Chapter III outline


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Chapter III outline

  1. 1. Capitulum Tertium Stuff to learn in this chapter: • What verbs do and how to use them; • How to use the accusative case ending; • More about pronouns, personal, relative and interrogative; • How to ask why and to give a reason; • Other stuff
  2. 2. Verbum – pars ōrātiōnis • A verb is a part of speech (pars ō rā tīonis ) that:  expresses an action or a state;  describes what someone or something does or that something exists or occurs.
  3. 3. Examples of Verbs Exe mpla Ve rb ō rum Verbs that end in –at: Cantat – Iū lia cantat: “lalla, lalla, lalla.” Pulsat – Mā rcus Iū liam puls at. Plōrat – Iam Iū lia plō rat: “Uhuhuhu!” Vocat – Iū lia m ā tre m v ocat: “Mamma!” Interrogat – Ae milia inte rrog at: Ubi e s t...?” Verberat – Iū lius Mā rcum v e rbe rat.
  4. 4. Exempla Verbōrum Verbs that end in –e t: Rīdet – Mā rcus rīde t quia Iū lia plō rat. Videt – Qu īntus Marcum v ide t. Respondet – Mā rcus re s ponde t: “Pate r dormit.”
  5. 5. Exempla Verbōrum Verbs that end in –it: Venit – C ū r n ō n Iū lius v e nit? Dormit. Dormit – Iū lius e um n ō n audit, quia dormit. Audit - Ae milia Qu īntum n ō n audit, quia Mā rcus plō rat.
  6. 6. Accūsātīvus Subject Object Verb Marcus Iū liam Puls at masc. fem. Nom. -us -a Acc. -um -am
  7. 7. Transitive Verbs Verbs like puls at, v ide t, v ocat, which are used with an object in the accusative are called t r a n s it iv e v e r b s . Verbs without an object, like rīde t, plō rat, dormit, are called in t r a n s it iv e v e rb s .
  8. 8. Prōnōmina Iūlia plōrat quia Mārcus eam pulsat. “eam” is a Fem. Acc. pronoun standing in for “Iūliam”. Mārcus plōrat quia Aemilia eum verberat. “eum” is a Masc. Acc. pronoun standing in for “Mārcum”.
  9. 9. Why? and because C ūr asks for an explanation or reason; we can think of it basically as “why” - it’s an inte rrog ativ e adje ctiv e Q u ia is the introductory word for the reason or explanation – it’s a caus al conjunction. E.G.: Aemilia interrogat: “Cūr Iūlia plōrat?” et Quīntus respondet: “Plōrat, quia eam Mārcus pulsat.
  10. 10. What do you do when the subject isn’t there? Look at lines 36, 43 and 58. Clauses or sentences on those lines are missing any nominative noun or pronoun. * * * Rule: When the identity of the subject is known, because the context shows who it is, it is not necessary to repeat it or replace it with a pronoun.
  11. 11. Et, Sed ↔ Neque If we wanted to say something like: “Quintus is a good boy and doesn’t hit Julia.” instead of saying “et nōn” we use the word “neque” like this: Qu īntus e s t pue r probus ne que puls at Iū liam. Same thing with “but not”: Iū lius v e nit, ne que Ae milia e um v ide t.
  12. 12. Relative Pronoun Nominative - Puer quī videt Mārcum est Quīntus. Puella quae plōrat est Iūlia. Accusative – Puer que m videt Quīntus est Marcus Puella quam pulsat Mārcus est Iūlia