be served from the left and removed from the right. Guests should be served first. Do not answer the phone at the dinner table. Always chew with your mouth closed, and do not talk until it is empty. Eat quietly and do not slurp your food. Eat only one helping of food, unless the host specifically encourages you to take seconds. China Never wave chopsticks at another person bang them like drumsticks, use them to move plates or bowls, or stab them vertically into a bowl of rice. This last gesture indicates that the food is meant for the dead. To serve a guest, use the blunt ends of your own chopsticks to transfer food from a communal dish to the guest’s plate. When chopsticks are not in use, place them neatly on the table, side by side, with the ends even. When picking food out of a communal dish, select only food that is on the top of the pile and the closest distance to your plate. Do not rummage through the serving dish to select specific food items for yourself. I. Pay close attention to the text about “Table Manners around the World”. II. In teams of three read them and talk over all the situations presented. Activity: 4
  42. 42. 43 BLOCK 1 India Always wash your hands thoroughly before and after eating. In general, eat with your right hand and use your left hand to pass communal dishes. You must finish everything on your plate. Do not leave the table until all guests have finished eating or your host asks for your help. Japan Before you start a meal, wait for your host to tell you three times to begin eating. The youngest person at the table should pour alcohol for the other diners, beginning with the most senior person. A senior should then pour the server’s beverage. Never transfer food from one pair of chopsticks to another. When women transfer food with chopsticks from a serving dish to their mouth, they should cup their hand beneath the food; men should not. Rubbing chopsticks together to remove splinters is a sign of disrespect to the restaurant or host. When eating hot noodles, you are encouraged to make a slurping noise; the Japanese believe that this inhalation of air enhances the noodles’ flavor. Pieces of sushi should be eaten in a single bite whenever possible; if you must eat a piece in more than one bite, never place it back down on your plate between bites. Pakistan Before each meal, Muslim Pakistanis always recite this phrase: “Bismillah Ar-Rahman al-Rahim.” (“In the name of Allah, who is most beneficial and merciful.”) Afterward, they say, “Al-Hamdu-lillah.” (“Thanks be to God.”) Do not begin eating until the eldest member of the family is seated at the table. Always chew quietly enough that no one else can hear you. Always tear bread into pieces before eating it, and use only your right hand. Philippines Before you enter a dining room, select a seat at a table, or serve yourself food, always wait for an invitation from the host. Never refuse a sample of food from the host; always clean your plate. When you have finished eating, place your fork and spoon side by side on your plate, facing up. Always help your host clear the table.
  43. 43. 44 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Russia Never stare at another person’s plate or saucer. It is polite to leave a little bit of food on your plate at the end of a meal, as a tribute to the host’s abundant hospitality. Always cultivate a vivacious, relaxed dining atmosphere. Upon leaving the table, always compliment the person who cooked your food. Tanzania Do not expose the soles of your feet if you are eating on a carpet or mat. Showing up early for dinner, is considered rude; aim to arrive fifteen to thirty minutes late. It may seem daunting to remember other cultures’ culinary particularities, but if you master these dining guidelines before you sit down at the table, you won’t have to be “that guy” you know, the one who gives other, more polite American diners a bad name. And once you’ve mastered these etiquette basics, you’ll be on your way to worldliness all you need now is a good appetite and a plane ticket. After discussing the text prepare the product for the conclusion class. Product for follow up class III. In teams of six, create a power point presentation with similar situations different than the ones around the world. IV. Stand out in the presentation the differences the team can identify among those manners and their own. V. The whole team should submit the product. VI. Everybody has to talk while presenting a part of the presentation. VII. You have no more than 4 minutes to complete your explanation. Evaluation Activity: 4 Product: Power Point Presentation. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Prepares and presents in teams a power point presentation. Applies and uses his / her knowledge to understand and distinguish different countries manners. Collaborates and appreciates team work. Shows positive attitude while presenting the activity in class. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher
