Fire Protection Systems and The Model Code Process  Chapter 2
Learning Objectives <ul><li>List the two most important conditions determining the installation requirements for fire prot...
Learning Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Describe the NFPA model code development process </li></ul><ul><li>Define referenc...
Introduction <ul><li>Building and fire codes provide uniform and consistent standards and guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Code-Required Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Building codes in effect at time of building design and construction determi...
Figure 2-1 ICC and NFPA use and occupancy classifications
Figure 2-2 Code-required systems based on occupancy classifications
Code-Required Fire Protection Systems (continued) <ul><li>Codes generally do not force retroactive requirements </li></ul>...
Mission Essential <ul><li>Makes good business sense to install fire protection system </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of loss to st...
A Model Code <ul><li>Code: system of rules, regulations, or laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by government </li></ul><...
Model Code Organizations <ul><li>Consists of groups or individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design professionals, industry, f...
International Code Council (ICC) <ul><li>Evolved in the early 1990s because of two political events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
International Code Council (ICC) (continued) <ul><li>ICC code development process open to anyone </li></ul><ul><li>Structu...
International Code Council (ICC) (continued) <ul><li>Eight basic steps to ICC code development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submi...
Figure 2-4 ICC code development process
Figure 2-5 International Building Code/International Fire Code, 2006 Edition
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) <ul><li>1896: Published NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sy...
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) (continued) <ul><li>Standards Council is the primary consensus body that devel...
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) (continued) <ul><li>Five steps to the NFPA code development process: </li></ul...
Figure 2-8 NFPA code development process
Referenced Standards <ul><li>Models codes cover a wide variety of building, fire prevention, and life safety topics </li><...
Code and Standards Development for Government <ul><li>Developing code or standard could take years </li></ul><ul><li>Many ...
Amendments <ul><li>Model codes are the minimum acceptable level of performance or risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code may not ...
Summary <ul><li>Building and fire codes provide uniform and consistent standards and guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Code: sy...
Summary (continued) <ul><li>ICC and NFPA develop and publish model codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow a multi-step process...
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Chapter 02

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Chapter 02

  1. 1. Fire Protection Systems and The Model Code Process Chapter 2
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>List the two most important conditions determining the installation requirements for fire protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Define code and model code </li></ul><ul><li>Name the two most prominent model code organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the ICC model code development process </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Describe the NFPA model code development process </li></ul><ul><li>Define referenced standard and code amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the advantages to governments and organizations that adopt model codes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Building and fire codes provide uniform and consistent standards and guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain public safety in buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important to understand the code and standards development process </li></ul><ul><li>Early days: standards developed by insurance industry </li></ul><ul><li>Later, organizations championed the cause </li></ul><ul><li>Today, ICC and NFPA develop codes in use </li></ul>
  5. 5. Code-Required Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Building codes in effect at time of building design and construction determines fire protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards within structure and how building exited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire barrier between use areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of an opening in a wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size or use of occupancy area within building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of occupants, products, commodities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions within building </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 2-1 ICC and NFPA use and occupancy classifications
  7. 7. Figure 2-2 Code-required systems based on occupancy classifications
  8. 8. Code-Required Fire Protection Systems (continued) <ul><li>Codes generally do not force retroactive requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Some codes include incentives to install fire protection systems where they aren’t required </li></ul><ul><li>Model construction codes balance hazards posed by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure and combustible contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor areas above ground level and construction cost </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Mission Essential <ul><li>Makes good business sense to install fire protection system </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of loss to structure and contents often staggering </li></ul><ul><li>Loss from business interruption often much greater than damage to structure </li></ul><ul><li>Water damage cleanup and repair takes less time than fire damage repair </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Model Code <ul><li>Code: system of rules, regulations, or laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States what a person can or cannot do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model code: system of rules, guidelines, methods, and regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by private or not-for-profit organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested parties and the general public propose, debate, modify, reject, rules and regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available for governments to adopt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government provides codes for all to follow </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Model Code Organizations <ul><li>Consists of groups or individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design professionals, industry, fire agencies, governments, and manufacturers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: BOCA, ICBO, FNPA, SBCCI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: develop practices independent of influence of special interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Until late 1990s, all organizations remained independent and viable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently two organizations exist: NFPA, ICC </li></ul>
  12. 12. International Code Council (ICC) <ul><li>Evolved in the early 1990s because of two political events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed tariff-free trade between Mexico, Canada, US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of European Common Market and European Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated trade boundaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One set of codes permits all parties to work from the same book no matter where they were </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. International Code Council (ICC) (continued) <ul><li>ICC code development process open to anyone </li></ul><ul><li>Structured to avoid domination by proprietary interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All meetings open to the public and held in public forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-third of each committee composed of regulators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Code revisions occur every 18 months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New editions of codebooks published every three years </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. International Code Council (ICC) (continued) <ul><li>Eight basic steps to ICC code development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submit code changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publish and distribute code changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code development hearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print and distribute public hearing results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public comment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print and distribute public comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final action consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print and distribute final action </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 2-4 ICC code development process
  16. 16. Figure 2-5 International Building Code/International Fire Code, 2006 Edition
  17. 17. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) <ul><li>1896: Published NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widely used fire sprinkler standard today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently maintains over 300 safety codes and standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revised and completely updated every three to five years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administered to by 7,000+ volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75,000 members in more than 70 nations </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) (continued) <ul><li>Standards Council is the primary consensus body that develops and revises standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluates merits of new project proposals and, if appropriate, requests following information: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comment on the proposed project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations that may be involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Available resource material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indication of willing participants if the project is approved </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) (continued) <ul><li>Five steps to the NFPA code development process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call for Proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report on Proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report on Comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Reports Session of the NFPA Annual Meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards Council Issuance </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Figure 2-8 NFPA code development process
  21. 21. Referenced Standards <ul><li>Models codes cover a wide variety of building, fire prevention, and life safety topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code writers look outside their organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Referenced standards : documents published by other nationally recognized organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide specific information relative to design or installation requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model codes tell you “what to do and where” </li></ul><ul><li>Referenced standard tells you “how to do it” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Code and Standards Development for Government <ul><li>Developing code or standard could take years </li></ul><ul><li>Many governmental agencies adopt codes written by the ICC and NFPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective and practical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated and compatible documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each code is a companion to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>State and local governments may write amendments to model code </li></ul>
  23. 23. Amendments <ul><li>Model codes are the minimum acceptable level of performance or risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code may not be adequate for some circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally meets the needs of most jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem may need special consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model may need to be amended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If amendment establishes higher level of performance, it supersedes model code and possibly referenced standard </li></ul>
  24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Building and fire codes provide uniform and consistent standards and guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Code: system of rules, regulations or laws developed by a government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells you what you can and cannot do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model code: system of rules, guidelines, methods, and regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by private, not-for-profit organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available to governments for adoption </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Summary (continued) <ul><li>ICC and NFPA develop and publish model codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow a multi-step process to ensure consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Code organizations look outside to referenced standards </li></ul><ul><li>Model codes establish minimum level of performance and risk </li></ul><ul><li>Model codes may need to be amended </li></ul>

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