Chapter 15

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Chapter 15

  1. 1. Chapter 15 The ISO at Hazmat Incidents
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>List the federal regulations that may have an impact on ISO functions at hazmat incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Define the reporting structure for an ASO-HM at a hazmat tech-level incident </li></ul><ul><li>Define the two overriding risks that the ISO must evaluate at hazmat incidents </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>List the four control zones that need to be established at tech-level hazmat incidents </li></ul><ul><li>List the three hazmat rehab components that require close evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>List the ten federal-level components of a hazmat response site safety plan and five hazmat ancillary plans that may require ISO-signoff </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>List five or more alarming hazards at a clandestine drug lab incident </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the three strategic goals for the safety section at a WMD/terrorist incident </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Hazmat incidents: most regulated of all incidents to which fire departments respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO assignment at a hazmat technician-level incident is mandatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO should be aware of CFRs regarding hazmat incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If ISO does not have required technician competencies (NFPA 472), an ASO-HM should be appointed </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction (con’t.) <ul><li>Assistant safety office-hazmat (ASO-HM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets or exceeds NFPA 472 requirements for Hazardous Materials Technician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained in ISO responsibilities as they relate to hazmat response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfills safety functions for technician-level components of incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works with ISO, hazmat directors, technical specialists, and industry representatives </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Figure 15-1 The ASO-HM may actually be working with three or more persons.
  8. 8. ISO General Duties at the Hazmat Incident <ul><li>Be familiar with NFPA 471: Recommended Practices for Responding to Hazardous Materials Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure initial zone and isolation efforts are in place upon arrival and assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Take a strategic approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface with other command staff members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain position at command post </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Monitoring Issues at Hazmat Incidents <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liability: is hazmat team entry warranted? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk communication: established risk guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on ASO-HM to evaluate technician operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other ASOs evaluate support activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preplan action plan prior to operations </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Personal Safety System Issues at Hazmat Incidents <ul><li>Accountability systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two systems: hazmat team and support responders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage cross-communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO deals with strategic accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASOs deal with tactical accountability </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Personal Safety System Issues Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Control zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDLH zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No-entry zone (including collapse zone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination reduction zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decontamination takes place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safe refuge area for contaminated persons who have left the IDLH zone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 15-3 Simple diagrams can help responders understand zone areas and travel paths.
  13. 13. Personal Safety System Issues Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Control zones (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use simple diagrams that include travel pathways and gateways between zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-HMs should verify appropriate level of PPE in each zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel moving from one zone to another should follow prescribed pathway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check personnel before leaving contamination zone </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Personal Safety System Issues Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Radio Transmissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple radio types and frequencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup communication systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand signals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Message boards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag-line signals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous system on-scene for specific needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Personal Safety System Issues Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Rehab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish baseline before technician stabilization efforts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitation needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best hazard mitigation approach is separation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from working areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanliness (further decon) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Defining Other Needs at Hazmat Incidents <ul><li>Traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roadway, railway, air, and waterway: basic approach to traffic issues is to get rid of them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For people, define: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific shuttle pathways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Escape zones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zone transition gateways </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Defining Other Needs at Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Need for ISO assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-HM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more ASOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate risk managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public health representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department HSO or infection control officer </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Applying the ISO Action Model at Hazmat Incidents <ul><li>Risk evaluation at the hazmat incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO and ASO-HM must strive to agree on overall risk profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO may need to communicate an acceptable risk profile to nonfire service personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pace: slow, methodical, and intellectual approach </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Figure 15-4 A slow, methodical, and intellectual approach is the best pace for hazmat incidents.
  20. 20. Applying the ISO Action Model at Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Recon evaluation at the hazmat incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm initial zoning and isolation upon arrival and assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify that defined zones and gateways are appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-HM should consult a technical reference specialist as necessary </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Applying the ISO Action Model at Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Recon evaluation (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the principal hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dictated by the chemical involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define environmental integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weather, infrastructure stability, container condition, hazardous energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define physical surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Location defines impact of surroundings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Applying the ISO Action Model at Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Recon evaluation (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crew exposure to hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical hazards +- Chemical properties + Crew mitigation efforts = Crew hazard exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-HM in best position to evaluate tools, teams, and rapid withdrawal factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid intervention is far from rapid at hazmat incidents: ensure clear direction for activation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Applying the ISO Action Model at Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Resource evaluation at the hazmat incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-scene time may not be practical: manage impacts of time passage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflex time for any unplanned event is delayed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine adequate training for task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May need on-the-spot training for specialized equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Applying the ISO Action Model at Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Report issues at the hazmat incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech-level stabilization effort requires formal delivery and development of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written site safety plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety briefings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15-minute rule for face-to-face communication is impractical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep unit log for documentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazmat documentation not subject to statute of limitations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Applying the ISO Action Model at Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Report issues (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal requirements for site safety plan include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety, health, and hazard risk analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of PPE type required for task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical monitoring procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental monitoring and sampling procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site control measures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Applying the ISO Action Model at Hazmat Incidents (con’t.) <ul><li>Report issues (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal requirements for site safety plan (con’t): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decontamination procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predefined responder emergency plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confined space entry and escape procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spill containment and handling procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/ASO-HM may also have to sign off on numerous other hazmat incident plans </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Unique Considerations at the Hazmat Incident <ul><li>Clandestine drug labs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor ventilation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable/toxic atmospheres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatible chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions in progress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unidentified chemicals and/or containers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable and/or leaking containers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Booby traps </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Unique Considerations at the Hazmat Incident (con’t.) <ul><li>Weapons of mass destruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop local WMD plan that addresses ISO functions until IMT takes over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO initially coordinates: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quick in/quick out approach for immediate rescues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt a back off posture after rescue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation of victims and exposed firefighters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staging out of sight as much as possible </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Unique Considerations at the Hazmat Incident (con’t.) <ul><li>Weapons of mass destruction (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic goals of ISO and ASOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather RECON and threat information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze options: lean towards the worst case </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a safety action plan across organizational boundaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expand role into manageable parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Address health and safety issues prior to IMT arrival </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Figure 15-5 Expanding the ISO function into units can help at WMD incidents. ISO units are not currently NIMS compliant.
  31. 31. Summary <ul><li>Hazardous materials incidents require specialized training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO oversees and addresses general duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASO-HM focuses on technician-level issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues at hazmat incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication to nonfire service responders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control zones: contamination reduction zone </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Issues at hazmat incidents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical evaluation before operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of sanitation and food areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISO action model at hazmat incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting is a significant effort: federally mandated site safety plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unique hazmat considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clandestine labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WMD incidents </li></ul></ul>

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