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Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
Chapter 08
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Chapter 08

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 8 Reading Risk
  • 2. Objectives
    • Describe the differences between dangerous and risky
    • List the three influences on risk-taking values
    • List the risk management concepts outlined in NFPA standards
    • Define situational awareness
    • Describe three methods to read risk at an incident
  • 3. Introduction
    • NFPA states that the ISO shall monitor conditions to determine if they fall within the department’s risk management criteria
    • At an incident, the ISO must:
      • Read the risks taken
      • Offer judgment on their acceptability
    • What is acceptable or unacceptable risk-taking?
  • 4. Firefighter Risk Taking
    • “Firefighting isn’t dangerous, it’s merely risky”
      • Chief Dave Daniels
    • Risks of many specific dangers are well-known
    • Learn, train, and equip to understand dangers
    • Take steps to avoid, control, or eliminate the dangers
  • 5. Figure 8-1 Firefighters make choices about the dangers they face; that is risk-taking. (Photo by Keith Muratori.)
  • 6. Firefighter Risk Taking (con’t.)
    • Action and results orientation can cause injury or death
    • Instead of being arbitrarily aggressive, be intellectually aggressive
    • Front-load
      • Understanding of defined risk-taking values
      • Increased ability to achieve situational awareness
  • 7. Risk-Taking Values
    • IC establishes risk boundaries for working crews
    • ISO makes the value decision of whether a specific strategy, task, or action is worth the injury
  • 8. Risk-Taking Values (con’t.)
    • Community expectations
      • Community expects that firefighters may have to risk their lives to save a life
      • Firefighters must:
        • Balance courage and bravery with prudent judgment
        • Avoid unnecessary injury
      • Media communications have put risk-taking pressure on responders
  • 9. Risk-Taking Values (con’t.)
    • Fire service standards
      • NFPA standards (1500, 1521, 1561) address risk management concepts
        • Risk a life to save a known life
        • Perform in a practiced manner to save valued property (whose loss will cause harm to the community)
        • Take no risk to save what’s lost
        • Default to defensive when conditions deteriorate quickly
  • 10. Risk-Taking Values (con’t.)
    • Department values and skills
      • Consider what is commonplace and accepted by the department
      • Evaluate whether the situation fits the organization’s “normal” way of handling the incident
      • Move creatively towards a safer solution if necessary
      • Recognize when crews are unprepared to perform a skill
  • 11. Situational Awareness
    • Degree of accuracy by which one’s perception of the current environment mirrors reality
    • Ability to:
      • Read potential risks
      • Recognize factors that influence the incident outcome
  • 12. Situational Awareness (con’t.)
    • Factors that reduce situational awareness
      • Insufficient communication
      • Fatigue and stress
      • Task overload
      • Task underload
      • Group mind-set and biases
      • “ Press-on regardless” philosophy
      • Degrading operating conditions
            • *Source: Naval Aviation Schools Command, Pensacola, Florida.
  • 13. Situational Awareness (con’t.)
    • The Brunacini approach
      • From Command Safety by Alan and Nick Brunacini
      • Gauges to understand hazard severity
        • Green-yellow-red scale of relative danger to responders
      • Originally developed for IC, but can be applied to ISO
  • 14. Situational Awareness (con’t.)
    • The Brunacini approach (con’t.)
      • Situational evaluation factors gauged 1-5 with 5 being the highest risk
        • Overall risk level
        • Building size/area
        • Fire stage
        • Penetration distance
        • Heat level
        • Percentage of involvement
        • Smoke conditions
  • 15. Situational Awareness (con’t.)
      • Situational evaluation factors (con’t.)
        • Structural stability
        • Fire load
        • Occupancy hazard
        • Residential/commercial stability
        • Access/exit issues
        • Interior arrangement
        • Aggressiveness
        • IC’s instinct
        • Red flags (a list of “historic losers”)
  • 16. Situational Awareness (con’t.)
    • Value-Time-Size method
      • Stewart Rose’s risk-versus-benefit evaluation
        • Can something be saved (the value)?
        • What is a safe time for firefighters, based on construction and the location of the fire (the time window)?
        • What is the amount of water needed to extinguish the fire (the size)?
  • 17. Situational Awareness (con’t.)
    • Value-Time-Size method (con’t.)
      • Case study: a mud slide
        • Value: people or property
        • Time: window of opportunity compared to the stability of the mud and structures
        • Size: amount of resources that need to be deployed to affect mitigation
  • 18. Situational Awareness (con’t.)
    • The ISO’s read-risk method
      • Knowledge, sound judgment, experience, and wisdom are paramount in making risk decisions
      • Prepare with vicarious learning
        • Learn from the mistakes of others
        • Read accident investigation reports generated for firefighter duty-deaths
  • 19. Figure 8-2 Experienced ISOs typically develop their own process for reading risk at incidents.
  • 20. Situational Awareness (con’t.)
    • The author’s read-risk method
      • Step 1: Collect information
        • Read the building
        • Read the smoke
        • Read firefighter effectiveness
  • 21. Situational Awareness (con’t.)
    • The author’s read-risk method (con’t.)
      • Step 2: Analyze
        • Define the principal hazard
        • What is the window of opportunity?
        • Are we ahead or behind the power curve?
        • What is really to be gained?
  • 22. Situational Awareness (con’t.)
    • The author’s read-risk method (con’t.)
      • Step 3: Judge risk
        • Are we within the risk-taking values established by the department?
        • Are we doing all we can to continually reduce risks?
  • 23. Summary
    • ISO risk management at an incident
      • Read risks
        • Firefighters should be intellectually, not arbitrarily aggressive
      • Understand risk-taking values defined by:
        • Community expectations
        • Fire service standards
        • Fire department values and skills
  • 24. Summary (con’t.)
    • ISO risk management (con’t.)
      • Employ situational awareness techniques to help evaluate risks
        • Brunacini approach
        • Value-time-size thinking
        • ISO’s read-risk thinking

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