Chapter 16 The ISO at Technical  Rescue Incidents
Objectives <ul><li>List several regulations that outline response requirements for tech-rescue incidents </li></ul><ul><li...
Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>List the two rehab issues that require special attention at tech rescue incidents and describe...
Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Define “LCES” and how it can be used at a cave-in incident </li></ul><ul><li>List six hazards ...
Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Name five circumstances where a duty ISO should implement a discretionary response to motor ve...
Introduction <ul><li>Tech-rescue incidents: many categories and sub-categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire department is ca...
Introduction (con’t.) <ul><li>Assistant safety officer - rescue tech (ASO-RT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets or exceeds NFPA ...
Figure 16-1   The ASO-RT actually works with three or more persons.
ISO General Duties at the Tech-Rescue Incident <ul><li>Gain a strong sense of the situation status (sitstat)  </li></ul><u...
Monitoring Issues at  Tech-Rescue Incidents <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate rescue profile of victims </li></u...
Personal Safety System Issues at Tech-Rescue Incidents <ul><li>Accountability systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for ...
Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.) <ul><li>Control zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between IDLH, no-entry, and...
Personal Safety System Issues  (con’t.) <ul><li>Radio Transmissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech-rescues may require constan...
Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.) <ul><li>Rehab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May span hours or days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Defining Other Needs at  Tech-Rescue Incidents <ul><li>Traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion due to media coverage </li...
Defining Other Needs (con’t.) <ul><li>Need for ISO assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-RT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One ...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents  <ul><li>Tech-rescue incidents are classified into categories that may ha...
Figure 16-2   A sample of technical rescue categories and their associated documents.
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Building collapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic/surface co...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Building collapse (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderat...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Building collapse (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-RT ...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Building collapse (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Building collapse (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technic...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Industrial entrapment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Industrial entrapment (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haz...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Cave-ins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include trench collapses,...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Cave-ins (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards (con’t.)...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Cave-ins (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LCES </li></ul><...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Cave-ins (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other unique haz...
Figure 16-4   A trench rescue operation requires that all necessary safety equipment and precautions be in place prior to ...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Water rescues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include swift water,...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Water rescues (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards (co...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Water rescues (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO concern...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>High-angle rescues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazingly chall...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>High-angle rescues (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>High-angle rescues (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO co...
Figure 16-6   Thrill seekers and maintenance personnel injured or trapped in elevated places can present challenging rescu...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Confined spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory (29 CFR ...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Confined spaces (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards (...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Roadway/transportation incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Roadway/transportation incidents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul>...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Roadway/transportation incidents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul>...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Roadway incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number one safet...
Figure 16-7   The number one safety consideration at roadway incidents is the threat of being hit by other traffic.
Figure 16-8   The first-arriving large apparatus should be positioned to create a traffic barrier and work zone. Cones and...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Railway/subway incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect th...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Aircraft incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification ...
Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Aircraft incidents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concer...
Summary <ul><li>ISOs have significant issues at tech-rescue incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters’ “can do” attitud...
Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Classifications of tech-rescue incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Each tech-rescue classification presents unique hazards  </li></ul><ul><li>LCES: helps ISO develo...
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Chapter 16

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Chapter 16

  1. 1. Chapter 16 The ISO at Technical Rescue Incidents
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>List several regulations that outline response requirements for tech-rescue incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Name the incidents that require or benefit from the assignment of an ASO-RT </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the IMS organizational relationship of an ASO-RT at tech-rescue incidents </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>List the two rehab issues that require special attention at tech rescue incidents and describe the “on-deck” system for crew rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Name the four ways to classify a building collapse </li></ul><ul><li>List five hazards associated with industrial entrapments </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Define “LCES” and how it can be used at a cave-in incident </li></ul><ul><li>List six hazards associated with water rescues </li></ul><ul><li>List five hazards associated with high-angle rescues </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Name five circumstances where a duty ISO should implement a discretionary response to motor vehicle accidents and diagram a strategic approach to protect rescuers at roadway incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the potential hazards and problems that may have an impact on a railway incident and an aircraft incident </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Tech-rescue incidents: many categories and sub-categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire department is called upon to find a positive solution regardless of rescue type or training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory ISO assignment for confined space, trench, and hazmat incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO should be familiar with tech-rescue CFRs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If ISO does not have required competencies (NFPA 1670), an ASO-RT should be appointed </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction (con’t.) <ul><li>Assistant safety officer - rescue tech (ASO-RT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets or exceeds NFPA 1670 requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained in ISO responsibilities as they relate to specific rescue incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfills safety functions for technician-level components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works with ISO, rescue branch directors, and technical specialists </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 16-1 The ASO-RT actually works with three or more persons.
