전주경
Alexander Thayer, Charlotte P. Lee, Linda H. Hwang,
Heidi Sales, Pausali Sen, and Ninad Dalal
University of Washington
423...
저자 소개
ALEX THAYER
Human Centered Design & Engineering
CHARLOTTE P. LEE
Director, Computer Supported Collaboration
Laborato...
e-reader, 인기는 있지만 공부할 때 쓰기에는글쎄……
• e-readers have become increasingly popular for leisure reading, there is a concomitant
...
대학 교육에서의 e-reader의 활용, 그 가능성 타진해보자.
• students’ particular problem areas as part of our broader inquiry into how reading g...
기존 연구에서는 학생들의 학업 목표와 학업에서의 읽기가 고려되지 않았으나 이 연구
는 1년이라는 긴 시간 동안 진행된 질적인 연구를 통해 대학생들이 수행하는 읽기와
관련된 컨텍스트를 조사.
Generally School...
RELATED WORK
4 types of “school reading” situations (Lorch, Lorch, and Klusewitz)
• preparing for exams or tests;
• review...
University of Washington은 Amazon Kindle DX pilot program을 수행한 7개의 학교 중 하나
 그러나 딱히 아마존에서 데이터를 모으는 데 도움을 주거나 하진 않음.
Partici...
•Entire academic year and included quantitative and qualitative methods
•First-year Computer Science &Engineering (CSE) gr...
• 학생들이 학업과 관련한 읽기를 수행하는 장소
: at home (47% of the time) school (17% of the time).
• 학업관련 읽기를 수행하는 시간
:90 to 150 minutes ( 사...
적극적인 독서를 위한 필기 보조 기능의 부재
• 75% included the task of marking up texts(annotations, highlights, notes and comments,
underlin...
본문과 레퍼런스 간의 원활한 이동 및 비교가 어려움
• students who use references rely on the skimming reading technique to quickly review texts
...
그림 및 표에 대한 디스플레이가 미흡
• Illustrations: tables, figures, equations, and other visuals often found in scientific and
engineer...
Cognitive mapping이 어려운 E-reader의 한계
• The term “cognitive map” is traditionally used in the fields of learning science, ps...
Implication for design
결국 앞으로 위의 4가지 Marking Up Texts/Using References in Academic
Texts/Using Illustrations in Academic T...
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(발제) The Imposition and Superimposition of Digital Reading Technology: The Academic Potential of E-readers +CHI 2011- Alexander Thayer/ 전주경x 2011 autum

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(발제) The Imposition and Superimposition of Digital Reading Technology: The Academic Potential of E-readers +CHI 2011- Alexander Thayer/ 전주경x 2011 autum

