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22-10-2008




                           This Presentation Courtesy of the
                           International SOA S...
22-10-2008




       The Theory

                                 3




The Theory


Perfect Engine   0 Friction

Perfect...
22-10-2008




                   The Problem

                                                                           ...
22-10-2008




The Simple Company: Distinct Communities


                                                                ...
22-10-2008




End Result: Localization

                                                                                 ...
22-10-2008




Ontology: Definition

“An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization.

The term is borrow...
22-10-2008




Ontological Framework
  Analysis Phase                       Synthesis Phase                         Design...
22-10-2008




Synthesis: Consistent Service Representation

   Classification of
   Common Service                       ...
22-10-2008




                    Issues

                                                                   17




Issue...
22-10-2008




            Implications

                                                                                 ...
22-10-2008




Extensions to Amdahl‟s Law

 Can we update Amdahl’s law to include complex
 service orchestrations?
   (Fro...
22-10-2008




Mapping to Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs
      Needs                           Notional             Service T...
22-10-2008




„Till we meet again…




        Thank You!
                Wesley McGregor
            Wesley.McGregor@cgi...
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Wesley Mc Gregor An Ontological Approach

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Transcript of "Wesley Mc Gregor An Ontological Approach"

  1. 1. 22-10-2008 This Presentation Courtesy of the International SOA Symposium October 7-8, 2008 Amsterdam Arena www.soasymposium.com info@soasymposium.com Founding Sponsors Platinum Sponsors Gold Sponsors Silver Sponsors October 7, 2008 Enterprise Unity: An Ontological Approach to Connecting SOAs SOA Symposium, Amsterdam, Netherlands Wesley McGregor, Senior Advisor, CGI Inc. © CGI GROUP INC. All rights reserved _experience the commitment TM 1
  2. 2. 22-10-2008 The Theory 3 The Theory Perfect Engine 0 Friction Perfect Market 0 Negotiation Perfect SOA 0 Discontinuity 4 2
  3. 3. 22-10-2008 The Problem 5 The Public Sector: Disparate Communities Interactions Interactions OVERSIGHT Service Service Service Community of Interest HEALTH IMMIGRATION Service Service Service Interactions Service Service Service Community of Interest Community of Interest POLICING Service Service Service Service Community of Interest Key Challenges:  Trust (Internal & External)  Jurisdictional Communities of Interest are usually circumscribed by government departments. Disparate: fundamentally unique 6 3
  4. 4. 22-10-2008 The Simple Company: Distinct Communities Executive Service Service Service Community of Interest Product Sales & Development Interactions Marketing Service Service Service Service Service Service Community of Interest Community of Interest Manufacturing Service Service Service Community of Interest Key Challenges:  Market Responsiveness  Financial Communities of Interest are usually circumscribed by functional departments. Distinct: different in nature or quality 7 The Complex Conglomerate: Disjoint Communities Executive Service Executive Service Service Super Executive Service Executive Community of Interest Service Service Service Service Service Product Service Executive Community of Interest Service Service Sales & Development Interactions Serviceof Interest Service Community Marketing Executive Product Service Sales & Service Development Service Service Service Interactions Serviceof Interest Service Community Service Marketing Executive Service Community of Interest Product Service Community of Interest Service& Sales Community of Interest Service Service Development Service Service Interactions Serviceof Interest Service Community Service Marketing Executive Product Service Community of Interest Service& Sales Community of Interest Service Service Development Service Manufacturing Interactions Service Service Marketing Product Service Executive Community of Interest Service Service Community of Interest Service Community of Interest Service& Sales Service ServiceManufacturing Development Service Service Service Service Service Interactions Serviceof Interest Service Community Marketing Product Service Community of Interest Service& Sales CommunityCommunity of Interest Service Service Interest Service of Service ServiceManufacturing Development Service Interactions Service Community of Interest Service Marketing Product Community of Interest Service& Sales CommunityCommunity of Interest Service Service Interest Service of Service ServiceManufacturing Development Service Interactions Service Service Marketing Product Community of Interest Service& Sales CommunityCommunity of Interest Service Service Interest Service of Service ServiceManufacturing Development Service Interactions Service Service Marketing CommunityCommunity of Interest Service Service Interest Service of Service Community of Interest Service ServiceManufacturing Service Service Service CommunityCommunity of Interest Service of Interest Community of Interest ServiceManufacturing Service ServiceManufacturing Community of Interest Service Service Community of Interest Service Service Service Community of Interest Key Challenges:  Management & Control Communities of Interest are usually  Cultural circumscribed by individual companies. Disjoint: separate or disconnected 8 4
  5. 5. 22-10-2008 End Result: Localization  Registry/Repository  Transformation  Localized syntax Using ESBs  Routing enterprises  Localized nomenclature  Localized semantics that provide…  Reliable Messaging  Standardized Interfaces end up with  Vendor influences  Interoperability challenges  Orchestration Engine  Connectors & Adapters Executive Executive Executive Executive Executive Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Product Sales & Product Sales & Product Sales & Product Sales & Product Sales & Development Marketing Development Marketing Development Marketing Development Marketing Development Marketing Interactions Interactions Interactions Interactions Interactions Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Manufacturing Manufacturing Manufacturing Manufacturing Manufacturing Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest 9 The Solution 10 5
