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ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
ESCUCHA Y HABLA
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ESCUCHA Y HABLA

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FORMACIÓN PARA EL TRABAJO QUINTO SEMESTRE

FORMACIÓN PARA EL TRABAJO QUINTO SEMESTRE

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  • 1. 2 PRELIMINARES Esta publicación se terminó de imprimir durante el mes de junio de 2012. Diseñada en Dirección Académica del Colegio de Bachilleres del Estado de Sonora Blvd. Agustín de Vildósola; Sector Sur. Hermosillo, Sonora, México La edición consta de 1,126 ejemplares. COLEGIO DE BACHILLERES DEL ESTADO DE SONORA Director General Mtro. Julio Alfonso Martínez Romero Director Académico Dr. Manuel Valenzuela Valenzuela Director de Administración y Finanzas C.P. Jesús Urbano Limón Tapia Director de Planeación Ing. Raúl Leonel Durazo Amaya LISTENING AND SPEAKING Módulo de Aprendizaje. Copyright ©, 2011 por Colegio de Bachilleres del Estado de Sonora todos los derechos reservados. Tercera edición 2012. Impreso en México. DIRECCIÓN ACADÉMICA Departamento de Desarrollo Curricular Blvd. Agustín de Vildósola, Sector Sur Hermosillo, Sonora. México. C.P. 83280 COMISIÓN ELABORADORA: Elaborador: Jesús Moisés Galaz Duarte Revisión Disciplinaria: Edna Elinora Soto Gracia Corrección de Estilo: Diana Patricia Lugo Peñúñuri Apoyo Metodológico: Jesús Moisés Galaz Duarte Supervisión Académica: Mtra. Luz María Grijalva Díaz Diseño: María Jesús Jiménez Duarte Edición: Cynthia Deyanira Meneses Avalos Coordinación Técnica: Claudia Yolanda Lugo Peñúñuri Diana Irene Valenzuela López Coordinación General: Dr. Manuel Valenzuela Valenzuela
  • 2. 3 PRELIMINARES Ubicación Curricular HORAS SEMANALES: 03 CRÉDITOS: 06 DATOS DEL ALUMNO Nombre: _______________________________________________________________ Plantel: __________________________________________________________________ Grupo: _________________ Turno: _____________ Teléfono:___________________ E-mail: _________________________________________________________________ Domicilio: ______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ COMPONENTE: FORMACIÓN PARA EL TRABAJO CAPACITACIÓN PARA EL TRABAJO: IDIOMAS (INGLÉS)
  • 3. 4 PRELIMINARES
  • 4. 5 PRELIMINARES Presentación .........................................................................................................................................................7 Mapa de asignatura..............................................................................................................................................8 BLOCK 1: CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS..............................................9 Didactic sequence 1: Pronunciation...................................................................................................................10 • Tongue twister.............................................................................................................................................11 • What is word stress?...................................................................................................................................13 • Rules of word stress in English...................................................................................................................14 • Word stress .................................................................................................................................................18 Didactic sequence 2: Listening skills .................................................................................................................29 • Reading ......................................................................................................................................................29 • Telephone game.........................................................................................................................................31 • Listening skills.............................................................................................................................................32 • Listening skills are critically important part of successful communication................................................35 • Listening is an active process involving three parts...................................................................................38 • Tips for improving listening skills................................................................................................................40 • Discussion article: “what are the keys to being a good listener?”.............................................................42 • The definition of listening skills ...................................................................................................................44 • Crossword puzzle .......................................................................................................................................47 BLOCK 2: IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH .....................................................................................53 Didactic sequence 1: Demonstrative speech/process speech or dialogue .....................................................54 • Understanding speech ...............................................................................................................................61 • How to outline a demonstrative speech.....................................................................................................63 • How to give a demonstrative presentation.................................................................................................64 Didactic sequence 2: Persuasive speech or dialogue.......................................................................................81 • A persuasive speech ..................................................................................................................................83 • Persuasive speaking topic mistakes ..........................................................................................................84 • Persuasive speaking is very similar to persuasive writing .........................................................................89 • Persuasive speech outline explained .........................................................................................................91 Didactic sequence 3: Entertainment speech or dialogue..................................................................................97 • How to develop an entertaining dialogue or speech topic ......................................................................100 BLOCK 3: BUILDING HEALTHY HABITS...........................................................................................111 Didactic sequence 1: Informative speech........................................................................................................112 • Informative speech or dialogue ...............................................................................................................114 • Informative speech topics ideas...............................................................................................................119 Didactic sequence 2: Instructional speech ......................................................................................................128 • How to deliver an “instructional speech” .................................................................................................131 • Informative speech topics ........................................................................................................................133 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................143 Índice
  • 5. 6 PRELIMINARES
  • 6. 7 PRELIMINARES “Una competencia es la integración de habilidades, conocimientos y actitudes en un contexto específico”. El enfoque en competencias considera que los conocimientos por sí mismos no son lo más importante, sino el uso que se hace de ellos en situaciones específicas de la vida personal, social y profesional. De este modo, las competencias requieren una base sólida de conocimientos y ciertas habilidades, los cuales se integran para un mismo propósito en un determinado contexto. El presente Módulo de Aprendizaje de la asignatura Listening and Speaking, es una herramienta de suma importancia, que propiciará tu desarrollo como persona visionaria, competente e innovadora, características que se establecen en los objetivos de la Reforma Integral de Educación Media Superior que actualmente se está implementando a nivel nacional. El Módulo de aprendizaje es uno de los apoyos didácticos que el Colegio de Bachilleres te ofrece con la intención de estar acorde a los nuevos tiempos, a las nuevas políticas educativas, además de lo que demandan los escenarios local, nacional e internacional; el módulo se encuentra organizado a través de bloques de aprendizaje y secuencias didácticas. Una secuencia didáctica es un conjunto de actividades, organizadas en tres momentos: Inicio, desarrollo y cierre. En el inicio desarrollarás actividades que te permitirán identificar y recuperar las experiencias, los saberes, las preconcepciones y los conocimientos que ya has adquirido a través de tu formación, mismos que te ayudarán a abordar con facilidad el tema que se presenta en el desarrollo, donde realizarás actividades que introducen nuevos conocimientos dándote la oportunidad de contextualizarlos en situaciones de la vida cotidiana, con la finalidad de que tu aprendizaje sea significativo. Posteriormente se encuentra el momento de cierre de la secuencia didáctica, donde integrarás todos los saberes que realizaste en las actividades de inicio y desarrollo. En todas las actividades de los tres momentos se consideran los saberes conceptuales, procedimentales y actitudinales. De acuerdo a las características y del propósito de las actividades, éstas se desarrollan de forma individual, binas o equipos. Para el desarrollo del trabajo deberás utilizar diversos recursos, desde material bibliográfico, videos, investigación de campo, etc. La retroalimentación de tus conocimientos es de suma importancia, de ahí que se te invita a participar de forma activa, de esta forma aclararás dudas o bien fortalecerás lo aprendido; además en este momento, el docente podrá tener una visión general del logro de los aprendizajes del grupo. Recuerda que la evaluación en el enfoque en competencias es un proceso continuo, que permite recabar evidencias a través de tu trabajo, donde se tomarán en cuenta los tres saberes: el conceptual, procedimental y actitudinal con el propósito de que apoyado por tu maestro mejores el aprendizaje. Es necesario que realices la autoevaluación, este ejercicio permite que valores tu actuación y reconozcas tus posibilidades, limitaciones y cambios necesarios para mejorar tu aprendizaje. Así también, es recomendable la coevaluación, proceso donde de manera conjunta valoran su actuación, con la finalidad de fomentar la participación, reflexión y crítica ante situaciones de sus aprendizajes, promoviendo las actitudes de responsabilidad e integración del grupo. Nuestra sociedad necesita individuos a nivel medio superior con conocimientos, habilidades, actitudes y valores, que les permitan integrarse y desarrollarse de manera satisfactoria en el mundo social, profesional y laboral. Para que contribuyas en ello, es indispensable que asumas una nueva visión y actitud en cuanto a tu rol, es decir, de ser receptor de contenidos, ahora construirás tu propio conocimiento a través de la problematización y contextualización de los mismos, situación que te permitirá: Aprender a conocer, aprender a hacer, aprender a ser y aprender a vivir juntos. Presentación
  • 7. 8 PRELIMINARES Listening and speaking Block 1: Considering pronunciation and listening skills. Didactic sequence 1: Pronunciation. Didactic sequence 2: Listening skills. Block 2: Identifying types of speech. Didactic sequence 1: Demonstrative speech / Process speech or dialogue. Didactic sequence 2: Persuasive speech or dialogue. Didactic sequence 3: Entertainment speech or dialogue. Block 3: Building healthy habits. Didactic sequence 1: Informative speech. Didactic sequence 2: Instructional speech .
  • 8. Tiempo asignado: 15 horas Considering pronunciation and listening skills. Competencias profesionales: 1. Realiza comprensiones oral y auditiva de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. 2. Realiza comprensión escrita y de lectura de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. 3. Realiza expresión o producción oral en otro idioma. 4. Realiza interacción o producción escrita de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. Unidad de competencia:  Infiere la correcta utilización de elementos importantes en el idioma Inglés.  Investiga y hace uso de elementos sencillos del lenguaje como son pronunciación, la habilidad de escuchar y el propósito de esta destreza; en situaciones sencillas de socialización, recreación y laboral. Atributos a desarrollar en el bloque: Durante el presente bloque se busca desarrollar los siguientes atributos de las competencias genéricas: 4.1 Expresa ideas y conceptos mediante representaciones lingüísticas, matemáticas o gráficas. 4.2 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los objetivos que persigue. 4.3 Identifica las ideas claves en un texto o discurso oral e infiere conclusiones a partir de ellas. 4.4 Se comunica en una segunda lengua en situaciones cotidianas. 4.5 Maneja las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para obtener información y expresar ideas. 6.4 Estructura ideas y argumentos de manera clara, coherente y sintética. 7.1 Define metas y da seguimiento a sus procesos de construcción de conocimiento. 8.2 Aporta puntos de vista con apertura y considera los de otras personas de manera reflexiva. 10.3 Asume que el respeto de las diferencias es el principio de integración y de convivencia de los contextos loca, nacional e internacional.
  • 9. 10 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Didactic Sequence 1. Pronunciation. Start Up Activity 1. Look at the cartoon. Could you guess what a “tongue twister” is? Discuss your answer with two partners. 2. Write your conclusion here: _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Activity: 1
  • 10. 11 BLOCK 1 Get together in groups of three and practice the “Tongue-Twisters” given below. Remember that a tongue-twister is a sequence of words that is difficult to pronounce quickly and correctly. Even native English speakers find the tongue-twisters on this page difficult to say quickly. Each member of the team takes turns to try pronouncing the tongue twisters. Say them as fast as possible, but correctly! A proper copper coffee pot. Around the rugged rocks the ragged rascals ran. Long legged ladies last longer. Mixed biscuits, mixed biscuits. A box of biscuits, a box of mixed biscuits and a biscuit mixer! Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper. Did Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled pepper? If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper, where's the peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked? Pink lorry, yellow lorry. Red leather, yellow leather, red leather, yellow leather. She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore. The sixth sick Sheik's sixth sheep is sick. [Sometimes described as the hardest tongue-twister in the English language.] Swan swam over the pond, Swim swan swim! Swan swam back again - Well swum swan! Three grey geese in green fields grazing. We surely shall see the sun shine soon. Now be creative and write you own tongue twister or if you have access to internet search for one. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Compare results with the rest of the teams. Then, memorize one the tongue twisters you analyzed and say it in front of the class. Have Fun! Activity: 1 (continuation)
  • 11. 12 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: Tongue twisters, group discussion, questionnaire and conclusions. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Practices tongue twisters and discusses strengths and weaknesses of pronunciation in teams. Applies previous knowledge to identify strengths and weaknesses of English pronunciation. Shows openness to feedback provided by the teacher and classmates. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher How did your team do on the activity? Excellent ______ Good _____ Not good ______ Bad _____ Why do you think you were _____________? _____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Were the tong twisters difficult to pronounce? Yes _____ No ______ Why? ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did you or your classmates do when you had pronunciation problems? ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Have you ever spoken to a native English speaker and have difficulties to understand him or her? Yes ___ No ____ What do you do when that happens? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Do you want to understand English better? Yes _____ No _____ What do you think you have to do to understand English better? __________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Do you want to speak English clearly and confidently? Yes _____ No _____ What would you do to speak English clearly and confidently? _____________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Activity: 1 (continuation)
  • 12. 13 BLOCK 1 Development activities What is “Word Stress”? Word Stress refers to the process whereby particular syllables (or parts of words) are stressed within a whole word. In general, Sentence Stress is more of a consideration for overall fluency. Everybody wants to be able to speak English like a native speaker; However, English pronunciation is always a big problem to many learners. Bad English pronunciation may confuse people even if you use advanced English grammar. We can use simple words and simple grammar structures that make people understand you but we cannot use "simple pronunciation". On the other hand, good English pronunciation will make people understand you easily and be willing to listen to you! You will say that we learn English just for communication; although we speak English with a strong accent, native speakers can understand us, that's enough. But you should know it is not pleasant to listen to bad pronunciation! For example, if you are watching T.V. you may want to change the channel when a journalist covers a person who speaks English without good pronunciation, because that will make the reporter and sometimes even the interviewer feel uncomfortable although both may be able to speak English fluently as well. So, how to speak English clearly and confidently? There are two ways: practice and practice! First, practice speaking each word clearly then, practice speaking each sentence clearly. Bad pronunciation can be a serious problem if it negatively affects understanding, but we do not need to aim for native-speaker perfection. There is nothing wrong with sounding foreign, but it is important to be intelligible. Pronunciation is closely linked to the ear, and listening is a vital part of developing this area. Listening to a model on tape, CD or video, or using your own voice as a model will be the most effective way of doing this. Teachers will call upon you as a model, in some cases, very frequently. You need to recognize the value of being a native speaker of English and adventure it. Reading individual words aloud will help you a lot, because if you catch a mispronunciation you will be able to identify it. English is not Phonetic Always remember that English is not "phonetic". That means that we do not always say a word the same way that we spell it. Some words can have the same spelling but different pronunciation, for example: Audio: I like to read. Audio: I have read that book. Some words have different spelling but the same pronunciation, for example: Audio: I have read that book. Audio: My favorite color is red. Another aspect you should keep in mind is that English alphabet consists of 26 letters, but it has double that number of sounds: “52”. Knowing and recognizing the sounds will help you with good pronunciation. Of course, everybody knows that good pronunciation helps our speaking. But do you know that good pronunciation also helps our listening? How do you think this information affects your English pronunciation and listening skills? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 13. 14 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Rules of word stress in English. There are two very simple rules about word stress: 1. One word has only one stress. That means that one word cannot have two stresses. If you hear two stresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be one word. It is true that there can be a "secondary" stress in some words. However, a secondary stress is much smaller than the main [primary] stress, and is only used in long words. 2. We can only stress vowels, not consonants. These rules can help you understand where to put the stress; but don’t forget that there are many exceptions. It is recommended to try to "feel" the music of the language and to add the stress naturally ask your teacher for help. 1st RULE Stress on first syllable: Rule Example Most 2-syllable nouns PRESent, EXport, CHIna, Table Most 2-syllable adjectives PRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy 1. Two syllable words: a) Noun/Adj. of 2 syllables: Stress 1st syllable: Ex: Student, table, sticker, happy, random, courage. Except: Machine, event. b) Verbs of 2 syllables, stress 2nd syllable: Ex: To admit, to intent, to construct. c) Verbs of 2 syllables ending with OW, EN, Y, EL, ER, LE, ISH: Stress 1st syllable. Ex: To open, to follow, to hurry, to struggle, to flatter, to finish. 2nd RULE Stress on last syllable: Rule Example Most 2-syllable verbs to preSENT, to exPORT, to deCIDE, to begin 2. Two or three syllable words stress 3rd syllable counting backwards: Ex: To celebrate, curriculum, to unify. Except: To develop, imagine, banana. English tip 1 There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If we stress the first syllable, it is a noun (gift) or an adjective (opposite of absent). But if we stress the second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples: the words export, import, contract and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on the first or second syllable. Word Number of syllables dog dog 1 green green 1 quite quite 1 quiet qui-et 2 orange or-ange 2 table ta-ble 2 expensive ex-pen-sive 3 interesting in-ter-est-ing 4 realistic re-al-is-tic 4 unexceptional un-ex-cep-tio-nal 5
  • 14. 15 BLOCK 1 3rd RULE Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end): Rule Example Words ending in –ic GRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, geoLOGic Words ending in -sion and -tion teleVIsion, reveLAtion 3 suffixes: a) Stress before CIV (consonant-I-vowel). Ex: Australia, religious, physician. b) Stress before IC. Ex: Titanic, Panasonic, Pacific. Except: Rhetoric, lunatic, catholic, arithmetic, politics, Arabic. c) Stress on the following ending syllables: ADE, OO, OON, EE, EEN, EER, ESE, ISE, IZE, AIRE, SELF. Ex: Pickaboo, millionaire, cocoon, analyze, engineer, themselves. d) Stress before TION, TAL. Ex: Tradition, continental. 4th RULE Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end): Rule Example Words ending in -cy, -ty, -phy and –gy deMOcracy, dependaBIlity, phoTOgraphy, geology Words ending in –al CRItical, geological 4th RULE Compound words (words with two parts): Rule Example For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part BLACKbird, GREENhouse For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part bad-TEMpered, old-FASHioned For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part to underSTAND, to overFLOW English tip 2 For a few words, native English speakers don't always "agree" on where to put the stress. For example, some people say teleVIsion and others say TELevision. Another example is: CONtroversy and conTROversy.
  • 15. 16 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Evaluation Activity: 2 Product: Drawings and writing. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Identifies strengths and weaknesses through a listening skills activity. Practices listening skills and identifies strengths and weaknesses. Shows openness to feedback provided by the teacher and classmates. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Listen carefully and pay attention to the instructions. Identify the order given. The audio will be played to you ONCE. Follow whatever you hear and make or do what is required. After your listening exercise, your teacher will draw and write each sentence on the board. Then, compare your work with your teacher and classmates’ drawings and sentences. Activity: 2
  • 16. 17 BLOCK 1 Focus on the following English vowels pronunciation table for Spanish speakers. Identify and practice vowels in pairs and provide feedback to each other. Letter Pronunciation Observations Examples A Ei a) When it is tonic at the end of syllable or followed by consonant and silent e. b) Before mb, nci, ng, ste. Fate, Agent, Chamber, Ancient, Change, Waste O a) Before l or ll. b) Before or after w. Already, water A Before r. Far E I When it is tonic at the end of syllable or followed by consonant and silent e. Scene, Me, The E In other words sometimes it sounds like open e and others as closed French e sound. Meridian, Meter I Ai a) When it is tonic at the end of syllable or followed by consonant and silent e. b) Before gh, ght, gn, ld, nd. c) In some monosyllables and voices that precede one or more consonants followed by silent e. Pine, Idol, Idle, High; Night , Sign; Mild, Find, I, Biography Globalize License I d) When it is not followed by silent e. Pin, Fin Ae e) When it is followed by r. Sir; First O Ou a) When it is tonic at the end of syllable or followed by consonant and silent e. b) Before ld, lt, st. Vote, open, bold; bolt; most O c) When it is not followed by silent e. Boy, toy Ae d) In the words of more than one syllable or terminations tion. Admiration U e) In some cases such as: f) With the following verbs: who; do; woman to prove; to move; to lose U Iu a) When it is tonic at the end of syllable or followed by consonant and silent e. Tune, Usual U b) In the following words: rule; bull; crude; put; true Iú c) At the end of a strong syllable and when it is preceded by a consonant followed by silent e. pupil; tube; duty I d) In some words such as: busy; building Evaluation Activity: 3 Product: Pronunciation practice. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyzes the rules of pronunciation and communicates them to classmates. Determines and applies listening skills and English pronunciation skills. Appreciates pair work and shows openness to feedback provided by the teacher and classmates. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Activity: 3
  • 17. 18 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Write the stressed syllable with capital letters. Word Stress Pattern tea-cher beau-ti-ful un-der-stand con-ti-nue con-ti-nu-a-tion black-board Stress determines vowel pronunciation. Stressed syllables have the full vowel sound, and unstressed have reduced vowels. Find on your dictionary 5 words and fill in the chart with their vowels sounds and patterns. Word Vowel sounds Pattern Banana Photograph Photography Photographer Work with a partner and practice pronunciation of stressed syllables. de.SIGN a.BOUT AF.ter CA.na.da graf.FI.ti in.DIF.fe.rent A.ri.zo.na a.VAI.la.ble ca.fe.TE.ri.a LA.bo.ra.to.ry va.NIL.la u.ni.VER.si.ty Evaluation Activity: 4 Product: Word stress practice. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Recognizes stressed words to be practiced with a partner. Applies his/her knowledge in oral practice. Shows ability and positive attitude when listening to feedback. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Stressed syllables are longer, louder, and higher pitched. They have a full, clear vowel. Unstressed Syllables are softer, shorter, with neutral pitch. Now In pairs, identify and practice the following. Activity: 4
  • 18. 19 BLOCK 1 Evaluation Activity: 5 Product: Listening practice. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Recognizes information through a listening exercise. Applies his/her listening skills when identifying sentences. Shows ability and positive attitude when listening. Is opened to feedback. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Listen to the sentences attentively. Underline the sentence that you hear and then choose the corresponding answer. 1. "Why doesn't he like the desert?" or "Why doesn't he like the dessert?" a. It's too dry. b. It's too sweet. 2. "What does he think of Europe?" or "What does he think of your rope?" a. It's a wonderful place to go. b. It's not strong enough. 3. "Is it elementary?" or "Is it a lemon tree?" a. No, it's very advanced. b. No, it's an orange tree. 4. "I like that greenhouse very much." or "I like that greenhouse very much." a. Really? Can you see many plants there? b. Really? I like the blue one. 5. "What does "eligible" mean?" or "What does "illegible" mean?" a. It means qualified. b. It means difficult to read. 6. "Tom likes pineapples." or "Tom likes pie and apples." a. Yes, they are his favorite fruit. b. Yes, he always eats them for breakfast. Activity: 5
  • 19. 20 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Evaluation Activity: 6 Product: Presentation about the chosen topic and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Recognizes information through a listening exercise. Applies his/her listening skills when identifying word stress. Shows ability and positive attitude when listening words and Is opened to feedback. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Write on the line the syllable that you expect to be stressed for items 1-5. Then listen to the audio and check your answers by identifying the correct stress. 1. Blackboard ________________________ 2. Bluebird ________________________ 3. Toothbrush ________________________ 4. Bookstore ________________________ 5. Keyboard ________________________ 6. Read the note that's on the ________________ a. blackboard b. black board 7. There's a lovely ___________ on the birdfeeder. a. bluebird b. blue bird 8. Sara works in a __________. a. greenhouse b. green house Activity: 6
  • 20. 21 BLOCK 1 Evaluation Activity: 7 Product: Word stress exercise. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Practices word stress by answering the exercise Applies his/her knowledge by answering a questionnaire. Shows ability and positive attitude and is opened to feedback. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Choose the correct answer for the questions below. 1. Which 2-syllable word has a different stress pattern from the others? a) Police. b) Mother. c) Student. d) Money. 2. Which 2-syllable word has a different stress pattern from the others? a) Career. b) Shampoo. c) Balloon. d) Problem. 3. Which 3-syllable word has a different stress pattern from the others? a) Cinema. b) Saturday. c) Umbrela. d) Manager. 4. Which 3-syllable word has a different stress pattern from the others? a) Potato. b) Paragraph. c) Computer. d) Professor. 5. Which of these adjectives beginning with ‘un’ or ‘in’ has the stress on the final syllable? a) Informal. b) Unhappy. c) Unfriendly. d) Unemployed. 6. In which sentence does the speaker want to tell us that John’s car is not second hand? a) John’s bought a new car. b) John’s bought a new car. c) John’s bought a new car. d) John’s bought a new car. Activity: 7
  • 21. 22 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Evaluation Activity: 8 Product: Crossword puzzle and listening activity. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyzes information from an audio. Orders, prepares and presents puzzle to the class. Applies his/her knowledge, when answering a crossword puzzle. Shows positive attitude when listening and is opened to feedback. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Listen to the audio carefully and complete the crossword. Ask your teacher if you need help for a "Hint" to get a free letter. (Once). Across 1: She enjoys working on that __________. 4: That __________ is beautiful. 5: You can learn a lot from __________. 6: She enjoys working on that __________. 7: John has a __________ problem. 8: You can learn a lot from __________. 10: That __________ is beautiful. 11: How do you spell __________? Down 2: Anna lives in __________. 3: Anna lives in __________. 7: John has a __________ problem. 9: How do you spell __________? Word List: dessert / desert / committee / comedy / Missouri / misery / Oregon / organ / history / his story / personal / personnel Activity: 8
  • 22. 23 BLOCK 1 Closing Activities K-W-L Chart. Before you begin your closing activity, fill in the following KWL chart with information you have learned about pronunciation. Complete the third column after finishing this activity.
