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Chapter 16
 

Chapter 16

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    Chapter 16 Chapter 16 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 16 The ISO at Technical Rescue Incidents
    • Objectives
      • List several regulations that outline response requirements for tech-rescue incidents
      • Name the incidents that require or benefit from the assignment of an ASO-RT
      • Describe the IMS organizational relationship of an ASO-RT at tech-rescue incidents
    • Objectives (con’t.)
      • List the two rehab issues that require special attention at tech rescue incidents and describe the “on-deck” system for crew rotation
      • Name the four ways to classify a building collapse
      • List five hazards associated with industrial entrapments
    • Objectives (con’t.)
      • Define “LCES” and how it can be used at a cave-in incident
      • List six hazards associated with water rescues
      • List five hazards associated with high-angle rescues
    • Objectives (con’t.)
      • Name five circumstances where a duty ISO should implement a discretionary response to motor vehicle accidents and diagram a strategic approach to protect rescuers at roadway incidents
      • Discuss the potential hazards and problems that may have an impact on a railway incident and an aircraft incident
    • Introduction
      • Tech-rescue incidents: many categories and sub-categories
        • Fire department is called upon to find a positive solution regardless of rescue type or training
        • Mandatory ISO assignment for confined space, trench, and hazmat incidents
        • ISO should be familiar with tech-rescue CFRs
        • If ISO does not have required competencies (NFPA 1670), an ASO-RT should be appointed
    • Introduction (con’t.)
      • Assistant safety officer - rescue tech (ASO-RT)
        • Meets or exceeds NFPA 1670 requirements
        • Trained in ISO responsibilities as they relate to specific rescue incident
        • Fulfills safety functions for technician-level components
        • Works with ISO, rescue branch directors, and technical specialists
    • Figure 16-1 The ASO-RT actually works with three or more persons.
    • ISO General Duties at the Tech-Rescue Incident
      • Gain a strong sense of the situation status (sitstat)
        • Victim location and predicament
        • Rescue likelihood
        • Integrity of surrounding environment
      • Understand committed resources (restat)
      • After sitstat and restat
        • Take position at command post and rove occasionally
    • Monitoring Issues at Tech-Rescue Incidents
      • Risk
        • Evaluate rescue profile of victims
          • Onlookers may jump in when effort switches to recovery mode
      • Operational effectiveness
        • ASO-RT evaluates technician operations
        • Other ASOs evaluate support activities
        • Constantly evolving and shifting efforts require reevaluation
    • Personal Safety System Issues at Tech-Rescue Incidents
      • Accountability systems
        • Potential for freelancing and self-deployment
          • Firefighters rush to save victims
          • ISO/ASO-RT should address issue when risks outweigh benefits
        • Track assigned resources following established procedures
    • Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.)
      • Control zones
        • Differences between IDLH, no-entry, and support zones may be measured in inches
        • ASO-RT can establish, relay, and monitor the delineation of zones
        • ISO should verify appropriate level of PPE in each zone based on worst-case scenario
          • ASO-RT may monitor compliance
    • Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.)
      • Radio Transmissions
        • Tech-rescues may require constant communication/instructions
          • Use small talk-around radios to free up tactical channels: monitored by ASO-RT
          • May also use backup communication systems: hand signals, message boards, tag-line signals
          • Create cheat sheet so responders do not miss important signals
    • Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.)
      • Rehab
        • May span hours or days
        • Do not allow rehab decisions to be based on perceived comfort
        • Practice on-deck system
          • One working team is replaced by another working team that is dialed in and ready to replace them
        • Energy replacement
          • Use efficient fueling strategies (see Chapter 10)
    • Defining Other Needs at Tech-Rescue Incidents
      • Traffic
        • Congestion due to media coverage
          • Firefighters may become distracted: use soft intervention
        • Safety hazards associated with railways, air traffic, and waterways
          • Maintain travel corridor for incident purposes
          • Ensure air landing zone is separated from rescue location and crowds (ASO function)
    • Defining Other Needs (con’t.)
