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"Voluntweeters””:
Self-Organizing by
Digital Volunteers in
Times of Crisis
+ CHI 2011
-Kate Starbird
/김은영
x 2011 summer
"Voluntweeters”:
Self-Organizing by Digital Volunteers
in Times of Crisis
Kate Starbird
ATLAS Institute, Technology, Media...
the emerging role of the “digital volunteer” as
an element of the phenomena popularly known
as “crowdsourcing.”
The 2010 Haiti Earthquake
• 일시 및 장소
• 규모
• 피해 규모
• 소셜미디어
연구
Jan 12, 2010 /Port-au-Prince capitol
a 7.0 magnitude
Economic ...
Disasters:
the January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake
Liu, S. Iacucci, A.A., & Meier, P.
Ushahidi Haiti & Chile: Next
Generatio...
Spontaneous volunteerism is not a
new feature of crisis events
• Dynes, RR. Organized Behavior in Disaster. Heath, 1970.
•...
“crowdsourcing” in crisis response by
applying an existing framework of self-
organizing in disaster settings to new
digit...
개요
• 펀딩
• 조사 목적
• 조사 방법
US National Science Foundation Graduate
Research Fellowship
sets the stage for describing the mult...
TWEAK THE TWEET
The Tweak the Tweet (TtT) syntax is another entrant to the
field of Twitter microsyntax proposals, designe...
Tweak the Tweet Campaign
in Response to Haiti
• 파트너
• 기간
• 방법
• 한계
CrisisCamp initiative (crisiscommons.org)
January 14~24...
Crisis Reporting Hashtag Syntax
Unexpected Activity of Tweak the Tweet
Translation
• Voluntweeterer의 등장
 Starbird, K, Palen, L, Hughes, A & Vieweg, S. Ch...
METHOD (1) – Twitter API 자료수집
captured their entire Twitter update streams Jan. 10–Feb. 1.
This initial data set consists ...
METHOD (2) – Translator Interview
DM 혹은 Mention 으로 인터뷰 요청
37 of the 74 twitterers responded; 27 of these consented to
part...
Personal Motivations for Haiti Tweeting
① personal connections to Haiti
② trying to help out, in any way possible
Where th...
Connections Between Translators
The TtT translators were a highly interconnected group.
visualization of the entire networ...
Features of Ad-hoc Communications
Infrastructures
Within the Twitter platform, they used different affordances
for differe...
Volunteering through Tweeting: Role Identity,
Momentum & Consequences
Self-Identifying as a “Voluntweeter”
Emotional Impac...
theoretical tool to explain collective behavior
Domains Activities Resources Tasks
Kreps and Bosworth, (1994) Organizing, ...
Resources Activities Tasks Domains
Hashtags
Syntax
Data Entry &
Data Movement
Data
Translation
Filtering
Verification
Cros...
The emergent ICT-abetted behaviors and their
consonance with knowledge about existing self-
organizing mechanisms suggest ...
End of Document
(발제) "Voluntweeters””: Self-Organizing by Digital Volunteers in Times of Crisis+ CHI 2011- Kate Starbird/ 김은영x 2011 summer
(발제) "Voluntweeters””: Self-Organizing by Digital Volunteers in Times of Crisis+ CHI 2011- Kate Starbird/ 김은영x 2011 summer
(발제) "Voluntweeters””: Self-Organizing by Digital Volunteers in Times of Crisis+ CHI 2011- Kate Starbird/ 김은영x 2011 summer
(발제) "Voluntweeters””: Self-Organizing by Digital Volunteers in Times of Crisis+ CHI 2011- Kate Starbird/ 김은영x 2011 summer
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(발제) "Voluntweeters””: Self-Organizing by Digital Volunteers in Times of Crisis+ CHI 2011- Kate Starbird/ 김은영x 2011 summer

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Transcript of "(발제) "Voluntweeters””: Self-Organizing by Digital Volunteers in Times of Crisis+ CHI 2011- Kate Starbird/ 김은영x 2011 summer"

  1. 1. "Voluntweeters””: Self-Organizing by Digital Volunteers in Times of Crisis + CHI 2011 -Kate Starbird /김은영 x 2011 summer
  2. 2. "Voluntweeters”: Self-Organizing by Digital Volunteers in Times of Crisis Kate Starbird ATLAS Institute, Technology, Media & Society University of Colorado at Boulder Boulder, CO 80309-0430 starbird@colorado.edu Leysia Palen Department of Computer Science University of Colorado at Boulder Boulder, CO 80309-0430 palen@colorado.edu CHI 2011, May 7–12, 2011, Vancouver, BC, Canada
  3. 3. the emerging role of the “digital volunteer” as an element of the phenomena popularly known as “crowdsourcing.”
  4. 4. The 2010 Haiti Earthquake • 일시 및 장소 • 규모 • 피해 규모 • 소셜미디어 연구 Jan 12, 2010 /Port-au-Prince capitol a 7.0 magnitude Economic damage has been estimated at up to $13.9 billion 200,000 to 250,000 lives lost thousands were trapped beneath collapsed structures, hundreds of thousands were injured, and nearly 1.5 million people had been displaced Bedford, D. and L. Faust, Role of online communities in recent responses to disasters: Tsunami, China, Katrina, and Haiti, Volume 472010, American Society for Information Science: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Yates, D. and S. Paquette, Emergency knowledge management and social media technologies: a case study of the 2010 Haitian earthquake
  5. 5. Disasters: the January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake Liu, S. Iacucci, A.A., & Meier, P. Ushahidi Haiti & Chile: Next Generation Crisis Mapping. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM) Bulletin, August 2010.
