Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Chapter 16
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 16

366
views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
366
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 16 The ISO at Technical Rescue Incidents
  • 2. Objectives
    • List several regulations that outline response requirements for tech-rescue incidents
    • Name the incidents that require or benefit from the assignment of an ASO-RT
    • Describe the IMS organizational relationship of an ASO-RT at tech-rescue incidents
  • 3. Objectives (con’t.)
    • List the two rehab issues that require special attention at tech rescue incidents and describe the “on-deck” system for crew rotation
    • Name the four ways to classify a building collapse
    • List five hazards associated with industrial entrapments
  • 4. Objectives (con’t.)
    • Define “LCES” and how it can be used at a cave-in incident
    • List six hazards associated with water rescues
    • List five hazards associated with high-angle rescues
  • 5. Objectives (con’t.)
    • Name five circumstances where a duty ISO should implement a discretionary response to motor vehicle accidents and diagram a strategic approach to protect rescuers at roadway incidents
    • Discuss the potential hazards and problems that may have an impact on a railway incident and an aircraft incident
  • 6. Introduction
    • Tech-rescue incidents: many categories and sub-categories
      • Fire department is called upon to find a positive solution regardless of rescue type or training
      • Mandatory ISO assignment for confined space, trench, and hazmat incidents
      • ISO should be familiar with tech-rescue CFRs
      • If ISO does not have required competencies (NFPA 1670), an ASO-RT should be appointed
  • 7. Introduction (con’t.)
    • Assistant safety officer - rescue tech (ASO-RT)
      • Meets or exceeds NFPA 1670 requirements
      • Trained in ISO responsibilities as they relate to specific rescue incident
      • Fulfills safety functions for technician-level components
      • Works with ISO, rescue branch directors, and technical specialists
  • 8. Figure 16-1 The ASO-RT actually works with three or more persons.
  • 9. ISO General Duties at the Tech-Rescue Incident
    • Gain a strong sense of the situation status (sitstat)
      • Victim location and predicament
      • Rescue likelihood
      • Integrity of surrounding environment
    • Understand committed resources (restat)
    • After sitstat and restat
      • Take position at command post and rove occasionally
  • 10. Monitoring Issues at Tech-Rescue Incidents
    • Risk
      • Evaluate rescue profile of victims
        • Onlookers may jump in when effort switches to recovery mode
    • Operational effectiveness
      • ASO-RT evaluates technician operations
      • Other ASOs evaluate support activities
      • Constantly evolving and shifting efforts require reevaluation
  • 11. Personal Safety System Issues at Tech-Rescue Incidents
    • Accountability systems
      • Potential for freelancing and self-deployment
        • Firefighters rush to save victims
        • ISO/ASO-RT should address issue when risks outweigh benefits
      • Track assigned resources following established procedures
  • 12. Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.)
    • Control zones
      • Differences between IDLH, no-entry, and support zones may be measured in inches
      • ASO-RT can establish, relay, and monitor the delineation of zones
      • ISO should verify appropriate level of PPE in each zone based on worst-case scenario
        • ASO-RT may monitor compliance
  • 13. Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.)
    • Radio Transmissions
      • Tech-rescues may require constant communication/instructions
        • Use small talk-around radios to free up tactical channels: monitored by ASO-RT
        • May also use backup communication systems: hand signals, message boards, tag-line signals
        • Create cheat sheet so responders do not miss important signals
  • 14. Personal Safety System Issues (con’t.)
    • Rehab
      • May span hours or days
      • Do not allow rehab decisions to be based on perceived comfort
      • Practice on-deck system
        • One working team is replaced by another working team that is dialed in and ready to replace them
      • Energy replacement
        • Use efficient fueling strategies (see Chapter 10)
  • 15. Defining Other Needs at Tech-Rescue Incidents
    • Traffic
      • Congestion due to media coverage
        • Firefighters may become distracted: use soft intervention
      • Safety hazards associated with railways, air traffic, and waterways
        • Maintain travel corridor for incident purposes
        • Ensure air landing zone is separated from rescue location and crowds (ASO function)
  • 16. Defining Other Needs (con’t.)
    • Need for ISO assistance
      • ASO-RT
      • One or more ASOs
      • Technical specialists
      • Risk managers
      • Process experts
      • Consultants for planning functions
      • May need critical incident stress management procedures
  • 17. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents
    • Tech-rescue incidents are classified into categories that may have guiding documents
      • Be aware of guiding documents
      • Front-load: peruse document content
      • Retrieve critical information at incident as necessary
  • 18. Figure 16-2 A sample of technical rescue categories and their associated documents.