  44. 44. 45 BLOCK 1 Evaluation Activity: 5 Product: Flipchart and discussion. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyses an article, prepares and presents a flipchart which will be questioned in class. Applies and uses his/her understanding and comprehension on the text to present the team’s ideas orally in a class presentation. Collaborates and shows positive attitude when working in group and is open to feedback. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating given by the teacher 1. Read the text bellow, then gather in teams for discussion. Manners around the World Manners around the world start with respect for differences. Not all cultures are the same. Generally speaking, you can be yourself as long as you remain friendly and courteous. Always keep in mind that you are the guest in someone else’s country. For example: a) In Europe, do not address people by their first names. Mr. and Mrs. are more commonly used. b) Shaking hands is an important business ritual throughout Europe and Britain. c) In most countries a handshake should be gentle. A firm handshake can show aggression. d) In Asia, instead of a handshake a person will bow from the waist and the person with the lower status bows more deeply. e) In Italy and Russia, close friends will often greet each other with a kiss. f) In Europe, men traditionally walk to the left of the ladies. They generally enter a restaurant ahead of the lady - to lead the way to the table. g) In some countries, people feel comfortable standing closer to each other, when they are talking. It would be rude to back away. In other countries, like China and Japan, they want more distance between people. h) In Holland, they always use utensils. Many Dutch even eat bread with a knife and fork! i) In Sweden, you keep your voice down. Swedes are quiet people. j) Americans like to whistle, when they are applauding, but in Europe it is known as a type of booing. k) In Russia, whistling by women is unladylike. l) In some parts of the Middle East, shaking your head "no" means "yes" and nodding your head "yes" means "no". m) In a number of countries, keep eye contact with the speaker is rude. They show respect by not looking straight at the person talking. 2. In teams of four members, create a flip chart with a mind map focused on the information presented. 3. Present and explain your flipchart to the class. Activity: 5
  45. 45. 46 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION Closing Activity 1. In pairs discuss about the following sentence and come up with at least 5 possible endings to the sentence. If everyone in the world spoke English … Write your possible endings here: _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Again in pairs answer and discuss the following question. Is global English a good thing? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Make a list of the advantages and disadvantages of global English. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Activity: 6
  46. 46. 47 BLOCK 1 4. Read the short texts. Are any of your points mentioned? Aadeshwar (India) One of the consequences of global English is that some languages are disappearing. In my country there are 415 different languages, but many of these are endangered. If you want a good job, you usually have to learn English. Wendell (USA) Global English is definitely a good thing. Communication is much easier when everyone speaks the same language. I don’t understand what the fuss is about. Nowadays you find almost everything on computers is in English, it’s used in business, travel and in medicine. Alfonso (USA) Although I live in the USA and I use English at school my mother tongue is Spanish. My parents were immigrants from Mexico and so at home we speak Spanish. For me language is part of my cultural identity. Cathair (Eire) I’m 18 and I live in a small village in the west of Ireland. I speak Irish Gaelic, but many people of my age only speak English. It’s a pity because it’s part of our heritage and if we lose our language then we’ll lose part of our culture. I think there are only about 250,000 people who speak Irish Gaelic! Bogdana (England) My grandparents came here from Russia in 1945 and when they arrived they spoke no English. To get jobs they had to learn and I think this is part of integrating into a new country. I think it’s silly when people insist on keeping their own language when they move to a new country. Franz (Germany) Languages have been disappearing for thousands of years; it’s just a natural thing. For example, people in ancient Egypt used hieroglyphs but nobody uses these now. I’ve heard there are almost 7,000 languages in the world and that about half of these will disappear in the next 20 years! Well, you can’t stop progress, can you?
  47. 47. 48 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION 5. Comprehension. 1. What do these numbers in the text refer to? 415 18 250,000 7,000 20 2. Complete each sentence with the correct name. Example: Aadeshwar comes from India. 1. ___________________ doesn’t think there’s any problem with English as a Global Language. 2. ___________________ speaks one language with his family and another when he is at school. 3. ___________________ and ___________________ think that language is an important part of who they are. 4. ___________________ , ___________________ and ___________________ mention learning English because of work. 5. ___________________ says that about 50% of the languages in the world now will soon disappear. 6. ___________________ lives in a country where there are lots of languages. 6. In teams of four, create a pod cast program and include all the following items. a. A song about cultural differences or English as a global language. b. At least one real note from internet talking about the importance of English now a days (any subject is ok). c. Include at least TWO more notes created by the team based on what you have studied in the sequence (subject: English as global language). d. Interview a teacher (translate if necessary) about his or her opinion about the idea of English as a global Language. e. The pod cast has to have introduction, delivery, content, interview, song, notes, etc. 7. Use the rubric provided and with your teacher’s help each team will evaluate a team assigned by him or her.
