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H organ donation

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  • An organ is a mass of cells and tissues that work together to perform a specialized function in the body.\n\nAn organ transplant is a surgical operation that removes a failing organ and is then replaced with a new one. \n
  • In 1954 the first successful kidney transplant happened \n\nIn 1962 the first successful cadaveric transplant \n\nIn 1982 was the first artificial transplant \n\n
  • When a person’s organ is failing a doctor will assess the person’s eligibility for a transplant. Then the person is referred to a transplant center where their mental and physical health is evaluated.\n\nThere are two different types of organ sources cadaveric and living organs. Cadaveric organs are organs taken from recently deceased people. Living organ donors are usually relatives, spouses, and close friends. \n
  • At the age of sixteen we are all able to become an organ donor by indicating it on our driver’s license. \n\nIn some states if a person has not indicated whether they are an organ donor hospitals will require family consent before removing their organs. \n\nThe United Network for Organ Sharing provides the list for the national waiting pool. The national waiting pool is for people who are waiting for an organ from a cadaver. \n\nWhen the organ becomes available it is taken to the Organ Procurement Organization. From there the OPO matches the donor organ its recipient. Many factors such as organ type, blood type, organ size, etc. go into matching a donor organ to a patient.\n\n
  • Rejection is when the fights off the new organ because it thinks of it as a foreign invader such as a virus or bacteria. The body produces antibodies that attack the organ. Doctors will give the patients immunosuppressant drugs to lower the level of antibodies that way the new organ can adapt to the body. \n
  • One of the main issues when it comes to organ transplants is that there are a shortage of available organs. As of March 1, 2011 the waiting list is over 110,000. \nThe United Network for Organ Sharing holds the waiting list and here are some of their statistics.\n-On average 17 patients will die waiting for an organ\n-Everyday 106 people are added to the list\n-68 patients receive an organ everyday\n\n\nDistributive justice is a way to fairly divide resources. When it comes to organs the theory says that there is no “right,” way to distribute organs. There are many ways to reasons to choose who to give an organ to such as: a person’s needs, effort, contribution, and merit. \n\nEqual access is a form of distributive justice. Equal access is based on objective factors such as length of time waiting (first come, first served) and age (youngest to oldest). This method is free of race, gender, and income level biases. \n\nMaximum benefit is another form of distributive justice where the goal is to maximize the number of successful transplants such as medical need (giving the sickest people the first opportunity) and the probable success of a transplant (giving the organs who will most likely live the longest).\n
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  • Xenotransplantation is when animal organs are transplanted into human beings\n\nTransgenic animals are animals that have human genes injected into them. Scientists do this because the human body attacks and kills the foreign cells\n\nPigs are biologically similar to humans. In 1997 Robert Pennington received a pig liver. The liver was placed next to Robert’s bed and tubes from the liver to Robert. The tubes pumped the poisoned blood out and clean blood back in. The pig liver was used for six and a half hours until a human liver available. \n
  • An artificial organ is a man-made device that functions as an organ. Some were used permanently, but most were used temporarily until a live organ became available.\n\nCAPD is a is machine that pumps blood through an artificial kidney (dialysis). The patient is hooked up to tubes several times a day to filter waste. \n\nThe iron lung was invented by Philip Drinker and Louis Shaw in 1928. It was a large metal tank pumped air forcing your chest to rise and fall so you could breathe. \n\nThe heart-lung machine was invented by Dr. John Gibbon in 1953. When your heart and lungs stop working this machine temporarily take over. This was a big breakthrough becuawe it allowed surgeons to have more time to operate in open-heart surgery. \n\n\n
  • Stem cells are cell that can specialize into many different cells in the human body\n\nScientists hope to be able to grow stem cells into entire organs or groups of specialized cells\n\nStem cells are most dominant in the human embryo. The problem with the cells being in the embryo is when the cells are removed the embryo is destroyed.\n\nStem cells are a major controversy because removing them kills a potential life\n
  • Aborted fetuses is only a suggested form of organs\n\nTheir organs would be used for infants\n\nThis form of transplanted organs is very controversial for many reasons. One of them being that people say it would condone late-term abortions. \n
  • Transplant tourism is when people travel to other countries in order to obtain an organ transplant\n\nInstead of traveling to find organ people use the internet. \n\n
  • Tourists come from all over the world. From the United States, Germany, Japan, Australia, and Egypt. \n\nColumbia, China, India, etc. are destinations for transplant tours. \n\nCanadian-based MediTours are transplant tourism companies that off organ transplants as an option on a menu of other medical services. \n\nTransplant tourisms are chepear and there are shorter waiting lists. \n
  • Internet solicitation is when a potential recipient and donor find each other through the web. \n\nMatchingDonors.com is a website where recipients pay a membership fee and create a profile. The donors don’t have to pay a fee and they browse the recipients’ profiles. A donor and recipient can communicate with one another and decide whether to go through with the transplant or not. \n\nSome of the problems associated with using the internet is some hospitals refuse to perform the transplant because the recipient and donor met online. Usually donors are family members or friends, not strangers. \n\nThe benefit of using the Internet is it is charitable and it gives the recipient a chance to find a donor.\n\nInternet solicitation is legal. The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act permits directed organ donation for the transplantation purposes. It does not matter how the donor and recipient met. \n\n\n
  • Laws: The laws exist to ensure safe and fair collection and distribution of organs. They also have been imposed to increase the number of available organs for donations. \n\nNOTA: was established to improve the collection and distribution of organs. It enforces UNOS keep a nationwide computer registry of all patients in need of organs. It established the OPTN and the Task Force on Organ Transplantation. It also bans the purchase or sale of organs or tissues. \n\nCOBRA: requires hospitals and Organ Procurement Organizations to work with each other. \n\nFirst Person: this law requires hospitals and organ procurement organizations to follow a patients organ donation wishes as indicated on their driver’s license or in a health care directive. This means that it does not require hospitals or OPOs to ask the person’s family for consent to remove their organs. \n
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H organ donation H organ donation Presentation Transcript

  • ORGAN DONATION Shannon L. Novitski
  • ThesisI chose to do organ donation because it literally savespeoples lives, it can change a persons life, and it iscontroversial.Through my application component I was able to seewhat it was like for transplant patient and how it hasaffected their life.
