Ch11 ppt

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  • Ch11 ppt

    1. 1. 11 Specific Occupancy Details and Hazards
    2. 2. Objectives (1 of 2) <ul><li>Determine the unique design and construction details found in buildings based on occupancy type </li></ul><ul><li>Establish how occupancy-specific building code requirements dictate particular safety features </li></ul>11
    3. 3. Objectives (2 of 2) <ul><li>Identify the unique details and hazards associated with specific occupancies </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how occupancy specifics affect firefighting operations </li></ul>11
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Occupancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the type of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plays a role in how a building is constructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This chapter gives occupancy types and building hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Details related to codes are city specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The codes in your locale may differ </li></ul></ul>11
    5. 5. Apartment Buildings <ul><li>Garden Apartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustible multiple dwellings include garden apartments, modern row houses, and townhouses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Condominium” is not a usefully descriptive term for fire fighters </li></ul></ul>11
    6. 6. Characteristics of Garden Apartments <ul><ul><li>Solid masonry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brick veneer over platform wood frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially solid masonry, partially brick veneer on wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul></ul>11
    7. 7. Height Limit <ul><li>Three stories </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to reach victims at rear windows of top-floor apartments </li></ul>11
    8. 8. Individual Living Units <ul><li>Usually confined to one floor </li></ul><ul><li>Some are multi-floor units </li></ul><ul><li>Some structures may have both one floor and multi-floor units </li></ul>11
    9. 9. Balconies <ul><li>Customary in many apartments </li></ul><ul><li>Combustible or noncombustible construction </li></ul><ul><li>Cantilevered balconies can collapse in fires </li></ul>11
    10. 10. Gable Roof Attics <ul><li>These extend over the entire structure </li></ul><ul><li>Attic fire barriers are frequently not effective because they have been compromised </li></ul>11
    11. 11. Peaked Roofs <ul><li>Are dangerous to fire fighters </li></ul><ul><li>They must have a pitch to drain rain­water </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch creates a void between the tops of horizontal ceiling beams and the sloping roof </li></ul><ul><li>Fire can spread laterally through this space </li></ul>11
    12. 12. Interior Construction <ul><li>Is almost totally of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplies the fire extension potential through the voids inherent in combustible construction </li></ul>11
    13. 13. Plumbing Fixtures <ul><li>Vertically aligned </li></ul><ul><li>Piping is run through vertical voids </li></ul><ul><li>Structural members weakened by cutting </li></ul>11
    14. 14. Escaping a Burning Structure <ul><li>Escaping from a single-floor ranch home is easier than from the top floor of a combustible multiple dwelling </li></ul><ul><li>Stairways, enclosures, and attics overhead are combustible </li></ul><ul><li>Stairways are safe for no one </li></ul>11
    15. 15. Educating the Management and Tenants <ul><li>Be fully insured </li></ul><ul><li>Keep property in a bank vault </li></ul><ul><li>Call the fire department immediately if a fire or gas leak is suspected </li></ul><ul><li>In a fire, evacuate immediately, even if the fire seems inconsequential </li></ul>11
    16. 16. Parking <ul><li>Space is generally limited </li></ul><ul><li>Need minimum of 20 feet of clear width, proper turning radii, red striping of curbs, and signage </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal parking must be eliminated </li></ul>11
    17. 17. Building Location <ul><li>Map drill </li></ul><ul><li>Drill identifies gullies and fences </li></ul><ul><li>Building owners should be encouraged to provide lettering and numbering on buildings </li></ul>11
    18. 18. Gas Service <ul><li>Provides special hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Layout usually done with little thought for fire fighters </li></ul><ul><li>Meters are grouped together and represent a substantial weight </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Gas hangers giving way </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Single large gas tank had its regulator fail </li></ul>11
    19. 19. Water Supply <ul><li>Hydrants often on private mains </li></ul><ul><li>Should be checked periodically </li></ul><ul><li>Older complexes often have undersized mains </li></ul><ul><li>Have the owner conduct a flow test </li></ul>11
    20. 20. Protected Combustible Construction <ul><li>Fire-rated gypsum board sheathing or shell of the structure prevents the spread of fires </li></ul><ul><li>Does not yield heat when burned in pure oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Gypsum has excellent fire protection characteristics </li></ul>11
    21. 21. Effect of Fire on Gypsum Board <ul><li>Calcination occurs when gypsum board is heated by fire </li></ul><ul><li>This process appears to be irreversible </li></ul><ul><li>Removing all burned gypsum board makes the most sense </li></ul>11
    22. 22. Fire Rating of Gypsum Board (1 of 2) <ul><li>National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 251/American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) E119 fire-resistance test </li></ul><ul><li>Rating of gypsum board cannot be separated from the test structure of which it was a part </li></ul>11
    23. 23. Fire Rating of Gypsum Board (2 of 2) <ul><li>Underwriters Laboratory (UL) warns that its rating is not assigned to individual components </li></ul>11
