Chapter 10
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Chapter 10






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    Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 10 Reading Firefighters
    • Objectives
      • List the three factors that lead to overexertion, the three ergonomic factors that can produce injury, and the three strategies to mitigate ergonomic hazards
      • List the three factors that impact human cell performance, explain its chemistry, and define fuel replacement strategies to increase it
    • Objectives (con’t.)
      • Discuss the two types of thermal stress
      • Explain the role of hydration in preventing injuries
      • Define the four Rs of firefighter rehabilitation
    • Reading Firefighters – Is It Possible?
      • Human performance depends on many factors
      • Overexertion is the leading cause of injuries (and deaths) at incidents
      • Reading firefighters involves the evaluation of factors that lead to overexertion
        • Fire service has actually set up firefighters to be injured
    • Reading Firefighters – Is It Possible? (con’t.)
      • The overexertion setup
        • Firefighters are the only professional athletes who work at peak performance without warm up
          • Physical and mental challenges are required at a moment’s notice when an incident occurs
          • Essence of fire service professionalism: the ability to function safely at all times
          • Solution: address physical and mental demands of firefighters
    • Reading Firefighters – Is It Possible? (con’t.)
      • Overexertion resistance
        • Firefighters should be physically fit to resist overexertion and injury
          • Proactively aim for strength, flexibility, and aerobic fitness
          • Adopt program for efficient fueling for their metabolism
          • Know how their bodies respond to stress
    • Figure 10-1 The physically fit firefighter can resist overexertion longer with minimal injury risk.
    • Reading Firefighters – Is It Possible? (con’t.)
      • Overexertion realities
        • ISOs must deal with “here-and-now” overexertion threats regardless of firefighters’ preventive fitness efforts
        • ISOs can address human overexertion factors
          • Ergonomics
          • Physiology
          • Rehab efforts
    • Ergonomics
      • The science of adapting work or work conditions to a worker
      • The study of problems associated with people adjusting to their work environment
      • A firefighter’s workplace includes the fire station, apparatus, and the incident scene
    • Figure 10-2 Firefighters seldom find an “ergonomically friendly” workplace.
    • Ergonomics (con’t.)
      • Ergonomic stressors
        • The physical environment
          • Surface conditions, temperature variations, lighting, equipment, etc.
        • Relationship of the worker to the environment
          • Bending, ascending or descending, pushing, etc.
        • Task being attempted
          • Energy and amount of focus required
          • Task priority and number of people
    • Ergonomics (con’t.)
      • Ergonomic abatement strategies
        • Awareness
          • Warnings and reminders
        • Accommodation
          • Altering environment, task, or personnel
        • Acclimation
          • Usually done proactively
          • Fitness programs, prehydration, stretching exercises prior to assignment
    • Firefighter Physiology
      • Physiological performance depends on metabolic processing (cell chemistry) of firefighter
      • Factors that affect cell chemistry
        • Thermal stress
        • Hydration
        • Fuel replacement
    • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
      • Thermal stress
        • Heat stress can be caused by:
          • Activity
          • Humidity
          • Air temperature
          • Reduced effectiveness of cooling mechanisms (i.e., PPE)
          • Sun, shade, and wind
    • Figure 10-3 The ISO should be observant of the signs and symptoms of heat stress.
    • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
      • Thermal stress (con’t.)
        • Heat stress reduction
          • Passive cooling: use of shade, air movement, and rest to bring down core temperatures
          • Active cooling: uses external methods or devices to reduce body core temperatures
          • Temperatures above 101 degrees Fahrenheit should trigger active cooling
    • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
      • Thermal stress (con’t.)
        • Cold stress can be caused by:
          • Moisture (perspiration)
          • Immediate temperature change
          • Wind chill
          • Level of activity
          • Duration and degree of exposure
    • Figure 10-4 Hypothermia is the cooling of the body’s core temperature, a condition that should be avoided at all cost.
    • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
      • Fighting thermal stress
        • Accommodation
          • Warm clothing cold extremes
          • Forearm cold water submersion for heat extremes
        • Rotation
          • Planned action to rotate crews
        • Hydration
          • Important in both heat and cold stress environments
    • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
      • Hydration
        • Firefighters should drink a quart of water an hour during work periods
          • Best delivered in 8-ounce increments spread over the hour
        • For activities longer than an hour, add essential electrolytes and nutrients to water
          • Dilute sports drinks with 50 percent water to speed absorption
    • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
      • Fuel replacement
        • Metabolic rates are influenced by:
          • Lifestyles
          • Fitness
          • Illnesses
          • Over-the-counter and prescription drugs
          • Circadian rhythms: physiological response to the 24-hour clock, which includes sleep, energy peaks, and necessary body functions
    • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
      • Fuel replacement (con’t.)
        • Cell theory
          • Optimal cell performance uses oxygen, water, glucose (food), and insulin
          • Too much insulin in the system tells the body to store carbs, not use them
          • Fuel firefighters with a low-glycemic index food so that blood sugar levels and insulin are stable, gradual, and consistent
    • Table 10-2 Glycemic index comparisons for common carbohydrates.
    • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
      • Fuel replacement (con’t.)
        • Cell-fueling strategy
          • 40/30/30 balance of low glycemic carbohydrates, protein, and fat provides quick energy that optimizes cell performance
          • Choosing the best protein, carbohydrate, and fat also promotes steady, sustained performance
          • Department should preplan nourishment for rehab
    • Firefighter Physiology (con’t.)
      • Fuel replacement (con’t.)
        • Eating cycle at incidents
          • Feed now if more than two hours since the last food intake
          • Feed every two to three hours when physical and mental demands remain
    • Rehabilitation Efforts
      • ISO functions
        • Ensure IC has established a rehabilitation tactical management component during emergency operations
        • Evaluate rehab efforts to determine effectiveness
    • Rehabilitation Efforts (con’t.)
      • The Four Rs of Rehab
        • Rest
        • Rehydration
        • Rx
        • Refueling
    • Summary
      • Most firefighter mistakes/injuries are due to overexertion
      • Ergonomic stressors
        • Physical environment
        • Relationship of worker to environment
        • Task being performed
      • Abatement strategies for ergonomic stressors
        • Awareness, accommodation, and acclimation
    • Summary (con’t.)
      • Physiological stressors are influenced by:
        • Thermal stressors
          • Hot or cold
          • Abatement: crew rotation, accommodation, and hydration
        • Hydration
        • Fuel replacement
    • Summary (con’t.)
      • Optimal human performance relies on optimal cell performance
        • Balance food intake
        • Eat in regular cycles
      • Evaluate rehab efforts
        • Ensure the four R’s are implemented and achieving results