  • 19. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Building collapse
      • Basic/surface collapse
        • Victims easily accessible
        • Minimal loads
      • Light collapse
        • Light-frame (wood partition)
        • Common fire department can be used for search and extrication
        • Secondary collapse can be mitigated easily
  • 20. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Building collapse (con’t.)
      • Moderate collapse
        • Masonry, heavy wood, open spaces
        • Significant void space concerns; secondary collapse
        • Victim rescue may involve heavy-load equipment
      • Heavy collapse
        • Stressed or reinforced concrete; steel girders
        • Requires USAR team response; heavy equipment
        • Significant secondary collapse; threats to other structures
  • 21. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Building collapse (con’t.)
      • ASO-RT should be appointed for moderate and heavy collapses
      • Additional ASOs may be required to address collapse hazards
      • Hazards
        • Falling/loose debris
        • Instability
        • Secondary collapse
  • 22. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Building collapse (con’t.)
      • Hazards (con’t.)
        • Poor air quality/dust
        • Unsecured hazardous energy
        • Weather exposure
        • Blood-borne pathogens
        • Difficult access/escape options
        • Sharp or rugged debris
        • Poor footing
  • 23. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Building collapse (con’t.)
      • Technical assistance
        • Respiratory specialist, public health specialist, HSO
      • Air monitoring
        • Four-gas monitors, natural and propane gas detectors
      • Improvisation monitoring
        • Evaluate to identify when responders are pushing the envelope
  • 24. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Industrial entrapment
      • Hazards
        • Heavy machinery
        • Complicated access
        • Unsecured hazardous energy
        • Hazmat
        • Noise
        • Interfaces and/or automated systems
        • Security system impediment
        • Megasized equipment
  • 25. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Industrial entrapment (con’t.)
      • Hazards (con’t.)
        • Pinch hazards
        • Equipment congestion
        • Exotic materials
        • Material stockpiling
      • ISO should double-check lockout/tag-out measures
      • Watch for load stress and snaps/springs
  • 26. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Cave-ins
      • Include trench collapses, earthen slides, avalanches, and material entrapments
      • Hazards
        • Shifting/unstable material
        • Hidden infrastructure
        • Oxygen deficiency
        • Weather exposure
        • Difficult slope or grade
  • 27. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Cave-ins (con’t.)
      • Hazards (con’t.)
        • Poor footing
        • Sink potential
        • Secondary collapse
        • Crush potential
      • ISO develops site safety plan, emergency procedures, and safety briefings
        • Use LCES approach for safety briefings
  • 28. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Cave-ins (con’t.)
      • LCES
        • Lookouts : ASOs, soil engineers, briefed support personnel
        • Communications : visual, voice, “all-evac” signal, IAP
        • Escape routes : escape ladders, boarded footpaths, technician-level assistance for tethered rescue
        • Safe zones : separate shore or refuse area using natural and structural barriers
  • 29. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Cave-ins (con’t.)
      • Other unique hazards
        • Exhaust fume accumulation
        • Ground vibration
        • Specialized hydrovac equipment
        • Gravity
  • 30. Figure 16-4 A trench rescue operation requires that all necessary safety equipment and precautions be in place prior to rescuers entering the trench.
  • 31. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Water rescues
      • Include swift water, lake, oceanic, flood, and ice situations
      • Hazards
        • Swift/hidden currents
        • Low-head dams
        • Submerged entrapment hazards
        • Floating debris
        • Electrocution
  • 32. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Water rescues (con’t.)
      • Hazards (con’t.)
        • Hypothermia
        • Reduced visibility
        • Fragile and/or shifting ice
        • Marine life
        • Frightened animals
        • Distance to solid ground
        • Crushing wave forces, undertows, or riptides
  • 33. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Water rescues (con’t.)
      • ISO concerns
        • Protection from elements
        • Appropriate PPE
        • Rapid rescue intervention
        • Overtaxed resources, particularly in flood incidents
        • Health hazards from flooding
      • ISOs can seek assistance from:
        • Dive-rescue certified responders, public health and environment professionals
  • 34. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • High-angle rescues
      • Amazingly challenging and daring
      • Hazards
        • Limited access
        • Dizzying heights
        • Limited escape routes
        • Slip/fall hazards
        • Lightning/wind
        • Limited anchor options
  • 35. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • High-angle rescues (con’t.)