    24. 24. Gypsum Board Installation —Deficiencies <ul><li>Gypsum board commonly is nailed up over voids with a large or even infinite air supply behind it; ample air exists to fuel fires </li></ul><ul><li>Nail heads not properly cemented over </li></ul><ul><li>Joints not properly taped </li></ul>11
    25. 25. Protective Sheathing <ul><li>Protects the combustible structure from a fire in the contents </li></ul><ul><li>A single hole can cause disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Any penetration allows the fire to spread to the structure, thus converting a contents fire to a structural fire </li></ul>11
    26. 26. Penetrations (1 of 2) <ul><li>Failure to close the gypsum sheath around utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to install the gypsum sheath behind the bathtub </li></ul><ul><li>Thin wood door casings are the only sheaths </li></ul>11
    27. 27. Penetrations (2 of 2) <ul><li>Fire can ride the ventilation air flow in attics </li></ul><ul><li>Floors are easily penetrated downward by a fire with today’s fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous, hidden voids are prevalent in the rehabilitation of older buildings </li></ul>11
    28. 28. Protected Combustible Is Not Fire Resistive <ul><li>NFPA 25/ASTM E119 </li></ul><ul><li>The “fire resistive” characterization should be rejected </li></ul><ul><li>Even “protected combustible” is overly generous </li></ul>11
    29. 29. Firewalls/Barriers and Draft Stops <ul><li>Firewalls are often used to separate units in multi-family residential structures </li></ul><ul><li>Primary defect involves not bringing a masonry firewall through the roof with a masonry parapet </li></ul><ul><li>Masonry typically not fitted tight enough to roof </li></ul>11
    30. 30. Overhangs or Mansards <ul><li>Permitting them to project beyond the firewall is another defect in firewalls </li></ul><ul><li>This provides a gap for fire to pass around the end of the wall </li></ul><ul><li>Fire can pass around a firewall that ends at the interior of a combustible exterior wall </li></ul>11
    31. 31. Utilities <ul><li>Often are passed through the firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Openings around pipes pass fire </li></ul><ul><li>Better to run utility mains parallel to the building with branches into each unit </li></ul><ul><li>Utility openings cut into firewalls are often unprotected </li></ul>11
    32. 32. Openings at the Basement Level <ul><li>Provide access to storage and laundry areas </li></ul><ul><li>Usually designed and built with proper self-closing doors </li></ul><ul><li>Often, doors are blocked open </li></ul>11
    33. 33. Firewall as a Party Wall <ul><li>Creates problems </li></ul><ul><li>Party walls often have beams or girders from both sides in the same opening </li></ul><ul><li>Common openings provide a path for fire extension </li></ul>11
    34. 34. Older Row-Frame Buildings <ul><li>Often had brick laid in the party wall stud voids as a firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier is incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>The brick nogging (brick and mortar filling between studs) does not block the floor or attic voids </li></ul>11
    35. 35. Firewalls/Barriers and Draft Stops <ul><li>Are intended to limit the combustible void area in the attic to which the fire has access </li></ul><ul><li>Some barriers are now being made of two-inch gypsum plank </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts produce openings for fire access </li></ul>11
    36. 36. Effectiveness of the Fire Barrier <ul><li>May range from temporarily reliable to totally useless </li></ul><ul><li>Never as good as a parapeted masonry firewall </li></ul>11
    37. 37. Defects in Fire Barriers and Draft Stops <ul><li>Delaminated plywood </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers that do not extend out to the eaves but stop at the wall line </li></ul><ul><li>Omitted nail coverings and joint taping, and utilities or structural elements passing through </li></ul>11
    38. 38. Fire Barriers above the Mid-point of a Room <ul><li>Both sides of the barrier are exposed to fire coming out the windows </li></ul><ul><li>Fire barrier is placed even if it doesn’t continue a fire separation below </li></ul>11
    39. 39. A Word about Sprinklers <ul><li>Automatic sprinklers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguish content fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely will control any fire that originates in, or extends to, the voids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 13R </li></ul></ul>11
    40. 40. NFPA 13R Systems and Garden Apartments Complexes <ul><li>Often share the same water main with the hydrants that are in the complex </li></ul><ul><li>Hooking to a hydrant can take water from the sprinkler system </li></ul>11
    41. 41. Serving the Citizens <ul><li>Homeowners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have personal property or homeowners’ insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renters’ insurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too inexpensive to be actively sold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renters suffer crushing financial blows </li></ul></ul>11
    42. 42. Older Row Frame Buildings <ul><li>Frame buildings often erected in rows </li></ul><ul><li>Structures are contiguous </li></ul><ul><li>Often have a common attic or cockloft </li></ul><ul><li>May have party walls </li></ul>11
    43. 43. Brick or Stone Nogging <ul><li>Is a crude attempt at creating a fire barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Does not cut the floor voids or the cockloft </li></ul><ul><li>Served as a heat sink for warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as additional hazard in a collapse </li></ul>11
    44. 44. Townhouses <ul><li>New name for row house </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely does an adequate masonry firewall exist between the separate buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Without such a firewall, entire structure is all one building </li></ul>11