  • 23. 24 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Evaluation Activity: 9 Product: Crossword puzzle and listening activity. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyzes information from an audio. Orders, prepares and presents puzzle to the class. Applies his/her knowledge, when answering a crossword puzzle. Shows positive attitude when listening and is opened to feedback. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher 1. Listen to your teacher pronouncing each word. Then underline the stressed syllable: 1 mother 2 America 3 computer 4 guarantee 5 paper 6 machine 7 answer 8 introduce 9 visitor 10 about 11 afraid 12 another 13 telephone 14 Japan 15 hotel 16 Hong Kong 17 animal 18 between 19 hairdresser 20 China 2. Choose 20 words from a dictionary and write with capital letters the stressed syllables. 3. Use the words you used on previous chart and practice pronunciation in pairs. Activity: 9 Word Stress
  • 24. 25 BLOCK 1 Silent B B is not pronounced when following M at the end of a word. Climb / crumb / dumb / comb Silent C C is not pronounced in the ending "scle" Muscle Silent D D is not pronounced in the following common words: Handkerchief / sandwich / Wednesday Silent E E is not pronounced at the end of words and usually makes the vowel long. Hope / drive / gave / write / site Silent G G is often not pronounced when followed by an N Champagne / foreign / sign / feign Silent GH GH is not pronounced before T and at the end of many words Thought / through / daughter / light / might / right / fight / weigh Silent H H is not pronounced when following W. Some speakers whisper the H before the W. What / who / when / where / whether / why Silent H H is not pronounced at the beginning of many words. Use the article "an" with unvoiced H. Here are some of the most common: Hour / honest / honor / heir / herb Pronounced H H is pronounced at the beginning of these common words. Use the article "a" with voiced H. Hill / history / height / happy / hangover Silent K K is not pronounced when followed by N at the beginning of a word. knife / knee / know / knock / knowledge Silent L L is often not pronounced before L, D, F, M, K. Calm / half / salmon / talk / balk / would / should Silent N N is not pronounced following M at the end of a word. Autumn / hymn Silent P P is not pronounced at the beginning of many words using the suffix "psych" and "pneu". Psychiatrist / pneumonia / psychotherapy / psychotic Silent S S is not pronounced before L in the following words: Island / isle Silent T T is not pronounced in these common words: Castle / Christmas / fasten / listen / often / whistle / thistle Silent U U is not pronounced before after G and before a vowel. Guess / guidance / guitar / guest Silent W W is not pronounced at the beginning of a word followed by an R. Wrap / write / wrong Silent W W is not pronounced with these three pronouns: Who / whose / whom Study the following list of common letter combinations with silent letters. This list contains most of the silent letters that give English as second language students, difficulties. Activity: 10
  • 25. 26 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS 1. In pairs, search in a dictionary for at least three different words for each category presented above. Silent B 1. 2. 3. Silent H 1. 2. 3 Silent P 1. 2. 3 Silent C 1. 2. 3 Silent H 1. 2. 3 Silent S 1. 2. 3 Silent D 1. 2. 3 Silent H 1. 2. 3 Silent T 1. 2. 3 Silent E 1. 2. 3 Silent K 1. 2. 3 Silent U 1. 2. 3 Silent G 1. 2. 3 Silent L 1. 2. 3 Silent W 1. 2. 3 Silent GH 1. 2. 3 Silent N 1. 2. 3 Silent B 1. 2. 3 2. In pairs practice the stress with the words you used. 3. Prepare a power point presentation including the words with stressed syllables in capital letters and appropriate pictures. 4. Include an audio recorder with the correct pronunciation of the words used in the presentation. (Complete this final step by yourselves and record your voice). Don’t forget the following word stress rules when working on your product. Group 1: Two syllable adjectives & nouns have the stress on the first syllable. Group 2: Words that can be used as verbs & nouns: the verbs take the stress on the second syllable, while the nouns take it on the first syllable. Group 3: The suffix takes the stress with these 'foreign' suffixes. Group 4: Words with the suffix '-ic', '-tion' have the stress on the penultimate syllable. Group 5: Words with the suffix '-ty', -phy' have the stress on the ante-penultimate syllable. Group 6: Compounds - adjective + noun - stress is on the second element. Group 7: Compounds - noun + noun - stress is on the first element.
  • 26. 27 BLOCK 1 Instructions for listening and evaluating: I. Pay attention to other teams finished recording and presentation. II. Using the rubric bellow evaluate your team’s work and provide some feedback to improve it. Assign from 1 to 10 points (1 being the lowest mark) for each criterion. III. Record your team’s evaluations and email the audio file to a person assigned by your teacher. Include specific examples or comments to support your evaluation. Send a copy to your instructor; he/she will follow up with her/his feedback. Example: You may say something like this. “Your clarity of speech is 4. I recommend that you speak a bit louder, I could not make out the second sentence”, or “Your enthusiasm is 9: you sound very engaged in the task.” Do not forget to include the following in your audio recording: 1. The name of the reviewer. 2. The name of the author of the original recording. 3. Total points assigned (out of ___). 4. Additional comments.
  • 27. 28 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Criteria Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Clarity of speech: Are some words hard to understand? Do they mumble? Are word endings or beginnings too quiet or unclear? Enthusiasm: Is their voice lively, interesting and enthusiastic or do you sound bored? Do they sound angry or too formal? Does their tone express their feeling? Listening skills: Was the task clearly understood and directions followed accurately? Are all components there? Accuracy (grammar): What word order, verb tense or word choice problems did you notice? Are there any other grammar mistakes? Fluency: Is their pronunciation smooth, or do they hesitate and pause a lot? Do they repeat words and start over a lot? Do these pauses/hesitations interfere with their ability to communicate? Do they speak too quickly or too slowly? Organization of ideas: Is their pronunciation clear and easy to follow? Could anyone understand them? Is their pronunciation coherent? Content: How relevant is the information they shared to the task? Is the meaning of the words clearly demonstrated through audio (note: only for the dictionary task)? Is information complete? Pronunciation: How was your rhythm? How was their word or sentence stress? Did you notice any word stress problems? How was their intonation? Did you notice any problems with specific sounds? Evaluation Activity: 10 Product: Multi task activity, power point presentation and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Prepares and presents a power point presentation to the class. Applies pronunciation knowledge with the team and presents rubric about the work. Values with a positive attitude when listening and presenting ideas. Is opened to feedback. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 28. 29 BLOCK 1 Didactic Sequence 2. Listening skills. Start Up Activities Split up the class and work with a partner. Decide who is St (student) 1 and St 2. St 1 reads the news article to St 2, while St 2 displays poor listening behavior such as jiggle, looking around, interrupting to ask questions and making inappropriate facial expressions. Activity: 1 Hunt for the true Mona Lisa begins FLORENCE, Italy | Fri Apr 29, 2011 4:16am EDT (Reuters) Researchers have begun their hunt for the remains of the woman who might have been the model for Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, hoping to unravel a mystery that has baffled art historians for over five centuries. A team of experts armed with a special radar device descended this week on a dilapidated convent in Florence where they believe the body of the woman who modeled for da Vinci back in the 16th century is buried. The real Mona Lisa, Italian art historians say, was Lisa Gherardini, the wife of a rich Florentine silk merchant named Francesco del Giocondo who is thought to have commissioned the portrait although there is no definitive proof of this. The researchers say that if they can find her skull, they will be able to reconstruct her face and compare it with the painting. The true identity of Mona Lisa and her enigmatic smile have intrigued art lovers around the world. According to the Louvre museum in Paris, where the painting is on display, the portrait was likely painted in Florence between 1503 and 1506 and could have been commissioned to mark one of two events: either when Gherardini and her husband bought their house or when their second son was born. The key to solving the mystery may lie at the Saint Orsola convent, a structure in central Florence almost reduced to ruins. Using radar equipment which can identify objects underground, scientists are scanning the floor in the small church to pinpoint areas where they may start digging for Gherardini's remains. "We have a document confirming the burial of Gherardini in 1542 here in the convent" said Silvano Vinceti, head of the National Committee for the Promotion of Historic and Cultural Heritage. Researchers say Gherardini spent the last years of her life at the convent, looked after by her two daughters who were nuns, and was buried there. "To be sure we have to find the DNA in her bones, and once we have found that we can compare it with the DNA of her children who are buried at the Santissima Annunziata convent," said Professor Francesco Mallegni, a paleoanthropologist. Vinceti has been studying the painting for months and recently claimed to have found symbols hidden in the portrait. He says Gherardini might have been an early model for the Mona Lisa but that da Vinci was also probably inspired by the face of his young male apprentice, Gian Giacomo Caprotti, who some say was also his lover. It is not clear how long the project to study Gherardini's remains will need before coming to any conclusion but some of her descendants have already expressed skepticism. "Let her rest in peace. What could finding her remains change to the charm of Leonardo's painting? To look for her bones seems a sacrilege to me," said one of them, actress and writer Natalia Strozzi. (Writing by Eleanor Biles and Silvia Aloisi; Editing by Steve Addison).
  • 29. 30 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS When you are done, St 2 then explains the article that was just read to him or her, back to St 1. This time, St 1 should display positive listening skills, such as making eye contact, sitting still, making appropriate facial nods and taking notes and waiting until the end to ask questions. After finishing the activity review the article together, and identify things that St. 2 missed because he wasn't listening closely. Discuss the activity and share your opinion with other pairs. This exercise will demonstrate you how important it is to use proper listening behaviors to understand the message being conveyed. Use the following rubric to evaluate your partner both good and bad listening skills. Good listeners 4 3 2 1 Bad listening 4 3 2 1 1. Defer their judgment more controlled listen for the other person Say something new and useful. 1. “Tune out” the other person at the beginning (i.e., become prejudiced without giving the speaker a chance). 2. Pay most attention to content – do not allow grammar or speaking skills to supersede the substance of the message. 2. Are quick to criticize grammar and /or speaking skills. Attention is directed to form rather than content. 3. Listen completely first then plan their own response. 3. Spend the time getting ready to talk instead of listening. 4. Have become more mature in their listening habits – they listen for the main idea the principle(s) being presented. 4. Tend to listen mainly for facts. (i.e., expend their energy trying to memorize), a grade school habit. 5. Separate facts from principles concentrate on remembering principles. They don’t worry about committing all information to memory. 5. Try to outline or take in everything. Try to remember everything. Misdirect their attention to perfection. 6. Work at keeping attentive. They are aware of their human tendency to fake listening. 6. Fake attention, sometimes it’s an unconscious habit. When they find active listening is really hard work, they try to avoid the work by faking. 7. Do one thing at a time. They realize listening is a full-time job and they give their full attention to listening. 7. Create distractions (i.e., try to do something else while listening), apparently believing hearing is listening. 8. 8. Have confidence that they will be able to understand if they only listen carefully and ask questions. 8. Give u too soon when they realize they have to actively work at understanding when listening. 9. Feel their honest anger, but control it do not allow their emotional reactions to govern their behavior. Their intellect is more “in charge”. 9. Tend to get distracted by emotional words; don’t control their attention or emotional priorities consciously; and sometimes lose their temper. 10. Keep their mental energies on the subject by practicing listening techniques. 10. Are not aware of the talking/listening “speed limits” mismatch. Waste thought power and get lost in tangential thinking. Excellent 4 / Proficient 3 / Satisfactory 2 / Limited 1 Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: Listening memory skills develop practice and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Applies comprehension and listening memory skills in the pair work. Practices his/her oral and listening skills by reading a text in pairs. Collaborates and appreciates pair work. Shows positive attitude when listening and presenting ideas. Is open to feedback. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 30. 31 BLOCK 1 Evaluation Activity: 2 Product: Discussion, game and flipchart with conclusions. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Identifies and applies his/her listening and oral skills when participating in a game and presents solutions to listening difficulties using a flipchart. Applies, collaborates and shows positive attitude when working in group and is opened to feedback. Collaborates and appreciates team’s work and shows positive attitude. Is open to feedback. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Telephone game. Your teacher will take one of your classmates out of the classroom. Then, the teacher will tell him/her a message related to the lesson silently. The student comes back come to the classroom and whispers the message to the classmate your teacher assigned. This student repeats the action with the classmate behind him/her. The teacher determines when to stop the process and the last students is asked to comment to the rest of the class what he/she was told. Finally, compare the final message to the original. Write here the final message. Write here the original message. Write what you think about your listening skills and your partner’s then share your ideas to the class. What could have been done to make sure the story stayed the same all the game? Discuss it. Then, present and explain your ideas using a flip chart in groups of four. Activity: 2
  • 31. 32 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Development activities Listening skills. Listening skills are very important. They help us with maintaining good relations with other people. They are also important in business, workplace and classroom. When you are in meetings or attending an important lecture, here too they play an important role so that you do not miss out on the important points. Many people do not have good listening skills as they do not pay much importance to it. As a result, they find their attention wavering away easily from the current conversation. So, how to improve listening skills? Here are 2 simple exercises to improve listening skills: 1. Whenever you are listening to somebody speak, make it a habit to give oral acknowledgments like 'I see', 'I understand' etc. And then occasionally summarize in your own words what you understood of whatever was said by the other person. Summarizing the conversation in your own words every now and then, helps you in two ways; first thing, it keeps you actively involved in the conversation thus preventing your attention from wandering away, secondly, it can help in preventing any misunderstandings because if you understood something incorrectly then the speaker can correct you when you are repeating in your words what he/she has said. 2. Ask questions: Ask questions whenever you need clarification for anything or you do not properly understand what was said. Asking questions can help keep the conversation alive, prevent misunderstandings, and also help in developing your listening skills. There are a lot of factors which affect how much attention we can pay to the other person. The main thing to remember is that the more actively involved you are in a conversation, the easier it is to pay proper attention to it. You can be actively involved in any conversation by asking relevant questions, discussing your own point of view on the topic, acknowledging and summarizing in your own words etc. The main purpose of all good exercises is to develop in you the active listening. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/845402
  • 32. 33 BLOCK 1 Evaluation Activity: 3 Product: Flipchart and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyzes an article, prepares and presents in teams a flipchart to be presented to the class. Applies and uses his/her previous knowledge to present the team’s ideas orally. Collaborates and shows positive attitude when working in group and is open to feedback. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Discuss the previous article and elaborate a map with the information provided in groups. Use the template below or one of your own to create the map. Then, present it to the rest of the class using a flipchart. Finally, evaluate a team your teacher will assign you with the rubric on next page. Activity: 3
  • 33. 34 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Effective listener rubric Superior 5 Advanced 4 Proficient 3 Needs Improvement 2 Unacceptable 1 Listens responsibly Demonstrates thorough understanding of content and a mature acceptance of speaker’s right to express challenging or new viewpoints. Consistently demonstrates active listening skills. Demonstrates extensive understanding of content and routinely demonstrates active listening skills. Demonstrates satisfactory understanding of content and usually demonstrates active listening skills. Demonstrates some understanding of content and occasionally demonstrates active listening skills. Demonstrates very little understanding of content and rarely demonstrates active listening skills. Listens to gain information Interprets meaning from auditory input and accurately summarizes the main ideas to be applied to a specific purpose or task. Extracts supporting ideas as well as basic information from auditory input and uses the information for a specific purpose or task. Extracts basic information from auditory input and uses the information for a specific purpose or task. Extracts information from a variety of auditory input, but misses some key points critical to the specific purpose or task. Fails to extract sufficient information from auditory input to participate in the specific purpose or task. Listens to analyze information Extracts and analyzes relevant information, identifies speaker’s purpose and point of view, evaluates for validity and clarity, interprets auditory subtleties and applies the information for a specific purpose or task. Extracts and interprets relevant information, identifies speaker’s purpose and point of view, distinguishes auditory subtleties and applies the information for a specific purpose or task. Extracts most relevant information, usually identifies speaker’s purpose and point of view, recognizes obvious auditory subtleties uses the information gained to adequately fulfill the specific purpose or task. Extracts basic information, identifies speaker’s purpose and point of view with assistance, misses many auditory subtleties and some key points necessary to complete the specific purpose or task. Fails to extract information, unable to identify speaker’s purpose and point of view, shows little or no evidence of understanding differences in information. Virtually all analysis offered is unsuccessful or in error. Listens to follow directions Always absorbs multi-step instructions, anticipates and makes inferences from these instructions and draws logical conclusions. Consistently and effectively follows clear multi-step instructions; seeks clarifications when necessary; and anticipates or makes inferences from these instructions. Usually follows clear multi-step instructions; seeks clarification when needed; and anticipates or makes inferences from these instructions. Sometimes follows clear multi-step instructions, but generally needs instructions repeated if they have not been fully understood and only occasionally anticipates or makes inferences from these instructions. Rarely follows multi-step instructions/ often requires assistance or needs to have them repeated before attempting to carry them out. Total score
  • 34. 35 BLOCK 1 A good listener is not only popular everywhere, but after a while he knows something. - Wilson Mizner. Listening skills are a critically important part of successful communication. Most days we spend a lot of our time talking and listening. Improving listening skills will not only help you at school but it will most likely improve your relationships, both familiar and friendly. There is a big difference between listening and hearing. In conversation, listening and hearing are related but also very different. Hearing is the physical act of words being detected by your ears. Listening is making sense of those words and understanding their meaning. Listening is a skill that can be improved with practice and there are many rewards for developing your ability to listen. It is common to be engaged in a conversation where everyone is competing to share their ideas and to be heard. Improving our listening skills will not only help us, but enable us to help others. What are the benefits of being a good listener? Good listening skills will improve your ability to develop relationships and make you more productive in practically anything you do. The ability to listen and clearly understand will allow you to: 1. Develop relationships to a deeper level. 2. Understand what is expected of you - at school, home and with friends. 3. Be a better team player. 4. Be an effective problem solver. 5. Better support people who need your help.
  • 35. 36 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Answer the following questionnaire. 1. Has anybody ever gotten mad at you because you weren't listening to him/her? What happened? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. How does it feel when someone won’t listen to your ideas or opinions? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What are some reasons why people don't listen? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What's wrong with not listening when someone is talking to you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. How can not listening create hard feelings between friends? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Is there a difference between hearing and listening? What is the difference? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Have you ever had a bad misunderstanding because you didn't listen carefully or because somebody didn't listen carefully to you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. How can listening carefully help friendship? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. When somebody is not listening to you, what can you do to get them to listen? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Activity: 4
  • 36. 37 BLOCK 1 Novice 2 / 0 Apprentice 3 / 2 Proficient 4 / 3 Distinguished 5 / 4 Content/Knowledge Structure No structure Confusing Limited Lacks continuity Lacks precision Good Precise Concise Framework is well defined Excellent Linkage Content/Knowledge Research No evidence Limited Research undertaken Well Researched Excellent research Acknowledgements made Verbal: Voice Poor usage Needs extensive work Clarity needs work Clear tone, pitch appropriate Excellent pause, pitch, tone and pace used to aid understanding Verbal: Language Inconsistent Shows limited consistency Concise Appropriate for audience Excellent articulation of ideas Clever use of language Non-verbal: Body language Poor No eye contact Needs work Limited eye contact Good use Eye contact used Used to enhance performance and purpose Non-verbal: Notes Reads from notes entirely Relies heavily on notes Limited use of notes for prompts Use notes effectively Non-verbal: Use of technology Not used Limited use Appropriate use Excellent use Adds meaning to presentation Non-verbal: Audience response Disengaged Limited engagement Engaged Engaged High/active participation Total Evaluation Activity: 4 Product: Power point and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Prepares and presents in teams a power point presentation and an oral production for class. Applies and uses his/her knowledge presented in an oral performance with the team’s ideas. Collaborates and appreciates team’s work and shows positive attitude by listening and delivering team’s ideas. Is open to feedback. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Discuss the answers of the questionnaire in groups of five. Then, present an oral report (2/3 minutes) using a power point presentation as resource about the text you previously read, “Listening skills are a critically important part of successful communication”. Remember to integrate your conclusions in the presentation besides the text information. Evaluate the activity with the rubric provided. Your teacher will assign a team to evaluate to your own team. Activity: 4 (continuation)
  • 37. 38 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Listening is an active process involving three parts. 1) Hearing. This is the physical aspect of your body receiving and interpreting sounds. You may hear these words as part of a conversation "... so I recommend selling ..." and yet have no idea what it is you are meant to sell. Hearing is critical to listening, but it is only the first part. 2) Understanding. This is where your brain processes the words that you hear and derives meaning from them in the context of the entire conversation. Not only do you develop understanding of what you are hearing, information is communicated to you at this stage. In the above example, you may now be aware that the person is talking about the future profitability of an investment choice and that she thinks that it is in your best interests to sell now. 3) Response. Once you understand what you are hearing, the last part is responding. Responding in a conversation shows that you have heard what was said and that you understand the intent of the speaker. Responding may involve making a decision to act on the information you have understood and perhaps replying with your opinion or comments. Continuing with the example, you may now be in a position to agree with the other person and act on the advice to sell. You may disagree and enter into further conversation to dig deeper into the reasons why she is recommending selling.