  6. 6. Spontaneous volunteerism is not a new feature of crisis events • Dynes, RR. Organized Behavior in Disaster. Heath, 1970. • Fritz, C. E. & Mathewson, J. H. Convergence Behavior in Disasters: A Problem in Social Control, Committee on Disaster Studies, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington DC, 1957. • Kendra, J. M. & Wachtendorf, T. Reconsidering Convergence and Converger: Legitimacy in Response to the World Trade Center Disaster, Terrorism and Disaster: New Threats, New Ideas: Research in Social Problems and Public Policy, 11, (2003), 97-122. • Tierney, K, Lindell, M, & Perry, R.W. Facing the Unexpected: Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States. John Henry Press, Washington, DC, 2001.
  7. 7. “crowdsourcing” in crisis response by applying an existing framework of self- organizing in disaster settings to new digital volunteer behaviors. 연구 목적
  8. 8. 개요 • 펀딩 • 조사 목적 • 조사 방법 US National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship sets the stage for describing the multi- phased empirical study of digital volunteerism and self-organizing behavior an overview of a disaster-response initiative based on the Twitter platform
  9. 9. TWEAK THE TWEET The Tweak the Tweet (TtT) syntax is another entrant to the field of Twitter microsyntax proposals, designed to assist in computational filtering and classification of emergency- related information tweeted during an event. an extension to the role of the hashtag, encouraging users to mark up tweets in a way that would allow computers to easily identify and parse key pieces of information, such as the type of report, location, contact, etc.
  10. 10. Tweak the Tweet Campaign in Response to Haiti • 파트너 • 기간 • 방법 • 한계 CrisisCamp initiative (crisiscommons.org) January 14~24, 2010 at 19:51 EST activated a Twitter account to distribute prescriptive tweets at regular, automated intervals (hourly), in both Eng. and French members began to tweet information from various sources, including other tweets as well as email messages from disaster- related lists, using TtT syntax the syntax was hard to use from the ground, and that we could not assure users that TtT tweets were being channeled to people and agencies who could respond. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQhWMzG7d9w&feature=related
  11. 11. Crisis Reporting Hashtag Syntax
  12. 12. Unexpected Activity of Tweak the Tweet Translation • Voluntweeterer의 등장  Starbird, K, Palen, L, Hughes, A & Vieweg, S. Chatter on The Red: What Hazards Threat Reveals about the Social Life of Microblogged Information. Proc. of CSCW 2010, 241-250.  Palen, L & Liu, S. B. Citizen Communications in Crisis: Anticipating a Future of ICT-Supported Participation, Proc. of CHI 2007, 727-736 We initiated this study to investigate the behavior and motivations of the TtT translators.
  13. 13. METHOD (1) – Twitter API 자료수집 captured their entire Twitter update streams Jan. 10–Feb. 1. This initial data set consists of 339 twitterers, six of whom were from our research group, and a total 292,928 tweets.
  14. 14. METHOD (2) – Translator Interview DM 혹은 Mention 으로 인터뷰 요청 37 of the 74 twitterers responded; 27 of these consented to participate and 19 completed the full interview via e-mail. In our interview pool, there are 17 females and two males. For the entire 74 TtT translators, we found 46 females, 16 males. Though most were located in North America during the event (nine in the US and six in Canada), our interview group includes one twitterer each from Turkey, Australia, Switzerland, and the UK. The average age is 40.1 years.
  15. 15. Personal Motivations for Haiti Tweeting ① personal connections to Haiti ② trying to help out, in any way possible Where they first saw or heard about TtT syntax? from a tweet from our team members’ accounts or seen in an RT from another twitterer they follow Why they chose to use TtT? Several replied that it just “made sense” Two types of digital volunteers within our translator group ① digital volunteers whose primary activity was the translation of other information into TtT tweets ② TtT was merely another resource adopted as part of a diverse tool set
  16. 16. Connections Between Translators The TtT translators were a highly interconnected group. visualization of the entire network of translators (80), including our own research group members (in black) each translator connecting with, on average, 7.7 other translator-volunteers (excluding our researchers), and some of these connections are leveraged repeatedly, with over 40 mentions
  17. 17. Features of Ad-hoc Communications Infrastructures Within the Twitter platform, they used different affordances for different communication needs. ① email ② Twitter ③ Skype ④ Google Wave ⑤ Ushahidi
  18. 18. Volunteering through Tweeting: Role Identity, Momentum & Consequences Self-Identifying as a “Voluntweeter” Emotional Impact Frustration with Formal Response
  19. 19. theoretical tool to explain collective behavior Domains Activities Resources Tasks Kreps and Bosworth, (1994) Organizing, Role Enactment, and Disaster: A Structural Theory. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses Best explanation for the behavior of the emergent voluntweeter Resources Activities Tasks Domains with the Resources and Activities mechanisms of self-organizing being most developed, and with some indications of progression to the Tasks and Domain mechanistic stages
  20. 20. Resources Activities Tasks Domains Hashtags Syntax Data Entry & Data Movement Data Translation Filtering Verification Cross-Referencing Conjoining Activities with other Organizations Skype and Google Wave became the means by which coordinated activity establishment of norms acting as mentors publicly identify as a good “crisis tweeter” emerging organizations like Humanity Road as digital “places” to focus their volunteer activities
  21. 21. The emergent ICT-abetted behaviors and their consonance with knowledge about existing self- organizing mechanisms suggest that the digital volunteer will become a common and likely influential feature of social life. CONCLUSION
  22. 22. End of Document
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