    45. 45. The Three Decker <ul><li>Typically found in New England </li></ul><ul><li>Three-story flat-roofed structures with three apartment units </li></ul><ul><li>They have porches on each level </li></ul>11
    46. 46. Porches of Three Deckers <ul><li>Play a critical role in fire spread </li></ul><ul><li>The porches offer a large surface area on which the fire can burn </li></ul>11
    47. 47. Atria  <ul><li>A large open space within a structure connecting two or more floors </li></ul><ul><li>A large void that passes through multiple floors allowing smoke and heat to move vertically through the building </li></ul>11
    48. 48. Codes Requirements for Atria <ul><li>Full sprinkler protection throughout the building </li></ul><ul><li>A smoke control system </li></ul><ul><li>Standby power for the building </li></ul><ul><li>Floor limited to “low” fire hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Up to three floors can be “open” </li></ul>11
    49. 49. Three Levels Open to the Atrium <ul><li>Must be included in the calculations of the smoke control system design </li></ul><ul><li>Volume is included in the exhaust system </li></ul><ul><li>System must exhaust smoke from these areas </li></ul><ul><li>Designs often neglect to provide a means for exhausting these areas </li></ul>11
    50. 50. Smoke Control System <ul><li>Activation is usually triggered by water flow and smoke detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Projected beam detectors can cover large areas with a single beam of light </li></ul>11
    51. 51. Sprinkler Protection <ul><li>Usually straightforward in buildings with an atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Atrium and floors open to the atrium are zoned separately from the sprinklers in the rest of the building </li></ul>11
    52. 52. National Experience <ul><li>Limited experience with actual fires in atria </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: In 1991, a fire occurred in the Polo Club high-rise in Denver </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Grand Californian Hotel in Anaheim in 2005 </li></ul>11
    53. 53. Churches and Synagogues <ul><li>Open area structures </li></ul><ul><li>Large occupant loads </li></ul><ul><li>Holidays bring special concerns </li></ul>11
    54. 54. Older Churches <ul><li>Sometimes have multiple levels of seating </li></ul><ul><li>Galleries surround the main sanctuary </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow stairs impede egress </li></ul>11
    55. 55. Stained Glass Windows <ul><li>Valuable for ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Invaluable in terms of cost and heritage </li></ul>11
    56. 56. Renovations <ul><li>Cutting and welding operations, burning off old paint, and other construction activities have ignited numerous churches and synagogues </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: 1998 New York City Central Synagogue blaze </li></ul>11
    57. 57. Covered Mall Buildings <ul><li>A single building enclosing a number of tenants </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor stores, large stores attached to the mall, have all of their required exits independent of the mall </li></ul>11
    58. 58. Recent Building Codes <ul><li>Have allowed covered mall buildings to be of unlimited area </li></ul><ul><li>Predicated on the use of Type I, II, II, or IV construction and having 60 feet of open space around them </li></ul>11
    59. 59. Vertical Spread of Heat and Smoke in a Fire <ul><li>Malls have the added problem of horizontal spread of heat/smoke </li></ul><ul><li>None of the tenant spaces have a fire-rated separation from the mall </li></ul><ul><li>Malls have large occupant loads </li></ul>11
    60. 60. Physical Separation Between Tenants <ul><li>Must be fire-rated </li></ul><ul><li>Need not go to the floor/roof deck above </li></ul><ul><li>A roll down grille-type gate will allow smoke to move into the mall proper </li></ul>11
    61. 61. Fire Protection in Malls <ul><li>Complete sprinkler protection </li></ul><ul><li>A smoke control system </li></ul><ul><li>A standpipe system </li></ul><ul><li>An emergency voice communications system </li></ul><ul><li>Standby power </li></ul>11
    62. 62. System Requirements <ul><li>Require analysis during your preplanning </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkler system often separately zoned for mall proper and tenant spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Feed main supplying the tenant spaces will run along the front of the store </li></ul>11
    63. 63. Standpipe System <ul><li>Is a Class I system </li></ul><ul><li>Hose outlets in the mall at the entrance to each corridor and exit passageway </li></ul><ul><li>Outlets also at each floor level in stairwells and at exterior public entrances </li></ul>11
    64. 64. Smoke Control System <ul><li>Similar to that of an atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to minimize horizontal movement of the smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to exhaust the smoke through the roof over the mall </li></ul>11
    65. 65. City Requirements <ul><li>Some require a standardized lettering and numbering system </li></ul><ul><li>Letters designate blocks/rows of stores and numbers indicating particular tenants </li></ul>11
    66. 66. Factories <ul><li>Production equipment can pose a safety risk to fire fighters </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards include large moving parts, confined spaces, and pressurized vessels </li></ul><ul><li>The weight of the machinery in a building on fire could cause a collapse </li></ul>11
    67. 67. The Building Itself <ul><li>Circular stairwells </li></ul><ul><li>Ship’s ladders </li></ul><ul><li>Open loading docks, limited access (including lack of windows), and adjacent storage/warehouse areas </li></ul>11
    68. 68. Hazardous Materials Production and Storage <ul><li>Storage includes the more familiar flammable and combustible liquids as well as more exotic substances </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrophoric gas is gas that ignites in air without the introduction of an ignition source </li></ul>11
