Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Chapter 13
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 13


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Chapter 13 The ISO at Structure Fires
  • 2. Objectives
    • Discuss the relationship of risk-taking to incident benchmarks
    • With respect to structure fires, list the two factors that can help operational effectiveness and the three resource considerations
    • Name the three communication ingredients to an effective PAR
  • 3. Objectives (con’t.)
    • Define zoning strategies
    • List four examples where an ISO should request ASO assistance at structure fires
    • Describe what is meant by “rescue-profile”
    • List the three dimensions that need to be defined during environmental reconnaissance
  • 4. Objectives (con’t.)
    • Name the five crew-exposure considerations
    • List several unique hazards at strip-mall structure fires
    • List four ISO functions and six ASO functions at high-rise fires
  • 5. Introduction to Specific Incident Types
    • Standard format to address multiple incident types
      • General ISO duties
      • Issues associated with the four Rs of the ISO Action Model
      • Specific concerns unique to incident type
  • 6. ISO General Duties at Structure Fires
    • Structure fires considered the most risky incident type
      • Compressed time window
      • Must rapidly read structure fires
        • Smoke, building, risk
    • Monitor general issues
    • Evaluate personal safety system issues
    • Define other needs
  • 7. Monitoring Issues at Structure Fires
    • Risk
      • Tactical priorities and incident benchmarks
        • Do risks taken match preestablished criteria?
    • Operational effectiveness
      • Read smoke
      • Read buildings
      • Determine adequate ventilation
  • 8. Figure 13-1 In structure fires, benchmarks and acceptable risk levels are associated with tactical priorities.
  • 9. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires
    • PAR (personal accountability report)
      • Organized reporting activity for all personnel working an incident
      • Radio communications should include assignment, location, and number of people in the assignment
      • Accomplished periodically (every 15 minutes at high-risk environments)
      • Triggered during changes or reporting situations
  • 10. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Control zones (NFPA 1521)
      • Hot zone: IDLH atmosphere
      • Warm zone: limited access area
      • Cold zone: establishes clean zone
      • No-entry zone: no entry for anyone
  • 11. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Control zones (a better way to label zones)
      • IDLH zone: use an accountability system
      • No-entry zone: no entry for anyone
      • Collapse zone: more specific form of no-entry zone
      • Support zone
        • Responder area
        • Public is not allowed except media with approval
  • 12. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Radio transmissions
      • Listen for unanswered calls
      • Determine radio message priority
    • Rehab
      • Focus on heat, physical exertion, and weather exposure
      • Encourage mandatory rehab after every air cylinder use or equivalent work period
  • 13. Figure 13-2 Firefighters overdue for rehab are at high risk for injury.
  • 14. Defining Other Needs at Structure Fires
    • Traffic
      • Be aware of arriving or moving apparatus, especially with water-tender shuttle operations underway
      • Communicate traffic flow plan
      • Evaluate apparatus placement and traffic lanes
      • Use soft intervention
  • 15. Defining Other Needs at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Need for ISO assistance:
      • For large buildings with significant fire involvement
      • When a “plans section” is established at a fire
      • For fires in buildings with unusual or unique hazards
      • Anytime the ISO is requested to go into an IDLH environment
  • 16. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires Figure 13-3 The four Rs of the Incident Safety Action Model: Reconnaissance, Resources, Risk, and Report.
  • 17. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Risk evaluation at a structure fire
      • Determine the rescue profile of the incident
        • Probability that victims will survive the environment
        • Classifications: high, moderate, or zero
      • Evaluate pace of incident
        • A quick pace can minimize response time to a surprise hazard
  • 18. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Recon evaluation at a structure fire
      • Repeat often during an incident
      • Define environment in three dimensions
        • Principle hazard: what is likely to kill firefighters?
        • Environmental integrity: judge the potential rate of change
        • Physical surroundings: sloping grades, foliage, fences, barriers, antennae, etc.
  • 19. Figure 13-4 A fire that has captured a central hallway will lead to rapid fire spread and is the principle hazard at this incident.
  • 20. Figure 13-5 Sloping grades may cause dangerous miscommunication. In this figure, both team 1 and 2 may believe they are on the first floor.
  • 21. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Recon evaluation (con’t.)
      • Evaluate crew exposure to hazards
        • Principal hazard +- Integrity + Physical hazards + Crew activity = Crew exposure
        • Tool versus task
        • Team versus task
        • Rapid withdrawal options
        • Rapid intervention options
        • Trip/fall/struck-by hazards
  • 22. Figure 13-6 Having too many people perform a task is just as dangerous as having too few.
  • 23. Figure 13-7 Can you spot the trip or fall hazards in this typical overhaul operation?
  • 24. Figure 13-8 Did you spot more than nine?
  • 25. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Resource evaluation at structure fires
      • Time
        • Time tends to “slip away”
        • ISO should project on-scene time and evaluate reflex time
      • Personnel
        • Number of responders
      • Equipment
        • Issues of “fit” or “reach”
  • 26. Figure 13-9 Dispatch can help time management by announcing time in 5- to 15-minute intervals.
  • 27. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Report issues at structural fires
      • ISOs should follow the 15-minute rule for face-to-face communications with the IC
        • Discuss risk, recon, and resources
        • Update checklists, forms, diagrams, and other documents
      • Consider developing a safety briefing sheet
        • Helps responders get dialed in
  • 28. Unique Considerations at Structure Fires
    • Residential versus commercial fires
      • Traps of classifying a building as either residential or commercial
        • Some residential properties can exceed size and fire load of commercial properties
        • Some commercial buildings present minimal hazards
        • Residential buildings are used commercially and vice versa
      • Classify according to building size and use
  • 29. Unique Considerations at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Residential versus commercial fires (con’t.)
      • Buildings with central hallways and stairwells
        • Ventilation is number one tactical priority
      • Strip malls
        • High-fire load, common ceiling spaces, long open-span trusses, decorative facades, inexpensive materials
        • Use sound risk management
  • 30. Figure 13-10 Note the fire spread and collapse in this strip mall façade. Firefighters made a good stop.
  • 31. Unique Considerations at Structure Fires (con’t.)
    • Residential versus commercial fires (con’t.)
      • High-rise buildings
        • Request one or more ASOs
        • ISO should take position at command post
        • ASOs work with operations on: physical demands of firefighters; internal traffic control; compartment integrity; establishing no-entry zones around lost windows; safety briefings; outside issues
  • 32. Summary
    • ISO general duties at structural fires
      • Monitor risk and operational effectiveness
      • Apply reading skills to determine fit
      • Ask the IC for a PAR when accountability issues arise
      • Label zones
      • Evaluate traffic
      • Determine need for ASOs
  • 33. Summary (con’t.)
    • The ISO Action Model at structural fires
      • Risk: rescue profile
      • Recon
        • Evaluate principal hazard, integrity, and physical surroundings
        • Determine crew exposure
      • Rehab
        • Evaluate time, personnel, and equipment
      • Report: utilize safety briefings
  • 34. Summary (con’t.)
    • Classify buildings according to building size and use
      • Central-hallway/stairwells, strip malls, and high-rise buildings present unique challenges
      • ISOs should request assistance at high-rise fires