  48. 48. 49 BLOCK 1 Elementary podcast rubric Category 4 3 2 1 Introduction Could tell they were talking to us; they said their name and what it’s about; we want to listen! Can tell what it’s going to be about. The person just started talking and didn’t tell much about it. Didn’t tell us about it. Sequence & Organization It was super organized; we wanted to keep listening to it! It was pretty organized, but sometimes it didn’t make sense; we paid attention and we could follow what they were saying. When we listened, we were mixed up and could not pay attention. The speaker was really mixed up and we could tell! Vocabulary Use Pronunciation They used all of our words and said them the right way! They skipped a few words, but said the rest right! Used most of the words, but had a few wrong. Skipped too many words and said them wrong. Rhythm / Speed Wow! They could be on the radio! Pretty smooth talker! Kind of jumpy and not smooth. We need a lot more practice! Conclusion The ending was great because they reviewed, reminding us about important things. Ending was good; they tried to review all of the important things. Tried to review, but skipped a lot of stuff. It just ended! NOTE: Check for extra information about podcasts on page 50.
  49. 49. 50 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION EXTRA INFORMATION NOTE What is a podcast? BY Yaro Starak. Definition: The word “podcasting” is a combination conjoining the words “broadcasting” and “iPod.” In case you have had your head in the sand recently or don’t keep up with popular technology an iPod is a portable music player produced by Apple Computers. Apple was lucky / smart enough that their brand was wrapped into a term for a new technology much like the Sony Walkman becoming the popular name for a portable radio/cassette player or inline skates being called “rollerblades”, which is brand name for a company that produced inline skates. The most popular format of a podcast is MP3. An MP3 is - Some of that definition is quite technical, but all you really need to know is that an MP3 is a popular audio file type for podcasts. There are other audio file types that are used for podcasting but in general as long as you have a music player on your computer you should be able to listen to a podcast file. Podcasting is a form of audio broadcasting on the Internet. The reason it became linked with the iPod in name was because people download podcasts (audio shows) to listen to on their iPods. However you don’t have to listen to podcasts only on iPods; you can use your computer with some music software such as Windows built-in Media Player or my favorite player, Winamp, or other portable music players (iPod competitors) such as Creative Zen or iRiver. It really doesn’t matter, as long as you have some way to play music on your computer you will be able to listen to podcasts. What Makes Podcasting Different? When I first heard of podcasting I didn’t understand what made it different from simply searching and then downloading a music file and listening to it much like I had been doing for years with MP3 music tracks. I had a knowledge gap because I still didn’t understand RSS and content syndication. After playing with RSS feed readers (which you should know about if you followed my instructions and read my primer article about RSS before reading this article) I understood the difference between searching and downloading music files and subscribing to podcasts. It’s all about having the files come to you through syndication instead of you going to the files through search. You subscribe to podcasts much like you subscribe to blogs. In fact often podcasts are distributed through a blog and provided your feed reading software handles podcasts you should be able to either instruct your reader to download new podcasts whenever they become available or manually choose which podcasts you want to download by clicking a link to the audio file. These files can then be listened to on your computer or you can transfer them to your portable player to listen to later. Some podcast feed reading software are configured to download and transfer the podcast directly to your portable player automatically so you can plug it in and walk away a few minutes later with your latest podcasts downloaded and ready to digest. Wikipedia: MP3 is a popular digital audio encoding and lossy compression format. It was designed to greatly reduce the amount of data (10:1 compression is common) required to represent audio, yet still sound like a faithful reproduction of the original uncompressed audio to most listeners. In popular usage, MP3 also refers to files of sound or music recordings stored in the MP3 format on computers.
  50. 50. 51 BLOCK 1 One of the most common podcast subscribing tools is iTunes. If you use iTunes and subscribe to this blog every time I release a new podcast audio show iTunes will download it for you automatically and if you have it synced to your iPod it will transfer it for you as well. This is what I would call true podcasting automatic download of an audio file directly to an iPod. Still Confused? If you are still scratching your head in confusion I suggest you try iTunes and subscribe to this blog look in the podcast business category in iTunes and you should find Entrepreneur’s Journey. ITunes will automatically download the files or you can click to download some of my past shows. Experiential learning is by far the best way to get a grasp of new technology so if you are interested in using podcasts get out there and have a go. It’s all free so you have no excuse. http://www.entrepreneurs-journey.com/230/what-is-a-podcast/
  51. 51. 52 IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVING ORAL COMMUNICATION
  52. 52. Time assigned: 15 hours Purpose and Tone. Competencias profesionales: 1. Realiza comprensiones oral y auditiva de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. 2. Realiza comprensión escrita y de lectura de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. 3. Realiza expresión o producción oral en otro idioma. 4. Realiza interacción oral en otro idioma. 5. Realiza expresión o producción escrita de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. Unidad de competencia: Diferencia la entonación de las palabras en situaciones específicas y las practica en contextos de su vida cotidiana. Atributos a desarrollar en el bloque: Durante el presente bloque se busca desarrollar los siguientes atributos de las competencias genéricas: 4.1 Expresa ideas y conceptos mediante representaciones lingüísticas, matemáticas o gráficas. 4.2 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los objetivos que persigue. 4.3 Identifica las ideas claves en un texto o discurso oral e infiere conclusiones a partir de ellas. 4.4 Se comunica en una segunda lengua en situaciones cotidianas. 4.5 Maneja las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para obtener información y expresar ideas. 6.4 Estructura ideas y argumentos de manera clara, coherente y sintética. 7.1 Define metas y da seguimiento a sus procesos de construcción de conocimiento. 8.2 Aporta puntos de vista con apertura y considera los de otras personas de manera reflexiva. 10.3 Asume que el respeto de las diferencias es el principio de integración y de convivencia de los contextos locales, nacional e internacional.