    69. 69. Fire Codes <ul><li>Hazardous materials management plan (HMMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials inventory statement (HMIS) </li></ul>11
    70. 70. Limits on Quantity <ul><li>Codes specify types of hazardous materials that may be stored/used in a building </li></ul><ul><li>Exempt quantities are permitted </li></ul><ul><li>Exempt quantities are permitted in control areas </li></ul>11
    71. 71. When Amount Exceeds the Exempt Quantity <ul><li>Numerous construction requirements apply </li></ul><ul><li>Special systems or building features will be required </li></ul>11
    72. 72. Explosives <ul><li>Building codes require that they be handled in buildings with substantial fire-resistive construction </li></ul><ul><li>This restraint almost guarantees increased explosive destruction </li></ul>11
    73. 73. Buildings Housing Hazardous Processes <ul><li>Used to be isolated and built of friable construction elements </li></ul><ul><li>A steel frame covered with an easy-to-replace material is another method </li></ul><ul><li>If an explosion occurred, the board became dust-like particles </li></ul>11
    74. 74. Special-Purpose Buildings <ul><li>May be designed to channel the force of an internal explosion in a desired direction </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy walls can protect one transformer from an explosion in an adjacent transformer </li></ul>11
    75. 75. High-Rises <ul><li>There are many definitions of high-rise buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Conference on Fire Safety in High-Rise Buildings defined a high-rise as a building beyond the reach of aerial ladder equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Author Brannigan disagrees </li></ul></ul>11
    76. 76. Fire Department Tactics <ul><li>Preceding definition is acceptable and valid as applied to tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Other buildings which are not high rises, such as airport terminals and large shopping malls, present many of the same problems </li></ul>11
    77. 77. High-Rise Buildings: Potential Problems <ul><li>Not just one single problem </li></ul><ul><li>Fire-significant construction differences exist among high-rises </li></ul>11
    78. 78. High-Rise Building Design <ul><li>Usually designed to resist the effects of fire on the structural frame of the building and the floors </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the design concepts used are adequate to cope with all these possible effects is quite another matter </li></ul>11
    79. 79. General Classifications of High-Rise Buildings <ul><li>Fire-resistive high-rise buildings have evolved over time </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings built during certain time frames tend to share some common characteristics </li></ul>11
    80. 80. Early Fire-Resistive Buildings, 1870–1930 <ul><li>There were no standards for the protection of steel </li></ul><ul><li>Cast iron columns and steel ties were often exposed </li></ul><ul><li>Terra cotta fireproofing was compromised. </li></ul><ul><li>Voids were created by wooden floors placed on piers </li></ul>11
    81. 81. Other Hazards in Early Fire-Resistive Buildings (1 of 2) <ul><li>Segmental (curved) brick or tile arch floors were tied with exposed steel ties; often laid in an improvised manner </li></ul><ul><li>Segmental brick and tile arches were supplanted by terra cotta tile arches </li></ul>11
    82. 82. Other Hazards in Early Fire-Resistive Buildings (2 of 2) <ul><li>No protection was provided for the underside of the steel beams </li></ul><ul><li>Other common hazards: high fire loads, poor masonry closures, inadequate standpipe systems </li></ul>11
    83. 83. Later High-Rise Building Construction, 1920–1940 (1 of 2) <ul><li>Generally excellent buildings with typically low fire loads </li></ul><ul><li>Were universally of steel-framed construction </li></ul><ul><li>Floor construction and steel fireproofing were often concrete or tile. </li></ul>11
    84. 84. Later High-Rise Building Construction, 1920–1940 (2 of 2) <ul><li>Small floor areas and each floor was a well-segregated fire area </li></ul><ul><li>Standpipe systems wet and pressurized </li></ul>11
    85. 85. Modern High-Rise Buildings (1 of 2) <ul><li>Many floors have substantial areas beyond the reach of hand hose streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced concrete became a serious competitor to steel as a construction material </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity for fireproofing is an apparent cost disadvantage to steel </li></ul>11
    86. 86. Modern High-Rise Buildings (2 of 2) <ul><li>Electrical services and communications systems have increased, along with flammable insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Steel-truss floor and ceiling assemblies provide useful voids for fire and smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Gypsum rather than masonry is often used to enclose elevator and other shafts </li></ul>11
    87. 87. General Problems and Hazards with High-Rises <ul><li>Multiple problems can exist across buildings of different eras </li></ul><ul><li>Common issues to consider: exists, stairways (including accommodation and access stairs), possible areas for forcible entry, elevators, building occupancy </li></ul>11
    88. 88. Exits <ul><li>Should provide a clear path to the outside </li></ul><ul><li>Model building codes have permitted 50% of exit stairwells to end in the building’s lobby </li></ul><ul><li>This arrangement is confusing to occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in New York </li></ul>11
    89. 89. Occupancy <ul><li>Offices, hotels, apartments, homes for the elderly, factories, and showrooms are all different </li></ul><ul><li>Some buildings have mixed occupancies </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Different standards applied to apartments versus office in same building </li></ul>11