      • Need for ISO assistance
        • ASO-RT
        • One or more ASOs
        • Technical specialists
        • Risk managers
        • Process experts
        • Consultants for planning functions
        • May need critical incident stress management procedures
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents
      • Tech-rescue incidents are classified into categories that may have guiding documents
        • Be aware of guiding documents
        • Front-load: peruse document content
        • Retrieve critical information at incident as necessary
    • Figure 16-2 A sample of technical rescue categories and their associated documents.
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Building collapse
        • Basic/surface collapse
          • Victims easily accessible
          • Minimal loads
        • Light collapse
          • Light-frame (wood partition)
          • Common fire department can be used for search and extrication
          • Secondary collapse can be mitigated easily
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Building collapse (con’t.)
        • Moderate collapse
          • Masonry, heavy wood, open spaces
          • Significant void space concerns; secondary collapse
          • Victim rescue may involve heavy-load equipment
        • Heavy collapse
          • Stressed or reinforced concrete; steel girders
          • Requires USAR team response; heavy equipment
          • Significant secondary collapse; threats to other structures
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Building collapse (con’t.)
        • ASO-RT should be appointed for moderate and heavy collapses
        • Additional ASOs may be required to address collapse hazards
        • Hazards
          • Falling/loose debris
          • Instability
          • Secondary collapse
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Building collapse (con’t.)
        • Hazards (con’t.)
          • Poor air quality/dust
          • Unsecured hazardous energy
          • Weather exposure
          • Blood-borne pathogens
          • Difficult access/escape options
          • Sharp or rugged debris
          • Poor footing
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Building collapse (con’t.)
        • Technical assistance
          • Respiratory specialist, public health specialist, HSO
        • Air monitoring
          • Four-gas monitors, natural and propane gas detectors
        • Improvisation monitoring
          • Evaluate to identify when responders are pushing the envelope
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Industrial entrapment
        • Hazards
          • Heavy machinery
          • Complicated access
          • Unsecured hazardous energy
          • Hazmat
          • Noise
          • Interfaces and/or automated systems
          • Security system impediment
          • Megasized equipment
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Industrial entrapment (con’t.)
        • Hazards (con’t.)
          • Pinch hazards
          • Equipment congestion
          • Exotic materials
          • Material stockpiling
        • ISO should double-check lockout/tag-out measures
        • Watch for load stress and snaps/springs
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Cave-ins
        • Include trench collapses, earthen slides, avalanches, and material entrapments
        • Hazards
          • Shifting/unstable material
          • Hidden infrastructure
          • Oxygen deficiency
          • Weather exposure
          • Difficult slope or grade
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Cave-ins (con’t.)
        • Hazards (con’t.)
          • Poor footing
          • Sink potential
          • Secondary collapse
          • Crush potential
        • ISO develops site safety plan, emergency procedures, and safety briefings
          • Use LCES approach for safety briefings
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Cave-ins (con’t.)
        • LCES
          • Lookouts : ASOs, soil engineers, briefed support personnel
          • Communications : visual, voice, “all-evac” signal, IAP
          • Escape routes : escape ladders, boarded footpaths, technician-level assistance for tethered rescue
          • Safe zones : separate shore or refuse area using natural and structural barriers
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Cave-ins (con’t.)
        • Other unique hazards
          • Exhaust fume accumulation
          • Ground vibration
          • Specialized hydrovac equipment
          • Gravity
    • Figure 16-4 A trench rescue operation requires that all necessary safety equipment and precautions be in place prior to rescuers entering the trench.
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Water rescues
        • Include swift water, lake, oceanic, flood, and ice situations
        • Hazards
          • Swift/hidden currents
          • Low-head dams
          • Submerged entrapment hazards
          • Floating debris
          • Electrocution
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Water rescues (con’t.)
        • Hazards (con’t.)
          • Hypothermia
          • Reduced visibility
          • Fragile and/or shifting ice
          • Marine life
          • Frightened animals
          • Distance to solid ground
          • Crushing wave forces, undertows, or riptides
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Water rescues (con’t.)
        • ISO concerns
          • Protection from elements
          • Appropriate PPE
          • Rapid rescue intervention
          • Overtaxed resources, particularly in flood incidents
          • Health hazards from flooding
        • ISOs can seek assistance from:
          • Dive-rescue certified responders, public health and environment professionals
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • High-angle rescues
        • Amazingly challenging and daring
        • Hazards
          • Limited access
          • Dizzying heights
          • Limited escape routes
          • Slip/fall hazards
          • Lightning/wind
          • Limited anchor options
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • High-angle rescues (con’t.)