  6. 6. 22-10-2008 Ontology: Definition “An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization. The term is borrowed from philosophy, where an ontology is a systematic account of Existence. For knowledge-based systems, what “exists” is exactly that which can be represented. When the knowledge of a domain is represented in a declarative formalism, the set of objects that can be represented is called a universe of discourse. This set of objects, and the describable relationships among them, are reflected in the representational vocabulary with which a knowledge-based program represents knowledge. Thus, we can describe the ontology of a program by defining a set of representational terms. In such an ontology, definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse (e.g., classes, relations, functions, or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names are meant to denote, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well- formed use of these terms” Source: “A translation approach to portable ontology specifications”, Tom Gruber, Knowledge Acquisition 5, (1993) pp. 199-220 This definition, although debatable, is satisfactory for the purposes of our discussion. 11 Layered Ontological Overlay Common Ontology Shared Ontology Shared Ontology Local Local Local Local Local Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology Executive Executive Executive Executive Executive Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Product Sales & Product Sales & Product Sales & Product Sales & Product Sales & Development Marketing Development Marketing Development Marketing Development Marketing Development Marketing Interactions Interactions Interactions Interactions Interactions Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest Manufacturing Manufacturing Manufacturing Manufacturing Manufacturing Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Community of Community of Community of Community of Community of Interest Interest Interest Interest Interest 12 6
  7. 7. 22-10-2008 Ontological Framework Analysis Phase Synthesis Phase Design& Build Phase Key Stakeholders Enterprise Vision & Influencers Exec Model of Common Services Depts Modeling Projects Group Other Formal Mediation Areas. Common Service Services Description Standards Bodies Vendor Governance “Chaos” “Consistent Structure” “Order” 13 Analysis: Service Concept Exposition Ambiguous Service Descriptions Enterprise-wide Information Exec Models Problem Space Exec Dept Dept-specific Business Depts Logic Service Concept Service X Project-specific Extraction Service Projects Descriptions Service Y Consider others Other Process Areas Models Vendor Standard Guided by Standards Reference Body Models Service Z Dependencies Vendor Service Project Architectures “Chaos” 14 7
  8. 8. 22-10-2008 Synthesis: Consistent Service Representation Classification of Common Service Model of Common Services Formal Description Components Synthesis of Service Concepts of Common Exec Dept Services Service X Service Y Standar Vendor d Service Z Semantically Consistent Machine-understandable Description of Service Types Representation of Project and Components Service Components “Consistent Structure” 15 Design & Build: Service Interoperability Platform-specific Implementations Service X Automated Mediation Capability Client X Successful Exchange of Information Client Y Consistent Consistent Data Semantics Interpretation Service Y Service Interoperability A community can Service effectively interpret Descriptions information and interact Client Z successfully in a completely automated way with another community or environment “Order” 16 8
  9. 9. 22-10-2008 Issues 17 Issues 1. Ownership of the design-time interpretation capability can be problematic. • Knowledge is power • Monarchy or democracy 2. Where does the run-time translation execution lie? • Centralized, distributed, shared,… 3. How are conflicts resolved? • Jurisdictional, human behavioural,… 4. Can inconsistencies be resolved in an automated way? • Rules - both static and dynamically generated,… 5. Technical interoperability. • E.g.. is XML (RDF, OWL,…) enough? 6. Semantic interoperability with outside partners. • How much human modeling effort is required to bring a new community onboard? 9
  10. 10. 22-10-2008 Implications 19 Complexity Reduction: Amdahl‟s Law Amdahl's law, (Gene Amdahl, 1967) Named after computer architect Gene Amdahl, is used to find the maximum expected improvement to an overall system when only part of the system is improved. It is often used in parallel computing to predict the theoretical maximum speedup using multiple processors. Source: www.wikipedia.com If S is the fraction of a calculation that is serial and (1-S) the fraction that can be parallelized, then the greatest speedup that can be achieved using P processors is: 1 (S + (1-S) / P) which has a limiting value of 1/S for an infinite number of processors. Source: www.phy.duke.edu 20 10
  11. 11. 22-10-2008 Extensions to Amdahl‟s Law Can we update Amdahl’s law to include complex service orchestrations? (From a linear to a multi-dimensional perspective) Can we then calculate the reduction in complexity of a system using a framework of consistent service descriptions? (What efficiencies do we gain) Finally, based on the reduction of a system’s complexity, can we calculate the reduction of discontinuity of an entire environment? (What controls are now implicit) 21 Final Thoughts 22 11
  12. 12. 22-10-2008 Mapping to Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs Needs Notional Service Types Tomorrow Self Actualization Abstraction Adaptive, & Autonomic, & Continuity Self-Perpetuating Aesthetic & Cognitive Wisdom Knowledge knowledge, understanding, & goodness, justice, beauty, order Reasoning Time Esteem Distinction Differentiation competence, approval, recognition Belongingness & Love Community Community of Interest affiliation, acceptance, affection Safety Growth Enterprise security, physiological safety Physiological Survival Infrastructure Yesterday food, drink, air 23 The Future As we move from Enterprise SOA to an SOA Marketplace, the commoditization of services will force the creation of a generalized ontological overlay Enterprise SOA SOA Marketplace SOA Continuum - Organizational - - Whole-of-Environment - Organizational efficiencies leading to improved Dynamic arbitrage between performance Source: William A. Murray service supply and demand 24 12
  13. 13. 22-10-2008 „Till we meet again… Thank You! Wesley McGregor Wesley.McGregor@cgi.com 25 13

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