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  • Courtesy of FEMA
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Ch12 ppt Ch12 ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 12 Collapse
  • Objectives
    • Identify the various types of collapse
    • Apply risk analysis to fire-ground safety
    • Identify the specific basic competencies all fire fighters should have to perform at a structural collapse
    • Explain the essential elements of the collapse of the World Trade Center twin towers on September 11, 2001
    12
  • Collapse: The Greatest Threat on the Fire Ground (1 of 2)
    • How fire fighters die
      • Heart attacks (the greatest killer today)
      • Smoke inhalation
      • Falls
      • Building collapse
    12
  • Collapse: The Greatest Threat on the Fire Ground (2 of 2)
    • Building collapse represents the greatest threat to kill in number
    12
  • Anticipating Collapse
    • Responsibility of the incident commander, the operations chief, and the safety officer
    • Responsibility of each fire fighter
    12
  • Risk Analysis (1 of 2)
    • After fire fatalities
      • Questions are asked
      • Were fatalities caused by antiquated macho attitude?
      • Taxpayers saddled with unnecessary expenses
    12
  • Risk Analysis (2 of 2)
    • Professional fire services
      • Analyze the relationship between risk incurred and benefits obtained
      • Are well informed about construction features of buildings that have been available for study for many years
    12
  • Types of Collapse (1 of 2)
    • Global
    • Partial collapse
    • Progressive collapse
    • Secondary collapse
    • Pancake collapse
    • Lean-to-floor collapse
    12
  • Types of Collapse (2 of 2)
    • V-shaped floor collapse
    • Cantilever floor collapse
    • Frame floor collapse
    • Inward outward collapse
    • 90-degree wall collapse
    • Lean over collapse
    • Curtain fall wall collapse
    12
  • Establish Collapse Zones
    • Fire fighters and fire apparatus must be kept out of collapse zones
    • “ Staying back one third the height of the wall is safe” is untrue
    • Fire fighters must remain at least the full height of the wall away
    12
  • Minimum Collapse Competencies for Fire Fighters
    • Identified by National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1670: Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents
    • Higher competency levels require higher training
    12
  • Our Worst Collapse Tragedy
    • History of the World Trade Center
      • Two of the tallest and largest buildings ever built
      • Each tower was 110 stories high and each floor was 40,000 square feet
      • Each side of the building measured 210 feet in length
    12
  • Major Structural Components of the Towers
    • Exterior walls
    • A series of columns in the center core
    • Lightweight steel floor trusses forming a composite floor
    • Hat truss
    12
  • Mechanism of Collapse
    • Studied by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
    • Used visual evidence of the exterior damage and computer modeling
    12
  • The North Tower (Tower 1)
    • Structural damage from the planes
    • Jet fuel and dislodged fireproofing
    • Open paths for fire spread
    • Weakened core columns
    • Sagging of the “south floors”
    • Bowed south perimeter columns
    12
  • The South Tower (Tower 2)
    • Damage to the center core columns
    • Jet fuel and dislodged fireproofing
    • Sustained fires had an ample air supply
    • Weakened core columns
    • Sagging of the “east floors”
    • Bowed east perimeter columns
    12
  • Questions
    • How many trusses were destroyed in the initial impact?
    • How many failed in the subsequent fires?
    • How much fireproofing was knocked off by the plane impact?
    12
  • Questions for the Future
    • Should lightweight trusses be used in high-rises?
    • Should spray-on fireproofing come under more scrutiny?
    • What role should fire services have in construction and regulation?
    12
  • In the End
    • Be proactive role in securing your safety and the safety of others
    • Get involved in the construction of a new building
    • Get involved in the code development and adoption process
    12
  • Summary
    • All fire fighters have the responsibility to know the conditions for collapse in different types of buildings
    • Fire fighters and fire apparatus should be kept out of collapse zones
    12