Chapter 03

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Chapter 03

  1. 1. Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 3 Public Fire Protection
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the origins of modern fire protection </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the evolution of fire protection </li></ul><ul><li>List the causes of the demise of the volunteer fire companies in the major cities </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the U.S. fire problem </li></ul><ul><li>List the general responsibilities of the modern fire service </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Describe the evolution of modern firefighting equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the evolution of protective clothing and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how major fire losses have affected the modern fire service </li></ul><ul><li>List the reasons for fire defense planning </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Define risk and risk management </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate the fire department’s role in community risk reduction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Fire existed for thousands of years before people learned to use it </li></ul><ul><li>People learned to use fire approximately 200,000 to 400,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to control fire led to expansion, tools, and weapons </li></ul><ul><li>The three main causes of hostile fire are men, women, and children </li></ul>
  7. 7. Evolution of Fire Protection <ul><li>Roman Corps of Vigiles (6 A.D) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used buckets, axes and gave warnings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jamestown settlement (1607) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used fire breaks, bucket brigades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter Stuyvesant (1647) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created building code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great fire of London (1666) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started fire insurance companies </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Evolution of Fire Protection (con’t.) <ul><li>Boston (1679) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First publicly funded fire department </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ben Franklin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union Volunteer Fire Company (1739) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollowed out logs for water mains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removed “fire plug” to access water </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Evolution of Fire Protection (con’t.) <ul><li>Volunteer fire companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First uniforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cincinnati </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First paid fire company (1853) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Evolution of Fire Protection (con’t.) <ul><li>Expanding Role of Modern Departments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just fire fighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public safety education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials response </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Evolution of Fire Protection (con’t.) <ul><li>Fire service traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proving yourself on fireground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Painting engines red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entering at bottom of organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firefighters need to be adaptable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change is inevitable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change from fire suppression to medical aid as main service </li></ul>
  12. 12. Evolution of Fire Protection (con’t.) <ul><li>Change in fire service educational system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of professionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adherence to national and state standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased desire for certification and college degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the future, a firefighter may be called public safety specialist or emergency services technician </li></ul>
  13. 13. Equipment <ul><li>Siphona: first known fire pump (see Figure 3-9) </li></ul><ul><li>First pumpers discharged water through “gooseneck” </li></ul><ul><li>Hose developed to aid in water application </li></ul><ul><li>Original hand pumpers filled by buckets </li></ul><ul><li>Drafting hose invented </li></ul>
  14. 14. Equipment (con’t.) <ul><li>Hose companies developed </li></ul><ul><li>Original hand pumpers pulled by personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of the steamer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulled by horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam-operated pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could pump for long periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater reach of water stream </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Equipment (con’t.) <ul><li>Introduction of ladder companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ladders carried on a wagon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller buildings more accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial apparatus developed in 1870 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First aerial ladders extended by hand crank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next came spring-assisted, compressed air, and hydraulic ladders </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Equipment (con’t.) <ul><li>Chemical wagon (late 1800s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One tank of soda and water, one with acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed tanks to expel contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited by amount of water in tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May explode if hose plugged or kinked </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Equipment (con’t.) <ul><li>Steamer attached to gasoline-powered tractor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First gas-powered steamers unreliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorized apparatus eventually replaced all others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common apparatus now is diesel-powered </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Fire Service Symbols <ul><li>Maltese cross </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol of protection and badge of honor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awarded to the Knights of the Crusades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dalmatians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assisted with horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only recognized carriage dog </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Fire Stations <ul><li>Needed when full-time firefighters were hired </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housed equipment before that time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designed to blend into neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>Installed sliding poles and slides in multistory buildings </li></ul>
  20. 20. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) <ul><li>Developed out of necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Uniforms identify fire company membership </li></ul><ul><li>Helmets protect from falling debris </li></ul><ul><li>Turnout (bunker) gear protect from heat and water </li></ul><ul><li>SCBA protects firefighters’ respiratory system </li></ul>
  21. 21. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (con’t.) <ul><li>SCBA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-contained breathing apparatus (see Figure 3-17) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces exposure to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic gases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superheated air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowered oxygen concentrations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Fire Losses <ul><li>Conflagrations in many major cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Great Chicago Fire” (1871) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peshtigo, Wisconsin (1871) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baltimore (1904) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Francisco (1906) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More damage from resulting fire than earthquake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chelsea, Mass. (1908) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Fire Losses (con’t.) <ul><li>Common denominators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustible construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unprotected vertical shafts </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The U.S. Fire Problem <ul><li>United States has one of the highest fire death rates per capita in the industrialized world </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 4,000 perish in fires each year </li></ul><ul><li>22,000 are injured annually </li></ul><ul><li>100 firefighters are killed annually (over 440 killed in 2001) </li></ul>
