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Chapter 13

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  • 1. Chapter 13 The ISO at Structure Fires
  • 2. Objectives
    • Discuss the relationship of risk-taking to incident benchmarks
    • With respect to structure fires, list the two factors that can help operational effectiveness and the three resource considerations
    • Name the three communication ingredients to an effective PAR
  • 3. Objectives (con’t.)
    • Define zoning strategies
    • List four examples where an ISO should request ASO assistance at structure fires
    • Describe what is meant by “rescue-profile”
    • List the three dimensions that need to be defined during environmental reconnaissance
  • 4. Objectives (con’t.)
    • Name the five crew-exposure considerations
    • List several unique hazards at strip-mall structure fires
    • List four ISO functions and six ASO functions at high-rise fires
  • 5. Introduction to Specific Incident Types
    • Standard format to address multiple incident types
      • General ISO duties
      • Issues associated with the four Rs of the ISO Action Model
      • Specific concerns unique to incident type
  • 6. ISO General Duties at Structure Fires
    • Structure fires considered the most risky incident type
      • Compressed time window
      • Must rapidly read structure fires
        • Smoke, building, risk
    • Monitor general issues
    • Evaluate personal safety system issues
    • Define other needs
  • 7. Monitoring Issues at Structure Fires
    • Risk
      • Tactical priorities and incident benchmarks
        • Do risks taken match preestablished criteria?
    • Operational effectiveness
      • Read smoke
      • Read buildings
      • Determine adequate ventilation
  • 8. Figure 13-1 In structure fires, benchmarks and acceptable risk levels are associated with tactical priorities.
  • 9. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires
    • PAR (personal accountability report)
      • Organized reporting activity for all personnel working an incident
      • Radio communications should include assignment, location, and number of people in the assignment
      • Accomplished periodically (every 15 minutes at high-risk environments)
      • Triggered during changes or reporting situations
  • 10. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Control zones (NFPA 1521)
      • Hot zone: IDLH atmosphere
      • Warm zone: limited access area
      • Cold zone: establishes clean zone
      • No-entry zone: no entry for anyone
  • 11. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Control zones (a better way to label zones)
      • IDLH zone: use an accountability system
      • No-entry zone: no entry for anyone
      • Collapse zone: more specific form of no-entry zone
      • Support zone
        • Responder area
        • Public is not allowed except media with approval
  • 12. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Radio transmissions
      • Listen for unanswered calls
      • Determine radio message priority
    • Rehab
      • Focus on heat, physical exertion, and weather exposure
      • Encourage mandatory rehab after every air cylinder use or equivalent work period
  • 13. Figure 13-2 Firefighters overdue for rehab are at high risk for injury.
  • 14. Defining Other Needs at Structure Fires
    • Traffic
      • Be aware of arriving or moving apparatus, especially with water-tender shuttle operations underway
      • Communicate traffic flow plan
      • Evaluate apparatus placement and traffic lanes
      • Use soft intervention
  • 15. Defining Other Needs at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Need for ISO assistance:
      • For large buildings with significant fire involvement
      • When a “plans section” is established at a fire
      • For fires in buildings with unusual or unique hazards
      • Anytime the ISO is requested to go into an IDLH environment
  • 16. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires Figure 13-3 The four Rs of the Incident Safety Action Model: Reconnaissance, Resources, Risk, and Report.
  • 17. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Risk evaluation at a structure fire
      • Determine the rescue profile of the incident
        • Probability that victims will survive the environment
        • Classifications: high, moderate, or zero
      • Evaluate pace of incident
        • A quick pace can minimize response time to a surprise hazard
  • 18. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Recon evaluation at a structure fire
      • Repeat often during an incident
      • Define environment in three dimensions
        • Principle hazard: what is likely to kill firefighters?
        • Environmental integrity: judge the potential rate of change
        • Physical surroundings: sloping grades, foliage, fences, barriers, antennae, etc.
  • 19. Figure 13-4 A fire that has captured a central hallway will lead to rapid fire spread and is the principle hazard at this incident.
  • 20. Figure 13-5 Sloping grades may cause dangerous miscommunication. In this figure, both team 1 and 2 may believe they are on the first floor.
  • 21. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Recon evaluation (con’t.)
      • Evaluate crew exposure to hazards
        • Principal hazard +- Integrity + Physical hazards + Crew activity = Crew exposure
        • Tool versus task
        • Team versus task
        • Rapid withdrawal options
        • Rapid intervention options
        • Trip/fall/struck-by hazards
  • 22. Figure 13-6 Having too many people perform a task is just as dangerous as having too few.
  • 23. Figure 13-7 Can you spot the trip or fall hazards in this typical overhaul operation?
  • 24. Figure 13-8 Did you spot more than nine?
  • 25. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Resource evaluation at structure fires
      • Time
        • Time tends to “slip away”
        • ISO should project on-scene time and evaluate reflex time
      • Personnel
        • Number of responders
      • Equipment
        • Issues of “fit” or “reach”
  • 26. Figure 13-9 Dispatch can help time management by announcing time in 5- to 15-minute intervals.
  • 27. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Report issues at structural fires
      • ISOs should follow the 15-minute rule for face-to-face communications with the IC
        • Discuss risk, recon, and resources
        • Update checklists, forms, diagrams, and other documents
      • Consider developing a safety briefing sheet
        • Helps responders get dialed in
  • 28. Unique Considerations at Structure Fires
    • Residential versus commercial fires
      • Traps of classifying a building as either residential or commercial
        • Some residential properties can exceed size and fire load of commercial properties
        • Some commercial buildings present minimal hazards
        • Residential buildings are used commercially and vice versa
      • Classify according to building size and use
  • 29. Unique Considerations at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Residential versus commercial fires (con’t.)
      • Buildings with central hallways and stairwells
        • Ventilation is number one tactical priority
      • Strip malls
        • High-fire load, common ceiling spaces, long open-span trusses, decorative facades, inexpensive materials
        • Use sound risk management
  • 30. Figure 13-10 Note the fire spread and collapse in this strip mall façade. Firefighters made a good stop.
  • 31. Unique Considerations at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Residential versus commercial fires (con’t.)
      • High-rise buildings
        • Request one or more ASOs
        • ISO should take position at command post
        • ASOs work with operations on: physical demands of firefighters; internal traffic control; compartment integrity; establishing no-entry zones around lost windows; safety briefings; outside issues
  • 32. Summary
    • ISO general duties at structural fires
      • Monitor risk and operational effectiveness
      • Apply reading skills to determine fit
      • Ask the IC for a PAR when accountability issues arise
      • Label zones
      • Evaluate traffic
      • Determine need for ASOs
  • 33. Summary (con’t.)
    • The ISO Action Model at structural fires
      • Risk: rescue profile
      • Recon
        • Evaluate principal hazard, integrity, and physical surroundings
        • Determine crew exposure
      • Rehab
        • Evaluate time, personnel, and equipment
      • Report: utilize safety briefings
  • 34. Summary (con’t.)
    • Classify buildings according to building size and use
      • Central-hallway/stairwells, strip malls, and high-rise buildings present unique challenges
      • ISOs should request assistance at high-rise fires