  • 38. 39 BLOCK 1 Here are some benefits you can get from improving your listening skills. Truly hearing and understanding what is being said around you can have profound consequences on your success, not just at work, but at home and while you are out with friends. Remember, being a good listener is often considered more important than showing people that you know how to speak. Perhaps the most important reason is to be able to win friends and influence people. Good listeners are rare. Develop your skills and your value as a friend or work colleague will increase. They will help you to be considered a brilliant conversationalist. Good listeners can avoid saying the wrong thing and appearing to be tactless. To help soften harsh feelings. The most expressive critic can often be subdued by a patient listener. Letting someone else "talk themselves out" can often be the solution to an otherwise tense situation. To better understand people feelings. Do this by encouraging them to talk about themselves then listen, really listen to what they have to say. To increase the other person's confidence and level of interest in you. To be interesting and attractive to others, first try be interested in what they have to say.
  • 39. 40 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Tips for improving listening skills. Listen carefully so that you will be able to truly understand the message being spoken by the other person. Listening carefully will let you understand and be able to evaluate the information you are hearing. Try these tips when listening: •You can't hear if YOU do all the talking. Don't talk too much. •Think about the topic in advance, if possible. Be prepared to listen. •Listen with empathy. See the situation from the other's point of view. Try to put yourself in their shoes. Be mentally and physically prepared to listen. Put other thoughts out of your mind. Your attention will be diverted from listening if you try to think of answers in advance. •Avoid stereotyping individuals by making assumptions about how you expect them to act. This will bias your listening. •Listen to how something is said. Be alert for what is left unsaid. •Make certain everyone involved gets an opportunity to voice their opinions. If you can pull it off, don't let one person dominate the conversation. Ask questions that will involve the quiet ones. •Face those you are talking with, lean slightly forward, and make eye contact. Use body to show your interest, concern. Be courteous; don't interrupt. Take notes if you worry about forgetting a particular point.
  • 40. 41 BLOCK 1 Novice 2 / 0 Apprentice 3 / 2 Proficient 4 / 3 Distinguished 5 / 4 Content/Knowledge Structure No structure Confusing Limited Lacks continuity Lacks precision Good Precise Concise Framework is well defined Excellent Linkage Content/Knowledge Research No evidence Limited Research undertaken Well Researched Excellent research Acknowledgements made Verbal: Voice Poor usage Needs extensive work Clarity needs work Clear tone, pitch appropriate Excellent pause, pitch, tone and pace used to aid understanding Verbal: Language Inconsistent Shows limited consistency Concise Appropriate for audience Excellent articulation of ideas Clever use of language Non-verbal: Body language Poor No eye contact Needs work Limited eye contact Good use Eye contact used Used to enhance performance and purpose Non-verbal: Notes Reads from notes entirely Relies heavily on notes Limited use of notes for prompts Use notes effectively Non-verbal: Use of technology Not used Limited use Appropriate use Excellent use Adds meaning to presentation Non-verbal: Audience response Disengaged Limited engagement Engaged Engaged High/active participation Total Evaluation Activity: 5 Product: Power point or mind map and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyzes, prepares and presents a power point or a flip chart and an oral presentation for the class. Applies and uses his/her knowledge to present a product, orally in groups. Collaborates and shows positive attitude when working in group and is open to feedback. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher In teams of four analyze all information you read on pages 30, 31 and 32 and come up with main points and conclusions. Then, with the gathered information, elaborate an oral report (2/3 minutes) using a power point presentation or a mind map on a flipchart. Finally, present the product to your class and evaluate a team your teacher will assign you with the rubric provided below. Be opened to feedback! Activity: 5
  • 41. 42 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Discussion article: “What are the keys to being a good listener?” Listening is an activity that requires practice and concentration. Build up your listening skills be practicing each of these components to listening. 1) Maintain eye contact and show you are interested in the conversation. Looking out the window or playing with your hair can give the impression that your mind is drifting away. Sit or stand reasonably still as fidgeting is often taken as a sign of boredom or that you are bursting to "tell" your side of the story. 2) Actually listen. Don't start thinking about your answer or response to what you are hearing. Listen with the intention of understanding. 3) Show your understanding of the speakers feelings with appropriate physical gestures, for example, smile and laugh at funny things, nod your head when you agree. 4) Don't interrupt the speaker, unless there is a piece of space junk coming right at her. Let the speaker finish what they have to say. This does not always work as some speakers seem to lose all sense of time when they are talking about matters close to their heart. 5) Use your body language to encourage the speaker, for example, lean toward the speaker to show her that you want to hear more. 6) Take note of body language and facial gestures as what is not being said is often just as important as what is being said. 7) Concentrate. Keep your mind focused on what is being said. If time is passing along and you are getting tired from lack of movement, shift your position but keep tip #5 in mind when you do. 8) Respond by asking questions about the topic being discussed or by adding something to the discussion - if you have a few more minutes, I invite you to read about additional listening skills or advanced skills.
  • 42. 43 BLOCK 1 Criteria Does not Meet Meets 1 2 3 4 5 My team’s flipchart is concept specific and aligned with my subject standards. My team’s flipchart is content related. We have added a description and key words in the Flipchart We have a Title with our names, the school, and lesson’s objectives. We have made a synopsis the articles concept(s) before activity. We have used notes to provide directions that require additional instruction. Our flipchart is our original work and does have other team’s information. The duration of our flipchart’s explanation does not exceed one period or session. We have integrated multiple things in our flipchart. We have proofed and edited for accuracy, appropriate grammar, and correct spelling. Evaluation Activity: 6 Product: Flipchart and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyzes and orders information to present it orally to class. Prepares in teams a flip chart to be presented in class. Applies and uses his/her knowledge to present ideas in group orally, using a flipchart. Collaborates and appreciates team’s work. Shows positive attitude when working in group and is open to feedback. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Discuss the previous article in teams of four and create a flipchart with the main ideas. Present it to class and then evaluate a team your teacher will assign you with the rubric provided below. Activity: 6
  • 43. 44 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS The definition of listening skills. By Lesley Barker, eHow Contributor. Updated: February 09, 2011. The Definition of Listening Skills thumbnail Communication is key to a healthy relationship. To keep a relationship healthy, there has to be good communication. It doesn't matter if the relationship is with an intimate, casual or business partner. The best way to be a great communicator is to be a really good listener. This makes people feel respected as well as understood. I. Identification: Listening skills are essential in the school, the family and the community at large. Careers in communications, management, planning, sales, to name a few, rely on good listening skills. Listening, however, is more than just being able to hear and understand what someone else says. Listening skills involve etiquette, asking for clarification, showing empathy and providing an appropriate response. II. Body Language: Good listening skills include using body language that empowers the speaker. You should make eye contact with the speaker. In a large auditorium or in a classroom, this means keeping your eyes looking at the speaker, not down or gazing at some daydream. Keep your hands down, not folded across your chest. Sit up and look alert. III. Respect: People who have good listening skills show respect to the speaker by not interrupting him while he is talking. Even if the speaker stutters or is slow to speak or select his words, being patient and restraining yourself from finishing his sentences is a mark of a good listener. IV. Comprehension: Good listening skills depend on good comprehension. Demonstrate that you understand by restating what you think you have heard. Then ask if you, in fact, did hear correctly. Ask questions that request specific clarification on points that you are unsure about. Be cognizant of the length of time that you speak, making sure not to dominate or usurp the conversation. V. Response: Good listening skills are measured by the response of the listener. First, the response should validate the speaker with etiquette and empathy. Next, it should show that the listener understands the message. When the message has been adequately delivered and received, the result should be an action or statement that demonstrates that there has been a transaction between the speaker and the listener. Read more: The Definition of Listening Skills | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5127470_definition-listening- skills.html#ixzz1JK6H6Lra
  • 44. 45 BLOCK 1 Write your notes about the fist video. Write your notes about the second video. Watch the videos provided attentively and analyze the information about listening skills. Then, follow the next steps to complete the activity. a) In teams of four, discuss the situation of both videos. b) Write your notes in the boxes provided. c) Identify listening skills. d) Create a role play emphasizing good and bad listening skills. e) Present your role play to class and receive feedback f) Evaluate a team assigned by your teacher with the rubric below. Activity: 7
  • 45. 46 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Role play rubric. Criteria 4 Excellent 3 Proficient 2 Adequate 1 Limited Participation in Preparation and Presentation Always willing and focused during group work and presentation. Usually willing and focused during group work and presentation. Sometimes willing and focused during group work and presentation. Rarely willing and focused during group work and presentation. Presentation of Character Convincing communication of character’s feelings, situation and motives. Competent communication of character’s feelings, situations and motives. Adequate communication of character’s feelings, situation and motives. Limited communication of character’s feelings, situation and motives. Achievement of Purpose Purpose is clearly established and effectively sustained. Purpose is clearly established and generally sustained. Purpose is established but may not be sustained. Purpose is vaguely established and may not be sustained. Use of Non- Verbal Cues (voice, gestures, eye contact, props, costumes) Impressive variety of non-verbal cues are used in an exemplary way. Good variety of non- verbal cues are used in a competent way. Satisfactory variety of non-verbal cues used in an acceptable way. Limited variety of non- verbal cues are used in a developing way. Imagination and Creativity Choices demonstrate insight and powerfully enhance role play. Choices demonstrate thoughtfulness and completely enhance role play. Choices demonstrate awareness and developing acceptably enhance role play. Choices demonstrate little awareness and do little to enhance role play. Evaluation Activity: 7 Product: Video analysis, role play and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyses videos and identifies information about listening skills. Creates a role play for the class. Applies and uses his/her knowledge, to create a role play and present it to class using information from videos. Evaluates it with the rubric. Collaborates, appreciates and shows positive attitude when working in groups and is opened to feedback. Acts as a team evaluating with the rubric. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 46. 47 BLOCK 1 English is everywhere! Where can we find it? Can you find all the hidden words in this word search puzzle? Words can go from left to right, from right to left, up or down. Good luck! Songs Internet Films BooksDictionaries Comics Posters Signs Magazines TV programs
  • 47. 48 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Closing Activity Get together in groups of five or six and discuss of any time in your life you needed someone to listen up to you. At the end, answer the following questions individually. Who did you choose to talk to? ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why did you choose this person? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ What qualities did this person have that made him/her a good listener? ____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ One of the members of the team should write all answers of previous questions on a flipchart. Be sure the final list looks something like the following list: a) Was patient, didn't rush me. b) Let me talk, did not interrupt. c) I know he or she would not gossip and would be confidential. d) Was not judgmental. e) Was calm, warm (body language, tone of voice). f) I could trust the person. g) Made good eye contact with me. h) Nodded his or her head when I was talking. i) Understood my feelings (i.e., "It sounds like you are feeling worried."). j) Made sure he or she understood what I was saying by repeating back or summarizing what I said (i.e., "So let me see if I understand. Your friend said she would call you back, but it's been three days and you haven't heard from her."). How did it feel to be listened to? _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Have you ever had an experience when you wanted to be listened to, but the other person was not a good listener? __________ how did that feel? _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Activity: 8
  • 48. 49 BLOCK 1 What did that person do that made him or her a bad listener? ________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ One of the members of the team should write all answers of previous questions on a different flipchart. Be sure the final list looks something like the following list: a) Interrupted, did not let me talk. b) Used uninviting body language (harsh tone of voice, closed body posture, no eye contact). c) Laughed at me. d) Minimized what I was saying "All kids go through this. It's nothing to worry about." Or "You are only a teenager. How stressful can your problems be?". e) Advised or told me what to do without listening to me — "If I were you, I would …" f) Put me down, insulted me "That's a stupid idea." Why is it sometimes difficult for people to be good listeners? _____________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ What are some possible barriers to listening? Some possible responses are: a) Don't know how to listen b) Don't have time to listen c) Not understanding someone because of language, unclear messages, crying, etc. d) Feeling tired or sick e) Feeling distracted by other problems on his/her mind or by things going on in the background like a phone ringing, baby crying, etc. f) Wanting to "solve" the problem in order to be helpful g) Wanting to redirect conversation about him/herself instead of staying focused on the person talking and his/her story Do you think people are always good listeners? ________________________________________________________ Why or why not? ___________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Remember how important body language is to become a good listener. Body language includes body movements, facial expressions, tone of voice and gestures. Making eye contact and facing your friend shows them you are interested and paying attention. Some psychologists believe that 80% of what a person communicates is through his or her body language rather than the words that come out of his or her mouth! What do you think about this paragraph? Write your team’s conclusion here: _______________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Activity: 8 (continuation)
  • 49. 50 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS Self-Evaluation Rating Scale. (9–10) always focused; highly motivated; cooperated with everyone (7–8) quite well focused; motivated to do well; cooperated most of the time (4–6) sometimes off task; not overly motivated; trouble cooperating some of the time (1–3) often off- task; very little effort; highly uncooper ative with others 1. I helped the group review its task. 2. I contributed relevant ideas. 3. I stayed on topic. 4. I listened carefully to other group members’ ideas. 5. I was open-minded about different interpretations. 6. I encouraged participation from all group members. 7. I shared materials with my group. 8. I helped the group stay on task. 9. I contributed to questions asked of the group. 10. I did my share of the work to complete the task. 11. I used my strengths to enhance the task. 12. I am proud of my contribution to the task. 13. My best contribution to the task was, because. 14. Write, two ways in which you will improve your performance. Evaluate both flipcharts and those of a group your teacher will assign you using the evaluation rubric below. Then, report your results, experiences and comments to your teacher. Activity: 8 (continuation)
  • 50. 51 BLOCK 1 Group Work Rating Scale. 1. We clearly understood the task. always often sometimes rarely 2. We shared ideas openly always often sometimes rarely 3. We listened respectfully to each other’s ideas. always often sometimes rarely 4. We encouraged each other. always often sometimes rarely 5. We were motivated to do our best. always often sometimes rarely 6. We divided the workload fairly. always often sometimes rarely 7. We were on task during class preparation time. always often sometimes rarely 8. We worked out differences of opinion in an appropriate manner. always often sometimes rarely 9. We learned something meaningful during this task. always often sometimes rarely 10. We are proud of the outcome of this task. always often sometimes rarely Evaluate each member of your team honestly based on the following criteria: EFFORT (motivated to do well at task). COOPERATION (shared workload, accepted suggestions). ON TASK (stayed focused without reminders). SUPPORTIVE (helped and encouraged other group members). Name Mark Comment/Reason (me) Evaluation Scale (give each group member a mark out of ten): (9–10) Always focused; highly motivated; cooperated with everyone. (7–8) Quite well focused; motivated to do well; cooperated most of the time. (4–6) Sometimes off task; not overly motivated; trouble cooperating some of the time. (1–3) Often off-task; very little effort; highly uncooperative with others. Evaluation Activity: 8 Product: Questionnaire, flipcharts and evaluation rubrics. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Identifies, analyzes and restructures the elements presented on the activity while discussing in groups. Applies his/her knowledge to answer a questionnaire and elaborates a flipchart to present it in class. Prepares, analyses, and discusses information from the questionnaire. Prepares a flipchart for the class then evaluates using rubrics. Appreciates work and shows positive attitude when listening to their classmates. Shows responsibility delivering the products in a timely manner. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 51. 52 CONSIDERING PRONUNCIATION AND LISTENING SKILLS
  • 52. Tiempo asignado: 15 horas Identifying types of speech. Competencias profesionales: 1. Realiza comprensión oral y auditiva de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. 2. Realiza compresión escrita y de lectura de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. 3. Realiza expresión o producto oral en otro idioma. 4. Realiza interacción oral en otro idioma. 5. Realiza expresión o producción escrita de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. Unidad de competencia: Produce y se comunica de manera oral a través de la representación de diálogos o discursos sencillos en distingos contextos. Atributos a desarrollar en el bloque: 4.1 Expresa ideas y conceptos mediante representaciones lingüísticas, matemáticas o gráficas. 4.2 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los objetivos que persigue. 4.3 Identifica las ideas claves en un texto o discurso oral e infiere conclusiones a partir de ellas. 4.4 Se comunica en una segunda lengua en situaciones cotidianas. 4.5 Maneja las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para obtener información y expresar ideas. 6.4 Estructura ideas y argumentos de manera clara, coherente y sintética. 7.1 Define metas y da seguimiento a sus procesos de construcción de conocimiento. 8.2 Aporta puntos de vista con apertura y considera los de otras personas de manera reflexiva. 10.3 Asume que el respeto de las diferencias es el principio de integración y de convivencia de los contextos loca, nacional e internacional.
  • 53. 54 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Didactic Sequence 1. Demonstrative speech/process speech or dialogue. Start Up Activity Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: Discussion and flip chart with conclusions. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Identifies the main idea in a simple short text and communicates it consistently following steps. Determines and applies previous knowledge to identify the main idea in a texts, conversation or speech. Shows openness to feedback made by the teacher and classmates. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher 1. Read the following text in teams of four. If you think of the English courses that as a student you’ve been required to take, for sure many of those sessions have developed some skills that have established most of your communication skills. On this Module we’ll focus essentially on one of the skills that should have been developed in those courses: your Oral skill (Interpersonal Communication and Public Speaking). Not only does this skill meet requirements, but it also molds you as a learner into well-rounded individuals providing the assistance needed for life. All of you should also acquire in order to have "the four English skills and necessary knowledge to be educated individuals, life-long learners, and responsible citizens" as part of these capabilities for communication, the opportunity to be able to:  Organize and express ideas clearly and appropriately.  Control standard use of written and oral communication.  Appreciate alternative forms of expression, including art, dance, music, and literature.  Distinguish between the medium and the message.  Listen, observe, interpret, and understand others. Now, if you think you are struggling as a student you’ll need: • Encouragement and explicit instruction to develop your strengths and concentrate on your needs. • A safe and encouraging environment to practice oral skills, especially if English is not your first language. • Extra practice, a peer to work with, and support from the teacher before presenting. • Don’t forget that well-chosen partners or team members will help you a lot; get together with students who can model knowledge, skills and strategies at a level that is accessible and not intimidating. 2. Identify the main idea of the text. Write it here. __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Discuss the text with your team your teacher will check if you understood the text. 4. The team assigns a member to present the conclusions orally using a flipchart of all team ideas. Activity: 1
  • 54. 55 BLOCK 2 Attach draw here. Skills for Life. Do you think a course in speech communication is needed as high school students? Would it be useful to have one? The communication skills learned in the basic communication courses are skills necessary for life. Pay attention to the graphic about the skills and qualities employers are looking for in job candidates. Employers rate new-hire skills. Source: Job Outlook 2000, National Association of Colleges and Employers. What’s more, these same employers rated communication skills as the #1 personal quality looked for in job candidates. In addition, teamwork skills, leadership skills, and interpersonal skills all made it into the top 10.Regardless of your major or career choice, today's organizations are looking for people who can listen, write, persuade others, demonstrate interpersonal skills, gather information, and exhibit well-developed communication abilities. Taking a basic course in communication is the first step in making yourself more marketable in the workplace. Product and evaluation: 1. In pairs, discuss this paragraph and share your ideas with your classmates. 2. Make a drawing where you must represent the pair discussion. 3. Present and explain the drawing to the class. 4. Each pair will be evaluated with the rubric presented in the module by other classmates. 5. Your teacher will assign you a pair to do the assessment. Activity: 2
  • 55. 56 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Assessment Rubric for Drawing. Performance Indicator 1 2 3 4 Creativity and Originality Drawing is finished but provides no evidence of creativity or originality or relation with the subject. Drawing includes an idea about the subject, but lacks originality and may have imitated someone else’s plan. Drawing includes some unique ideas about the subject and several resources were used. Drawing includes many unique ideas and creative use of resources It has ideal administration of the topic. Effort and Perseverance Drawing is incomplete. Drawing is completed with minimal effort, work is somewhat careless. Drawing is complete with good effort, meeting all requirements. Drawing is complete with substantial evidence of effort, beyond what was required. Concept Understanding Drawing was created but does not describe the subject at all. Drawing was created but it is unclear what the subject is or why is the idea presented in such form. Drawing was created to honor the subject and is presented on a clear form. Drawing was obviously planned and created based on the subject and presents clear and creative contributions to the topic. Total points Evaluation Activity: 2 Product: Drawing and rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Revises and practices reading. Recognizes from the text the main idea and uses it on a dialogues or speech. Applies his or her knowledge to present in a drawing and in an oral form his or her own ideas. Shows ability and positive attitude when drawing and presenting ideas. He or She is opened to feedback. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 56. 57 BLOCK 2 In teams of three, take time to be the leader of the group and one by one guides the activity of “peeling an orange”. You must explain the other two members how to peel it but without talking; you can only use sign language and body language. Analysis: Where you able to understand correctly your classmate’s demonstration? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Was the communication using signs or body language easy to organize? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Was the communication using signs or body language easy to follow? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ What was the hardest part? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ The team reads the following text. Activity: 3
  • 57. 58 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Reading: 1. Did you know there are at least three ways to eat an orange? Read the text bellow and discuss it with your team. How to eat an Orange. You must not simply dig your teeth into any orange, no matter how delicious it might promise to be. The peel of an orange is bitter and will probably be distasteful to you. Chances are you are going to want to remove that bitter skin before engaging in the process of biting, chewing and swallowing. Peeled Method. 1. Select the ripest orange from the bunch. Even though you do not eat the skin, you should still wash it thoroughly. This is because the knife used to cut it can transfer bacteria into the part you eat. 2. Dig a metal teaspoon or a knife into the peel and tear a bit of the peel off. Peeling the skin off with your fingers or the spoon will make removing the outer peel very clean and easily done. Continue peeling along the underside of the orange peel until all the peel has all been removed. After all the skin is cleared off, you can throw the outer peel away. 3. Pull one of the wedges apart from the rest of orange, and place it into your mouth. While chewing, it may be best to remove the seeds found in the orange. 4. Be careful of juicy squirts, but an orange is something to be appreciated. Cut Method. 1. Place the orange on a plate. Take a knife and cut it in half, starting with the ends or the stem part down. 2. Cut again in half or quarters. 3. Continue until the orange is all cut in slices. 4. Hold with your hands, near the skin, and just put your mouth onto the orange itself, and bite it off the skin. Finally enjoy the lovely juicy taste! Restaurant-style Cut Method. 1. Cut the orange in slices perpendicular to the core. Slices should be 1 or 2 cm thick. Discard end slices. 2. Cut the circular slices in half. 3. Tear orange flesh from the white peel with teeth or fingers and eat. Discard peel strips.
