Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  1. 1. Fire Prevention Through the Codes Process Chapter 4
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the origin of the model code system in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>List the major model code organizations and describe the evolution of model code organizations in the United States </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Describe the code change process used by the model code organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the methods of code adoption by states and local governments </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the impact of the agendas of groups participating in the model code process </li></ul>
  4. 4. Model Codes <ul><li>Codes: systematically arranged bodies of laws or rules </li></ul><ul><li>Codes tell us what to do or what not to do </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: United States Code , Code of Virginia , Code of the County of Fairfax </li></ul><ul><li>Model codes: technical rules made available for governments to accept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption of the code </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Development of Model Codes <ul><li>Fire insurance industry failed to self-regulate insurance rates/commissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started prevention through codes/standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The NEC ® may be the most universal model code </li></ul><ul><li>The NBFU published the National Building Code and National Fire Prevention Code through 1976 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Model Code Organizations of the Twentieth Century <ul><li>M any jurisdictions adopted NBFU codes </li></ul><ul><li>The NBFU was absorbed as part of Insurance Services Organization (ISO) </li></ul><ul><li>The NFPA grew into a 75,000-member international organization </li></ul><ul><li>Largest model code organizations consolidated into the International Code Council (ICC) </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Regional Model Code Organizations <ul><li>System of regional codes, began in 1920s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building code by the Pacific Building Officials Conference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three regional code groups, 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Three major regional codes evolved in the 20th century </li></ul><ul><li>National map of adopted codes resembled a puzzle: late 80s </li></ul>
  8. 8. Building Officials and Code Administrators, International <ul><li>Established in 1915 </li></ul><ul><li>First Basic Building Code by BOCA, 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>BOCA maintained building, mechanical, fire prevention, plumbing, and property maintenance codes through 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>BOCA served the northeast, mid-Atlantic, and midwestern states before ICC </li></ul>
  9. 9. Southern Building Code Congress International <ul><li>Established in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Published first edition of the Standard Building Code in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Published several codes through 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Fire Code: developed with the Southeastern/Southwestern Fire Chief’s Associations </li></ul>
  10. 10. International Conference of Building Officials <ul><li>ICBO was established in 1921 as the Pacific Building Officials Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Building Code , first edition published in 1927 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporated into the Department of Defense Military Handbook 1008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced by Unified Facilities Criteria, 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporated the International Building Code </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. International Code Council (ICC) <ul><li>Established in 1994 to develop a single set of model codes for the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of BOCA, ICBO, and SBCCI </li></ul><ul><li>Pub lishes 14 model codes </li></ul><ul><li>International Fire Code Council (IFCC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established to represent common interests of the fire service and the ICC </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The National Fire Protection Association <ul><li>Fe w comprehensive building regulations in effect in the 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Fire underwriters formed NFPA in 1896 </li></ul><ul><li>Publishes almost 300 codes, standards, and recommended practices </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA’s NEC ® may be the most widely used code in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Triangle Shirtwaist fire: Life Safety Code ® </li></ul>
  13. 13. Code Changes <ul><li>Tw o major groups involved in the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C3 group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA, ASHRAE, IAPMO, and WFCA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Both groups use a consensus process to develop and maintain their documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagree on what consensus really means </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The International Code Council Code Change Process FIGURE 4-6 The ICC code development process
  15. 15. The NFPA Code Change Process FIGURE 4-8 NFPA uses a system of nine member categories to ensure that no group has undue influence within the code and standards development process
  16. 16. Fire Service Commitment <ul><li>ICC v o ting procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity for full fire service participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligation to present and future firefighters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M ust exercise influence through groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Association of Fire Chiefs, the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), and regional organizations </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Code Adoption <ul><li>Two basic methods used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption by reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The jurisdiction passes an ordinance that lists or references a specific edition of a model code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption by transcription </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T he model code is republished as an ordinance by a jurisdiction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. State and Local Adoption <ul><li>Le gal requirements to ensure adequate public notice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S tate minimum code that can be locally amended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State mini-maxi code with no option of local amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fa vored by business interests/developers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locally adopted code </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. What Codes Cannot Do <ul><li>Cycle of catastrophe/public outcries of “there ought to be a law” will continue to exist </li></ul><ul><li>The largest fire prevention bureau cannot inspect every building every day </li></ul>
  20. 20. Summary <ul><li>Organizations originally formed to reduce property loss and protect lives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolved to promote public safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major reorganization in community, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three regional model code organizations voted to consolidate/form the ICC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective codes: adequate education, enforcement, and public cooperation </li></ul>