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Deeper understanding of user stories through Activity Theory

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How to discover what people want to do through software

How to discover what people want to do through software

Published in: Technology, Education

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  • People == Paying Customers or Users within an organization\n
  • Design instead of just building it\nDesign always starts with an idea and rough sketches to facilitate conversations\nThis is called IDEATION == Brainstorming to get people’s mental models out of their heads and onto paper\n
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  • Now without the political restraints:\nUpdated Activity Theory and created the triangle of expanding triangles\nFocuses on work\n
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  • Basic subject - object relationship\n
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  • Editor / IDE / Issue Tracker / CRM-Tool / Time Reporting\n
  • Tool mediates activity: Writing code is different with a pure Editor vs. IDE with code generation\n
  • Performing an action on the object influences the subject\nExample: Using Twitter changes people and their social relationships\n
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  • Community influences the subject\nExample: All my friends are on Twitter\nExample: My fellow team members prefer VIM over an IDE\n
  • Community influences tool choice and tool usage\n\n
  • Community influences what is being done to and with an object to get a desired outcome\n
  • Tools influence the community\nExample: Twitter redefines social relationships\nExample: Use of Maven as a build tool influences how all developers in a company develop software\n
  • Manipulation of object influences community through feedback\n
  • Community makes and influences rules\n
  • Rules influence community (feedback and “improvement”)\nRules tend to become stricter and stricter once established\n\nQuestion: how many times have you seen rules be taken back?\n
  • Introducing Division of Labor\n
  • Community determines division of labor\nExample: Management, unions, government decide\n\n
  • Community determines division of labor\nExample: Management, unions, government decide\n\n
  • Community determines division of labor\nExample: Management, unions, government decide\n\n
  • Community determines division of labor\nExample: Management, unions, government decide\n\n
  • Division of labor influences what can be done/should be done to/with an object\nExample: Due to the division of labor (and the conveyor belt) only certain things can be done to an object\n
  • The type of object being manipulated determines how labor is divided\n
  • Division of labor re-shapes community\nExample: Work in a factory with a conveyor belt creates new roles and distinctions amongst the employee community\n
  • So??? What happened to the OUTCOME?\n
  • What started as a simple relationship (subject-object-outcome) has become a web of relationships where everything influences everything else.\n\nIt is EASY to LOOSE SIGHT of the OUTCOME and in consequence work on the WRONG GOALS\n
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  • It starts with a need\n
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Deeper Understanding of User StoriesThrough Activity Theory Stephan Schwab
    • 2. Why Care?
    • 3. Delight People
    • 4. Design to Delighthttp://designinghappiness.wordpress.com/2010/02/11/ideas-and-concepts/
    • 5. But I’m nota designer!?
    • 6. German English Philips P2000M: 1981 GEM/3: 1986 Spanish Windows 2.11: 1988NCR DecisionMate V: 1984
    • 7. GermanEnglishSpanish 1994
    • 8. GermanEnglishSpanish
    • 9. How can we find out what people want to dothrough software?
    • 10. Activity Theory Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT)Yrjö EngeströmCenter for Activity Theory andDevelopmental Work Research at University of Helsinki
    • 11. !
    • 12. Invitation sns@caimito.nethttp://activitycentereddesign.com
    • 13. Activity TheorySubject Object
    • 14. X
    • 15. Tool X
    • 16. Mediating Tool X
    • 17. XPerforming an activity through a mediating tool develops the subject
    • 18. Performing an activity through a mediating tool develops the subject
    • 19. XCommunity
    • 20. X
    • 21. X Community influences the activity and the development ofthe subject and shapes tool (use)
    • 22. Mediating Tool X Tools influence the shape and beliefs, etc. of the community
    • 23. XSubject and activity performed on the object influence community