    90. 90. Accommodation or Access Stairs <ul><li>Access stairways are usually done as alterations and are rarely enclosed Result is two or more floors becoming one fire area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case example: One Meridian Plaza fire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duplex and triplex apartments often have no exits from the upper levels </li></ul>11
    91. 91. Forcible Entry <ul><li>Building security (e.g., multiple locks) may make entry difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Common area for forcible entry: gypsum wallboard on studs </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced masonry is difficult to breach </li></ul><ul><li>Stairways may be locked against re-entry; some codes require no more than four intervening floors between re-entry floors </li></ul>11
    92. 92. Elevators (1 of 2) <ul><li>Extrication of trapped persons requires detailed knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Hardened and robust elevators and shafts recently developed </li></ul><ul><li>Some elevators inaccessible to fire fighters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case example: One Meridian Plaza fire </li></ul></ul>11
    93. 93. Elevators (2 of 2) <ul><li>Shaft and elevator door restrictors prevent opening from inside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case example: World Trade Center, September 11, 2001 </li></ul></ul>11
    94. 94. Smoke Movement in High-Rise Buildings <ul><li>Thermal Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the principal smoke-moving mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be massive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case example: MGM Grand Hotel fire in Las Vegas. The burning rate of the fuel was estimated at 3 tons per minute </li></ul></ul>11
    95. 95. Atmospheric Conditions <ul><li>Lapse is when the atmospheric temperature decreases as height increases </li></ul><ul><li>Pause occurs if there is a layer of air warmer than the air below it </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion layer acts as a roof to rising smoke </li></ul>11
    96. 96. Wind <ul><li>If the windows are out and the fire is on the leeward side of the building, fire suppression may be “a piece of cake” </li></ul><ul><li>If the fire on the windward side of the building, it may be impossible to move into the fire floor </li></ul>11
    97. 97. Stack Effect (1 of 2) <ul><li>The movement of air inside a tightly sealed building </li></ul><ul><li>Stack effect is not caused by a fire </li></ul><ul><li>Most significant in cold climates in the wintertime </li></ul>11
    98. 98. Stack Effect (2 of 2) <ul><li>In winter: delivers smoke that has lost thermal energy to upper floors </li></ul><ul><li>In summer: makes cold smoke fall downward </li></ul>11
    99. 99. Air Conditioning <ul><li>Individual room units </li></ul><ul><li>Single-floor systems </li></ul><ul><li>One or more building systems for the entire building </li></ul><ul><li>Modern systems have full-exhaust capability </li></ul>11
    100. 100. Smoke Removal Systems <ul><li>Questions to ask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the fire department operate the system? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the building engineer operate it? </li></ul></ul>11
    101. 101. Fire Control <ul><li>Some say this can be accomplished by manipulating the air supply </li></ul><ul><li>There is no such thing as a clean-burning, hostile fire </li></ul><ul><li>In a fire, materials generate toxic and explosive gases </li></ul>11
    102. 102. Smoke Removal System Design <ul><li>Design is an extremely complicated task </li></ul><ul><li>Can supplement the primary defense but it is certainly no substitute for adequate protection </li></ul><ul><li>Complex in larger buildings </li></ul>11
    103. 103. Compartmentation <ul><li>Some assume that fire-resistive buildings automatically provide compartmentation </li></ul><ul><li>This may be case in older buildings, but modern buildings often have poor perimeter fire stopping and multiple penetrations for wiring </li></ul>11
    104. 104. Pressurized Stairways <ul><li>One or more of the stairways equipped to be pressurized when fire occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure differential will keep the stairways free of smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Occupants must be trained to use the proper stairway </li></ul>11
    105. 105. Installation of Special Equipment <ul><li>Equipment designed to function in case of fire should be installed under the supervision of the fire department </li></ul><ul><li>Fire department should be familiar with its operation and supervise its testing and maintenance </li></ul>11
    106. 106. Fire Load and Flame Spread <ul><li>Consider interior trim and contents </li></ul><ul><li>Fires can gain great headway in combustible trim </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Multiple layers of wall coverings were a major factor in an Atlanta office building fire; 10 died </li></ul>11
    107. 107. Contents <ul><li>The new flame spread problem </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: First Interstate Bank fire </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy fire loads may be found in special locations in high-rises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy plastic loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood paneling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office supply areas; telephone rooms </li></ul></ul>11
    108. 108. Maintenance Operations <ul><li>Can provide unexpectedly serious fire loads </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Union Bank Building fire in Los Angeles on July 18, 1988 </li></ul>11
    109. 109. Rubbish <ul><li>Often is concentrated in one location </li></ul><ul><li>Condition of material results in high heat release rate </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: A rubbish fire in an elevator </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Seven people died when a fire roared 35 stories up a blocked trash chute </li></ul>11