        • Hazards (con’t.)
          • Electrocution
          • Heights beyond equipment capabilities
          • Use of helicopters
          • Equipment failure
          • Falling debris
          • Dropped equipment
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • High-angle rescues (con’t.)
        • ISO concerns
          • Are rescuers training and willing to engage?
          • Firefighter fear and stress
          • Proper anchor and rigging: ASO-RT monitoring
          • Prehydration and energy intake
          • Unsuspecting hazards: be their wingman
          • Nighttime operations: use of artificial light
          • Crowds and media
    • Figure 16-6 Thrill seekers and maintenance personnel injured or trapped in elevated places can present challenging rescues for fire departments.
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Confined spaces
        • Mandatory (29 CFR 1910.146)
          • ISO/ASO-RT
          • Site safety/emergency plan
          • Safety briefings
        • Hazards
          • Limited access/escape options
          • Toxic/flammable atmospheres
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Confined spaces (con’t.)
        • Hazards (con’t.)
          • Oxygen deficiency
          • Hazardous energy
          • Communication difficulties
          • Collapse
          • Cramped quarters, limited mobility
          • Distance that exceeds airlines, ropes, etc.
          • Rust and mold, residues
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Roadway/transportation incidents
        • ISO should consider discretionary response to MVA when warranted
          • Multiple vehicles involved
          • Long response time
          • Involvement hazardous energy
          • Extreme weather
          • Involvement of buses, hazmat, high-angle, etc.
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Roadway/transportation incidents (con’t.)
        • Hazards
          • Other traffic and congestion
          • Threat of nearby/secondary crash
          • Limited access or escape options
          • Hazmat/munitions
          • Fuels ignition/alternative fuels
          • Damaged infrastructure
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Roadway/transportation incidents (con’t.)
        • Hazards (con’t.)
          • Hazardous energy
          • Heavy entanglement
          • Weather exposure
          • Instability
          • Vehicle hazards (see Chapter 9)
          • Bloodborne pathogens
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Roadway incidents
        • Number one safety consideration: threat of being hit by other traffic
        • ISO tactics
          • Traffic barriers: absorb impact of secondary crash
          • Work zones: created by barrier
          • Traffic-calming strategies: slow down approaching traffic with cones, spotters, lights, signs, etc.
          • Minimize use of white lights/strobes at night
    • Figure 16-7 The number one safety consideration at roadway incidents is the threat of being hit by other traffic.
    • Figure 16-8 The first-arriving large apparatus should be positioned to create a traffic barrier and work zone. Cones and a spotter/flagger can help with “traffic calming.”
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Railway/subway incidents
        • Expect the worse
          • Confined space, hazmat, industrial entrapment, and structural collapse incident rolled into one
        • Rely on ASOs to monitor rescuers
        • Follow tactics from relevant preceding sections
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Aircraft incidents
        • Classification dependent on:
          • Size of aircraft
          • Size/type of building that was hit
        • Establish rescue profile
          • Recovery profile indicates risk-reduction strategies
          • Minimize destruction of potential evidence
    • Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
      • Aircraft incidents (con’t.)
        • Concerns at catastrophic crashes
          • Bloodborne pathogens
          • Jet fuel vapors
          • Burnt plastics
          • Composite metal dusts
        • Do not be quick to allow responders to doff SCBA during aircraft incident operations
    • Summary
      • ISOs have significant issues at tech-rescue incidents
        • Firefighters’ “can do” attitude can lead to traps
        • Several regulations require:
          • Coordination with ASO-RT
          • Safety plan and safety briefings
        • Rescue/recovery profile and risk reduction
        • Rehab
          • Energy replacement and mental breaks
    • Summary (con’t.)
      • Classifications of tech-rescue incidents
        • Collapse
        • Industrial entrapment
        • Confined space
        • Roadway/transportation: numerous types and challenges
        • Water
        • High-angle
    • Summary (con’t.)
      • Each tech-rescue classification presents unique hazards
      • LCES: helps ISO develop meaningful safety briefings for most tech-rescue incidents
        • Lookouts
        • Communications
        • Escape routes
        • Safe zones