    • 24. XCommunity makes rules
    • 25. XRules (made by thecommunity) shape community
    • 26. X
    • 27. X
    • 28. XCommunity defines division of labor
    • 29. Division of labor defines the activity that can beperformed on the object X
    • 30. Object shapesdivision of labor X
    • 31. Division of labor shapes community(tribes, fractions, silos) X
    • 32. Outcome ???? X
    • 33. X
    • 34. What is Software ... ? X
    • 35. The Being of SoftwareSoftware is an executable model for anactivity. It provides affordances to performactions that contribute to the activity. It is amediating tool that guides, supports, andinfluences user actions and perceptions.
    • 36. Design is how itlooks and works
    • 37. Design is how itlooks and works
    • 38. Design is how it looks and worksGood design comes from a deep understanding of the problem
    • 39. Design is how itlooks and works
    • 40. Design is how it looks and works Let’s find outwhat people want to do through software ...
    • 41. y st em ity SAc ti v Need
    • 42. y st em ity SAc ti v Need leads to Motive
    • 43. y st em ity SAc ti v Need leads to Activity Motive is reason for
    • 44. y st em ity SAc ti v Need leads to Activity Motive is reason for defines Goal
    • 45. y st em ity SAc ti v Need leads to Activity Motive is reason for defines Action Goal defines
    • 46. y st em ity SAc ti v Need leads to Activity Motive is reason for contribute to defines Action Goal defines
    • 47. y st em ity SAc ti v Need leads to Activity Motive is reason for contribute to defines Action Goal defines consists of a series of Task
    • 48. y st em ity SAc ti v Need leads to Activity Motive is reason for contribute to defines Action Goal defines consists of a series of Task Condition influences
    • 49. Now that we knowwhat people want we need to understand their world
    • 50. OntologyBeing and Time • From Greek "ontos" = "being" • In computer science: Concepts within a domain Relationships between concepts Heidegger 1889 - 1976
    • 51. Domain Language
    • 52. Personas
    • 53. Signup Task
    • 54. As ... I want ... So That ... George Conference Attendee
    • 55. User Story Who As conference attendeeWhat I want to buy a ticket so that I can attend the conference Expectation / Benefit Motive / Goal
    • 56. Acceptance Criteria
    • 57. Acceptance CriteriaGiven a "3" day conferenceWhen "George" picks days "1, 2"Then the ticket type is "Two Day Special"
    • 58. Is This Story Complete? As conference attendee I want to buy a ticket so that I can attend the conference
    • 59. learn about Wizb Incomplete Story! collaborate on Wiz find Wizbang colle Need leads toAs conference attendee Activity engage with the is reason for Motive Wizbang communityI want to buy a ticket definesso that I cana attend the conference contribute to find go to a Action defines Goal conference conference consists of a series of select sessions Condition influences Task at conference i have a search for Wizbang sign up for a busy schedule related conference conference
    • 60. Need Incomplete Story! engage with the Activity is reason for leads to MotiveAs conference attendee Wizbang community definesI want to buy a ticketgo to a contribute to find aso that I can attend the conference Action defines Goal conference conference consists of a series of select sessions Condition influences Task at conference i have a search for Wizbang sign up for a busy schedule related conference conference As conference attendee I want to buy a ticket only for parts of the conference so that I can accommodate my busy schedule
    • 61. learn about Wizbang collaborate on Wizbang find Wizbang colleagues George Need Conference Attendee leads to engage with the to become part of the Activity is reason for Motive Wizbang community Wizbang community defines contribute to find a go to a attending a Action defines Goal conference conference conference consists of a series of select sessions Condition influences Task at conference i have a search for Wizbang sign up for abusy schedule related conference conference Partial Activity System for Conference Attendee
    • 62. We don’t doBig Design Up Front anymore...
    • 63. Activity-Centered Design Discovery Fe ed ba Domain Language Activities and Actions Scenarios ck Field Studies Common Issues and Concerns, Interests,Feedback Breakdowns Fears of Domain Actors Usability Testing Roles and Standard Vision Practices Personas Mapping Executable Program Code User Story X? Outcome Specification Design & Development User Interface Paper Wireframes X? Guidelines Prototypes
    • 64. Invitation sns@caimito.nethttp://activitycentereddesign.com