  25. 25. The U.S. Fire Problem (con’t.) <ul><li>Fire kills more Americans than all other natural disasters combined </li></ul><ul><li>Fire is the third leading cause of accidental death in the home </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 80% of deaths occur in residential fires </li></ul>
  26. 26. The U.S. Fire Problem (con’t.) <ul><li>More than 2 million fires reported each year </li></ul><ul><li>More than $10 billion direct property loss </li></ul><ul><li>Senior citizens at highest risk of death </li></ul><ul><li>Children playing with fire cause 30% of fires that kill children </li></ul><ul><li>Careless smoking causes most residential fire deaths </li></ul>
  27. 27. The U.S. Fire Problem (con’t.) <ul><li>Arson is the leading cause of deaths, injuries, and fire loss in commercial structures </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking is the leading cause of apartment fires and second leading cause of single-family residential fires </li></ul>
  28. 28. The U.S. Fire Problem (con’t.) <ul><li>Top five areas of origin in residences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kitchen: 26% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bedroom: 13% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living room/den: 8% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chimney: 8% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laundry area: 5% </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The U.S. Fire Problem (con’t.) <ul><li>Working smoke detectors double chances of surviving a fire </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 90% of homes have at least one smoke detector </li></ul><ul><li>Half of residential fires and 3/5 of fatalities occur in residences with no smoke detector </li></ul>
  30. 30. The U.S. Fire Problem (con’t.) <ul><li>Lightning causes many large acreage wildland fires </li></ul><ul><li>Humans cause 60% of fires by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unattended campfires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning trash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humans cause 26% of fires by arson </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The year 2002 produced: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 88,000 reported wildland fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 million acres burned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression cost of $1.3 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30,000 personnel fought fires </li></ul></ul>The U.S. Fire Problem (con’t.)
  32. 32. <ul><li>Manage community risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed through commitment of resources </li></ul></ul>Purpose and Scope of Fire Agencies
  33. 33. <ul><li>Risks managed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials </li></ul></ul>Purpose and Scope of Fire Agencies (con’t.)
  34. 34. <ul><li>Increased responsibilities today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All types of rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arson investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapons of mass destruction </li></ul></ul>Purpose and Scope of Fire Agencies (con’t.)
  35. 35. <ul><li>Increased responsibilities today (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapons of mass destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cliff rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auto extrication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To save lives and property from fire” </li></ul></ul>Purpose and Scope of Fire Agencies (con’t.)
  36. 36. <ul><li>Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal : a general statement of a desired result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective : statement of measurable results to be achieved with resources available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy : broad statement used to guide decision making and actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure : a specific statement of how work is to be performed </li></ul></ul>Fire Defense Planning
  37. 37. <ul><li>Four goals of fire protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent fires from starting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent loss of life when fires do start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To confine fires to their origins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To extinguish fires once they start </li></ul></ul>Fire Defense Planning (con’t.)
  38. 38. <ul><li>First step: establish where problems lie using statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of occupancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignition source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Item first ignited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct cause of loss </li></ul></ul>Fire Defense Planning (con’t.)
  39. 39. <ul><li>Statistics used to determine goals/objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Goals/objectives must be politically and financially attainable </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve objectives, resources must be provided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing standards (personnel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 1710 and 1720 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools and equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul></ul>Fire Defense Planning (con’t.)
  40. 40. <ul><li>Cost determination to provide desired level of service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief and staff prepare budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget analysts review budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department seeks funding from legislative body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once funds are approved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funds applied to achieve objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results evaluated and plans changed to address issues </li></ul></ul>Fire Defense Planning (con’t.)
  41. 41. <ul><li>Be prepared to respond to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods, earthquakes, terrorism, medical incidents, swift water, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obtain necessary resources </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure interoperability and interagency communication </li></ul>All Hazard Planning
  42. 42. <ul><li>Risk is defined as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability an undesired event will occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmful or undesirable consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severity of the harm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Probability of occurrence expressed as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare to high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerically, such as 20% or a one in three chance </li></ul></ul>Risk Management
  43. 43. <ul><li>Consequences include death, injury, and disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Combined consequences become product of loss (consequence) and probability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High consequence, low probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low consequence, high probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High consequence, high probability </li></ul></ul>Risk Management (con’t.)
  44. 44. <ul><li>Comparison of risks and reduction of probability or consequence uses three control measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel protection </li></ul></ul>Risk Management (con’t.)
  45. 45. <ul><li>NFPA 1500 requirement establishes policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk control techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program evaluation and review </li></ul></ul>Risk Management Plan
  46. 46. <ul><li>Planning steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation: assess risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigation: reduce threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response: apply resources to incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery: return things to normal </li></ul></ul>Community Risk Reduction
  47. 47. <ul><li>More toward fire prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of outside factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSHA and other laws </li></ul></ul>Future of Fire Protection
  48. 48. <ul><li>Firefighters have a long history of tradition and sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Future mistakes can be avoided by studying firefighter history </li></ul><ul><li>Level of fire protection is determined by jurisdiction officials </li></ul><ul><li>The modern fire service is an integrated delivery system containing many divisions </li></ul>Summary

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