  53. 53. 54 PURPOSE AND TONE Didactic Sequence 1. Using correct intonation. Startup activity 1. Working on the supposition that some expressions or words can have as many as 9 or more different meaning or connotations depending on how they are said, meet in pairs and practice the following activity: Say the following expressions in five different ways.  Goodbye  Hello  How are you?  Do we have to speak English, teacher?  I never watch TV.  The teacher wanted to separate the general topic into separate categories.  Would you care to elaborate on his elaborate explanation?  Have you heard that your associate is known to associate with criminals?  How much do you guess that the estimate will be? 2. Now, add at least 6 more expressions apt to promote several interpretations (ways to say it) when delivered with a different tone.  ____________________________.  ____________________________.  ____________________________.  ____________________________.  ____________________________.  ____________________________. 3. Follow the instructions below and practice in pairs. a) Me: John, say “Hello” to me. b) John: “Hello” (neutral, polite tone). a) Me: John, now say “Hello” to a friend. b) John: “Hello” (much more upbeat tone). a) Me: John, say “Hello” to a 6-month-old-baby!!! b) John: “Hello” (contorted face, exaggerated fall-rise tone). Activity: 1
  54. 54. 55 BLOCK 2 Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: Audio record. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Identifies a real situation and relates it to the subject. Is conscious of his/her pronunciation and others. Determines and contrasts information obtained from the practice and is aware of a real language situation. Shows initiative and interest on the practice. Co evaluation C MC NYC Rating awarded by the teacher 4. Gather in teams of four and practice English with your classmates by Saying “Hello” pretending to be…  A friend you meet regularly.  A friend you haven’t seen for a long time.  A neighbor you don’t like.  A 6 month old baby.  Someone doing what he/she shouldn’t.  To know if someone is listening.  The same but on the phone. 5. Observe your team’s pals closely and notice the different intonation for each statement. 6. Can you identify the rise and fall of the voice when your classmate is talking? 7. How was the expression said? Slow? Fast? With proper speed? 8. The team has a duty to create an audio record with the different forms of the expression “Hello”. 9. Present the record to the class and give your appreciation for the activity. Activity: 1 (continuation)
  55. 55. 56 PURPOSE AND TONE Development Activities 1. In pairs read the following text, then discuss for 2 minutes about it. Intonation. Intonation is considered to be the most important element of spoken language. Using correct intonation patterns increases the intelligibility of speech because intonation conveys not only the meaning of speech, but also the speaker’s attitude. Therefore, understanding and using correct intonation patterns are crucial in learning a foreign language. Acquiring intonation of foreign languages seems to be a very difficult task for learners. Leon and Martin (1972) described intonation as the most difficult element to learn. According to Lieberman (1967), it is difficult for adults to change intonation, because intonation is acquired in early childhood. Therefore, children can easily acquire native-like intonation of a foreign language. In addition, adult learners are accustomed to the intonation of their first language, and tend to apply the intonation patterns of their first language when they speak a second language (Ramirez Verdugo, 2006). 2. Answer the comprehension questions. 1. What can you use to increase your fluency? ______________________________________________________ 2. What element is the most problematic component to learn? _________________________________________ 3. Intonation is easily acquired during _________________ because ____________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Using your own words say why it is important to learn intonation. _____________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Perform a role play to represent the importance of intonation in the English language and how important it could be for you as a student of this course. 4. Exaggeration is important to be aware of communication so whatever slight element is being expressed, to bring attention to it; have the protagonists exaggerate the voice element. 5. Analyze the factors which contribute to effective and ineffective communication process. 6. At the end of the role play, one of the members presents the pair analysis. 7. Finally use the rubric bellow to evaluate the activity. Activity: 2

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