    110. 110. Alterations to Occupied Buildings <ul><li>Hazard exists when a building is altered or rehabilitated while occupied </li></ul><ul><li>Hotels and motels tend to store furniture and materials haphazardly during renovations </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: The disastrous Dupont Plaza Hotel fire in San Juan, Puerto Rico </li></ul>11
    111. 111. Partial Occupancy of Buildings Under Construction <ul><li>Fire protection systems are not complete </li></ul><ul><li>Doors may not yet be installed on stairways and elevators </li></ul><ul><li>LPG may be used in some areas </li></ul>11
    112. 112. Automatic Sprinklers <ul><li>Only method to limit toxic gases released in a fire </li></ul><ul><li>The argument against sprinklers is usually an economic one </li></ul><ul><li>The builder is creating the problem for profit. It is up to the builder to provide the solution </li></ul>11
    113. 113. Some Building Inventory Item Questions <ul><li>What is the value of “fireproofing”? </li></ul><ul><li>Will ceiling tile failure permit partial collapse and open fire and smoke passage? </li></ul><ul><li>Will smoke and fire pass to voids above, via re-entrant space? </li></ul><ul><li>Are floor joints adequate firestops? </li></ul>11
    114. 114. Horizontal Containment Questions <ul><li>Are there utility openings or underfloor openings such as for computer cables? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you considered penetration of relatively lightweight gypsum partitions as a substitute for forcible door entry? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there deficiencies of stair enclosures? </li></ul>11
    115. 115. Hospitals and Nursing Homes <ul><li>Non-ambulatory people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are individuals who are not capable of self-preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The building, the staff, and you must protect them </li></ul></ul>11
    116. 116. Older Facilities <ul><li>Many lacked sprinkler protection </li></ul><ul><li>Many have relied on passive protection </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: An unsprinklered hospital in San Antonio in the late 1980s </li></ul>11
    117. 117. Key to Patient Safety <ul><li>Move them horizontally, rather than vertically </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke barriers are one-hour fire-rated walls that subdivide each floor into two or more separate areas </li></ul>11
    118. 118. “RACE” <ul><li>R: Remove all people in immediate danger to safety </li></ul><ul><li>A: Activate the manual pull station and have someone call 911 </li></ul><ul><li>C: Close doors to confine the spread of smoke and fire </li></ul><ul><li>E: Extinguish the fire, if possible </li></ul>11
    119. 119. Hotels and Motels (1 of 2) <ul><li>Sites of many serious fires in last 75 years </li></ul><ul><li>The 1990 Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged improvements in fire safety for these facilities nationwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite improvements, fires continue to occur </li></ul></ul>11
    120. 120. Hotels and Motels (2 of 2) <ul><li>In older motels, fire spread occurs through voids between the floors </li></ul><ul><li>In newer hotels, interior corridors are conduits for smoke travel </li></ul>11
    121. 121. Jails and Prisons (1 of 2) <ul><li>Inmates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are restrained and are incapable of getting out of the building to save their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They rely on prison staff and the building for their safety </li></ul></ul>11
    122. 122. Jails and Prisons (2 of 2) <ul><li>Run the gamut from old to new, big to small </li></ul><ul><li>Some use old technology, and some use new </li></ul><ul><li>Some have full sprinkler protection, whereas others have none </li></ul>11
    123. 123. Case Example: Jail Fire in Mitchell County, North Carolina <ul><li>A recent fire in 2002 at the Mitchell County, North Carolina, jail killed eight inmates </li></ul><ul><li>This was a 1950s-era facility that required the manual opening of doors </li></ul>11
    124. 124. Starting of Fires <ul><li>Some jail fires start accidentally, but others are intentionally set by the inmates </li></ul><ul><li>Several fires over the years have involved the use of polyurethane foam in a padded cell </li></ul>11
    125. 125. Questions to Ask <ul><li>Does the building have a sprinkler or smoke control system? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it have smoke barriers? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the inmates evacuated from the building? </li></ul>11
    126. 126. Museums and Libraries <ul><li>Recent fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1986 Los Angeles Library fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holocaust museum in Terre Haute, Indiana, in 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biblical Arts Center Museum in Dallas in 2005 </li></ul></ul>11
    127. 127. Fire Suppression System <ul><li>Not always available </li></ul><ul><li>Some institutions rejected sprinklers as causing too much water damage </li></ul>11
    128. 128. Life Safety <ul><li>The primary concern of fire fighters </li></ul><ul><li>Many museums and libraries have magnetic door locks </li></ul><ul><li>These are illegal </li></ul>11
    129. 129. Preincident Plan <ul><li>Will assist greatly when a fire occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the plan includes salvage operation details </li></ul>11
    130. 130. Library Stacks <ul><li>Libraries are the original high stack storage buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Large main libraries have multi-level stack areas </li></ul><ul><li>Guarantees the spread of fire and destruction of the books </li></ul>11
    131. 131. Nightclub Fires <ul><li>Case examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1942 Cocoanut Grove fire in Boston </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990 Happyland Social Club arson fire in the Bronx, New York </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2003 fire at The Station nightclub in West Warwick, Rhode Island </li></ul></ul>11
