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  • 1. Private Fire Protection and Prevention Organizations Chapter 3
  • 2. Objectives
    • Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
    • Discuss the role of private industry in local, state, and national fire prevention efforts
    • List five industries and professions involved in fire prevention
    • Describe the role of the insurance industry in fire prevention and risk management
  • 3. Objectives (cont’d.)
    • Describe the role of the design professional in fire prevention and protection
    • Describe the role played by industry trade associations in fire prevention and protection
  • 4. Private Fire Prevention Organizations - Purely for Profit ?
    • Public fire prevention programs exist due to private fire prevention organizations
    • Three categories of programs
      • Part of risk management system in a business
      • Profit-making business service
      • Not-for-profit operating in the public interest
  • 5. Fire Prevention Risk Management
    • Early efforts were undertaken by businesspeople who understood fire risk
    • First practical automatic sprinkler head
      • Piano manufacturer: Henry S. Parmalee
    • Tin-clad fire door
      • Cotton mill owner: Edward Atkinson
  • 6. Corporate Programs
    • Fire safety/prevention programs: part of corporation’s risk management program
      • Security often under same umbrella
    • Fire safety and security must be complementary
  • 7. Insurance Industry Fire Prevention Programs
    • Insurance industry responsible for much of our regulatory system
    • Early efforts of the stock insurance companies and mutual companies
      • Descendents of those organizations exist today
        • Perform many of the same functions in the 1800s
  • 8. Insurance Services Office, Incorporated
    • Provides
      • Statistical analysis and actuarial service
      • Automated information systems
      • Consulting services
    • Maintains
      • Public Protection Classification System (PPC)
        • Good PPC: lower insurance rates in community
  • 9. Insurance Services Office, Incorporated (cont’d.)
    • If codes strictly enforced:
      • Hurricane Andrew’s damage could have been reduced up to 55%
    • In response:
      • Building Code Effectiveness Grading Schedule (BCEGS), 1995
        • More effective construction regulation
        • Fire codes: fire prevention
        • Building codes: manage the impact of fire
  • 10. FIGURE 3-4 New York Board of Fire Underwriters Fire Patrol Station #2. ( Courtesy of the New York Board of Fire Underwriters )
  • 11. FM Global, The Factory Mutual System
    • Manufacturers’ Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 1835
      • Zachariah Allen, board of directors
      • 63¼ % savings on insurance costs, 1st year
    • Only very best risks qualified for membership
      • Unlike stock companies
  • 12. FM Global, The Factory Mutual System (cont’d.)
    • By 1987, 42 mutual insurance companies had merged
      • Allendale Mutual, Arkwright Mutual, and the Protection Mutual Insurance Company
        • In 1998, merged to form FM Global (24th largest U.S. insurance organization)
    • Attempts to reduce risk of fire and minimize financial impact if fire occurs
      • Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets
  • 13. Commercial Fire Prevention and Protection Programs
    • Provide a variety of services, such as:
      • Design and engineering
      • Manufacturing, installation, testing and maintenance
      • Sales of all of the foregoing
    • Provide services for:
      • Businesses; local, state, and federal governments; U.S. government installations abroad
  • 14. Government Contractors
    • Government contracts for fire prevention/protection at own installations
      • Within the United States
        • Government employees
          • Active duty military personnel
          • Civilian civil service employees
      • Abroad
        • Private corporations
          • Chief officers: U.S. citizens
          • Other positions: citizens of the host nation
  • 15. Installation Contractors
    • Fire protection systems: mostly installed by private firms
      • Professional registration/certification
        • Ensures minimum standards for job performance
      • Permits for systems ensure
        • Contractors are technically and financially qualified
        • Work meets code and is appropriate for the hazard
        • Inspection/acceptance testing after the work is completed
  • 16. Consulting, Maintenance, and Repair Firms
    • Consultants and contractors commonly used in fire prevention/protection arena
    • Maintenance and testing requirements :
      • NFPA 17, NFPA 17A, NFPA 25, NFPA 72
    • Inspections by municipal officials
      • Not to be considered absolute protection against contractor fraud or poor work
  • 17. Third-Party Inspection and Certification
    • Reports from qualified individuals/firms
      • Acceptable as evidence of (model building and fire) codes compliance
    • In most jurisdictions, companies that install systems cannot inspect them
      • Collusion prevented
    • Fire official can accept 3 rd party reports
      • Does not relieve him of approval responsibility
  • 18. Private Associations and Not-for-Profit Organizations
    • Key role in fire prevention programs of governments and private industry
    • Produce most codes, standards, and recommended practices
      • Building regulation & fire protection/prevention
  • 19. Underwriters Laboratories
    • Functions
      • Test and evaluate products at UL test facilities
      • Develop standards
        • 24 of the more than 800 UL standards: referenced in the 2000 International Building Code
    • Closely affiliated with:
      • NFPA, Factory Mutual Engineering, National Board of Fire Underwriters, and Bureau of Standards
  • 20. Codes and Standards Organizations
    • American Society for Testing and Materials
    • American National Standards Institute
    • American Institute of Architects
    • Society of Fire Protection Engineers
    • National Association of State Fire Marshals
  • 21. FIGURE 3-9 ASTM standards for fire protection
  • 22. Trade Associations
    • Develop standards
    • Design and test fire resistance-rated assemblies
    • Maintain materials testing laboratories
    • Provide technical information and training about their products
    • Represent their members in the codes and standards development process
  • 23. Summary
    • Public fire prevention programs exist due to private fire prevention organizations
    • There are three categories of private fire programs categories
    • Several key players take part in fire prevention
    • Codes, standard, and practices maintained by non-profits/associations