  9. 9. ISO General Duties at the Tech-Rescue Incident <ul><li>Gain a strong sense of the situation status (sitstat) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victim location and predicament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue likelihood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity of surrounding environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand committed resources (restat) </li></ul><ul><li>After sitstat and restat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take position at command post and rove occasionally </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Monitoring Issues at Tech-Rescue Incidents <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate rescue profile of victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Onlookers may jump in when effort switches to recovery mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-RT evaluates technician operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other ASOs evaluate support activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly evolving and shifting efforts require reevaluation </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Personal Safety System Issues at Tech-Rescue Incidents <ul><li>Accountability systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for freelancing and self-deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters rush to save victims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/ASO-RT should address issue when risks outweigh benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Track assigned resources following established procedures </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.) <ul><li>Control zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between IDLH, no-entry, and support zones may be measured in inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-RT can establish, relay, and monitor the delineation of zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO should verify appropriate level of PPE in each zone based on worst-case scenario </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-RT may monitor compliance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.) <ul><li>Radio Transmissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech-rescues may require constant communication/instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use small talk-around radios to free up tactical channels: monitored by ASO-RT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May also use backup communication systems: hand signals, message boards, tag-line signals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create cheat sheet so responders do not miss important signals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.) <ul><li>Rehab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May span hours or days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not allow rehab decisions to be based on perceived comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice on-deck system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One working team is replaced by another working team that is dialed in and ready to replace them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use efficient fueling strategies (see Chapter 10) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Defining Other Needs at Tech-Rescue Incidents <ul><li>Traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion due to media coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters may become distracted: use soft intervention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety hazards associated with railways, air traffic, and waterways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain travel corridor for incident purposes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure air landing zone is separated from rescue location and crowds (ASO function) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Defining Other Needs (con’t.) <ul><li>Need for ISO assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-RT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more ASOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultants for planning functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May need critical incident stress management procedures </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents <ul><li>Tech-rescue incidents are classified into categories that may have guiding documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of guiding documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Front-load: peruse document content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieve critical information at incident as necessary </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Figure 16-2 A sample of technical rescue categories and their associated documents.
  19. 19. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Building collapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic/surface collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victims easily accessible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal loads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light-frame (wood partition) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common fire department can be used for search and extrication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary collapse can be mitigated easily </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Building collapse (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masonry, heavy wood, open spaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significant void space concerns; secondary collapse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victim rescue may involve heavy-load equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed or reinforced concrete; steel girders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires USAR team response; heavy equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significant secondary collapse; threats to other structures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Building collapse (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-RT should be appointed for moderate and heavy collapses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional ASOs may be required to address collapse hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Falling/loose debris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary collapse </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Building collapse (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards (con’t.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor air quality/dust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsecured hazardous energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weather exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood-borne pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult access/escape options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp or rugged debris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor footing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Building collapse (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory specialist, public health specialist, HSO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four-gas monitors, natural and propane gas detectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvisation monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate to identify when responders are pushing the envelope </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Industrial entrapment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy machinery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complicated access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsecured hazardous energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazmat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interfaces and/or automated systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security system impediment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Megasized equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Industrial entrapment (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards (con’t.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pinch hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment congestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exotic materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material stockpiling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO should double-check lockout/tag-out measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch for load stress and snaps/springs </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Cave-ins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include trench collapses, earthen slides, avalanches, and material entrapments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting/unstable material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen deficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weather exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult slope or grade </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Cave-ins (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards (con’t.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor footing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sink potential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary collapse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crush potential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO develops site safety plan, emergency procedures, and safety briefings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use LCES approach for safety briefings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Cave-ins (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LCES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lookouts : ASOs, soil engineers, briefed support personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communications : visual, voice, “all-evac” signal, IAP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Escape routes : escape ladders, boarded footpaths, technician-level assistance for tethered rescue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safe zones : separate shore or refuse area using natural and structural barriers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Cave-ins (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other unique hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust fume accumulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ground vibration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized hydrovac equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Figure 16-4 A trench rescue operation requires that all necessary safety equipment and precautions be in place prior to rescuers entering the trench.
