Chapter 4 Designing an Incident Safety Officer System
Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the reasoning for preplanning the response of an incident safety officer </li></ul><ul><li>List...
Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>List and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using various methods to ensure that an I...
ISO Design Overview <ul><li>The design of an ISO program should address three issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who responds a...
ISO Design Overview (con’t.) <ul><li>Follow NFPA 1521 suggested requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOPs shall define crite...
Proactive ISO Response <ul><li>Delegation of the safety function needs to be proactive, not reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Fir...
Preplanning the ISO Response <ul><li>The ISO is most effective when he or she arrives early at an incident </li></ul><ul><...
Figure 4-1   The rapidly changing environment early in a fire is grounds for the early appointment of a safety officer.
Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>Graph 2: Fireground Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 20 minutes, the IC...
Figure 4-2   The higher the number of task assignments, the greater is the need for a safety officer.
Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>Graph 3: Relative Danger to Firefighters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-arrivin...
Figure 4-3   Firefighting risk taking is usually in the early stages of an incident.
Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>Overlapping the graphs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First 20 minutes of an incident...
Figure 4-4   The early assignment of an incident safety officer is essential for firefighter safety.
Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>When does the ISO respond? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All working residential fir...
Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>Automatic FDISO response should occur in the following types of incidents </...
Figure 4-6   Fires in the wildland zone, or I-Zone, should trigger an automatic ISO response.
Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>Automatic ISO delegation should occur in the following types of incidents </...
Figure 4-9   Working fires require the rapid delegation of safety responsibilities.
Where Does the ISO Come From? <ul><li>Training or safety officer(s) on call  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: one person c...
Where Does the ISO Come From? (con’t.) <ul><li>All eligible officers  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: large crew </li></u...
How Does the ISO Get the Job Done? <ul><li>Define the ISO plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should the ISO have the authority to ...
How Does the ISO Get the Job Done? (con’t.) <ul><li>Give the FDISO tools to do the job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></...
Figure 4-12   Essential incident safety officer tools include at least proper identification, radio, phone, documentation ...
Summary <ul><li>The design and implementation of an effective ISO system is as important as having an ISO on scene </li></...
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Chapter 04

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Chapter 04

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Designing an Incident Safety Officer System
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the reasoning for preplanning the response of an incident safety officer </li></ul><ul><li>List four examples of when an automatic ISO response should take place </li></ul><ul><li>List four examples of when an incident commander should automatically delegate the safety responsibility to an ISO </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>List and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using various methods to ensure that an ISO arrives on scene </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the authorities suggested for incident safety officers by NFPA standards </li></ul><ul><li>List several tools that will help the ISO be effective on scene </li></ul>
  4. 4. ISO Design Overview <ul><li>The design of an ISO program should address three issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who responds and fills the ISO role? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of incidents necessitate the use of an ISO? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What tools and training are necessary to maximize ISO effectiveness? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. ISO Design Overview (con’t.) <ul><li>Follow NFPA 1521 suggested requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOPs shall define criteria for the response of a pre-designated ISO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire department should develop response procedures that ensure a pre-designated ISO, independent of the IC, responds automatically to pre-designated incidents </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Proactive ISO Response <ul><li>Delegation of the safety function needs to be proactive, not reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Fire department should preplan the ISO response </li></ul>
  7. 7. Preplanning the ISO Response <ul><li>The ISO is most effective when he or she arrives early at an incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphs based on a typical residential working fire illustrate this need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graph 1: Environmental Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire propagation, building degradation, and smoke volatility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire is usually intensifying at arrival </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 4-1 The rapidly changing environment early in a fire is grounds for the early appointment of a safety officer.
  9. 9. Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>Graph 2: Fireground Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 20 minutes, the IC may be orchestrating seven to ten simultaneous assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: search and rescue, ventilation, water supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good IC wants an ISO appointed early on in the incident </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Figure 4-2 The higher the number of task assignments, the greater is the need for a safety officer.
  11. 11. Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>Graph 3: Relative Danger to Firefighters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-arriving firefighters have increased risk from performing a risk/benefit analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of extreme early risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search and rescue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arriving on-scene prior to apparatus and equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 4-3 Firefighting risk taking is usually in the early stages of an incident.
  13. 13. Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>Overlapping the graphs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First 20 minutes of an incident warrant close monitoring of firefighting and operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early appointment of an ISO gives the IC another viewpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To ensure early arrival of an ISO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predefine when an ISO is required to be appointed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design a system where a trained ISO arrives early </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Figure 4-4 The early assignment of an incident safety officer is essential for firefighter safety.
  15. 15. Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>When does the ISO respond? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All working residential fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly technical or complex incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firefighter injury statistics show the need to have a dedicated ISO more often and sooner </li></ul>
  16. 16. Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>Automatic FDISO response should occur in the following types of incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential or commercial fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildland-interface fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialty incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target hazard incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather extremes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Figure 4-6 Fires in the wildland zone, or I-Zone, should trigger an automatic ISO response.
  18. 18. Preplanning the ISO Response (con’t.) <ul><li>Automatic ISO delegation should occur in the following types of incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A span of control in excess of three </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual aid request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighter down, missing, or injured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident commander discretion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Figure 4-9 Working fires require the rapid delegation of safety responsibilities.
  20. 20. Where Does the ISO Come From? <ul><li>Training or safety officer(s) on call </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: one person covers training and safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: not always available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health and safety committee members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: familiarity with safety issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: overtime and equipment expenses </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Where Does the ISO Come From? (con’t.) <ul><li>All eligible officers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: large crew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: specialized training is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dedicated ISO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: ISO focused and trained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: additional funding required </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. How Does the ISO Get the Job Done? <ul><li>Define the ISO plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should the ISO have the authority to stop an unsafe act and correct it on the spot? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes - according to NFPA 1521 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No - it undermines the IC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Train the ISO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills required exceed that of typical firefighter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FDSOA is a training resource </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. How Does the ISO Get the Job Done? (con’t.) <ul><li>Give the FDISO tools to do the job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment (PPE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clipboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cameras, stopwatches, barricade tape, gas detectors and monitors, whistles, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Figure 4-12 Essential incident safety officer tools include at least proper identification, radio, phone, documentation equipment, and flashlight.
  25. 25. Summary <ul><li>The design and implementation of an effective ISO system is as important as having an ISO on scene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early arrival on-scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic FDISO response or ISO delegation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign appropriate personnel to fill ISO task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give ISO necessary training and tools to be effective </li></ul></ul>

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