Chapter 06-Special Concerns in Firefighting

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• Explain prefire and postfire planning processes and describe how these activities will ensure safe, efficient, and effective fire fighting activities
• Describe fire behavior in confined enclosures with and without ventilation activities
• Explain the various methods of ventilation and how each method impacts fire behavior
• Explain the activities of salvage and overhaul and their role in fire extinguishment, and methods used to reduce further property loss
• Explain the procedures used to ensure that utilities do not threaten the safety of the building or its occupants

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Chapter 06-Special Concerns in Firefighting

  1. 1. Special Concerns in Fire Fighting Chapter 6
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Explain pre-fire and post-fire planning processes and describe how these activities will ensure safe, efficient, and effective fire fighting activities </li></ul><ul><li>Describe fire behavior in confined enclosures with and without ventilation activities </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the various methods of ventilation and how each method impacts fire behavior </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Explain the activities of salvage and overhaul and their role in fire extinguishment, and methods used to reduce further property loss </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the procedures used to ensure that utilities do not threaten the safety of the building or its occupants </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Learn about areas of special concern in fire fighting activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-fire and post-fire planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhaul activities </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Advance Preparation for Fire Fighting <ul><li>Firefighters have responsibility to preplan the community areas in his or her jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Identify jurisdiction’s target areas with elevated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat to responding firefighters </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Pre-incident Plan Inspection and Review <ul><li>Pre-plan how to deal with areas of threat in case of emergency situation </li></ul><ul><li>Brings together first-alarm companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows all personnel to become familiar with the property by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing the property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussing the problems they may encounter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Availability of Water <ul><li>Determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of the fire hydrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water main size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplementary water supply locations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May be divided into zones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire management zone (FMZ): zone within a jurisdictional engine company’s area where similar hazards are grouped by approximately equal needed fire flow and hazard </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Built-in Fire Protection <ul><li>Determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and procedures needed to start and shut off the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locations of system’s key components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of Siamese connections and control valves </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Built-in Fire Protection (cont’d.) Figure 6-4 Firefighters examine outside control valves during pre-incident planning.
  10. 10. Mutual Aid Resources <ul><li>Determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of resources available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional staffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures used by assisting fire agencies </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Pre-incident Planning and Fire Behavior <ul><li>Determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principals of fire behavior, their structures and their characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout of a building and the location of its structural additions and components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working knowledge of fire behavior </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Post-fire Activities <ul><li>Should be conducted in positive manner </li></ul><ul><li>Should promote a learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Members should build on the positive aspects of their actions </li></ul><ul><li>Member should address areas needing improvement </li></ul>
  13. 13. Post-fire Conference <ul><li>Conducted to improve future fire operations by using the lessons learned from the incident </li></ul><ul><li>Responding parties generally invited </li></ul><ul><li>Each member describes actions during the incident </li></ul><ul><li>Information presented summarized and presented to members </li></ul>
  14. 14. Post-incident Form <ul><li>Checklist used during conference may contain some or all of the following sub-topics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin, detection, alarm, equipment and staffing response, extent of fire, size-up, preplanning, ICS, RIT, forcible entry, rescue, ventilation, hose streams, salvage, overhaul, traffic control, utilities, and incident communications </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Ventilation <ul><li>Needs to be high priority and actions should be immediately implemented </li></ul><ul><li>May require more time than placement and deployment of hose lines </li></ul><ul><li>Should be discussed in preplanning sessions </li></ul>
  16. 16. Roof Ventilation <ul><li>Look for natural openings first: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scuttle holes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skylights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stairwells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound roof with pike pole </li></ul><ul><li>Cut hole directly above fire </li></ul>
  17. 17. Louvering <ul><li>Helps reduce exposure of personnel to smoke and heat as roof is vented </li></ul>Figure 6-6 A finished louver opening for ventilation.
  18. 18. Horizontal or Cross Ventilation <ul><li>Use windows, doors, and other horizontal openings for ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate wind direction </li></ul><ul><li>Determine where the heated gases and fire will go once they leave openings </li></ul><ul><li>Windows may have to be broken </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke fans can be useful </li></ul>
  19. 19. Horizontal or Cross Ventilation (cont’d.) Figure 6-7 While using smoke ejector fans for ventilation, firefighters must cover the entire opening to avoid churning of air which reduces smoke removal effectiveness.
  20. 20. Negative Pressure Ventilation <ul><li>Using mechanical fans to pull heated smoke and gases from the interior to outside building </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective/inefficient method of smoke removal </li></ul><ul><li>Churning of the air may be a problem if fans are not a good fit </li></ul>
  21. 21. Positive Pressure Ventilation <ul><li>Uses mechanical fans to blow air into a structure to remove smoke and gases through additional openings </li></ul><ul><li>Outlet opening must be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>If too many doors and windows are opened, positive pressure ventilation is ineffective </li></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 6-8 Positive pressure ventilation.
  23. 23. Salvage and Overhaul <ul><li>Little consideration was given to salvaging in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Fire departments now accept responsibility to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguish fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce water and smoke loss as much as possible </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Overhaul Operations <ul><li>First step is examining behavior of smoke, heat, and water </li></ul><ul><li>Survey the damaged area before beginning overhaul operations </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to contact the owner of the premises </li></ul><ul><li>Assign teams to complete work </li></ul><ul><li>Save all records, partially destroyed or not </li></ul>
  25. 25. Debris Handling <ul><li>Caution should always be taken </li></ul><ul><li>All burned material should be wetted down and sifted through for hot spots </li></ul><ul><li>Debris pile locations should be chosen before debris is being moved </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate barriers should be provided </li></ul>
  26. 26. Water Removal <ul><li>Water overload could cause building collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Can use variety of methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stairways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cast iron sewer piping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holes cut in floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall breach </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Checking for Lingering Fire <ul><li>Thermal imaging device can show differences in temperatures throughout structures </li></ul><ul><li>Attic should be checked for hot spots </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicious floors should be checked from below through the ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Baseboards and window facings may need to be removed </li></ul>
  28. 28. Securing a Building <ul><li>Should be turned over to owner or secured </li></ul><ul><li>Windows and doors broken in fire should be boarded up </li></ul><ul><li>Should be made safe for weather events </li></ul><ul><li>May be necessary to post a firefighter as a fire watch or check building periodically </li></ul>
  29. 29. Summary <ul><li>Explore basic principals of fire behavior through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-fire and post-fire inspections and conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures of ventilation, salvage, and overhaul </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding the interrelationships of the above are vital steps to successful fire fighting and safe fire ground operations </li></ul>

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