  1. 1. 전주경
  2. 2. Alexander Thayer, Charlotte P. Lee, Linda H. Hwang, Heidi Sales, Pausali Sen, and Ninad Dalal University of Washington 423 Sieg Hall Seattle, WA 98195, USA {huevos, cplee, hwang176, pausali}@uw.edu, {heidi.sales, ninadd2002}@gmail.com The Imposition and Superimposition of Digital Reading Technology: The Academic Potential of E-readers CHI 2011 Session: Reading & Writing May 7–12, 2011 Vancouver, BC, Canada
  3. 3. 저자 소개 ALEX THAYER Human Centered Design & Engineering CHARLOTTE P. LEE Director, Computer Supported Collaboration Laboratory Assistant Professor, Human Centered Design & Engineering Adjunct Assistant Professor, Information School
  4. 4. e-reader, 인기는 있지만 공부할 때 쓰기에는글쎄…… • e-readers have become increasingly popular for leisure reading, there is a concomitant interest in exploring their potential in the academic environment particularly for university and college students. e-reader의 장점은 학교에서도 먹힐 것인가? • portability, legibility of text, storage capacity, long battery life, and wireless connectivity INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. 대학 교육에서의 e-reader의 활용, 그 가능성 타진해보자. • students’ particular problem areas as part of our broader inquiry into how reading goals and preferred reading techniques are supported, or more often broken, by the introduction of an e-reader. 학생들은 e-reader를 그들의 실제 리딩에서 어떻게 사용하는가? 우리는 학생들을 위해 어떤 e-reader를 디자인 해주어야 하는가? • “How do students integrate e-readers into their academic reading practice?” and conclude with several implications for design INTRODUCTION-Study Goal
  6. 6. 기존 연구에서는 학생들의 학업 목표와 학업에서의 읽기가 고려되지 않았으나 이 연구 는 1년이라는 긴 시간 동안 진행된 질적인 연구를 통해 대학생들이 수행하는 읽기와 관련된 컨텍스트를 조사. Generally School reading …… “less enjoyable and much more cognitively demanding than reading by personal choice” School reading demands more attention in a variety of ways, from writing notes to connecting disparate ideas with other information to solving problems with those ideas. RELATED WORK
  7. 7. RELATED WORK 4 types of “school reading” situations (Lorch, Lorch, and Klusewitz) • preparing for exams or tests; • reviewing texts for research purposes • preparing for class • reading to learn specific topics or information 5 reading techniques Scanning (Pugh) • Scanning: simply locating the desired information. • Search reading: seek topical information without knowing exactly what text to look for. • Skimming: need to follow how the authors structured their ideas and information in their texts • Receptive reading: from beginning to end without critically appraising the ideas, taking notes, or interrupting one’s train of thought. • Responsive reading: developing new knowledge or modifying existing knowledge by engaging with the ideas presented in a text
  8. 8. University of Washington은 Amazon Kindle DX pilot program을 수행한 7개의 학교 중 하나  그러나 딱히 아마존에서 데이터를 모으는 데 도움을 주거나 하진 않음. Participants • 39 participants (7 women and 32 men) ranging from 21 to 53 years of age (mean: 25.6, median: 24, SD: 5.8). • About 11% of responding participants (4 of 36) had used an e-reader before receiving their Kindle DXs for the pilot. UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ E-READER USE
  9. 9. •Entire academic year and included quantitative and qualitative methods •First-year Computer Science &Engineering (CSE) graduate students received Kindle DX ( Textbooks were automatically downloaded to the e-readers) September to December 2009 demographic survey, a diary study, and semi-structured interviews using a standard protocol. •The fall quarter diary study asked students to report Kindle DX usage information, including length of time used, physical location, posture, purpose for use, features used, technologies used in conjunction with the Kindle DX, and methods used to load files onto the Kindle DX.) March to June 2010 modified version of the diary study and conducted another round of interviews with a new protocol •The spring quarter diary study asked students slightly different questions about their Kindle DX usage, including information about physical location, posture, purpose for use, type of text read (textbook, research article, etc.), and technologies used in conjunction with the Kindle DX. We define “usage session” as “your last interaction with the Kindle when you wanted to accomplish something, no matter how small.” ( interview protocol for spring quarter that consisted of 21 questions) Methodology &Data Collection
  10. 10. • 학생들이 학업과 관련한 읽기를 수행하는 장소 : at home (47% of the time) school (17% of the time). • 학업관련 읽기를 수행하는 시간 :90 to 150 minutes ( 사람마다 편차가 컸음) • 학업관련 읽기를 수행하는 자세 : sitting to reclining or lying down' The types of academic texts read were typically textbooks in e-book or PDF format, and research articles in PDF format. General Usage Overview
  11. 11. 적극적인 독서를 위한 필기 보조 기능의 부재 • 75% included the task of marking up texts(annotations, highlights, notes and comments, underlined passages, and so on) • Producing markup is a defining aspect of responsive reading • In this study, all students who always marked up texts tried, and failed, to integrate the e- reader into their academic reading practice. =>터치 기반이 아니므로 Marking Up에 한계를 가지는 Kindle FINDINGS-Marking Up Texts
  12. 12. 본문과 레퍼런스 간의 원활한 이동 및 비교가 어려움 • students who use references rely on the skimming reading technique to quickly review texts and locate potentially useful information, such as a reference of interest. • Kindle DX is not designed to enable the rapid, non-sequential use of text that skimming requires. =>이런 종류의 workflow에 따라 디자인 되지 않은 Kindle FINDINGS- Using References in Academic Texts
  13. 13. 그림 및 표에 대한 디스플레이가 미흡 • Illustrations: tables, figures, equations, and other visuals often found in scientific and engineering texts • Students’ comprehension of reading material is jeopardized when illustrations are not presented legibly or in their proper context. • Of the students interviewed for our study, 25% always reviewed illustrations to evaluate the relevance of the content or understand the content in more detail. they skim until they encounter an illustration that requires interpretation, and then they switch to responsive reading and critically analyze the information being presented => low fidelity 이미지 제공하므로 Illustration을 읽기가 어려운 Kindle FINDINGS-Using Illustrations in Academic Texts
  14. 14. Cognitive mapping이 어려운 E-reader의 한계 • The term “cognitive map” is traditionally used in the fields of learning science, psychology, and HCI in the context of physical and virtual environments. human ability to unconsciously link ideas and their physical locations within the texts we read as cognitive mapping • In this study, 25% of the students we interviewed brought up the topic of cognitive mapping, telling us they created such maps when they read. • We use cognitive maps to retain and recall textual information more effectively making them useful tools for students who are reading academic texts to satisfy specific goals. • The students in our study not only cited the dynamic content location as an issue with the Kindle DX, but also told us their physical experience with the text changed dramatically because they missed the physical, or kinesthetic, • E-readers strip away some of these kinesthetic cues because there is no tangible page to turn and no scroll bar to drag. • => kinesthetic cues의 부재 , 특정 정보 위치에 대한 spatial knowledg를 줄 수 없 는 Kindle. FINDINGS- Using Cognitive Maps as Learning Aids
  15. 15. Implication for design 결국 앞으로 위의 4가지 Marking Up Texts/Using References in Academic Texts/Using Illustrations in Academic Texts /Using Cognitive Maps as Learning Aid 를 고려하여 학습 보조도구로서의 E-reader를 디자인 할 필요가 있음을 강조 Critical review • 1년 동안의 DIARY 연구; 사전에 잘 짜여진 연구 계획과 그것의 지속적인 수행 • 학습과 관련 읽기에 대한 선행 연구와 밀접한 관련성을 가지는 해석: Scanning, Skimming, Responsive reading 등이 Kindle을 사용한 학습관련 읽기 행태에서 적절 히 이루어지지 못한 상황을 데이터와 연결 지어 설명 • 예상할 수 있는 결론: 멀티미디어적 교육환경 속에서 전자 잉크로 구현되는 E-reader 의 활용성이 제한적일 수 밖에 없음을 뻔히 알면서도, 연구를 위한 연구를 진행한 것 아닌가 하는 의문. • E-reader의 장점을 알면서도 단점을 다시 한 번 강조하려고 했던 연구인가? DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DESIGN

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