    132. 132. Within the Club <ul><li>Patrons who are not fully aware of their surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Clubs are often overcrowded </li></ul><ul><li>Locked egress doors complete the potential for a disaster </li></ul>11
    133. 133. Old, Worn-Out Structures <ul><li>Many clubs are located in such structures </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these existing clubs are not required to retrofit sprinklers </li></ul>11
    134. 134. Office Buildings <ul><li>Come in the five types of construction </li></ul><ul><li>Are large and small </li></ul><ul><li>Are high-rise or low-rise </li></ul><ul><li>Now built in the open­office plan </li></ul>11
    135. 135. Fire Spread <ul><li>Fire in a compartmentalized space is much different than a fire in an open office plan </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: One Meridian Plaza high-rise fire in Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Denver fire fighter killed in low-rise office building </li></ul>11
    136. 136. Open Area Structures <ul><li>Construction: often of wood, or with an exposed wood plank roof </li></ul><ul><li>Such a building should be fully sprinklered </li></ul><ul><li>Objection to sprinklers in a decorative wood structure is understandable </li></ul>11
    137. 137. Non-Sprinklered Building <ul><li>Try to keep out the kindling </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize the minor light combustible structures or elements that can ignite the whole building </li></ul><ul><li>Small structures should have sprinkler protection </li></ul>11
    138. 138. Parking Garages <ul><li>May be partially or totally above grade and open to the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>All garage areas under buildings should be sprinklered </li></ul><ul><li>Dry standpipes mean it will be slow to get water to the nozzles of your hose lines </li></ul>11
    139. 139. Restaurants <ul><li>Common fire location is in the kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>Model building codes do not require a fire-rated separation between the kitchen and the dining area </li></ul>11
    140. 140. Cooking Hood Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Author Corbett’s experience with them has not been all positive </li></ul><ul><li>Several of the systems have failed </li></ul>11
    141. 141. Preincident Planning <ul><li>Note location of the utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Make note of the use of propane </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: The use of propane in a New Jersey shore restaurant where patrons were forced to break windows to escape the fire </li></ul>11
    142. 142. Schools: Building Code Regulations (1 of 2) <ul><li>Shaped by the 1958 Our Lady of Angels fire in Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Led to better and more frequent fire drills </li></ul><ul><li>Led to lower and more accessible windows for escape </li></ul>11
    143. 143. Schools: Building Code Regulations (2 of 2) <ul><li>Also led to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abatement of open stairwells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire-rated corridor and doors </li></ul></ul>11
    144. 144. Unique Features of Schools <ul><li>Corridor widths are much larger than normal </li></ul><ul><li>Egress systems may be unusual </li></ul>11
    145. 145. Potential Issues <ul><li>Corridor lengths are particularly long </li></ul><ul><li>Note special hazards such as woodworking and machine shops </li></ul>11
    146. 146. Single Family Homes <ul><li>The California Bungalow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular all across the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often there is no ridge beam in these homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The attic often contains a high fire load of stored materials </li></ul></ul>11
    147. 147. The Cape Cod <ul><li>1 ½-story home with a steep pitched roof </li></ul><ul><li>Is a platform-framed structure </li></ul><ul><li>Stairway to the second floor is near the front door </li></ul>11
    148. 148. The Ranch House <ul><li>Open interiors, large attics, and extended overhangs </li></ul><ul><li>Spaced close together </li></ul><ul><li>Often, there is a failure to place a detector in the attic </li></ul>11
    149. 149. The Split Level <ul><li>Top level usually contains the bedrooms </li></ul><ul><li>The middle level, the dining room, living room, and kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>The lower level, the recreation room and laundry room </li></ul><ul><li>Platform-framed </li></ul>11
    150. 150. The Victorian <ul><li>Significant amounts of ornamentation </li></ul><ul><li>Steep pitched roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Balloon frame construction </li></ul>11
    151. 151. Taxpayers and Strip Malls <ul><li>Taxpayers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often of ordinary (Type III) construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly one story in height with full or partial basements and common cocklofts or attic spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually limited to 6 to 10 small stores </li></ul></ul>11
    152. 152. Fire Spread in Taxpayers <ul><li>Is typically through the cockloft above all of the stores </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of the structure below can cause the parapet to fall </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards include the steel plates on the roof </li></ul><ul><li>Rotted wood floors also dangerous </li></ul>11
    153. 153. Strip Mall Characteristics <ul><li>Construction varies (may be Type II, III or V) </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all are one story </li></ul><ul><li>May or may not have basements; often have common cockloft or attic spaces </li></ul><ul><li>15 to 20 small stores and a large anchor store or two </li></ul><ul><li>Greater store depth than in taxpayers </li></ul>11