      • Hazards (con’t.)
        • Electrocution
        • Heights beyond equipment capabilities
        • Use of helicopters
        • Equipment failure
        • Falling debris
        • Dropped equipment
  • 36. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • High-angle rescues (con’t.)
      • ISO concerns
        • Are rescuers training and willing to engage?
        • Firefighter fear and stress
        • Proper anchor and rigging: ASO-RT monitoring
        • Prehydration and energy intake
        • Unsuspecting hazards: be their wingman
        • Nighttime operations: use of artificial light
        • Crowds and media
  • 37. Figure 16-6 Thrill seekers and maintenance personnel injured or trapped in elevated places can present challenging rescues for fire departments.
  • 38. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Confined spaces
      • Mandatory (29 CFR 1910.146)
        • ISO/ASO-RT
        • Site safety/emergency plan
        • Safety briefings
      • Hazards
        • Limited access/escape options
        • Toxic/flammable atmospheres
  • 39. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Confined spaces (con’t.)
      • Hazards (con’t.)
        • Oxygen deficiency
        • Hazardous energy
        • Communication difficulties
        • Collapse
        • Cramped quarters, limited mobility
        • Distance that exceeds airlines, ropes, etc.
        • Rust and mold, residues
  • 40. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Roadway/transportation incidents
      • ISO should consider discretionary response to MVA when warranted
        • Multiple vehicles involved
        • Long response time
        • Involvement hazardous energy
        • Extreme weather
        • Involvement of buses, hazmat, high-angle, etc.
  • 41. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Roadway/transportation incidents (con’t.)
      • Hazards
        • Other traffic and congestion
        • Threat of nearby/secondary crash
        • Limited access or escape options
        • Hazmat/munitions
        • Fuels ignition/alternative fuels
        • Damaged infrastructure
  • 42. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Roadway/transportation incidents (con’t.)
      • Hazards (con’t.)
        • Hazardous energy
        • Heavy entanglement
        • Weather exposure
        • Instability
        • Vehicle hazards (see Chapter 9)
        • Bloodborne pathogens
  • 43. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Roadway incidents
      • Number one safety consideration: threat of being hit by other traffic
      • ISO tactics
        • Traffic barriers: absorb impact of secondary crash
        • Work zones: created by barrier
        • Traffic-calming strategies: slow down approaching traffic with cones, spotters, lights, signs, etc.
        • Minimize use of white lights/strobes at night
  • 44. Figure 16-7 The number one safety consideration at roadway incidents is the threat of being hit by other traffic.
  • 45. Figure 16-8 The first-arriving large apparatus should be positioned to create a traffic barrier and work zone. Cones and a spotter/flagger can help with “traffic calming.”
  • 46. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Railway/subway incidents
      • Expect the worse
        • Confined space, hazmat, industrial entrapment, and structural collapse incident rolled into one
      • Rely on ASOs to monitor rescuers
      • Follow tactics from relevant preceding sections
  • 47. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Aircraft incidents
      • Classification dependent on:
        • Size of aircraft
        • Size/type of building that was hit
      • Establish rescue profile
        • Recovery profile indicates risk-reduction strategies
        • Minimize destruction of potential evidence
  • 48. Considerations at Specific Tech-Rescue Incidents (con’t.)
    • Aircraft incidents (con’t.)
      • Concerns at catastrophic crashes
        • Bloodborne pathogens
        • Jet fuel vapors
        • Burnt plastics
        • Composite metal dusts
      • Do not be quick to allow responders to doff SCBA during aircraft incident operations
  • 49. Summary
    • ISOs have significant issues at tech-rescue incidents
      • Firefighters’ “can do” attitude can lead to traps
      • Several regulations require:
        • Coordination with ASO-RT
        • Safety plan and safety briefings
      • Rescue/recovery profile and risk reduction
      • Rehab
        • Energy replacement and mental breaks
  • 50. Summary (con’t.)
    • Classifications of tech-rescue incidents
      • Collapse
      • Industrial entrapment
      • Confined space
      • Roadway/transportation: numerous types and challenges
      • Water
      • High-angle
  • 51. Summary (con’t.)
    • Each tech-rescue classification presents unique hazards
    • LCES: helps ISO develop meaningful safety briefings for most tech-rescue incidents
      • Lookouts
      • Communications
      • Escape routes
      • Safe zones