  31. 31. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Water rescues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include swift water, lake, oceanic, flood, and ice situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swift/hidden currents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-head dams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Submerged entrapment hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floating debris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrocution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Water rescues (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards (con’t.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothermia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced visibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fragile and/or shifting ice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marine life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frightened animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance to solid ground </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crushing wave forces, undertows, or riptides </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Water rescues (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate PPE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid rescue intervention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overtaxed resources, particularly in flood incidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health hazards from flooding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISOs can seek assistance from: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dive-rescue certified responders, public health and environment professionals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>High-angle rescues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazingly challenging and daring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dizzying heights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited escape routes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slip/fall hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lightning/wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited anchor options </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>High-angle rescues (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards (con’t.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrocution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heights beyond equipment capabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of helicopters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Falling debris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dropped equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>High-angle rescues (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are rescuers training and willing to engage? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighter fear and stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper anchor and rigging: ASO-RT monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prehydration and energy intake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsuspecting hazards: be their wingman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nighttime operations: use of artificial light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crowds and media </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Figure 16-6 Thrill seekers and maintenance personnel injured or trapped in elevated places can present challenging rescues for fire departments.
  38. 38. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Confined spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory (29 CFR 1910.146) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/ASO-RT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site safety/emergency plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety briefings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited access/escape options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic/flammable atmospheres </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Confined spaces (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards (con’t.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen deficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication difficulties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cramped quarters, limited mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance that exceeds airlines, ropes, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rust and mold, residues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Roadway/transportation incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO should consider discretionary response to MVA when warranted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple vehicles involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long response time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement hazardous energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme weather </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement of buses, hazmat, high-angle, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Roadway/transportation incidents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other traffic and congestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Threat of nearby/secondary crash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited access or escape options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazmat/munitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fuels ignition/alternative fuels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Roadway/transportation incidents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards (con’t.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy entanglement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weather exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle hazards (see Chapter 9) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bloodborne pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Roadway incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number one safety consideration: threat of being hit by other traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic barriers: absorb impact of secondary crash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work zones: created by barrier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic-calming strategies: slow down approaching traffic with cones, spotters, lights, signs, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize use of white lights/strobes at night </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Figure 16-7 The number one safety consideration at roadway incidents is the threat of being hit by other traffic.
  45. 45. Figure 16-8 The first-arriving large apparatus should be positioned to create a traffic barrier and work zone. Cones and a spotter/flagger can help with “traffic calming.”
  46. 46. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Railway/subway incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect the worse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confined space, hazmat, industrial entrapment, and structural collapse incident rolled into one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on ASOs to monitor rescuers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow tactics from relevant preceding sections </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Aircraft incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification dependent on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size of aircraft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size/type of building that was hit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish rescue profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery profile indicates risk-reduction strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize destruction of potential evidence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Aircraft incidents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns at catastrophic crashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bloodborne pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jet fuel vapors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burnt plastics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composite metal dusts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not be quick to allow responders to doff SCBA during aircraft incident operations </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Summary <ul><li>ISOs have significant issues at tech-rescue incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters’ “can do” attitude can lead to traps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several regulations require: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination with ASO-RT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety plan and safety briefings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue/recovery profile and risk reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy replacement and mental breaks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Classifications of tech-rescue incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial entrapment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confined space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roadway/transportation: numerous types and challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-angle </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Each tech-rescue classification presents unique hazards </li></ul><ul><li>LCES: helps ISO develop meaningful safety briefings for most tech-rescue incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lookouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe zones </li></ul></ul>

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