  • 58. 59 BLOCK 2 ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Product: In teams of three, create a speech to demonstrate orally to the class “How to peel an orange”. In the box all the members of the team individually write whatever ideas you might need for the speech. After each team presents the speech, evaluate the product with the rubric that is presented to you on the next page.
  • 59. 60 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Each team will be evaluated by another assigned by your teacher. Present your results in class. Demonstration Speech Rubric 6 Outstanding Performance 5 Acceptable Performance 4 Skills not refined 3 Missing Skills 1 Unacceptable Performance 1. The speaker was prepared. 2. The speaker submitted an outline. 3. The topic was relevant / interesting. 4. The speaker dressed appropriately. 5. The speaker had good eye contact. 6. The speaker used gestures that were appropriate and easy to follow. 7. The speaker maintained good volume. 8. The speaker had a good rate of speech. 9. The introduction had an attention getter. 10. The introduction stated the topic and steps. 11. The body began with the materials needed and visuals were used. 12. Transitions were clear and used effectively. 13. The steps were logical and complete. 14. The conclusion is obvious and not assumed. 15. Grammar and usage were good. 16. Enunciation and pronunciation were good. 17. The content of the speech flowed together. 18. The speaker worked well with props. 19. The speaker was credible. 20. The time limits were met. Total grade Evaluation Activity: 3 Product: Speech and rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Identifies how to use a demonstrative speech by creating one by a real situation. Applies his/her knowledge about the subject and infers the purposes when using a demonstrative speech. Shows ability and positive attitude when creating, presenting and evaluating a demonstrative speech. He or she is opened to feedback. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 60. 61 BLOCK 2 Development activities The speech is divided into three sections: the introduction, body, and conclusion. Understanding speech as the act of talking with somebody or to a group of people. To be an effective communicator and to get your point across without misunderstanding and confusion, your goal should be to decrease the frequency of these barriers at each stage of this process with clear, concise, accurate, well- planned communications. We follow the process through below: Source: As the source of the message, you need to be clear about why you're communicating, and what you want to communicate. You also need to be confident that the information you're communicating is useful and accurate. Message: The message is the information that you want to communicate. Encoding: This is the process of transferring the information you want to communicate into a form that can be sent and correctly decoded at the other end. Your success in encoding depends partly on your ability to convey information clearly and simply, but also on your ability to anticipate and eliminate sources of confusion (for example, cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing information.) A key part of this is knowing your audience: Failure to understand who you are communicating with will result in delivering messages that are misunderstood. Channel: Messages are conveyed through channels, with verbal including face-to-face meetings, telephone and videoconferencing; and written including letters, emails, memos and reports. Different channels have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, it's not particularly effective to give a long list of directions verbally, while you'll quickly cause problems if you criticize someone strongly by email.
  • 61. 62 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Decoding: Just as successful encoding is a skill, so is successful decoding (involving, for example, taking the time to read a message carefully, or listen actively to it.) Just as confusion can arise from errors in encoding, it can also arise from decoding errors. This is particularly the case if the decoder doesn't have enough knowledge to understand the message. Receiver: Your message is delivered to individuals and members of your audience. No doubt, you have in mind the actions or reactions you hope your message will get from this audience. Keep in mind, though, that each of these individuals enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influence their understanding of your message, and their response. To be a successful communicator, you should consider these before delivering your message, and act appropriately. Feedback: Your audience one or many people, will provide you with feedback, verbal and nonverbal reactions to your communicated message. Pay close attention to this feedback because, it is the only thing that allows you to be confident that your audience has understood your message. If you find that there has been a misunderstanding, at least you have the opportunity to send the message a second time. Context: The situation in which your message is delivered is the context. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc.).
  • 62. 63 BLOCK 2 How to outline a demonstrative speech. By Maurice Moss, eHow Contributor Difficulty: Moderately Challenging The fear of public speaking in English; it is said to be one of the top fears among the majority of people, especially for Mexican students. Overcoming that fear may be solved in a variety of ways. One of the best ways to resolve the fear of speaking English in public is to plan. Specifically, demonstrative dialogues and speeches require coordination of all the tools that will be used for it. Instructions: Gather all information for the dialogues or speech. Regardless of the type, it is crucial to become a subject matter expert on all the topics related to the speech or dialogues. Fancy slides and music will not cover up a lack of knowledge. Do the research, and address all possible questions that could be brought up by the recipient or the audience. If the topic of the dialogues or speech is “computer operating systems” for example, knowing about Windows will cover only part of the speech. The speaker should know about Macs and Linux as well. Determine a demonstrative manner for the dialogues or speech. This includes any tools you will use to complement your speaking. PowerPoint slides are an opportunity to use pictures, flow charts or parts of the actual speech if you are talking in public, to enforce what is being said. You can also use role-play by the audience or persons brought in by you to enrich a demonstrative speech. Document all the steps in process of the demonstrative speech. Cover all the areas that will educate the audience or recipients concerning the topic. Include additional supports that will be a part of the speech in the appropriate areas. To continue the example of operating systems, you would include screenshots of each operating system at various steps in executing simple programs. Rehearse the process in its entirety. This means that the entire presentation must be ready to go before the actual speaking engagement especially when you are talking in public. The rough idea should be descriptive enough to clearly lay out what is happening at every step in the process of the speech. Handouts and any other props that you will use in the speech should be ready for delivery to the audience. Read more: http://www.ehow.com/how_4523163_outline-demonstrative
  • 63. 64 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH How to give a demonstrative presentation. Difficulty: Moderate. Instructions 1) Pick your topic if you can. If you have a choice on the topic of your presentation, choose something you are proficient at doing. If you don't have that choice, become an expert fast. 2) Learn who your audience will be so you can use material that will be of interest to it. Also pay attention to where your presentation will be given, what you will wear and how much time you will have to explain your procedure. 3) Determine the steps needed to adequately explain and demonstrate what you will be doing. Write the steps down on note cards and number them for easy reference. 4) Practice, practice, practice. Complete the steps in the written procedure before getting in front of a group to make certain you have not missed any steps and to ensure that the procedure actually achieves the desired result. 5) Decide on the visual aids you will use to help your audience picture exactly how the process should be completed. If you can't actually reproduce the procedure in front of a group, you may want to consider drawings, posters or props to help explain what should be happening at each step. 6) Rehearse and time the delivery of your presentation. You may need to come up with additional points to add time or delete some items that are interesting, but not essential to the procedure to whittle some minutes away. 7) In your introduction, establish your expertise on your subject. The advice and instructions of an expert will be far more credible than that of the average Joe. 8) Prepare interesting and informative comments to accompany your demonstration that will support the evidenc e you are showing. For example, you could say, "Not only is slicing the orange along the equator the least messy way to eat this fruit, it also gives you the opportunity to pick out the seeds before getting them into your mouth." 9) Reiterate your key points in "sound bites" during and after your presentation. Repeated sound bites will help to ensure that the important steps stick in the minds of your audience long after they leave the room. 10) Close with a bang by using the information you gathered previously about your audience to help make your presentation personally significant. Use a mind-blowing statistic or a graphic example to show how your presentation can apply to their lives.
  • 64. 65 BLOCK 2 Tips & Warnings: Practice in front of a mirror or video camera if you can. This way, you can see the presentation points you need to work on, like improving your posture or eliminating nervous tics and twitches. Speak directly to the group making eye contact with as many people in the audience as possible. Enunciate and speak in a lively and conversational manner to keep the people in the audience engaged throughout your entire presentation. Avoid using an overhead projector if you can. When the lights go off, the eyelids of the audience get heavy. Don't drag this thing on too long, because even the most interesting topic will get old if you have to sit and listen to someone chatter on about it for an hour and a half. The typical length of a demonstration speech is between 5 and 8 minutes; anything over 20 to 25 minutes is nearing too much of a good thing.
  • 65. 66 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Demonstration Speech Rubric 6 Outstanding Performance 5 Acceptable Performance 4 Skills not refined 3 Missing Skills 1 Unacceptable Performance 1. The speaker was prepared. 2. The speaker submitted an outline. 3. The topic was relevant / interesting. 4. The speaker dressed appropriately. 5. The speaker had good eye contact. 6. The speaker used gestures that were appropriate and easy to follow. 7. The speaker maintained good volume. 8. The speaker had a good rate of speech. 9. The introduction had an attention getter. 10. The introduction stated the topic and steps. 11. The body began with the materials needed and visuals were used. 12. Transitions were clear and used effectively. 13. The steps were logical and complete. 14. The conclusion is obvious and not assumed. 15. Grammar and usage were good. 16. Enunciation and pronunciation were good. 17. The content of the speech flowed together. 18. The speaker worked well with props. 19. The speaker was credible. 20. The time limits were met. Total grade Evaluation Activity: 4 Product: Speech rubric analysis. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyses the videos presented and relates information with the real usage of a demonstrative speech. Recognizes each part of a demonstrative speech in a real situation presented in a video. Values demonstrative speeches using a rubric in teams. Appreciates listening and oral English skills. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher 1. Watch and listen closely to the four videos that will be offered to you where students present their demonstrative speeches projects. a. How to turn a pizza box into an oven. b. How to tie a tie. c. How to make quesadillas. d. How to make a curve ball. 2. Focus on to the structure the students use to present their speech. 3. After watching the videos, form teams of 5 and use the rubric to grade the presented speeches. 4. Report results to your teacher. Activity: 4
  • 66. 67 BLOCK 2 KWL Chart. Before you begin your research and each oral presentation, list ideas and details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the presentation. a) In teams of 5, choose one of the 10 topics given below. Prepare a presentation based on what you have previously studied about preparing a demonstrative speech. 1. How to make candles (bring examples of material) 2. How to arrange flowers (bring real or silk flowers ) 3. How to deal with identity theft (give handouts on all the steps necessary to minimize the damage done.) 4. How to clean synthetic and natural fabrics (bring something to demonstrate) 5. How to create a webpage (use flipcharts or computer if the team is able to get one) 6. How to apply makeup (bring a model or pictures) 7. How to give yourself a manicure/pedicure ( use model or pictures) 8. How to make lemonade (bring material to demonstrate) 9. How to make a holiday centerpiece (choose the holiday to talk about and bring examples) 10. How to assemble a care package for a student (bring examples) b) Each student must fill the KWL chart for every presentation.  K-W-L is an introductory strategy that provides a structure for recalling what you as students know about a topic, noting what students want to know, and finally listing what has been learned and is yet to be learned. c) At the end, assess with the rubric a team that your teacher will assign to you. Activity: 5 How to make candles
  • 67. 68 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH KWL Chart. Before you begin your research and each oral presentation, list ideas and details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the presentation. How to arrange flowers
  • 68. 69 BLOCK 2 KWL Chart. Before you begin your research and each oral presentation, list ideas and details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the presentation. How to deal with identity theft
  • 69. 70 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH KWL Chart. Before you begin your research and each oral presentation, list ideas and details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the presentation. How to clean synthetic and natural fabrics
  • 70. 71 BLOCK 2 KWL Chart. Before you begin your research and each oral presentation, list ideas and details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the presentation. How to create a webpage
  • 71. 72 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH KWL Chart. Before you begin your research and each oral presentation, list ideas and details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the presentation. How to apply makeup
  • 72. 73 BLOCK 2 KWL Chart. Before you begin your research and each oral presentation, list ideas and details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the presentation. How to give yourself manicure/pedicure
  • 73. 74 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH KWL Chart. Before you begin your research and each oral presentation, list ideas and details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the presentation. How to make lemonade
  • 74. 75 BLOCK 2 KWL Chart. Before you begin your research and each oral presentation, list ideas and details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the presentation. How to make a holiday centerpiece
  • 75. 76 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH KWL Chart Before you begin your research and each oral presentation, list ideas and details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the presentation. How to assemble a care package for a student
  • 76. 77 BLOCK 2 Evaluation Activity: 5 Product: Dialogue or speech KWL charts and rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Expresses and interprets information, putting it into his or her own words. Designs and uses the proposed topics for demonstrative speeches. Practices prepared speeches. Integrates knowledge by providing and receiving feedback from classmates and teacher. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Evaluation rubric 1 2 3 4 5 1. Contents All the pertinent pieces of information about the topics were presented. The pieces of information gathered were credible and accurate. 2. Mechanics and Grammar The oral punctuation and confidence was properly used. The speech was easy to understand and words were spelled correctly. The ideas were presented in a clear and organized manner. 3. Creativity The graphics and material used, helped in making the work appear attractive. The material used was appealing and suitable to the theme. The material used was correct for the subject and helped the oral presentation. Activity: 5 (continuation)
  • 77. 78 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Closing Activity a) In pairs, prepare a demonstrative speech or dialogue. b) It can be presented using as many resources as you want such as power point presentation, video, and realia in order to make it more appropriate and understandable. c) Keep in mind that you have to demonstrate “how to do something”. d) You may choose a subject from the list of 100 “How to” topics; or one of your own. e) Dress for the situation. If you chose a formal subject, then use a formal clothes, etc. f) Each pair must evaluate another with the rubric provided (your teacher will assign you which pair to evaluate). Activity: 6 10 Topics on Web Stuff: How To: 1. Build mobile websites. 2. Rank in Google's search engine. 3. Design a word press blog. 4. Unzip a .zip file. 5. How to take an .xml file and make it a feed. 6. How to optimize website graphics. 7. How to use an ftp program to upload files to the web. 8. How to open a face book account. 9. How to get set up on Twitter. 10. How to sell stuff on eBay. 10 Topics on Technology: How To: 1. Download from iTunes. 2. Send text messages. 3. Program a GPS tracker. 4. Install more memory into a laptop. 5. Properly clean a computer screen and accessories. 6. Transfer music from the iPhone to a computer. 7. Burn a DVD. 8. Choose the best computer. 9. Program a TV remote controller. 10. Unlock your Wii console. 10 Topics on Health How To: 1. Lose weight safely. 2. Increase your metabolism. 3. Lift weights properly. 4. Keep your heart healthy. 5. Get rid of lice. 6. Get rid of acne. 7. Keep your teeth healthy. 8. Quit smoking. 9. Improve your eyesight. 10. How to exercise your brain. 10 Topics on Pets How To: 1. Teach your parrot to talk. 2. Teach your dog to play dead. 3. Saddle a horse. 4. Set up an aquarium. 5. Breed animals to sell. 6. Give a cat a bath without getting scratched. 7. Introduce new pets to older pets in your household. 8. Choose the right pet for you. 9. Control the pets on sims2. 10. Get rid of fleas and tics. 10 Topics on Fashion How To: 1. Make your eyes look bigger with makeup. 2. Tie a hair bow. 3. Get rid of static cling in hair and clothes. 4. Shop for clothes on a budget. 5. Curl hair with a curling iron. 6. Apply false eyelashes. 7. Pick clothes that make you look 10 pounds lighter. 8. Care for dry, brittle hair or nails. 9. Remove stains from fabric. 10. Clean a suede or leather jacket. 10 How To Speech Topics on Gardening How To: 1. Design a desert garden. 2. Create a raised bed garden. 3. Grow bigger tomatoes. 4. Compost when you live in an apartment. 5. Attract butterflies to a garden. 6. Attract hummingbirds to a garden. 7. Grow an indoor herb garden. 8. Repel and kill garden pests. 9. Develop humane animal traps. 10. Control mole damage.
  • 78. 79 BLOCK 2 Phew! There you go, 100 How To speech topics. Hopefully, they'll give you some ideas so you can come up with a hundred more! 10 Topics on Jobs How To: 1. Never work again. 2. Get a job after being fired. 3. Write a resume. 4. Write a cover letter. 5. Ask for a raise. 6. Make money on the Internet. 7. Work as a virtual assistant. 8. Deal with office politics. 9. Search for a job online. 10. Add my resume to online job sites. 10 Topics on Education How To: 1. Develop a photographic memory. 2. Ace your PSAT, LSAT, MCAT, etc. (EXAMS). 3. Become valedictorian. 4. Apply for college financing. 5. Get an online degree. 6. Avoid problems with homeschooling. 7. Get a GED (American High School Diploma). 8. Write a speech. 9. Deal with bullying. 10. Decorate school books. 10 Topics on Holidays How To: 1. Put on makeup to look like a zombie for Halloween. 2. Make fake vampire teeth. 3. Carve a scary pumpkin. 4. Create a Christmas tree out of wire hangers. 5. Make a pop-up Christmas card. 6. Build a gingerbread house. 7. Make a thanksgiving turkey out of lunch bags. 8. Make firework fuses. 9. Decorate a cake like a flag. 10. Decorate Easter eggs. 10 Topics on Sports/Recreation How To: 1. Do a 360 flip on a skateboard. 2. Improve your golf swing. 3. Knot a climbing rope. 4. Tighten wheels on rollerblades. 5. Put together a wakeboard. 6. Repair a bicycle shifter. 7. Arm wrestle someone bigger than you. 8. Play ping pong like a pro. 9. Choose the best paintball gun. 10. Put a spin on a baseball.
  • 79. 80 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Demonstration Speech Rubric 6 Outstanding Performance 5 Acceptable Performance 4 Skills not refined 3 Missing Skills 1 Unacceptable Performance 1. The speaker was prepared. 2. The speaker submitted an outline. 3. The topic was relevant / interesting. 4. The speaker dressed appropriately. 5. The speaker had good eye contact. 6. The speaker used gestures that were appropriate and easy to follow. 7. The speaker maintained good volume. 8. The speaker had a good rate of speech. 9. The introduction had an attention getter. 10. The introduction stated the topic and steps. 11. The body began with the materials needed and visuals were used. 12. Transitions were clear and used effectively. 13. The steps were logical and complete. 14. The conclusion is obvious and not assumed. 15. Grammar and usage were good. 16. Enunciation and pronunciation were good. 17. The content of the speech flowed together. 18. The speaker worked well with props. 19. The speaker was credible. 20. The time limits were met. Total grade Evaluation Activity: 6 Product: Oral presentation and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Recognizes and developments different types of informative speeches or dialogues simple and clearly. Produces dialogues or speeches to deliver the theme chosen. Collaborates in teams, practicing in a respectful and courteous way. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 80. 81 BLOCK 2 Didactic Sequence 2. Persuasive speech or dialogue. Start Up Activity In one survey about people’s fears, respondents ranked a fear of public speaking at #1. Higher than death! However, many of you will one day have jobs that will ask you to speak in public often, in fact you do it every day at school or at home. Believe it or not, although you may think you are the quietest person in the classroom or that you hardly ever speak that is a skill you practice on a daily basis. According to your previous experiences and what you know about speech or dialogue answer the following questions: 1. Can you speak in public? YES NO 2. Why? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What is your fear when you need to speak English in public? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. When do you say you practice speaking? Why? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What would you say a persuasive dialogue or speech is? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Where do you think you can find a persuasive dialogue or speech? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. How long do you think a persuasive dialogue or speech should be? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Activity: 1
  • 81. 82 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Based on the previous activity, complete the KWL chart. Remember that you will list details in the first two columns and at the end of the sequence you will fill in the last column. What I Know What I Wonder (or want to know) What I have Learned Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: Questionnaire and KWL chart completed. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Identifies a real situation and relates it to the subject. Determines and contrasts information proposed in a text from a real situation. Shows initiative and interest on the new topic. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 82. 83 BLOCK 2 Development activities •A persuasive speech is a speech aimed at influencing values, ideas, beliefs and attitudes of the audience. Pragmatically, a persuasive speech is used to convince people to come a different idea, attitude and belief, react to something, consider doing things they were previously unwilling to do. Definition •There are three types of persuasive speeches: •1) a persuasive speech on a factual matter, •2) a persuasive speech on an axiological matter (a matter of value). •3) a persuasive speech on a matter of policy. •A speaker should realize that the message he/she carries to the audience is modified due to additional factors such as ethos, logos and pathos. Ethos is a complex of a speaker's personal characteristics: educational level, hidden values, articulation peculiarities, and presentation skills. Logos is an appeal to the intellect and rationality of listeners. The notion of pathos incorporates emotional loading of a persuasive speech and the appeal to basic values of the audience. A persuasive speaker should be well aware that there are types kinds of proofs: artistic proofs and inartistic ones. A speaker specially elaborates artistic proofs, whereas inartistic ones cannot be fully predicted and controlled (these are weather, location, etc.) Characteristics •The structure of a persuasive speech is grounded on three fundamentals: identifying the need, providing a plan of solution, proving the practicality of the solution. When a speaker strives to persuade his/her listeners not to do something, the structure of the speech should be oriented on establishing the impracticality of performing the actions. •Accordingly, a model outline of a persuasive speech is based on a so-called Monroe's motivational sequence. Monroe's motivational sequence is a five-stage scheme of proving the necessity of some changes, actions, etc. The scheme comprises: •a) Attracting attention of the audience to some problem that needs solution (with the help of a startling opening, visual aids, statistics, etc.; •b) Proving the need for improvements and changes of a situation: different kinds of testimonies should be provided to demonstrate inefficiency of existing methods of solving the problem. The audience should be ready to absorb the new one as revolutionary, promising, positive. •c) Giving 'satisfaction' to the need: displaying a new workable solution to the problem and making sure the audience has understood your explanations. Bright details often facilitate learning of the new information. •d) Making the visualization of practical benefits, which a new solution brings. The visualization can be realized with the help visual aids, language imagery, and emotional presentation. •e) Motivating the audience to act according to your plan. In the final part of the motivational speech, it is expedient that the speaker recalls the initial problem and systematizes the benefits of his/her innovative solution. Structure/outline
  • 83. 84 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Persuasive speaking topic mistakes. Choose a Great Topic When choosing a topic for a persuasive speech or dialogue task, watch out for these common difficulties. For many students, choosing a good topic for a persuasive speech or dialogue is one of the most difficult parts of the English speaking practice. Here are some common mistakes that some of you make when selecting a persuasive topic and some ways to avoid these problems: Mistake 1: Choosing a topic that bores you. When giving a persuasive discussion or speech, you absolutely must feel strong about your topic. Otherwise, how will you ever persuade the audience? Take the time to choose a topic that's meaningful to you, and never choose a topic simply because it sounds easy. Here there are some persuasive speaking topics for you to consider.  Should children be given sex education in schools, or should this be the responsibility of the parents?  Should the state fund schools run by particular faiths?  Should schools require their students to wear a school uniform?  Are beauty contests harmful?  Should Physical Education in schools be compulsory?  Should parents be held morally and legally responsible for the actions/needs of their children?  Should young people be subjected to curfews as a way to reduce crime?  Is physical force a justifiable method of punishing children?  Should governments be sending people into space?  Should governments negotiate with terrorists?  Can terrorism ever be justified?  Should negative advertising in political campaigns be banned?  Should governments censor material on the World Wide Web?  Should the government censor lyrics of songs that are violent or expletive, for example “gangsta” rap?  Does television have a negative influence on society?  Should flag burning as a form of protest be prohibited?  Should the state be fully privatized?  Should ‘factory farming’ be banned?  Is it morally acceptable to experiment on non-human animals to develop products and medicines that benefit human beings?  Should the international ban on the hunting of whales be lifted?  Should we ban the keeping of animals in zoos?  Should we ban the keeping of animals in circuses?  Should acts of hate be criminalized?  What acts should be considered hate crimes?  Should examinations be replaced with other forms of assessment?  Should school students face mandatory drug- tests?  Should HIV positive workers have to tell their employers of their status?  Should sex offenders be named and shamed?  Can the assassination of a dictator be justified?  Should assisted suicide be legalized?  Should we legalize the sale of human organs?  Should the numbers of women in the legislature be raised artificially?  Should mothers stay at home to raise their children?  Should prostitution be legalized?  Should popular consumerist images of women be banned because they are violent?  Should cell phone use in cars be banned?  Should gambling be legalized and regulated?  Should the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport be legalized?  Is sport really good for us?  Should we be trying to prevent species becoming extinct? If so, why?  Should the present international ban on trading elephant ivory be lifted?
