Chapter 02

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Chapter 02

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Safety Concepts
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>List the three elements that affect safety in the work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the differences between formal and informal processes </li></ul><ul><li>List the qualities of a well-written procedure or guideline </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Discuss the external influences that influence safety equipment design and purchase </li></ul><ul><li>List and discuss the three factors that contribute to a person’s ability to act safely </li></ul><ul><li>Define risk management </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and explain the five parts of classic risk management </li></ul>
  4. 4. Theory Versus Reality: An Introduction to Safety Concepts <ul><li>ISOs need both theory and reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory: uncommon sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognized safety concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality: common sense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISOs look at components of operational environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures, equipment, and personnel </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 2-1 Personnel, equipment, and procedures all play a role in defining safety in operations.
  6. 6. Safety in the Operational Environment <ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict processes with little or no flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal (written) or informal (routine practices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOPs: standard operating procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptable templates that give widespread application flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOGs: standard operating guidelines </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Sample standard operating procedure (SOP) topics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of PPE and SCBA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk/benefit principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highway and traffic safety at incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accident/injury procedures and reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident scene accountability </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Qualities of a good SOP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tested technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicability to many scenarios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific only on critical/life-endangering points </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Figure 2-2 A sample SOP index.
  10. 10. Figure 2-3 A sample SOP format.
  11. 11. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Least important factor in operational triad of procedure, equipment, and personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection and use factors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Department mission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External influences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Equipment (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List types of incidents handled in jurisdiction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List equipment necessary to safely handle incidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check items that are essential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note items that are nice to have </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Equipment (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External influences: focus on required equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OSHA regulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NIOSH, ANSI, and UL </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Equipment (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep complete documentation of repairs and maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain complete set of equipment guidelines regarding selection, use, cleaning and decontamination, storage, inspection, repairs, and criteria for retirement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Equipment (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The right equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment: be aware of the thermal protective performance (TPP) rating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apparatus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Station equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 2-6 High-tech tools allow firefighters to work more safely and monitor their health.
  17. 17. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three factors contribute to a person’s ability to act safely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Personnel (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualities of an effective training program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applicability to incident handling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established proficiency level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of potential hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of acceptable risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List of options, should something go wrong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability to act as trained </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Figure 2-8 Injury and death statistics suggest that essential training subjects be addressed.
  20. 20. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Personnel (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical health support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual health screening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination and immunization offerings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee assistance programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness determination and program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effective rehabilitation strategies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Personnel (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide training of critical incident stress signs and symptoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activate CISD (critical incident stress debriefing) team as necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include firefighter’s family in department events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make EAP available for job stress or family issues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Safety in the Operational Environment (con’t.) <ul><li>Personnel (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude is affected by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Department’s safety culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Department history of no duty-firefighters or significant injuries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Department’s death or injury history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example set by line officers or firefighters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude changes are slow and often emotional </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Risk Management <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chance of damage, injury, or loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of minimizing chance, degree, or probability of damage, injury, or loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most risk managers use a five-step process called classic risk management </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Risk Management (con’t.) <ul><li>Five-step risk management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary function of ISO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency: probability that an injurious event can happen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severity: harmful consequence or cost associated with injury or damage from a given hazard </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Figure 2-10 A recognized hazard should be placed in one of these boxes based on the potential severity and frequency of the hazard.
  26. 26. Risk Management (con’t.) <ul><li>Five-step risk management (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard prioritization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divide hazard matrix into three classes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard adaptation: mitigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclic thinking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Figure 2-11 Once a hazard is classified in one of these boxes, a priority can be assigned to it. This helps the ISO juggle multiple hazards.
  28. 28. Risk Management (con’t.) <ul><li>Risk/Benefit thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the risks being taken by people worth the benefit that can be gained? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good ISO continually reassesses risk versus benefit </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Summary <ul><li>An effective ISO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a solid foundation in general safety concepts and risk management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciates the roles of workplace procedures, equipment, and personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieves a safe workplace through evaluation and improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in attitude is especially difficult </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Risk management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of minimizing chance, degree, or probability of damage, injury, or loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common approach: five-step classic risk management model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continual monitoring of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of risk/benefit thinking </li></ul></ul>

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