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Chapter 17

Chapter 17






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    Chapter 17 Chapter 17 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 17 Postincident Responsibilities
    • Objectives
      • Explain the factors that lead to injuries during postincident operations
      • Discuss the role of the ISO for informal and formal postincident analysis (PIA)
      • List the six specific items on which the ISO should provide input for a PIA
    • Objectives (con’t.)
      • Explain the role of the ISO in accident investigation according to NFPA standards
      • List the five parts of the accident chain
      • List and explain the three steps of accident investigation
    • Introduction
      • Lessons learned from any near miss:
        • Should be folded into training
        • Can be used for ongoing efforts to void similar situations in the future
      • The ISO has duties during:
        • Postincident activities
        • Postincident analysis
        • Accident investigation
    • Postincident Activities
      • Many injuries occur when crews are packing up to leave an incident
        • Strains, sprains, being struck by objects
      • ISOs can take preventive steps to reduce likelihood of injuries
    • Postincident Activities (con’t.)
      • Postincident thought patterns
        • Reflective or introspective mental wanderings that firefighters experience just after incident control
        • Inattentiveness
        • Reduced by:
          • Simple reminders or jocularity
          • Brief time-out for incident summary and safety reminder
    • Figure 17-1 Postincident introspection is normal but may lead to inattentiveness and injury .
    • Figure 17-2 Calling a huddle before incident cleanup is the best opportunity to remind firefighters of lingering injury threats
    • Postincident Activities (con’t.)
      • Chemical imbalance
        • May happen at the end of an incident
        • Caused by
          • Sudden relaxation after working incident
          • End of adrenaline rush
          • Return of metabolism to “repair state”
        • Remedied by ISO reminders to stay alert
    • Postincident Analysis (PIA)
      • Formal or informal reflective discussions after an incident
      • Summarizes successes and improvement areas discovered from incident
      • Requires ISO involvement (NFPAs 1500 and 1501)
        • NFPA 1521 requires ISO to prepare a written report regarding health/safety issues
    • Postincident Analysis (PIA) (con’t.)
      • PIA philosophy
        • Positive reinforcement for safe habits
        • Honest, open desire to prevent future injuries
        • Discovery from fact-finding point of view
        • Avoidance of confrontation
        • Looking forward to the future
    • Postincident Analysis (PIA) (con’t.)
      • ISO PIA issues
        • ISO should comment on key issues:
          • General risk profile of an incident: get crew perceptions
          • Effectiveness of crew tracking and accountability: freelancing
          • Rehabilitation effectiveness
          • PPE use: discuss controversial decisions
          • Close calls: reserve judgment
          • Injury status: keep medical confidentiality
    • Postincident Analysis (PIA) (con’t.)
      • PIA process
        • Can be formal or informal: discuss with IC
        • Formal PIAs should be prepared for significant incidents
          • Sometimes takes days or weeks
          • Use interim PIA to capture responder’s memories
        • ISO should take following steps for effective PIA
    • Postincident Analysis (PIA) (con’t.)
      • PIA process (con’t.)
        • On-scene
          • Check-in with responders and ask about injuries
        • Documentation
          • Write quick summary of hazard issues: buildings, incident timeline
        • Trend spotting
          • Jot down thoughts about recurring issues
          • Share solutions with IC, supervisor, or HSO
    • Figure 17-3 The ISO should make a point of checking in with crews to get a sense of their perspective of the incident.
    • Figure 17-4 Quick incident documentation is essential. The ISO perspective and documentation improve the quality of a postincident analysis.
    • Accident Investigation
      • ISO duties according to NFPA 1521
        • Initiate accident investigation procedures as required by fire department
        • Request assistance from HSO in the event of serious injury, fatality, or other potentially harmful occurrence
      • Investigation is first step to avoiding future injuries and deaths
        • Look at fatalities and close calls
    • Figure 17-5 The accident triangle shows that, for every one serious injury, there are thirty minor injuries and more than six hundred close calls. Close calls should also be investigated.
    • Accident Investigation (con’t.)
      • Introduction to accident investigation
        • Accident chain: series of events or conditions leading to an unsafe condition that results in injury and/or property damage
        • Ideally, the ISO should stop a potential incident by eliminating one of the elements in the chain during the incident
    • Accident Investigation (con’t.)
      • Introduction (con’t.)
        • Five components of accident chain
          • Environment: physical surroundings
          • Human factors: procedure use (or lack of), fatigue, fitness, and attitudes
          • Equipment: use and maintenance, PPE
          • Event: intersection of first three components
          • Injury: includes close calls
    • Figure 17-6 Accident investigation is actually the discovery and linking of the accident chain.
    • Accident Investigation (con’t.)
      • Investigation issues
        • The ISO must consider liability issues when:
          • Performing safety tasks on-scene
          • Conducting a postincident investigation
        • Use due diligence
          • Act in a reasonable and prudent manner, given the circumstances, with due respect to laws, standards, and professional conduct
    • Accident Investigation (con’t.)
      • Investigation issues (con’t.)
        • Recognize discretionary functions
          • Certain functions require a value judgment among competing goals and priorities
          • Nonliability exists
    • Accident Investigation (con’t.)
      • Investigation issues (con’t.)
        • Be aware of involvement of outside agencies in a significant injury or death investigation
          • Sate and/or federal OSHA and/or NIOSH officials
          • Labor group investigators
          • Insurance investigators
          • Law enforcement officials
    • Figure 17-7 The occurrence of a serious injury on the incident scene presents the ISO with many issues and concerns.
    • Accident Investigation (con’t.)
      • The investigative process
        • Step 1: Information collection
          • Incident data
          • Witness statements
          • Scene sketches/diagrams
          • Photographs/video
          • Physical evidence
          • Existing records
    • Figure 17-8 The ISO should support an accident investigation with many witness reports.
    • Figure 17-9 Protective equipment and other physical equipment need to be retained, marked, tagged, and identified.
    • Figure 17-10 Years of documentation may have to be reviewed to reconstruct an accident cause.
    • Accident Investigation (con’t.)
      • The investigative process (con’t.)
        • Step 2: Analysis and reconstruction
          • Separate facts, perceptions, and unknowns
          • Determine need for more information
          • Discard irrelevant data
          • Construct accident chain
    • Accident Investigation (con’t.)
      • The investigative process (con’t.)
        • Step 3: Recommendations
          • Typical areas of concern: equipment, policy and procedure, or personnel
          • ISO presents multiple possible solutions to avoid future reoccurrence
          • Avoid blaming or recommending disciplinary measures
          • State recommendations in the form of future accident prevention
    • Summary
      • ISO postincident duties
        • Monitor postincident activities
          • Postincident thought patterns
          • Chemical imbalance
        • Provide information for postincident analysis reports
          • Report on safety points witnessed during incident
        • Begin an accident investigation
          • Reconstruct accident chain