  • 84. 85 BLOCK 2 Mistake 2: Choosing a topic you feel too strongly about. On the other hand, avoid your "hot button" topics. Everyone has issues that they feel so strongly about that they can't really sympathize with where people are coming from. There's nothing wrong with feeling this way about an issue, but it's also not a good idea to give a persuasive speech on these topics. In order to present a good persuasive speech, you need to be able to respectfully address opposing views within your speech, and it's difficult to do this with a hot button issue. Mistake 3: Choosing a topic that isn't persuasive. In order for a dialogue or speech to be persuasive, it has to clearly ask the audience or receiver to change their attitudes or behaviors in relation to your topic. If it doesn't do this, your speech is informative, but not persuasive and therefore doesn't meet the criteria for the assignment. Remember, an informative speech consists of information. A persuasive speech consists of evidence. For example, a speech called "Why You Should Go to Belgium" that includes lots of information about the great cities and attractions in Belgium has some persuasive elements, and might convince someone to consider Brussels as a future tourist destination. However, what this speech does primarily is to provide the audience information about Belgium. In a more persuasive speech, you might try to persuade the audience that Mexico should adopt a public transportation system that's more like Belgium's system. This speech would do more than just provide information about Belgium's buses and trains. Rather, it would provide evidence that Belgium's system is more efficient, cost effective, and environmentally friendly than public transportation in Mexico. To make sure that your conversation or a speech is indeed persuasive, make sure the speech uses evidence to change the audience's behavior and attitude about something and that it uses evidence to do so, as opposed to just information about a topic.
  • 85. 86 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Persuasive rubric 5 4 2 0 TOPIC The topic you have watched is significant and arousing. Is limited and narrowed enough statement. Is meaningful to the public. Is important to the audience. INTRODUCTION Is interesting attention getting opening that made us want to listen. States the proposition or speech thesis clearly. Establishes the speaker’s credibility. Is well organized preview of the best main points of the speech. BODY Body of the speech follows a clear organizational outline pattern. The main ideas and sub-points are arranged in a logical way. Is focused on at least three major thoroughly described main points. Valid arguments and emotional, logical or ethical appeals. Strong evidence to prove and support the persuasive thesis. Smooth transition sentences. CONCLUSION Summary of the main points. There is a logic tie back to the main speech thesis. There is a direct call to action. There is a memorable closing statement. DELIVERY Adequate directness, animation and enthusiasm. Natural conversational tone. Appropriate vocal volume. Normal speaking rate. Good articulation. Vocal pauses. Facial expression. Consistent eye contact. Natural gestures. Natural movements. Word choice and vocabulary. USE OF AIDS Relevancy to the central idea and topics. Appropriate visual aids. Handling of visual aids. SOURCES Number of sources or bibliography. Credibility of the documentation. Total 5 Excellent / 4 Very Good / 2 Needs Improvement / 0 Not Satisfactory Evaluation Activity: 2 Product: Evaluation of persuasive speech and Rubric of analyzed video. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Identifies and analyses the elements of a persuasive speech. Discusses and comments about a persuasive speech presented in a video. Shows initiative and interest on the new topic. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Analyze the video called “Smoking Skills” made by an American High School student. Pay close attention to the way the persuasive speech is developed. Then evaluate it in groups of 5 or six students using the rubric below. Discuss the results in class and report the conclusions to your teacher. Activity: 2
  • 86. 87 BLOCK 2 Read the following persuasive speech and present it in teams. One or two students will present it and the rest of the team will create visual aids to support their classmates’ performance. The challenge is to have each team perform the same speech in a different way. Activity: 3 Dear students, where are you going to be in five years? What will you be doing from 9 till 6 every day? In what sphere will you work? In other words, what are your career objectives? Some of you must be thinking that the third year of studies is yet too early to ask such questions. Let me assure you that it is high time to decide upon this issue. In fact, as my 12 year-long experience as teacher shows, there are only two alternatives. Either you think about your career beforehand now! Or you graduate in a year with an empty track record, and cling to the very first job available with the highest salary. "Not bad at all", some of you might think. Still, believe me that you will soon get bored, for money is not the sense of life. When you hate what you do every day for eight hours, when you go to work only to receive your monthly salary your life is not complete to say the least. I like the quotation by Elizabeth Kubler Ross who said that "people are like stained glass windows. They sparkle and shine when the sun is out, but when the darkness sets in; their true beauty is revealed only if there is a light from within". The source of this inner light is love for everything that surrounds you your family in the first place, but also your work! It should give you delight, ensure your professional and personal growth and provide you with a sense of achievement and importance of what you do. Trust my experience: such people rarely get bored with their work in the course of years and are much happier than disillusioned money-earners. The most difficult thing here is to find the right kind of job. Every person is unique and is best suited to a particular sphere or position. You will never know which exactly is perfect for you until you try. In a year you will graduate from High School. Where will you go when the diploma is in your pocket? The earlier you start searching, the sooner you will know the answer. Some of you will pursue the direct specialization and work as translators, interpreters or language teachers. Others will plunge into a neighboring sphere and will carve out a career in the tourist business, management etc. Whatever sphere you choose, it should be your cup of tea, not just means to earn your living or beguile eight hours of your day. I call upon you to assume an active attitude to you career, and investigate the possible fields of interest right now, while you still have time to be mistaken and opportunity to work part-time. A year from now is a term long enough to understand what you actually expect from your job and find at least the direction of your path. You will know the practical advantages of a definite job and its drawbacks as well. The more you do now, the less confusion you'll feel when the university door is flung open and you are welcome to go but where? Even small working experience will help you to answer this question and find your true self by becoming a skilled professional. According to my deepest conviction, happy person is the person who always brings his own sunshine, wherever he goes and whatever the weather. Hope to see these sparks in you in one year by the time of your graduation. Thank you. Cobach Sonora Educative Innovation Department. March 2011.
  • 87. 88 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Persuasive speech rubric As you listen to the speech, evaluate the team your teacher assigned to your group. Circle the number that best describes the team’s performance for each category and determine the total score. Report the results to your teacher. Evaluation Activity: 3 Product: Rubric for speech representation assessment. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Based on the text represents it orally in a simple and clear form using your creativity. Compares and gives in his or her own form of speech or dialogue using his or her creativity and the speech provided. Shows respect when working and evaluating in a team. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher 4 3 2 1 Introduction The first few lines of the speech really got my attention and made me want to listen. The first few lines of the speech got my attention and I was curious to hear the rest. The first few lines didn't really get my attention and I wasn't sure if I wanted to hear more. The first few lines of the speech did not get my attention and I did not want to hear more. Content The speech focused on one or two major issues and described those issues thoroughly. The speech focused on one or two major issues, but did not fully explain them. The speech focused on more than two issues and did not fully explain them. The speech was unclear and did not explain any of the issues thoroughly. Delivery The speaker spoke in a loud, clear voice and was expressive. The speaker was loud and clear, but not very expressive. The speaker was hard to hear at times and not expressive. I could not hear or understand the speaker. Conclusion The end of the speech was exciting and lively. The end of the speech was somewhat exciting and lively. The end of the speech was not very exciting or lively. The end of the speech was not exciting or lively at all. Overall The speech was exciting and informative and really made me want to vote for this person. The speech was informative and somewhat exciting and I might vote for this person. The speech was not very informative or exciting and I probably wouldn't vote for this person. The speech made me not want to vote for this person. Total score
  • 88. 89 BLOCK 2 Persuasive speaking is very similar to persuasive writing. a) Demonstrate the appropriate classroom or public speaking and listening skills (e.g., body language, articulation, listening to be able to identify specific examples of the speaker’s coordination of talking and action) that would be necessary to influence or change someone’s mind or way of thinking about a topic. b) Define the elements of persuasion. c) Recognize the elements of personal credibility. d) Develop methods to analyze other students’ speeches. e) Understand outlining main ideas. f) Create a persuasive speech. Reflect on the persuasive speeches we have analyzed in this block  What made them effective?  What sorts of appeals, of any kind, did the speakers make to their audiences?  Think about speeches you have seen on television such as election debates and others.  How did the speakers “deliver” their speeches?  As you compose your speech or dialogue and practice delivering it, always keep in mind the following aspects of good speaking:  Body Language: Make sure that you have proper posture. If your shoulders are sagging and your legs are crossed, you will not appear sincere, and people just will not accept your message.  Articulation: Articulation means how your total vocal process works. There are several steps to this entire process. You need to understand the process. o First, you need air from the lungs, your vocal cords in your larynx must be working, your mouth and tongue must be in sync. o You have to make sure that you have got some saliva in your mouth to keep things oiled. o You should be aware of your physical makeup to be able to understand how you speak.  Pronunciation: You need to pronounce each word. You must avoid slang, except to make a point, and not slur the words. You must avoid saying, “you know,” “uh,” “um,” and the like.  Pitch: Pitch refers to the highs and lows of the voice. Whatever you do, you must avoid a monotone!  Speed: The speed, or pace, is an important variable to control. Between 140-160 words per minute is the normal pace for a persuasive speech. Any faster and you may appear to be superficial; any slower and you sound like you are lecturing. If you are not sure about your speed, tape yourself for one minute and then replay it and count the number of words you used in the minute! The human ear and brain can compile and decode over 400 spoken words per minute, so if you are going too slow your listeners’ minds are going to start to wander as their brains finds other ways to keep themselves occupied.  Pauses: The pause, or caesura, is a critical persuasive tool. When you want to emphasize a certain word, just pause for one second before; this highlights the word. If you really want to punch it, pause before and after the word!  Volume: Volume is another good tool for a persuasive dialogues or speech, but you should use it with caution. If you scream all the way through your speech, people will become accustomed to it and it will lose its effectiveness. On the other hand, a few well timed shouts can liven up the speech! You must try to “project” or throw your voice out over the entire class or speak to the last row.
  • 89. 90 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH  Quality: Quality of voice is assessed by the overall impact that your voice has on your listener(s). Quality of voice is the net caliber of your voice, its character and attributes. You must try to keep the vocal quality high; it is what separates your voice from everyone else’s.  Variance: Variance of vocal elements is the most important consideration of all. One of the most persuasive speakers in modern history was Winston Churchill. One of his most remarkable qualities was his ability to vary the elements of his voice. He would start with a slow, laconic voice and then switch gears to a more rapid pace. People were light-headed after listening to him! Even if you don’t have desire to run for political office, you can still use the tools of variance. Try to change your pitch, volume, and speed at least once every 30 seconds, if only for just one word. Never go more than one paragraph without a vocal variance. This keeps the class locked into the speech, for no other reason than it sounds interesting! Let your words speak for themselves; reflect your nature through your voice. o If you use the word “strangle,” say it with a hint of menace in your voice. o If you say the word “heave,” let the class feel the onomatopoeic force behind it. o If you say the word “bulldozer,” make it sound like a titan earthmover, not like a baby with a shovel.
  • 90. 91 BLOCK 2 Persuasive speech outline explained. I. Begin with an opening statement of interest: a) A rhetorical question. b) A startling statement. c) A quotation. d) An illustration or story. e) A reference to the subject. f) A reference to the occasion. Motivate audience interest in your subject by alluding to (use one or more of the following): a) The practical value of the information for your audience. b) A reason to listen. c) The audience’s sense of curiosity. d) Establish your credibility by: a. Alluding to any first-hand experience you may have had. b. Alluding to sources of information you have consulted. Provide orienting material by (use one or more of the following): a) Previewing main points. b) Defining any technical terms that you will be using. II. Statement of Need: There are potentially two kinds of needs (your speech uses one of these): a) To urge a change-point out what’s wrong with present conditions. b) To demand preservation of present conditions-point out the danger of a change. The Need Step is developed by: a) Illustration: Tell of one or more incidents to illustrate the need. b) Ramifications: Employ as many additional facts, examples, and quotations as are required to make the need convincingly impressive. c) Pointing: Show its importance to the individuals in the audience. III. Statement of Solution presents a solution: This step is developed by (use one or more of the following): a) Statement of solution: a brief statement of the attitude, belief, or action you wish the audience to adopt. b) Explanation: Make sure that your proposal is understood. c) Theoretical demonstration: show how the solution logically and adequately meets the need pointed out in the need step, point-by-point! d) Practical experience: actual examples showing where this proposal has worked effectively or where the belief has proven correct. e) Meeting objections: forestall opposition by showing how your proposal overcomes any objections which might be raised.
  • 91. 92 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH IV. Restatement of proposed Solution: This step helps your audience visualize and it must stand the test of reality. The conditions you describe must be at least realistic. The more vividly you make the situation seem, the stronger will be the reaction of the audience. There are three methods of visualizing the future. (Use one or more of the following): a) Positive: i. Describe the conditions if your solution is actually carried out. ii. Picture the listeners in that situation actually enjoying the safety, pleasure, or pride that your proposal will produce. b) Negative: i. Describe conditions if your solution is not carried out. ii. Picture the audience feeling the bad effects or unpleasantness that the failure to affect your solution will produce. c) Contrast: i. Combination of A and B. ii. Begin with the negative method (undesirable situation) and conclude with the positive method (desirable solution). V. Restatement of summary developed by (use one or more of the following): a) Restatement of main idea and summary of main points. b) Statement of specific action or attitude change you want from the audience. c) A statement of your personal intent to take the course of action or attitude recommended. d) A concluding statement to recapture interest (a reason to remember).
  • 92. 93 BLOCK 2 Closing Activity Now it’s time to create your own persuasive speech or dialogue (You are allowed to choose a topic you’re interest in). The requisites for the speech are:  The speech should be 3-5 minutes long.  Hold your ideas with research.  Hand in an outline as evidence of planning and drafting to your witting and reading strategies teacher. Your speech should be 3-5 minutes long. You will turn in a written outline of your speech so that the teacher can determine whether there is any evidence of drafting and preparation (use the format below). Remember that a good persuasive essay was never written without a bit of research; a good persuasive speech or dialogue is no different. You’ll need facts to back up your opinions, so make sure you demonstrate you’re right with some solid evidence. Use the Internet to find statistics, studies, and other facts. You will be evaluated based on the following: I. Opening / Interest A. Reason(s) to Listen B. Speaker Credibility C. Thesis Statement II. Report of staff A. Illustration III. Solution A. Explanation of Solution B. Demonstration 1.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.________________________________________________________________________________________________ Activity: 4
  • 93. 94 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH C. Practical Experience D. Meeting Objections 1._______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2._______________________________________________________________________________________________ IV. Proposed Solution A. Negative Visualization B. Positive Visualization V. Summary A. Statement of Specific Action or Attitude Change B. Statement of Personal Interest C. Reason to Remember Activity: 4 (continuation)
  • 94. 95 BLOCK 2 Tip: Ask your classmates to listen and comment on your text to speech one or two days before the final delivery. Note and evaluate their feedback, opinions and recommendations about your ideas on this persuasive speech. Evaluation: Using the rubric below, evaluate a persuasive speech your teacher will assign you. List the sources you used to write your outline. You need to use at least two. SOURCES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Activity: 4 (continuation)
  • 95. 96 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Persuasive rubric 4 3 2 1 TOPIC The topic you have found is significant and arousing Is limited and narrowed enough statement Is meaningful to the public Is important to the audience INTRODUCTION Is interesting attention-getting opening that made us want to listen States the proposition or speech thesis clearly Establishes the speaker’s credibility Is well organized preview of the best main points of the speech BODY Body of the speech follows a clear organizational outline pattern The main ideas and sub-points are arranged in a logical way Is focused on at least three major thoroughly described main points Valid arguments, and emotional, logical or ethical appeals Strong evidence to prove and support the persuasive thesis Smooth transition sentences CONCLUSION Summary of the main points There is a logic tie back to the main speech thesis There is a direct call to action There is a memorable closing statement DELIVERY Adequate directness, animation and enthusiasm Natural conversational tone Appropriate vocal volume Normal speaking rate Good articulation Vocal pauses Facial expression Consistent eye contact Natural gestures Natural movements Word choice and vocabulary USE OF AIDS Relevancy to the central idea and topics Appropriate visual aids Handling of visual aids SOURCES Number of sources or bibliography Credibility of the documentation Total 5 Excellent / 4 Very Good / 2 Needs Improvement / 0 Not Satisfactory Evaluation Activity: 4 Product: Rubric and outline. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Writes and prepares a speech and presents it to the class. Executes and represents the speech in class. Shows respect when classmates deliver their speech and receives feedback assertively. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 96. 97 BLOCK 2 Didactic Sequence 3. Entertainment speech or dialogue. Start Up Activity Now answer the following questions. 1) Was the whole greeting activity interesting? Why? ____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2) What did you do after greeting somebody? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Where you thinking “what else can I say” after greeting the person? Why? ________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4) What did you feel when somebody greet at you and didn’t know what to say next? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5) Where you expecting something else to be said during the chatting? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ I. All group starts walking around the classroom. II. Your teacher then asks all you to greet each other, perhaps just by shaking hands. 1. Students shake hands, move on, and greet the next classmate they meet. (1 or 2 minutes) 2. This time greet each other in different situations; use these options: a. Greet each other like you greet a long lost friend b. Greet someone you don't really trust c. Greet an ex-boyfriend or girlfriend d. Greet someone you really hate e. Someone you have a secret crush on f. Someone you owe money to and have been avoiding g. Someone that sold you an awful used car h. Someone with bad breath i. Greet someone like you are a cowboy j. Greet someone like you are a soldier k. Greet someone like you are very rich/poor Activity: 1 Yes Yes Yes No No No
  • 97. 98 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Let’s think you are at a family reunion or a party. 6) After greeting; what would you say to people you just have talked to for a few seconds in any of the situations presented? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7) Write a brief comment here about this activity: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8) Do you know what “Entertain” means? 9) Discuss your definition with your teacher and classmates. Then, look for the definition in a dictionary: Yours: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Dictionary: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10) Use entertain in a sentence: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11) Search entertain on the Web: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Yes No
  • 98. 99 BLOCK 2 12) In the box below, create a collage that represents the concept “entertain”. Use as many pictures as you need. Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: Questionnaire and Collage. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Comprehends and collects information in order to identify an entertainment situation and represents it in different forms. Organizes information and outline in order to recognize an entertainment circumstance. Shows initiative and interest in developing the activity. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 99. 100 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Development activities The speech to entertain has as its goal to catch and hold attention. It may provide information, and it may persuade; it may even be humorous, though that is not a requirement of the speech to entertain. The speech to entertain meets its goal if it does nothing more than catch and hold attention. Alan H. Monroe (Principles and Types of Speech) How to develop an entertaining dialogue or speech topic. A speech or dialogue to entertain may be either informative or persuasive in nature, but the supporting materials are selected primarily based on their entertainment value. The speech still must make a valid point or argument, but it can be done using humor. Many speech topics can fall under the goal to inform, to persuade and to entertain. Take, for example, the topic of 911. As an informative speech, one could describe how to use the system. As a persuasive goal, one could examine the problem of long response times. For a speech to entertain, a student can provide an amusing speech about the miss-use of 911. “Hello, 911? My cat is stuck up in a tree”. “Have you ever seen the skeleton of a dead cat up in a tree? It WILL come down!”. Main purpose: TO ENTERTAIN Speaking to entertain help you get promotion: At social occasions like club meeting, dinner, parties, graduation, holiday, wedding…., you can make impression on your audience by using entertaining speeches. This often result in promotions, new employment opportunities, business contacts and other good chances Organization: A. Introduction: purpose statement. B. Body: Explanation. Explain the point of the anecdote. Strengthen your theme with additional anecdote. C. Conclusion: Conclude by say again your central point. Finish with a great anecdote to ensure a memorable ending. Be careful with sarcasm. Chose a subject: Anecdote: Short, interesting or amusing story about a real person or event. Open with an introduction (an anecdote). Select one that directly relates to your audience or purpose. Describe how your speech or dialogue will be focus on this point. Remember to spread your anecdotes through your speech.