  • Personal RelevanceWhy is this topic personal to you?
  • The Basics What is an organ? What is an organ transplant?http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-70263151/stock-photo-a-male-human-skeleton-with-internal-organs-d-render.htmlCenter for Bioethics. "Alternative Organ Sources." Organ Transplantation. Minnesota: The Starr Foundation, 2003. 28-29. www.bioethics.umn.edu. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/ Organ_Transplantation.pdf>
  • History of Organ Donation Organ donation has been going on for over fifty years 1954 1962 1982Center for Bioethics. "Alternative Organ Sources." Organ Transplantation. Minnesota: The Starr Foundation, 2003. 28-29. www.bioethics.umn.edu. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/ Organ_Transplantation.pdf>
  • Process of Organ Donation Eligibility for organ donation Sources for donor organs http://www.theyeshivaworld.com/article.php?p=20052Center for Bioethics. "Alternative Organ Sources." Organ Transplantation. Minnesota: The Starr Foundation, 2003. 28-29. www.bioethics.umn.edu. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/ Organ_Transplantation.pdf>
  • Cadaveric Organs How to become an organ donor United Network for Organ Sharing Organ Procurement OrganizationCenter for Bioethics. "Alternative Organ Sources." Organ Transplantation. Minnesota: The Starr Foundation, 2003. 28-29. www.bioethics.umn.edu. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/ Organ_Transplantation.pdf>
  • After Math of Organ Donation Recovery RejectionCenter for Bioethics. "Alternative Organ Sources." Organ Transplantation. Minnesota: The Starr Foundation, 2003. 28-29. www.bioethics.umn.edu. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/ Organ_Transplantation.pdf>
  • Equal Opportunity Shortage of available organs Distributive justice Equal access Maximum benefitCenter for Bioethics. "Alternative Organ Sources." Organ Transplantation. Minnesota: The Starr Foundation, 2003. 28-29. www.bioethics.umn.edu. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/ Organ_Transplantation.pdf>
  • Alternative Organs Animal organs Artificial organs Stem cells Aborted fetusesCenter for Bioethics. "Alternative Organ Sources." Organ Transplantation. Minnesota: The Starr Foundation, 2003. 28-29. www.bioethics.umn.edu. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/ Organ_Transplantation.pdf>
  • Animal Organs Xenotransplantation Transgenic animalsWinters, Adam. Organ Transplant: The Debate Over Who, How, and Why. New Yorkhttp://www.google.com/images?hl=en&source=imghp&biw=1140&bih=615&q=pigs&gbv=2&aq=f&aqi=g9g-s1&aql=&oq=
  • Artificial Organs What is an artificial organ? Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Iron lung Heart-lung machineWinters, Adam. Organ Transplant: The Debate Over Who, How, and Why. New York
  • Stem Cells What are stem cells? Hope from stem cells Where stem cells are located Why stem cell research is so controversialCenter for Bioethics. "Alternative Organ Sources." Organ Transplantation. Minnesota: The Starr Foundation, 2003. 28-29. www.bioethics.umn.edu. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/ Organ_Transplantation.pdf>http://hummersandcigarettes.blogspot.com/2010/10/stem-cell-research-new-breakthroughs.html
  • Aborted Fetuses Don’t worry it’s only a suggestion! The use for aborted fetusesCenter for Bioethics. "Alternative Organ Sources." Organ Transplantation. Minnesota: The Starr Foundation, 2003. 28-29. www.bioethics.umn.edu. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/ Organ_Transplantation.pdf>
  • Black Market Organ Donation Transplant tourism The internetKalogjera, Liliana M. "New Means of Increasing the Transplant Organ Supply." Journal of the Section of Individual Rights and Responsibilities 34.4 (2007): n. pag. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/
  • Transplant Tourism It’s diverse It’s legit It’s cheaperKalogjera, Liliana M. "New Means of Increasing the Transplant Organ Supply." Journal of the Section of Individual Rights and Responsibilities 34.4 (2007): n. pag. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/
  • Organ Donation via the Internet Internet solicitation MatchingDonors.com Pros and cons It is legalEgendorf, Laura K, ed. Organ Donation. New York: Greenhaven, 2009. Print. "Organ Donation,"
  • Legal and Social Issues Purpose of organ donation laws National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 Consolidated Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1986 First Person Consent LawsCenter for Bioethics. "Alternative Organ Sources." Organ Transplantation. Minnesota: The Starr Foundation, 2003. 28-29. www.bioethics.umn.edu. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/ Organ_Transplantation.pdf>
  • Application Componentdescribe in detail you application componentmultiple slidesuses pictures, videos, etc.approximately 8-15 minutes
  • Class ActivityName that organMyth or fact?Place the organ in the designated area
  • Works Citedcitations
  • Conclusionwhat did you learn?