Chapter 10
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Chapter 10






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Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 10 Reading Firefighters
  • Objectives
    • List the three factors that lead to overexertion, the three ergonomic factors that can produce injury, and the three strategies to mitigate ergonomic hazards
    • List the three factors that impact human cell performance, explain its chemistry, and define fuel replacement strategies to increase it
  • Objectives (con’t.)
    • Discuss the two types of thermal stress
    • Explain the role of hydration in preventing injuries
    • Define the four Rs of firefighter rehabilitation
    View slide
  • Reading Firefighters – Is It Possible?
    • Human performance depends on many factors
    • Overexertion is the leading cause of injuries (and deaths) at incidents
    • Reading firefighters involves the evaluation of factors that lead to overexertion
      • Fire service has actually set up firefighters to be injured
    View slide
  • Reading Firefighters – Is It Possible? (con’t.)
    • The overexertion setup
      • Firefighters are the only professional athletes who work at peak performance without warm up
        • Physical and mental challenges are required at a moment’s notice when an incident occurs
        • Essence of fire service professionalism: the ability to function safely at all times
        • Solution: address physical and mental demands of firefighters
  • Reading Firefighters – Is It Possible? (con’t.)
    • Overexertion resistance
      • Firefighters should be physically fit to resist overexertion and injury
        • Proactively aim for strength, flexibility, and aerobic fitness
        • Adopt program for efficient fueling for their metabolism
        • Know how their bodies respond to stress
  • Figure 10-1 The physically fit firefighter can resist overexertion longer with minimal injury risk.
  • Reading Firefighters – Is It Possible? (con’t.)
    • Overexertion realities
      • ISOs must deal with “here-and-now” overexertion threats regardless of firefighters’ preventive fitness efforts
      • ISOs can address human overexertion factors
        • Ergonomics
        • Physiology
        • Rehab efforts
  • Ergonomics
    • The science of adapting work or work conditions to a worker
    • The study of problems associated with people adjusting to their work environment
    • A firefighter’s workplace includes the fire station, apparatus, and the incident scene
  • Figure 10-2 Firefighters seldom find an “ergonomically friendly” workplace.
  • Ergonomics (con’t.)
    • Ergonomic stressors
      • The physical environment
        • Surface conditions, temperature variations, lighting, equipment, etc.
      • Relationship of the worker to the environment
        • Bending, ascending or descending, pushing, etc.
      • Task being attempted
        • Energy and amount of focus required
        • Task priority and number of people
  • Ergonomics (con’t.)
    • Ergonomic abatement strategies
      • Awareness
        • Warnings and reminders
      • Accommodation
        • Altering environment, task, or personnel
      • Acclimation
        • Usually done proactively
        • Fitness programs, prehydration, stretching exercises prior to assignment
  • Firefighter Physiology
    • Physiological performance depends on metabolic processing (cell chemistry) of firefighter
    • Factors that affect cell chemistry
      • Thermal stress
      • Hydration
      • Fuel replacement
  • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
    • Thermal stress
      • Heat stress can be caused by:
        • Activity
        • Humidity
        • Air temperature
        • Reduced effectiveness of cooling mechanisms (i.e., PPE)
        • Sun, shade, and wind
  • Figure 10-3 The ISO should be observant of the signs and symptoms of heat stress.
  • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
    • Thermal stress (con’t.)
      • Heat stress reduction
        • Passive cooling: use of shade, air movement, and rest to bring down core temperatures
        • Active cooling: uses external methods or devices to reduce body core temperatures
        • Temperatures above 101 degrees Fahrenheit should trigger active cooling
  • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
    • Thermal stress (con’t.)
      • Cold stress can be caused by:
        • Moisture (perspiration)
        • Immediate temperature change
        • Wind chill
        • Level of activity
        • Duration and degree of exposure
  • Figure 10-4 Hypothermia is the cooling of the body’s core temperature, a condition that should be avoided at all cost.
  • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
    • Fighting thermal stress
      • Accommodation
        • Warm clothing cold extremes
        • Forearm cold water submersion for heat extremes
      • Rotation
        • Planned action to rotate crews
      • Hydration
        • Important in both heat and cold stress environments
  • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
    • Hydration
      • Firefighters should drink a quart of water an hour during work periods
        • Best delivered in 8-ounce increments spread over the hour
      • For activities longer than an hour, add essential electrolytes and nutrients to water
        • Dilute sports drinks with 50 percent water to speed absorption
  • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
    • Fuel replacement
      • Metabolic rates are influenced by:
        • Lifestyles
        • Fitness
        • Illnesses
        • Over-the-counter and prescription drugs
        • Circadian rhythms: physiological response to the 24-hour clock, which includes sleep, energy peaks, and necessary body functions
  • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
    • Fuel replacement (con’t.)
      • Cell theory
        • Optimal cell performance uses oxygen, water, glucose (food), and insulin
        • Too much insulin in the system tells the body to store carbs, not use them
        • Fuel firefighters with a low-glycemic index food so that blood sugar levels and insulin are stable, gradual, and consistent
  • Table 10-2 Glycemic index comparisons for common carbohydrates.
  • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
    • Fuel replacement (con’t.)
      • Cell-fueling strategy
        • 40/30/30 balance of low glycemic carbohydrates, protein, and fat provides quick energy that optimizes cell performance
        • Choosing the best protein, carbohydrate, and fat also promotes steady, sustained performance
        • Department should preplan nourishment for rehab
  • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
    • Fuel replacement (con’t.)
      • Eating cycle at incidents
        • Feed now if more than two hours since the last food intake
        • Feed every two to three hours when physical and mental demands remain
  • Rehabilitation Efforts
    • ISO functions
      • Ensure IC has established a rehabilitation tactical management component during emergency operations
      • Evaluate rehab efforts to determine effectiveness
  • Rehabilitation Efforts (con’t.)
    • The Four Rs of Rehab
      • Rest
      • Rehydration
      • Rx
      • Refueling
  • Summary
    • Most firefighter mistakes/injuries are due to overexertion
    • Ergonomic stressors
      • Physical environment
      • Relationship of worker to environment
      • Task being performed
    • Abatement strategies for ergonomic stressors
      • Awareness, accommodation, and acclimation
  • Summary (con’t.)
    • Physiological stressors are influenced by:
      • Thermal stressors
        • Hot or cold
        • Abatement: crew rotation, accommodation, and hydration
      • Hydration
      • Fuel replacement
  • Summary (con’t.)
    • Optimal human performance relies on optimal cell performance
      • Balance food intake
      • Eat in regular cycles
    • Evaluate rehab efforts
      • Ensure the four R’s are implemented and achieving results