  • 100. 101 BLOCK 2 There are many ways to develop a topic for a speech to entertain. Use this speech or dialogue checklist for every issue of your choice. 1. Consider your entertainment topic from different points of view. 2. Choose for an unusual or strange angle of approach. 3. Wonder what the reason is for some habits or daily grind. 4. Give a normal issue, subject or topic a personal, dramatic twist. 5. List _______ ways to... 6. Perform dialogues and metaphors. 7. Tell a story about a personal experience, interrelate the humorous anecdote in the main theme. 8. Give mocking comments on perfectly ordinary things, persons, places, values or thoughts. 9. Ridicule large organizations or institutions. But don't offend. 10. Laugh at and ridicules professional slang or dialogues. 11. Find similarities between opposing subjects. That can be a very humorous entertaining speech topic. 12. Ask: What If and express the possibility till it becomes ridiculous, funny and entertaining. How to Deliver an Entertaining Speech or dialogue; here you have five entertaining speech tips: 1. Organize and structure your entertaining topics. 2. Establish your speech speaking goal or purpose. There's no problem if you talk about one theme. 3. If you tell funny or humorous things about some individuals in your public: don't insult and be sensitive. 4. Try to deliver your public speaking speech topics extemporaneously as much as you can. 5. So practice a lot. Ask a friend if it's entertaining enough. And practice on timing the flow of your entertaining speech topic. What if I am not funny? Before going any further, a speech to entertain is indeed a speech and should not resemble a stand-up comedy act. If you are thinking that you are not funny and could not possibly, pull off a speech that is humorous in nature by first saying that is most likely not the case. Have you ever had someone laugh hysterically at something you said and had no idea why they were laughing? Humor is extremely subjective. Sadly, many people laugh at the expense of others. For example, in an article in the San Francisco Chronicle the other day there was a note where the headline was “Man Stuck in Chimney.” This poor man was locked out of his home and decided to try entering through the chimney. He got stuck. Eventually his neighbors heard his yelling and called the police. Since the chimney was narrow, the man decided to take off his clothes so he would have more room. If you are a student who does not think they are funny is to simply pick a topic that lends itself naturally to humor. A comedian I saw many years ago at a public performance in San Francisco started his short act by saying: “I would like to thank George W. Bush for making my job as a stand-up comic very easy!” I take this to mean he credits Mr. Bush and not himself for his very funny material. I had a student research chap stick addiction where she was able to find plenty of information on how one can become addicted to lip balm. Another student found an article on the pigeon talking about how pigeons have been used to test the effects of cocaine on humans. Many times, material is funny on its own.
  • 101. 102 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Evaluation rubric A—Excellent B—Above Average C—Average D—Needs Work Introduction Introduction is complete with name and a creative preview of items that ties them together. The audience becomes absorbed in the speech. Introduction is adequate with name and a basic preview of items in a logical way. Catches the audience’s attention and interest in the speech. Introduction is minimal with only a name given or only a preview. Somewhat catches the audience’s attention and interest in the speech. Does not give name or preview the items in a way that catches the audience’s attention or makes them interested in the speech. “This is my stuff.” Item 1 Item is unique, unusual, unexpected, and/or unconventional. Student has put serious thought into choice. Story behind explanation is interesting, entertaining, and meaningful. Explanation is thorough. Item is interesting, not something typically carried on a daily basis, and creates interest for the audience. Evident the student put effort into item choice. Story behind explanation is interesting or meaningful. Explanation is adequate but needs elaboration. Item may be ordinary but explanation makes item more interesting/unusual. Story behind item is minimal or does not convey meaning. Item is an everyday object almost everyone has. Explanation is extremely brief and does not convey why item is meaningful, a story behind it, or a memory attached to the item. Item 2 Item is unique, unusual, unexpected, and/or unconventional. Student has put serious thought into choice. Story behind explanation is interesting, entertaining, and meaningful. Explanation is thorough. Item is interesting, not something typically carried on a daily basis, and creates interest for the audience. Evident the student put effort into item choice. Story behind explanation is interesting or meaningful. Explanation is adequate but needs elaboration. Item may be ordinary but explanation makes item more interesting/unusual. Story behind item is minimal or does not convey meaning. Item is an everyday object almost everyone has. Explanation is extremely brief and does not convey why item is meaningful, a story behind it, or a memory attached to the item. In teams of three create a “cooperative communication subject”; the goal is to produce a speech or dialogue to entertain. Your speech should talk about “the doll’s history” and the message they send to young girls. Don’t forget to bring realia such as dolls or pictures to enrich your presentation. They (the items or realia) have to be used as a main part of your speech. Present whatever you may need to make the speech or dialogue more interesting. Each team will be evaluated by another. Your teacher assigns them. Activity: 2
  • 102. 103 BLOCK 2 Item 3 Item is unique, unusual, unexpected, and/or unconventional. Student has put serious thought into choice. Story behind explanation is interesting, entertaining, and meaningful. Explanation is thorough. Item is interesting, not something typically carried on a daily basis, and creates interest for the audience. Evident the student put effort into item choice. Story behind explanation is interesting or meaningful. Explanation is adequate but needs elaboration. Item may be ordinary but explanation makes item more interesting/unusual. Story behind item is minimal or does not convey meaning. Item is an everyday object almost everyone has. Explanation is extremely brief and does not convey why item is meaningful, a story behind it, or a memory attached to the item. Conclusion Summarizes the items and reinforces why they were chosen. Emphasizes meaning or lesson behind items. Clearly marks the end of the speech. Summarizes and reviews the item. It is clear the speech is over, but conclusion is basic. Conclusion is minimal. Leaves the audience somewhat unsure whether speech is over. Does not review the items or why they were chosen to share. End is unclear or unplanned closes with “That’s it.” Total Evaluation Activity: 2 Product: Speech assessment rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Writes and collects information in order to create an entertainment situation. Represents a speech in class. Conducts and organizes information to perform an entertainment speech or dialogue. Shows initiative and interest in developing the activity. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 103. 104 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH < What Makes Two People Compatible? Compatibility defines an attitude to be in a harmonious relationship wherein the two people have a complete understanding of one another. Have you wondered about what makes two people compatible? To find the answer, read on… I have always thought of compatibility as being of two kinds. One wherein, two parts exactly match one another while the other type of compatibility is when one part fits into the other with 'effort' to make the two parts seem compatible, when they are actually not. This principle applies well to relationships as well. When the people involved in a relationship exactly match one another with respect to their attributes, they are compatible to the true sense of the term. By the idea of one person trying to fit into the other, we mean that one of the two people dissolves into the identity of the other. For me dissolution of one’s identity into that of the other, which makes the two people appear compatible, is not compatibility. The merger of the two for making up for each other’s inabilities and boosting the strengths of one another makes two people compatible. When it comes to making two people compatible, it comes to matching their views, their likes and dislikes. It is about compensating for each other on understanding each other's strengths and weaknesses. A compatible relationship is indeed rewarding in terms of the physical as well as psychological wellbeing of the individuals involved in it. The sentiments experienced through compatibility include affection, sensuality, and the interest in one another and most importantly, trust. The self-esteem along with a due regard for the other makes the people in the relationship, compatible with each other. Giving each other time and space and a due regard to each other's emotions makes the people compatible. What makes two people compatible is their belief in the relationship and a will to continue it. Understanding is a vital component of a healthy relationship. A clear understanding of each other’s personalities makes the two people compatible. An understanding involves the recognition of the strengths of one another and the readiness to make up for each other’s weaknesses. Understanding somebody´s comprises of a true understanding of the feelings of the other person. The people involved in a relationship should bear in mind that every human is bound to have his/her own set of positive and negative qualities. The positives need to be encouraged while the negatives need to be worked upon. For the two involved in a relation to be compatible, the comprehension of a person's weaknesses must not follow ridicule. It should rather be followed by the readiness to work with the person to fight his/her inabilities. The preparation of a person to work mutually with the other individual involved in the relationship, leads to a compatible couple. Read the following entertainment speech and present it in teams. One or two students will present the speech and the rest of the team will create visual aids to support their classmates’ performance. Activity: 3
  • 104. 105 BLOCK 2 There are many factors, which make up the elements that decide compatibility between two people. One of the important factors for compatibility is their culture. It is their social and economic background that plays a vital role in compatibility. The environment in which two people are brought up, their family and their value system play a major role in their being compatible. The educational backgrounds, the career objectives and creative skills of the two people should match so that they are compatible with each other. The compatibility between two people also depends on their intelligent and emotional quotients. It is their ways of looking towards life that makes two people compatible. Their principles and beliefs, their values and their approach towards living are determinant of their compatibility with one another. Every human being wants to be loved. It is human nature to feel the need to be cared for, to have a close friend and have someone to live for. Love might happen at first sight. It may be the result of mere physical attraction and the attraction is bound to be short-lived. Experts say that compatibility is not something one has; it is something one has to make. According to the researchers working in psychology, the building of compatibility is a process, it is a willingness to work and it is basically an attitude that needs to be developed to make a relationship healthier. According to the experts, love is a blend of biology and behavior. It is certainly in a person's hand to shape that love by adding to it the very essential aspect that is called compatibility. People talk of zodiac signs and horoscopes, which are believed to determine the compatibility between two people. They give different theories that are considered to define one's compatibility with another. But, in my view, it is the feelings, which the two people bear for one another, that decide how compatible they are. By Manali Oak. Evaluation: Using the rubric below, evaluate a presentation in teams. The teacher will assign you the group you will evaluate. Assessment rubric Evaluative criteria Excellent Good Average Needs Improvement Fails to Meet Criteria Individual Points Earned SPEAKER 1 Content: Speaker elaborates on individual topic with vivid detail & thorough explanation for approximately one minute. Delivery: Speaker maintains successful eye contact, rate, volume/ projection, enunciation, and poise. Speaker uses few, if any, noticeable fillers. Meets all requirements for individual content. Meets most delivery criteria effectively. Meets most requirements for content but could elaborate more effectively. Weaknesses in one or two areas of delivery. Details are vague; speaks for less than 45 seconds. Significant weaknesses in multiple areas of delivery. Content is inadequate, generic, or unspecific; speaks for less than 30 seconds. Mostly ineffective delivery.
  • 105. 106 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH SPEAKER 2 Content: Speaker elaborates on individual topic with vivid detail & thorough explanation for approximately one minute. Delivery: Speaker maintains successful eye contact, rate, volume/ projection, enunciation, and poise. Speaker uses few, if any, noticeable fillers. Meets all requirements for individual content. Meets most delivery criteria effectively. Meets most requirements for content but could elaborate more effectively. Weaknesses in one or two areas of delivery. Details are vague; speaks for less than 45 seconds. Significant weaknesses in multiple areas of delivery. Content is inadequate, generic, or unspecific; speaks for less than 30 seconds. Mostly ineffective delivery. SPEAKER 3 Content: Speaker elaborates on individual topic with vivid detail & thorough explanation for approximately one minute. Delivery: Speaker maintains successful eye contact, rate, volume/ projection, enunciation, and poise. Speaker uses few, if any, noticeable fillers. Meets all requirements for individual content. Meets most delivery criteria effectively. Meets most requirements for content but could elaborate more effectively. Weaknesses in one or two areas of delivery. Details are vague; speaks for less than 45 seconds. Significant weaknesses in multiple areas of delivery. Content is inadequate, generic, or unspecific; speaks for less than 30 seconds. Mostly ineffective delivery. SPEAKER 4 Content: Speaker elaborates on individual topic with vivid detail & thorough explanation for approximately one minute. Delivery: Speaker maintains successful eye contact, rate, volume/ projection, enunciation, and poise. Speaker uses few, if any, noticeable fillers. Meets all requirements for individual content. Meets most delivery criteria effectively. Meets most requirements for content but could elaborate more effectively. Weaknesses in one or two areas of delivery. Details are vague; speaks for less than 45 seconds. Significant weaknesses in multiple areas of delivery. Content is inadequate, generic, or unspecific; speaks for less than 30 seconds. Mostly ineffective delivery. Group Delivery Time: ________ Evaluation Activity: 3 Product: Speech assessment rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Represents an entertainment speech that involves and engages his / her classmates. Organizes information in order to prepare an entertainment speech or dialogue. Shows initiative and interest in developing the activity. Collaborates actively representing the speech delivered by the team. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 106. 107 BLOCK 2 Closing Activity Read the following entertainment topics and prepare a speech in teams. One or two students will present it and the rest of the team will create visual aids to support their classmates’ performance. In teams of three or four, prepare the following Entertainment speech or dialogue: Time: 1 minute per group member (group of 3 = 3 minute minimum / group of 4 = 4 minute minimum) Topic Choices: People’s Annoyances:  What does people do that drives you crazy?  Why does it bother you?  How can it be avoided or remedied? (No rude comments, name calling, or singling anyone out.) Deserted Island:  What one item would you want with you if stranded on an island?  Why?  Uses? (No people, “endless” items, modes of transportation, or forms of communication.) Preparation:  Each group must turn in one complete outline before their presentation.  Every individual group member is responsible for one main point in the body of the speech.  All members should work together on the introduction and conclusion that ties the entire presentation together. (Be creative! Tell a story, act out a sketch, sing a song, etc.)  Body of outline should be in note form only – not manuscript.  Must include transitions to switch between speakers and parts of the presentation.  Every member should have a copy of the group outline in case of absences.  Each person may use 1 note card during the presentation. Reminders:  Be enthusiastic when presenting your speech.  Pay special attention to eye contact, posture, rate of speech, voice inflection and volume.  All group members will stand together to present. Members should remain involved throughout the speech, but should not distract from the speaker.  The evaluation will be both in group and individually. Evaluation: Each team will be evaluated by another one with the rubrics provided. Your teacher assigns which one to evaluate. Rubric A evaluates the team. Rubric B evaluates each team member. Report results to your teacher. Activity: 4
  • 107. 108 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Evaluation Rubric “A” Evaluative criteria Excellent Very good Good Average Needs improvement Fails to meet criteria Group score 0-5 points OUTLINE / PREPARATION Intro & conclusion are manuscript; body is outlined (no full sentences); speaker transitions are manuscript. Contains all elements but one is somewhat weak. Contains all elements but 2 are weak or one element is missing. Some elements are weak or 2 elements are missing. Most elements are weak or 3 elements are missing. All elements are especially weak and several elements are missing. INTRODUCTION Catches attention, contains a clear thesis, incorporates all group members, previews body. Contains all elements but one is somewhat weak. Contains all elements but 2 are weak or one element is missing. Some elements are weak or 2 elements are missing. Most elements are weak or 3 elements are missing. All elements are especially weak and several elements are missing. TRANSITIONS Clearly and smoothly moves from each speaker/point of the body to the other with strong connections. Clearly moves between all points but connection is weak. Clearly moves between most points. Clearly moves between some points but not others. Moves awkwardly between most points of the body. Does not demonstrate effort to make connections between any points/speakers. CONCLUSION Summarizes points of body, relates back to introduction, incorporates all group members, ends on a memorable statement. Contains all elements but one is somewhat week. Contains all elements but 2 are weak or one element is missing. Some elements are weak or 2 elements are missing. Most elements are weak or 3 elements are missing. All elements are especially weak; several elements are missing, or end with “Thank you…That’s all.” ENTERTAINMENT VALUE Content is creative, incorporates all group members and points, holds audience’s attention throughout speech, uses humor appropriately. Effort to meet all criteria is evident but minimal. Meets all criteria but one. Meets all criteria but two. Meets all criteria but three. Uses inappropriate humor, participation is inconsistent between group members, or effort is minimal. Group total grade Group Delivery Time: ________
  • 108. 109 BLOCK 2 Evaluation Rubric “B” Evaluative criteria Excellent Good Average Needs Improvement Fails to Meet Criteria Individual Points Earned SPEAKER 1 Content: Speaker elaborates on individual topic with vivid detail & thorough explanation for approximately one minute. Delivery: Speaker maintains successful eye contact, rate, volume/ projection, enunciation, and poise. Speaker uses few, if any, noticeable fillers. Meets all requirements for individual content. Meets most delivery criteria effectively. Meets most requirements for content but could elaborate more effectively. Weaknesses in one or two areas of delivery. Details are vague; speaks for less than 45 seconds. Significant weaknesses in multiple areas of delivery. Content is inadequate, generic, or unspecific; speaks for less than 30 seconds. Mostly ineffective delivery. SPEAKER 2 Content: Speaker elaborates on individual topic with vivid detail & thorough explanation for approximately one minute. Delivery: Speaker maintains successful eye contact, rate, volume/ projection, enunciation, and poise. Speaker uses few, if any, noticeable fillers. Meets all requirements for individual content. Meets most delivery criteria effectively. Meets most requirements for content but could elaborate more effectively. Weaknesses in one or two areas of delivery. Details are vague; speaks for less than 45 seconds. Significant weaknesses in multiple areas of delivery. Content is inadequate, generic, or unspecific; speaks for less than 30 seconds. Mostly ineffective delivery. SPEAKER 3 Content: Speaker elaborates on individual topic with vivid detail & thorough explanation for approximately one minute. Delivery: Speaker maintains successful eye contact, rate, volume/ projection, enunciation, and poise. Speaker uses few, if any, noticeable fillers. Meets all requirements for individual content. Meets most delivery criteria effectively. Meets most requirements for content but could elaborate more effectively. Weaknesses in one or two areas of delivery. Details are vague; speaks for less than 45 seconds. Significant weaknesses in multiple areas of delivery. Content is inadequate, generic, or unspecific; speaks for less than 30 seconds. Mostly ineffective delivery. SPEAKER 4 Content: Speaker elaborates on individual topic with vivid detail & thorough explanation for approximately one minute. Delivery: Speaker maintains successful eye contact, rate, volume/ projection, enunciation, and poise. Speaker uses few, if any, noticeable fillers. Meets all requirements for individual content. Meets most delivery criteria effectively. Meets most requirements for content but could elaborate more effectively. Weaknesses in one or two areas of delivery. Details are vague; speaks for less than 45 seconds. Significant weaknesses in multiple areas of delivery. Content is inadequate, generic, or unspecific; speaks for less than 30 seconds. Mostly ineffective delivery. Group Delivery Time: ________
  • 109. 110 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Evaluation Activity: 4 Product: Speech assessment rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Represents an entertainment speech in class. Develops the information. Involves students in an entertainment situation. Diagnoses activity and block material. Organizes information in order to lay out the entertainment speech. Shows initiative and interest in developing the activity. Collaborates actively representing the speech presented by the team. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 110. Tiempo asignado: 15 horas Building healthy habits. Competencias profesionales: 1. Realiza comprensiones oral y auditiva de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. 2. Realiza comprensión escrita y de lectura de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. 3. Realiza expresión o producción oral en otro idioma. 4. Realiza interacción o producción escrita de diversos tipos de texto en otro idioma. Unidad de competencia:  Solicita e intercambia información referente a los hábitos saludables de las personas; en situaciones sencillas de socialización, recreación o laboral.  Escribe, lee y practica diálogos informativos para obtener más conocimiento de un área en particular.  Aprende mediante textos instructivos a seguir pasos y a dar instrucciones de manera oral en diálogos o exposiciones orales, en situaciones sencillas de socialización, recreativas o laborales. Atributos a desarrollar en el bloque: 4.1 Expresa ideas y conceptos mediante representaciones lingüísticas, matemáticas o gráficas. 4.2 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los objetivos que persigue. 4.3 Identifica las ideas claves en un texto o discurso oral e infiere conclusiones a partir de ellas. 4.4 Se comunica en una segunda lengua en situaciones cotidianas. 4.5 Maneja las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para obtener información y expresar ideas. 6.4 Estructura ideas y argumentos de manera clara, coherente y sintética. 7.1 Define metas y da seguimiento a sus procesos de construcción de conocimiento. 8.2 Aporta puntos de vista con apertura y considera los de otras personas de manera reflexiva. 10.3 Asume que el respeto de las diferencias es el principio de integración y de convivencia de los contextos loca, nacional e internacional.
  • 111. 112 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Didactic Sequence 1. Informative Speech. Start Up Activity I. Read the following text individually. Then, in teams of 8 make a round table discussion about the subject of the text. Each team will choose a leader will be responsible to present the team’s final conclusion. At the end, the team shares with the rest of the class the title they consider the best for the reading and explains their reasons. Due to changing lifestyles and unhealthy eating habits, young children are facing the problem of obesity. Obesity is a very unhealthy condition and it can lead to many serious problems. Therefore, it comes very important in infants to prevent obesity. It is very essential to be very supportive to your child if he or she is obese. Remember that with your love and care only your child can get rid of this problem. Just explain to him what his body is going through and be very careful in understanding his problems. Remember that if you are not supportive then this can have a negative effect on his or her personality. Changing lifestyle is the key to preventing and curing this problem. Encourage your child to be physical active instead of watching TV. Take good care of his diet. Make sure that he or she eats a balanced, healthy and nutrient rich diet. Include non-fatty dairy products, fruits, green vegetables, fat free breads, calorie and sugar free juices. Change your lifestyle in order to set a good example for him or her. Involve them in family activities like trekking, biking, swimming, or any other outdoor sports with involves physical activity. Remember that obesity in a child is a problem and it can surely be treated. A little effort on your part combined with the efforts of your child, can really cure this problem and result in a healthy and active body. II. The title for the text is: _________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. Use the next page rubric to evaluate the round table discussion. Activity: 1
  • 112. 113 BLOCK 3 Rubric for roundtable discussions. Criteria Points 5 4 3 2 1  The team understands text accurately.  The team deduces text appropriately.  The team and the leader help uncover the key ideas.  Leader and the rest of the team refer to and use specific evidence to support arguments.  Leader uses references and ideas from earlier material learned in this class in order to flesh out the arguments.  Leader and team show analytical facility with text and ideas.  Leader demonstrates a strategy for leading the discussion that leads to the assigned outcomes.  Discussion runs smoothly.  Leader help all classmates participate.  Leader asks good questions and follows-up questions.  Leader makes all participate in the discussion.  Leader shows respect to the class by holding the conversation at a challenging and rigorous level by creating a dialogue and complete the assignment.  The team displays good work habits.  The team is ready on time.  The team works well together. Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: Team discussion and rubric results. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Names the text based on the round discussion, and presents reasons to the class. Recalls, Determines and applies previous knowledge to identify the main idea in a text, conversation or speech. Shows openness to feedback provided by teacher and classmates. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 113. 114 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Development activities Informative speech or dialogue. The main purpose behind an informative speech or dialogue is to deliver the information or message clearly to the audience. Remember that audience can be one person or many like the whole class or more. An informative speaker is responsible for researching on the topic provided and presents a detailed presentation in a very clear and concise manner. The basic theme of an informative speech or dialogue is the information; therefore, proper understanding of the topic is very important. An informative speech or dialogue should be an outcome of the detailed study. An informative speech is required in almost all fields, whether you are software professional or a nonprofessional or a student, you may require sharing information with your classmates, subordinates and managers. Keeping this perspective in mind, we can say that the informative speech is the key factor for success of a professional irrespective of the field he or she belongs to. 1. Then the body part of the speech should include all the details. 2. At last, you need to conclude on a specific solution. The conclusion should draw the meaning for the informative speech and include the message to be delivered within the conclusion part of the speech. An informative dialogue or speech requires the speaker to adjust the body language according to the type of explanation required, as some audiences may feel distracted due to irregular body language. Practice makes a person perfect when talking fluently in English or delivering a speech; therefore, you must practice the speech so that all the pros and cons are clear in your mind if you have chosen a controversial topic. Purposes of informative speaking Informative speaking offers you an opportunity to practice researching, writing, organizing, and speaking skills. You will learn how to discover and present information clearly. If you take the time to thoroughly research and understand your topic, to create a clearly organized speech, and to practice an enthusiastic, dynamic style of delivery, you can be an effective "teacher" during your informative speech. Finally, you will get a chance to practice a type of speaking you will undoubtedly use later in your professional career. The purpose of the informative speech is to provide interesting, useful, and unique information to your audience. By dedicating yourself to the goals of providing information and appealing to your audience, you can take a positive step toward succeeding in your efforts as an informative speaker. Researching your topic. As you begin to work on your informative speech, you will find that you need to gather additional information. Your instructor will most likely require that you locate relevant materials in the library and cite those materials in your speech. In this section, we discuss the process of researching your topic and thesis. Conducting research for a major informative speech can be a daunting task. In this section, we discuss a number of strategies and techniques that you can use to gather and organize source materials for your speech.
  • 114. 115 BLOCK 3 Gathering materials. Gathering materials can be a daunting task. You may want to do some research before you choose a topic. Once you have a topic, you have many options for finding information. You can conduct interviews, write or call for information from a clearinghouse or public relations office, and consult books, magazines, journals, newspapers, television and radio programs, and government documents. The library will probably be your primary source of information. You can use many of the libraries databases or talk to a reference librarian to learn how to conduct efficient research. The five-step method for improving delivery. It should be clear that coping with anxiety over delivering a speech requires significant advanced preparation. The speech needs to be completed several days beforehand so that you can effectively employ this five-step plan. 5.Do a dress rehearsal of the speech under conditions as close as possible to those of the actual speech. Practice the speech a day or two before in a classroom. Be sure to incorporate as many elements as possible in the dress rehearsal...especially visual aids. 4.Practice in front of a mirror, tape record your practice, and/or present your speech to a friend. You are looking for feedback on rate of delivery, volume, pitch, non-verbal cues (gestures, card-usage, etc.), and eye-contact. 3.Practice the speech aloud... rehearse it until you are confident you have mastered the ideas you want to present. Do not be concerned about "getting it just right." Once you know the content, you will find the way that is most comfortable for you. 2.Practice the speech repeatedly from the speaking outline. Become comfortable with your keywords to the point that what you say takes the form of an easy, natural conversation. 1.Read aloud your full-sentence outline. Listen to what you are saying and adjust your language to achieve a good, clear, simple sentence structure.
  • 115. 116 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Childhood Obesity. Obesity has been called the new American epidemic by many doctors. It is estimated that fifty eight million Americans living in the United States are obese, and that eight out of ten people who are over twenty-five are overweight. Obesity is, easily, America's fastest growing health concern. This condition, though, is not limited to American adults. Doctors have recently found that nearly thirteen percent of all American children suffer from this problem and that statistic seems to go up each year. Understanding the jump in childhood obesity rates is directly linked to understanding obesity itself. The American Academy of Pediatricians defines childhood obesity as occurring in kids who have a BMI of more than 30. Other institutions, though, suggest that a child whose body weight is at least 20% higher than a child of a similar height is obese. No matter what the exact definition is, obesity is, simply, excess body fat. Why, though, is obesity such a concern? I mean, hey, an extra Twinkie or two can't really harm a kid, can it? Actually, yes, it can. Obesity cannot only increase the risk of psychological problems in kids, like eating disorders, depression, and anxiety problems, it can also put them at risk for all sorts of physiological problems including heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. In fact, forty-five percent of all new cases of juvenile type-II diabetes are obesity linked. Childhood obesity increases the risk of orthopedic problems. Because kids are forced to carry extra weight that their bone structures simply cannot handle, bowed legs and arthritis are increasingly present. Obese kids also have more skin disorders than children of a healthy weight. Obesity increases the skin area subject to folds, which, in turn, increases problems like heat rash and dermatitis. All of this can create serious problems for the child and for our health care system. In 1979, hospital costs associated with childhood obesity were $35 million. At the end of the decade, they had risen to $127 million. Some may suggest that the rise in childhood obesity rates is due to naturally occurring medical conditions like hypothyroidism and Cushing's syndrome. Each child who demonstrates symptoms of obesity should be carefully evaluated by a medical professional for these conditions, although most doctors suggest that the occurrence of these problems in children is quite low, and the obesity epidemic is linked to more serious societal problems like low physical activity levels and poor eating habits. There is little doubt that childhood obesity rates are on the rise, and treatments for the problem may be simpler than you think. The best treatment for the problem, on a societal level, is prevention. This can be accomplished by increasing the number of mothers who breastfeed their babies, thereby delaying the introduction of solid foods to six months of age, limiting the television and video game intake of toddlers and older kids alike, providing healthy, low-fat nutritious snacks and meals for kids of all ages, and creating family exercise plans. If obesity has already occurred, treatment should include a manageable weight loss plan, behavior modification therapies, nutrition counseling, and an exercise plan. Focus and reflect on what you have studied about informative speech or dialogue. Then, prepare a 2 minutes presentation based on the reading below about childhood obesity. Activity: 2
  • 116. 117 BLOCK 3 Childhood obesity is on the rise, and clearly, everyone is at risk from the effects of this devastating condition. This "unknown" problem in America needs attention. The children are our future, and thus, it is unacceptable to put them at risk for obesity and the health problems associated with being overweight. By advocating healthy diets, exercise, and education, the fast increase in childhood obesity throughout the country can be ended. Once you have finished preparing the previous activity, present the product to the rest of the class. Your teacher will choose a peer who will be in charge of grading your presentation using the rubric below. At the end, you will have to report results to your teacher as they will be part of your final grade. Activity: 2a
  • 117. 118 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Rubric Speaker: Theme: Childhood Obesity Time: Date: Score: Introduction Introduced adequately 0 1 2 3 4 5 Audience orientation/goodwill 0 1 2 3 4 5 Forecast of audience relevance 0 1 2 3 4 5 Preview major points 0 1 2 3 4 5 Body Coherence / organizational structure 0 1 2 3 4 5 Association/clustering 0 1 2 3 4 5 Precise language 0 1 2 3 4 5 Verbal aids/vivid language 0 1 2 3 4 5 Transitional phrases 0 1 2 3 4 5 Clarity 0 1 2 3 4 5 Conclusion Summarize major points 0 1 2 3 4 5 Restate purpose 0 1 2 3 4 5 Audience connection/application 0 1 2 3 4 5 Closing thoughts 0 1 2 3 4 5 Audience / Delivery Enthusiasm/volume 0 1 2 3 4 5 Conversational style/rate/pausing 0 1 2 3 4 5 Poise / eye contact / distracting movement 0 1 2 3 4 5 Effective gestures 0 1 2 3 4 5 Audience adaptation 0 1 2 3 4 5 Q&A feedback response 0 1 2 3 4 5 Evaluation Activity: 2 Product: Presentation and rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Recalls information from the text in order to prepare and present an oral production. Applies his/her knowledge to present his/her own ideas orally. Shows ability and positive attitude when listening and presenting ideas and is opened to feedback. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 118. 119 BLOCK 3 Informative speech topic ideas. Choosing distinctive topics for your oral communication class. So how do you choose an appropriate and interesting informative speech topic? If you think this is a difficult task, you're not alone. For many high school students, choosing good speech topics is one of the most challenging parts of their oral communication class. Learning how to pick the right topic is an important part of developing strong public speaking skills. The first thing to remember when you're writing or delivering an informative speech is this: you need to find something to teach the audience. For the duration of your short speech, you are the teacher, and it's your job to provide your students with some clear and useful information. So what are some criteria for selecting a good informative speech topic? Here are some tips. 1. Speak about something you know about. Pick something that you already have some knowledge about. Otherwise, you're going to have to do an awful lot of research to be able to speak with confidence about your topic. 2. Speak about something you care about. Enthusiastic teachers are good teachers. You know that from being a student, right? The audience isn't going to listen or learn much unless you convey to them that this is a topic worth learning about. 3. Speak about something the audience will care about. This is very important. If you speak about something that is relevant to your audience, they are much more likely to pay attention and learn something. 4. Choose a topic that is of interest to the whole audience. A speech about trendy women's hairstyles may be of interest to many of the females in your audience, but most of the males will not find this relevant at all. Be careful not to lose part of your audience. 5. Choose an informative speech topic that's not too broad. If you choose a topic that's too broad, you're not going to have enough time to talk about it in much detail. For example, don't give a speech about "museums in the Europe." There are thousands of them, so this topic is way too broad. Narrow it down to something like "art museums in Amsterdam," and you have a manageable topic. You also don't want to choose a topic that's too narrow, but this is a much less common problem. 6. Avoid topics that everyone already knows about. If the information in your speech is already known, your speech isn't going to inform them of anything new. Don't give a speech about freshman orientation or about popular student hangouts. 7. Avoid highly complex topics. You probably only have a short period to speech, so explaining a technical or complicated issue well is very difficult. Complex speeches tend to be filled with jargon, or technical words that most of your audience is not familiar with. 8. Make sure your speech isn't actually a persuasive speech. This is very important, and your public speaking instructor may downgrade you if you fail to do this. An informative speech teaches the audience about something. A persuasive speech asks the audience members to change their attitudes or behaviors. Be careful not to cross the line.
  • 119. 120 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Criteria Points 5 4 3 2 1  The team understands text accurately.  The team deduces text appropriately.  The team and the leader help uncover the key ideas.  The team refers to and uses specific evidence to support arguments.  Team uses references and ideas from earlier material learned in this class in order to flesh out the arguments.  Team shows analytical facility with text and ideas.  The whole team demonstrates a strategy for leading the discussion that leads to the assigned outcomes.  Discussion runs smoothly.  Team help all classmates participate.  Team asks good questions and follows-up questions.  Team makes all participate in the discussion.  The whole team shows respect to the class by holding the conversation at a challenging and rigorous level by creating a dialogue and complete the assignment.  The team displays good work habits  The team is ready on time  The team works well together Evaluation Activity: 3 Product: Presentation and rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Recalls information from the text in order to prepare and present an oral production. Applies his/her knowledge, to present his/her own ideas orally. Shows positive attitude when listening and presenting ideas and is opened to feedback. Auto-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Prepare a speech about a place of your interest in groups of five. The speech has to be at least 3 minutes long and no longer than five minutes. You may talk about your last summer vacation, a famous tourist destination, your hometown and some others. Be sure to mention important details such as typical food, culture, activities and traditions that describe the place you chose. Activity: 3
  • 120. 121 BLOCK 3 Prepare an “Informative Speech” about one of the 4 topics below in pairs or groups of three and present it to the class. Be aware your presentation 1 to 5 minutes long. 1. The Food Speech. An especially good idea if your speech class is right before lunch! Talk about a type of cuisine, or about ways to make healthy food. 2. The School Speech: Your fellow students and you all have one thing in common: you are students at the same school! Therefore, if you give a speech about your school, you won't have to work hard to make the speech relevant to everybody. Research something interesting that most people don't know about your school. Talk about some famous alumni or some interesting historical trivia. Or talk about an office or service at school that might be helpful to students. 3. The Local Current Event Speech. Inform your fellow students about what's going on in your community or what's going on around school. If there's a local election, provide some information about the candidates. If there's some local legislation that affects students, your speech on the issue will be very relevant. 4. The Celebrity Speech: Who doesn't secretly love to dish about celebrities? Give an informative speech about a celebrity you find particularly interesting. Just be sure to provide some information everyone doesn't already know. Activity: 4
  • 121. 122 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Rubric Speaker (s): Topic: Time: Date: Score: Introduction Introduced adequately 0 1 2 3 4 5 Audience orientation/goodwill 0 1 2 3 4 5 Forecast of audience relevance 0 1 2 3 4 5 Preview major points 0 1 2 3 4 5 Body Coherence / organizational structure 0 1 2 3 4 5 Association / clustering 0 1 2 3 4 5 Precise language 0 1 2 3 4 5 Verbal aids/vivid language 0 1 2 3 4 5 Transitional phrases 0 1 2 3 4 5 Clarity 0 1 2 3 4 5 Conclusion Summarize major points 0 1 2 3 4 5 Restate purpose 0 1 2 3 4 5 Audience connection/application 0 1 2 3 4 5 Closing thoughts 0 1 2 3 4 5 Audience / delivery Enthusiasm / volume 0 1 2 3 4 5 Conversational style/rate/pausing 0 1 2 3 4 5 Poise /eye contact / distracting movement 0 1 2 3 4 5 Effective gestures 0 1 2 3 4 5 Audience adaptation 0 1 2 3 4 5 Q&A feedback response 0 1 2 3 4 5 Evaluation Activity: 4 Product: Presentation and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Recalls information from the text in order to prepare and present an oral production. Applies his/her knowledge to present his/her own ideas orally. Values with a positive attitude when listening and presenting ideas and is opened to feedback. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 122. 123 BLOCK 3 Closing Activity The Benefits and Advantages of Eating Healthy Food By Mark McGimpsey Wherever you are in the world, good eating habits and a good diet is essential for maintaining a long-term improvement to your health. Your activity level while playing a role in your health and well-being, can suffer a setback if you eat the wrong kind or wrong quantity of food. The best kind of eating habits you can acquire are ones that permit you to enjoy what you eat (not a complete feel good diet however), but have a balanced and good diet that doesn’t leave you getting too much of one thing and not enough of another. One nutrient that is usually out of proportion is carbohydrates. People typically in modern western cultures have feel good diets that lead to a higher than necessary carbohydrate intake, which leads to those carbohydrates being broken down and stored as fat. Carbohydrates are basically complex sugars, which are burned by the body for energy, unless they are not needed, (in which case they are stored as fat as I have said). Unfortunately most of the best tasting foods are high in carbohydrate. However, they are not altogether bad, but eating too many carbohydrates inevitably will cause you to gain weight. Good eating habits and a good diet plan allow your carbohydrate intake to be more balanced so that excess carbohydrates do not end up being stored, and you feel healthier instead of having an almost carefree feel good diet. Fatty foods containing higher levels of cholesterol counters the effects of good eating habits. It can be argued that it is sometimes better to eat more fat and carbohydrate because you’re body to break down fat has to work much harder, and burn more energy. While a little cholesterol is important in your diet, too much is downright dangerous. The excess tends to stick to blood vessel walls, narrowing their diameter, causing an increase in blood pressure which can lead to increased risk of heart attacks. A good diet plan is going to be a different for everyone as good eating habits should include foods from all the food groups: meats, grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy. The classic food pyramid suggests that you should eat about six servings of grains, about three servings of vegetables, three portions of fruit, two portions from the dairy group, and two servings of meat. The food pyramid suggests that foods from the junk group should be used carefully, and perhaps should never be part of your good diet plan, but this is not always possible as you know. However, your intake of food from the junk group when all is said and done is your choice, and the results will show accordingly. Unfortunately keeping up good eating habits can be particularly difficult with today’s busy schedules. Most people just don’t have the time to spend adequately preparing their meals, and usually do end up supplementing at least one of their daily meals with fast food from a restaurant, cafe, or fast food chain. Usually these fast foods are not very healthy overall. If you find yourself falling into this type of situation, probably the best advice is to be aware of what you are actually eating. We all know it’s not possible to be 100 per cent correct in what we eat all the time, but as long as you keep good eating habits awareness forefront in your mind, a little backsliding should not be too detrimental to your health. Mark McGimpsey is a published author and owner of web sites that provide information on Health and Wellness and on Healthy Eating. Activity: 5
  • 123. 124 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH I. After reading the previous speech, discuss about the content in teams of five and complete the KWL chart. Directions: 1) List what you know (K) about a topic; 2) what you want (W) to learn about a topic; and 3) what you learned (L) about the topic after reading and discussing about it. K-W-L Chart
  • 124. 125 BLOCK 3 II. Each team elaborates an informative speech III. The speech has to be about healthy eating habits. IV. Choose one of the following topics in teams. a. The importance of healthy habits. b. How to use the Food Pyramid. c. How to use the “eat well” plate. d. What is and how to prepare a healthy menu. e. How to prepare a healthy menu for a child. f. How to prepare a healthy menu for a teenager (male and female) g. How to prepare a healthy menu for an adult (male and female) h. How to prepare a healthy menu for a sedentary person (male and female) i. How to prepare a healthy menu for an athlete. (male and female) j. The importance of water and exercise in healthy eating. V. Bring to class any materials you may need to make your presentation more interesting and meaningful. VI. Remember you will be evaluated individually and as part of a team. VII. Rubric “A” is for team evaluations. VIII. Rubric “B” is for speaker evaluation. Each team member must be evaluated by another (different) team Rubric “A” Team Effectiveness Evaluation Rubric Project ___________________________________________ Evaluator _________________________________________ Your evaluation of the team overall should be written in the column labeled as Your Grade. Add any comments below the table. Category Score Your grade1 2 3 4 5 1. Roles and responsibilities (establishing and performing assigned responsibilities to team) Roles were not defined or were meaningless; individuals did not own their roles; performance in roles was ineffective Roles used, but only major ones (e.g., leader, recorder); all members accepted a role, but fulfilled assigned role only minimally Functional roles assigned and revised over time; team members performed multiple roles during project; all members accepted, assessed, and improved roles over time; roles performed skillfully; team members helped with other roles 2. Attitude and climate (creating and maintaining supportive team climate) Complacent energy level; disrespectful attitude common; conflicts were destructive to team Energy level generally upbeat; polite acceptance of the views and ideas of others; conflicts Energy level inspiring and motivating for productivity; team members encouraged and built the strengths of others; conflicts were resolved effectively and
  • 125. 126 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH performance defused were used to develop team understanding and growth 3. Resource management (assessing, accessing, and using team resources to achieve goals) Students were used only passively; schedule was poorly defined; other resources were poorly used All members contributed to a similar extent; each team member’s strength was used; project milestones were set and generally monitored; available resources were used All team members contributed extensively; team member’s skills were assessed and strengths developed and used; both project and member milestones were set, monitored, and revised; necessary resources were identified, accessed, developed, and used creatively 4. Operating procedures (establishing and using processes to ensure effective team interactions and productivity) Very low expectations; operating procedures were either nonexistent or ineffective Procedures were general and only verbalized; procedures were often but not always followed; procedures clarified expectations and aided interdependence Procedures were oral (rather than written), revised as needed, and supported by all; procedures were followed regularly; use of the procedures built relationships and led to team interaction 5. Combined effect Team was a collection of individuals that merely divided the work to be done Moderate interaction attained, either at low level or sporadically; the team realized some benefit from working together beyond simple division of labor High degree of cooperation attained; team members developed skills and ideas through interactions with others; final design could not have been achieved by dividing project and working individually Comments: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 126. 127 BLOCK 3 Individual Team Members’ Evaluation Form Project ___________________________________________ Evaluator _________________________________________ CATEGORY Outstanding Competent Inconsistent Deficient Totals 5 4 3 2 Speaks Clearly Speaks clearly and distinctly all (100-95%) the time, and mispronounces no words. Speaks clearly and distinctly all (100-95%) the time, but mispronounces one word. Speaks clearly and distinctly most (94- 85%) of the time. Mispronounces no more than one word. Often mumbles or cannot be understood OR mispronounces more than one word. Posture and Eye Contact Stands up straight, looks relaxed and confident. Establishes eye contact with everyone in the room during the presentation. Stands up straight and establishes eye contact with everyone in the room during the presentation. Sometimes stands up straight and establishes eye contact. Slouches and/or does not look at people during the presentation. Pitch Pitch was often used and it conveyed emotions appropriately. Pitch was often used but the emotion it conveyed sometimes did not fit the content. Pitch was rarely used OR the emotion it conveyed often did not fit the content. Pitch was not used to convey emotion. Preparedness Student is completely prepared and has obviously rehearsed. Student seems pretty prepared but might have needed a couple more rehearsals. The student is somewhat prepared, but it is clear that rehearsal was lacking. Student does not seem at all prepared to present. Time-Limit Within 2 minutes of allotted time +/- Within 4 minutes of allotted time +/- Within 6 minutes of allotted time +/- Too long or too short Last names, speaker 1 Evaluation Last names, speaker 2 Evaluation Last names, speaker 3 Evaluation Last names, speaker 4 Evaluation Last names, speaker 5 Evaluation Last names, speaker 6 Evaluation Evaluation Activity: 5 Product: Presentation about the chosen topic and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Recalls and prepares information from the text in order to present an oral production. Applies his/her knowledge to present his/her own ideas orally. Appreciates team work and shows positive attitude when listening and presenting ideas. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 127. 128 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Didactic Sequence 2. Instructional speech. Start Up Activity Do you like coffee? Yes ________ No ________ Why? ____________________________________________________________________ Do you consider yourself caffeine addict? ____________________________________________________________________ How much coffee do you drink a day? ____________________________________________________________________ One cup? ________ Two cups? _______ More? ___________ How about caffeinated sodas? _________________________________________ The Truth about Caffeine. Caffeine is pervasive in our society these days and every few months we hear about how a study has shown that it is bad for us or good for us. What are we to believe? Today we are going to give you some of the facts about caffeine and its effects on your body. It may not cause you to change your coffee consumption but at least you'll be better informed about what you are putting into your body. Let´s talk about the beneficial effects of caffeine, the negative effects and discuss what are considered safe levels of caffeine consumption. Let's start with the good news. Caffeine, which comes from the leaves, seeds and fruits of about 63 different plants, is well known as a stimulant. That's why people drink it, right? Caffeine does help you wake up and feel more alert and it has been shown to increase attention spans. This is a beneficial effect for people who are driving long distances and for people who are doing tedious work. Calling this a health benefit may be stretching it, though staying awake while you are driving a car is definitely a benefit to your well-being! Caffeine also contains antioxidants which have been shown to have cancer prevention qualities. The negative effects of caffeine are largely dependent on how much you consume. When consumed in small quantities like, for example when you have one cup of coffee or one soda, caffeine can cause your heart rate to increase, you urinate more which can cause dehydration, and your digestive system produces more acid. In larger amounts, caffeine can cause you to have headaches, feel restless and nervous, be unable to sleep, and even, in very large quantities to have hallucinations.(Don't try that at home!) When larger amounts of caffeine (over 600 mg per day) are used over long periods of time you can develop sleep problems, get depressed and have problems with your digestive system.
  • 128. 129 BLOCK 3 According to a Medline article on the National Institutes of Health website, having caffeine in your diet is not of any benefit to your health but moderate consumption is also not considered harmful. They say that having up to 3 eight ounce cups of coffee a day or 250 mg of caffeine is considered (quote) "average or moderate". 10 cups of coffee a day is considered excessive. Also, remember that the amount of caffeine per cup can vary greatly depending on the type of beans that are used and the strength of the brew. Most sodas with caffeine, unless they are specially enhanced like "Jolt" or something like that, have about 35 mg of caffeine per 8 ounces so you don't have to worry too much unless you are drinking several 2 liter bottles per day. Also, the effect of caffeine on you personally will depend on a number of factors like your weight, general health, mood and personal sensitivity to caffeine. You can see that caffeine can have both positive and negative effects on our health and well-being but the bottom line is that if you drink your coffee or sodas in moderation, you don't have to worry too much. So, the next time you are wondering whether you should have that second cup of coffee to perk you up, relax. At least now you know what it is and isn't doing to you! http://www.best-speech-topics.com/sample-informative-speech.html Article adapted by COBACH Department of Educational Innovation
  • 129. 130 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Name: _________________________________________________________________ Speech Length: ____min. ____ sec. INFORMATIVE SPEECH RUBRIC 4 3 2 1 Total Intro- duction Catchy opener that was delivered effectively Statement that related the topic to the audience directly (Why should the audience listen?) Established credibility (through nonverbal and verbal means) Necessary background information Preview main points smooth transition Body Pattern: Clear main points Adequate support? Stats story quote-authority articles/books no reference to source Refining technique (mnemonic, parallel phrasing, repetitious phrase, alliteration, ABC, catchy key words) Effective use of connective tissue in the body: Signposts Transitions Internal previews and reviews Con- clusion Clear indication that ending Summary of main points Catchy concluding statement Delivered with closure knew you were done with your speech Non- verbal Delivery Walked confidently up to front & did not start speech while walking Finished speech before walking & walked confidently back to seat Good posture Good use of floor space (and didn’t pace) Gestures enhanced speech (rather than detracted from it) Good eye contact w/ entire audience Good vocal variety, rate, volume, articulation, effective use of pauses Evaluation Activity: 1 Product: Written speech, oral delivering and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Prepares and presents an oral and written speech to the class. Applies his/her knowledge to present his/her own ideas orally. Collaborates and appreciates pair work and shows positive attitude openness. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher 1. Based on the text and your answers, elaborate a speech in pairs. 2. Grab a pen and paper, and write an amazing speech to teach and impress your classmates. 3. Take into account all you have previously learned about speeches before when presenting your work. 4. Present the team’s written speech to your teacher and bring it orally to the class. 5. Evaluate a team assigned by your teacher using the rubric provided below. Notice you will be also graded by another team. Activity: 1
  • 130. 131 BLOCK 3 Development activities How to deliver an “instructional speech”. By Mary Beth Magee, eHow Contributor and adapted by COBACH Department of Educational Innovation Difficulty: Moderate Instructions: 1) Outline the material. List main points and crucial step-by-step details. Go through the information aloud as a rough, time estimate. Check for any steps omitted in the outline. 2) Adjust material as necessary to more closely conform to the target time frame. Allow time for questions and answers, if these are included in the format. 3) Prepare any visual aids or handout materials to be used in the presentation. 4) Amplify the outline with description and detail. Include anecdotes and phrases of particular importance. Identify visual aids and where they will be used within the text. Print the presentation in a large font for easy reading. Double-spacing the text provides room for editing (that’s for your own comfort when reading it). 5) Rehearse the speech, using the printed text and visual aids. Check the timing. Make any necessary edits for clarity or time, and rehearse again. Use a "practice audience," if possible. 6) Reprint the text if needed. Rehearse until the material and handling of visual aids is natural. Tips & Warnings:  Include every step required for the task being taught.  The amount of time to spend on any given point is dependent on whether or not the audience will want to take notes on it. Provide the information as a handout to smooth the presentation.  Provide a bibliography and list of resources, if applicable.  Have a little extra information in reserve should the presentation run short; this can be an alternative method, an anecdote about the subject or historical information. Novice speakers sometimes speak faster than normal in a presentation, if they are nervous. The extra information will be a buffer against running short.  Print the final version of the text on one side of the paper only. Number the pages, but don't staple them. Rather than turning pages, simply slide each page aside as it is completed.  If the presentation requires a product at various stages (such as preparation of a recipe or painting a landscape), have samples at the various stages ready to show. There may not be time for each step to be completed in the presentation.  Have a question ready as an icebreaker for Q&A. Ask it of the audience.  Don't assume the audience will know a step is implicit in the process. Be explicit and clear to avoid unhappy listeners later.  Practice with the actual equipment to be used in the presentation. Speech time is not the time to realize your slide show isn't compatible with the equipment. Present an instructional speech to demonstrate or explain a process or procedure. The amount of detail included will depend upon the background of the audience, the possibility of the presentation and the amount of handout material used (if needed). Evaluate the audience before beginning your preparation, and gear your speech to their level and needs. Mentally review the procedure to be covered before beginning to write.
  • 131. 132 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Informative Speech Ideas: How to find research and outline speech topics to inform. Elaborating by doing research is your basic speech writing strategy. And do it as profoundly as possible. Study yourself the: 1. Facts. 2. Figures. 3. Stories. 4. Statistics. 5. Surveys. 6. Expert testimonies. 7. Examples. 8. Personal experiences. 9. Professional experiences. 10. Quotations. 11. Comparisons and contrasts. Only use visual aids to assist you in clarifying and supporting your thoughts, but first check the public speaking assignment rules on visual aid in relation to the one you find in my list of 100+ ideas. Document your material, because then it's easy to turn up the pages of your reference books for a closer research of your speech topics. The Specific Purpose: Now that you have found enough material to outline your informative speech ideas, nail down your specific goal or statement. Capture it in a infinitive phrase that says it all. Example of a clear idea: I will inform my audience of the four stages of painting a wall. Then work out the - let’s say - five stages. For example: 1. Deciding on the color. 2. Buying the paint and accessories. 3. Stopping gaps. 4. Cleaning the wall. 5. The painting work itself. How To Outline: Now create a clear, effective and simple speech blueprint.  Gain attention by stating an attention getting introduction.  State why your information is essential  Why you want to tell them.  Illustrate and prove the need by use examples, comparisons and illustrations.  Then satisfy the needs. Show the steps, main points or ideas in a logical, chronological or topical order.  Summarize each point before you proceed to the next point. See if they understand you.  Summarize your central informative speech idea and state the steps briefly.  End with a strong conclusion that helps the public to remember your message.  Ask if there are questions. Okay, by now you have developed a blueprint for creating and writing your informative speech ideas.
  • 132. 133 BLOCK 3 Informative speech topics. Coming up with the right informative speech topics can be one of the most difficult parts of writing and deliver an informative speech. Before you come up with a strong topic, though, it is probably important to understand the basic premise of an informative speech. Informative speeches are, essentially, a way to provide your audience with information on a given topic. That information should be useful and helpful to those listening. A good way to think of an informative speech is to think of it in terms of a “teaching speech”. Your job as a speaker is to teach the audience or partner everything they might need to know about your topic such as the effects of caffeine on your body or marriage rituals around the world. Good informative speeches start with strong informative speech topics and a good informative speech outline. Make sure that each piece of information you offer audience members is important to the topic you have chosen. Everything in your speech should be of value to audience members. Selecting the right informative speech topic is easily one of the hardest parts of the speech process, but there are a few ways to make the process a bit easier on you. In many real life speaking situations, what you speak about is dictated by the needs of the situation. For example, if your teacher asks you to speak during your class about the new software your school recently purchased, your chosen informative speech topic would obviously be the program your teacher wants you to discuss. However, there are times you will have to come up with your own ideas for informative speech topics. In the classroom setting, your teacher will allow you to choose your own topic, this means requiring you to come up with a subject matter that you want to write or speak a speech on. In order to narrow down the field of topics, think about the things you find interesting. For example, if you are a fan of a popular novelist, such as Stephen King, perhaps you might want to make a speech about that person. If you have an interesting part-time job, this might be a good time to tell people about the aspects of your job. “I worked for a short time for Miss Cleo's Psychic Line” and this was a great informative speech topic as most people are curious about what this type of job consists of. You will still have to complete some pretty extensive research if you choose a topic that you already have some knowledge of, but your experiences with that topic will make an excellent supplement to your research materials. If you cannot think of something you are interested in, there are several other ways to come up with good informative speech topics. One great way to select a topic is to think about areas of knowledge that you are currently unfamiliar with, but that you have some interest in researching. This may be a bit of a challenge to you. Your goal is to learn enough about the subject to not only understand it yourself, but also to present it to audience members in a clear, logical fashion. Another way to select topics is to talk to classmates, instructors, family and friends about possible topics. Other people make great sounding- boards when you get stuck. For example, perhaps all you can come up with is the general topic area of basketball. One of your classmates may help you to think of other ideas that could stem from that including the history of the game, the rules of the game, and some of the game's heroes. When
  • 133. 134 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH you use this method, though, use it with a measure of caution. You want to choose something that will capture the audience's interest not just that of the people involved in the decision process. Coming up with the right informational speech topics can be a bit rough at times, but ensuring that the goal of the informative speech remains foremost in your mind will help to guarantee your topic will be a success. Check out a sample informative speech on caffeine, an example informative speech on hybrid animals, a free informative speech on childhood obesity or an informative speech sample on how humor heals to get you started. The major rule of thumb for this kind of speech: Just be informational, don't persuade. If you give your opinion or judgment and you attempt to persuade the audience to act or agree, then it is a speech to persuade instead of to inform. Bottom line: you, the public (or private for instance if you are talking with only one person) speaker, tries to communicate ideas in a powerful way! a) Describe the various pros and cons, good and bad features of a subject. b) Show how to do something how something works or is made. c) Stimulate your public to visualize things you describe. d) Offer special details or new information they think is a classical Eureka! Thought. e) Use (if necessary) visual aids to support your best speech thesis, simplify complexity, build credibility, to enhance understanding. Different Information Speech Topics. You can talk about all sorts of things for informative speeches on cooking, history or medical and psychological issues, or try the general list this module provides you. Relate them to cultural artifact objects, products, people, animals, historical, current or future events, places, processes, procedures, concepts, definitions, policies, theories, and so on. Or find the best informative speech topic idea by inventing your personal, educational or professional experiences and by associating your goals and aims. Remember, stay close to your interests and expertise. That's the only key to communicate messages successful to your listeners. Limit your informative speech topics about objects, products, people, animals, places or events to one single aspect or angle of approach. For example research your good ideas on new and surprising information and discoveries. Focus an open speaking presentation about processes and procedures on action steps: show how to do something step by step with informative demonstrational topics. Describe the importance and the general context of the procedure by connecting action and effects. These informative topic ideas always are a great success, because the audience or listener one or many, can see what you mean, and they often do the things you've showed by themselves, right on the spot. It generates a lot of interaction! If you choose for concepts, definitions and policies then provide a detailed:  What,  Why,  When,  and How. In other words, a so called expository on these somewhat abstract informative speech topics. Make them come to life with your speaking skills!
  • 134. 135 BLOCK 3 Rubric 5 4 2 0 TOPIC The topic you have watched is significant and arousing Is limited and narrowed enough statement Is meaningful to the public Is important to the audience INTRODUCTION Is interesting attention getting opening that made us want to listen States the proposition or speech thesis clearly Establishes the speaker’s credibility Is well organized preview of the best main points of the speech BODY Body of the speech follows a clear organizational outline pattern The main ideas and sub-points are arranged in a logical way Is focused on at least three major thoroughly described main points Valid arguments, and emotional, logical or ethical appeals Strong evidence to prove and support the persuasive thesis Smooth transition sentences CONCLUSION Summary of the main points There is a logic tie back to the main speech thesis There is a direct call to action There is a memorable closing statement DELIVERY Adequate directness, animation and enthusiasm Natural conversational tone Appropriate vocal volume Normal speaking rate Good articulation Vocal pauses Facial expression Consistent eye contact Natural gestures Natural movements Word choice and vocabulary USE OF AIDS Relevancy to the central idea and topics Appropriate visual aids Handling of visual aids SOURCES Number of sources or bibliography Credibility of the documentation Total 5 Excellent / 4 Very Good / 2 Needs Improvement / 0 Not Satisfactory Evaluation Activity: 2 Product: Video analysis of speech delivery and evaluation rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyses a video that presents an instructional speech. Applies and uses his/her and team’s knowledge, to present conclusions in a rubric. Appreciates team discussion and shows positive attitude when watching to the video speech. Collaborates evaluating with the rubric. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher Analyze a video about an instructional speech named “How to be smart about saving” in groups of 5 or 6 students. Then evaluate the speech using the rubric below and report your results. Finally, discuss about the speech and the rubric with the teacher and the rest of the class. Activity: 2
  • 135. 136 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH 1. In teams of five, analyze the following pages information and discuss how cell phones are being used by teens in North America and Latin America. Activity: 3
  • 136. 137 BLOCK 3
  • 137. 138 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH 2. Each team elaborates a 3 minutes speech about the previous topic and presents it to the class. 3. Use graphics, images or supporting material to make your speech more interesting and significant. 4. Consider the following tips when presenting your speech: a) Try to establish eye contact with your partner or the entire audience. b) Vary the rate, pitch, and volume of your voice, as well as its tone. c) Use your hands to gesture instead of keeping them clasped in front of you. d) Look at the audience more than your notes. e) Don’t pace back and forth, jingle change in your pocket, or play with your hair. f) Stand behind a podium if it makes you feel more comfortable. g) Convey enthusiasm for your subject. It’s contagious. 5. Evaluate the presentation your teacher assigns you using the rubric below.
  • 138. 139 BLOCK 3 Evaluation Rubric Team’s Name: ________________________________________________________ Speech Length: ____min. ____ sec. INFORMATIVE SPEECH RUBRIC 4 3 2 1 Total Introduction 1. Catchy opener that was delivered effectively 2. Statement that related the topic to the audience directly (Why should the audience listen?) 3. Established credibility (through nonverbal and verbal means) 4. Necessary background information 5. Preview main points Body Pattern: Clear main points Adequate support? Stats story quote authority articles/books no reference to source Refining technique (mnemonic, parallel phrasing, repetitious phrase, alliteration, ABC, catchy key words) Effective use of connective tissue in the body: Signposts Transitions Internal previews and reviews Conclusion Clear indication that ending Summary of main points Catchy concluding statement Delivered with closure knew you were done with your speech Non-verbal Delivery Walked confidently up to front & did not start speech while walking Finished speech before walking & walked confidently back to seat Good posture Good use of floor space (and didn’t pace) Gestures enhanced speech (rather than detracted from it) Good eye contact w/ entire audience Good vocal variety, rate, volume, articulation, effective use of pauses Evaluation Activity: 3 Product: Speech presentation and rubric. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyses information and elaborates a speech based on it. Applies and uses information from a text, prepares a speech, presents it to class and assesses the activity using a rubric. Appreciates group work. Shows positive attitude when teams present their speech and collaborates with his / her evaluating using the rubric. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 139. 140 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Closing Activity Congratulations, you are about to finish this course! Now, you will create a Video Library with video pods of “Informative Speeches” made by your classmates and you. It is of great importance that you consider the following directions: I. Choose a topic for your speech. You may use one of the topics presented on next page. II. Tape your speech. You have to show evidence of your audience. III. Hand in your written speech to your “Writing and Reading Strategies” (WRS) teacher for correction and assessment. Ask your teacher to sign it in. IV. Gather some audience to deliver your speech V. Your “Instructional Speech” must be at least three minutes long and last no longer than eight minutes. VI. Use visual Aids when presenting your speech. Assessment: VII. Your teacher will assign you the date and time you have to present your speech. VIII. Hand in your written speech signed by your WRS teacher before the presentation. IX. No late speech assignments will be accepted. X. Papers and videos will not be accepted via email. XI. All videos will be evaluated with using a rubric. Elements to be included in the Instructional Speech (written speech and videotaped speech):  Introduction “introducing yourself”.  Topic.  Specific Purpose Statement.  Organized structure. o Introduction. o Body. o Conclusion. NOTE: Your WRS teacher will assign you a date and time to present your speech as soon as you hand in your written work. No works will be accepted after __________________________. People, who do hand in works on time, will get a “0” (zero) for the speech. Activity: 4
  • 140. 141 BLOCK 3 List of informative speech topics: 1. How to wash your hands 2. How to wrap a package 3. How to carve a pumpkin 4. How to make a paper plane 5. How to set a formal dining table 6. How to make balloon animals 7. How to polish leather shoes 8. How to make a sandwich 9. How to tie a tie 10. How to fold an American flag 11. How to treat a bee sting 12. How to make a charcoal crystal garden 13. How to take someone’s blood pressure 14. How to press flowers 15. How to make trail mix 16. How to yoga 17. Avoid athletic injuries 18. Lift properly 19. Cook _____ (a favorite dish) 20. Clean CDs and CD players 21. Clean a computer 22. Cure hiccups 23. Dress for a job interview 24. Exercise without pain 25. Giftwrap a present 26. Lift heavy objects correctly 27. Make a salad 28. Perform a card trick 29. Perform self-defense moves 30. Perform the Heimlich maneuver 31. Properly do several exercises 32. Put out kitchen fires 33. Use a fire extinguisher 34. Remove a stain 35. Shine leather shoes 36. Start a garden 37. Stock and maintain an aquarium 38. Do first Aid 39. Strange Allergies 40. Antivirus software. 41. Architectural movements. 42. Classic Cars. 43. Barbecue tips. 44. Bed and Breakfast (hosting). 45. Chess strategy and tactics. 46. Mountain climbing. 47. Dental care. 48. Exotic pets. 49. Guitar manufacturing. 50. Horse, dog or cat breeds. 51. Italian cuisine, Indian or any kind of Food you like. 52. Kayaking. 53. Kosher Food. 54. Landscaping. 55. Teenagers Parenting. 56. Snowboarding. 57. Stress management. 58. Voice Over IP.(VOIP telephones) 59. Wildlife. 60. Wine making. Grab one of your favorite speech topics and turn it into an interesting speech. Tickle your fantasy with this list of informative speech topics!
  • 141. 142 IDENTIFYING TYPES OF SPEECH Assessment Rubric Speaker: Topic: Date: Score: Time: Performance Assessment 0 1 2 3 4 5 Introduction Introduced adequately Audience orientation/goodwill Forecast of audience relevance Preview major points Body Coherence/organizational structure Association/clustering Precise language Verbal aids/vivid language Transitional phrases Clarity Conclusion Summarize major points Restate purpose Audience connection/application Conversational style/rate/pausing Audience adaptation Q&A feedback response Total Evaluation Activity: 4 Product: Written speech for WRS class, Videotaped speech. Score: Knowledge Conceptual Procedimental Attitudinal Analyses and Identifies the elements of a persuasive speech in a written and oral form by videotaping it. Prepares a written instructional speech and videotapes it. Appreciates work and shows positive attitude when peers present their speech. Shows responsibility delivering the speech in a timely manner. Co-evaluation C MC NC Rating awarded by the teacher
  • 142. 143 BLOCK 3 Bibliography Leo Jones and Victoria Kimbrough. GREAT IDEAS “LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTIVITIES FOR STUDENTS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH”. Editorial Cambridge University Press / New York, N. Y, 2008 McCarthy Michael / O’Dell Felicity. ENGLISH VOCABULARY IN USE. Cambridge University Press. 2000 Rinvolucri Mario / Davis Paul. MORE GRAMMAR GAMES. Cosmopolitan Press. 1997. Dainty Peter. TIME SAVERS. Mary Glasgow Magazines, an imprint of scholastic Inc. 2008 Umstatter Jack. ENGLISH BRAIN STORMERS!. Jossey-Bass Publisher. 2004. Eastwood John. BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Oxford University Press. 1991. I.S.P Nation, Jonathan Newton. TEACHING ESL/EFL LISTENING AND SPEAKING. New York, NY. 2009 Hinkel Eli. TEACHING ACADEMIC ESL WRITING. Seattle University press. 2005. Stephens Mary. PICTURES FOR WRITING BOOK 1. Longman Editorial. 1995. Woodward Julie. TIME SAVERS VOCABULARY ACTIVITIES. Scholastic Mary Glassgow Magazines. 2008. Holderness Jackie / Hughes Annie. 100 + IDEAS FOR CHILDREN, TOPIC BASED ACTIVITIES. Macmillan Heineman. 2005. Gillett Amy. SPEAK ENGLISH LIKE AN AMERICAN. Language success press. 2004. F. Chabot John / Julich Jeannette. SEQUENCES PICTURE STORIES FOR ESL IN CANADA. Full Blast productions. 2006. Vince Michael / Emmerson Paul. FIRST CERTIFICATE LANGUAGE PRACTICE ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY. Macmillan. 2004. Peter Dainty. TIME SAVERS “NEWSPAPER ARTICLES TO GET TEENAGERS TALKING.” Scholastic. 2006. United Nations Educational Scientific and Culture Organization. CHANGING TEACHING PRACTICES USING CURRICULUM DIFFERENTIATION TO RESPOND TO STUDENTS’ DIVERSITY. Unesco. 2004. Schouten, Alexander F. TALKING POINTS LENGUAJE DEVELOPMENT. Prensa Univesitaria Barcelona España 2008 Elizabeth Bingham Cole. LISTENING AND TALKING: A GUIDE TO PROMOTING SPOKEN LANGUAGE IN YOUNG HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN Alexander Graham Bell Association for the youth. Los Angeles, Ca.; USA, 1992. Argudin, Yolanda. EDUCACION BASADA EN COMPETENCIAS. NOCIONES Y ANTECEDENTES. Editorial Trillas. México D.F. 2006. Catalano, Ana María. DISEÑO CURRICULAR BASADO EN NORMAS DE COMPETENCIAS LABORAL: CONCEPTOS Y ORIENTACIONES METODOLÓGICAS. Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 2004. Miguel Diaz, Mario de. MODALIDADES DE ENSEÑANZA CENTRADAS EN EL DESARROLLO DE COMPETENCIAS ORIENTACIONES PARA PROMOVER EL CAMBIO METODOLÓGICO EN EL ESPACIO EUROPEO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR. Ediciones Universidad de Oviedo. Oviedo, España. 2006.

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