    154. 154. Strip Mall Surroundings <ul><li>Parking lot can be helpful, but also can be detrimental </li></ul><ul><li>Private hydrants must usually be used </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery truck driveway may be poorly maintained </li></ul>11
    155. 155. Occupancy Types <ul><li>Variety of tenants </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Fire-rated separation </li></ul><ul><li>Fire walls </li></ul>11
    156. 156. Structural Fire Resistance <ul><li>Increase the allowable area by increasing the fire resistance of the structural members </li></ul><ul><li>“Fireproof” the steel by applying a fire-resistive coating </li></ul><ul><li>Large nightclubs require a higher level of structural fire resistance </li></ul>11
    157. 157. Sprinkler Systems <ul><li>Some building codes require automatic sprinklers for retail sales rooms larger than 12,000 square feet </li></ul><ul><li>Others require sprinklers for mercantile fire areas larger than 12,000 square feet </li></ul>11
    158. 158. Facts to Know about Sprinkler Systems (1 of 2) <ul><li>The areas of the strip mall that are sprinklered </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the system provides complete protection </li></ul><ul><li>The type of system—wet or dry </li></ul>11
    159. 159. Facts to Know about Sprinkler Systems (2 of 2) <ul><li>The location(s) of the main riser control valve(s) </li></ul><ul><li>The location of the fire department connection and the areas of the building it supplies </li></ul>11
    160. 160. Utilities <ul><li>Most modern strip malls have multiple utility meters/cutoffs </li></ul><ul><li>The meters/cutoffs should be identified by “suite” number </li></ul><ul><li>Note the location of the utility meter bank in your preincident plan </li></ul>11
    161. 161. Forcing Entry <ul><li>How you will gain access through the front and rear doors? </li></ul><ul><li>Roll-down metal shutters </li></ul><ul><li>Rear doors may have metal bars </li></ul><ul><li>During your preincident visits, make sure doors are identified by number </li></ul>11
    162. 162. Firefighting Considerations <ul><li>Fire can spread readily from tenant space to tenant space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A roof of solid wood joists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A strip mall with steel bar-joists and a built-up roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires in wood truss voids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You must get ahead of the fire </li></ul>11
    163. 163. Theaters <ul><li>Stages and Platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage has a proscenium arch and wall, hanging curtains, drops, and scenery; lighting; and support rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform is a raised area in a building where there are only lighting and sound effects </li></ul></ul>11
    164. 164. Requirements for Stages (1 of 2) <ul><li>More extensive fire protection requirements than platforms </li></ul><ul><li>A fire-resistant proscenium curtain </li></ul><ul><li>Flame-resistant scenery </li></ul><ul><li>Heat vents over the stage </li></ul>11
    165. 165. Requirements for Stages (2 of 2) <ul><li>Two-hour-rated separations between the stage and appurtenant rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkler protection </li></ul><ul><li>Class III standpipe </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: 1903 fire in the Iroquois Theater in Chicago </li></ul>11
    166. 166. Warehouses (1 of 2) <ul><li>Huge concentrations of fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Tremendous dollar values </li></ul><ul><li>Few employees per unit of area </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to segregate extra-hazardous materials such as flammable liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to raise the bottom layer of stock above the floor </li></ul>11
    167. 167. Warehouses (2 of 2) <ul><li>Vulnerability to arson </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of management to give attention </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate fire protection, either in initial design or in maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>High rack storage </li></ul>11
    168. 168. Pallets <ul><li>Lift truck allows stock to stacked on pallets </li></ul><ul><li>Pallet storage system provides as much as 36 times the surface area as boxes stacked solid </li></ul><ul><li>Idle pallet storage is dangerous </li></ul>11
    169. 169. Shelving <ul><li>Creates miniature floors </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: An estimated $14 million loss occurred in a rack storage warehouse in Kernersville, North Carolina, in March 1981 </li></ul>11
    170. 170. NFPA 13: Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems <ul><li>Fire Department Connection (FDC) used to be optional </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 13 now requires the connection except for systems of 20 sprinklers or less </li></ul>11
    171. 171. Modern Rack Storage Warehouses <ul><li>Now found across the country </li></ul><ul><li>Noncombustible construction </li></ul><ul><li>The size can be unlimited </li></ul>11
    172. 172. Merchandise <ul><li>Handled by mechanical equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Operation is fully or partially automated </li></ul>11
    173. 173. Rack Storage Warehouse Fire Resistance <ul><li>Like a multi-storied building without the fire resistance provided by even the poorest floor </li></ul><ul><li>Early suppression fast response (ESFR) sprinklers can suppress a fire without in-rack sprinklers </li></ul>11
    174. 174. Dry Storage of Boats <ul><li>Special type of rack storage warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Stacks boats several levels high in open or partially enclosed rack structures </li></ul><ul><li>Boats are of combustible fiberglass, and many contain fuel </li></ul>11
    175. 175. Warehouse Concerns <ul><li>Modern contents of warehouses are increasingly higher-hazard materials </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic sprinkler systems that are adequate for the job as installed can be defeated by changes in the operation and storage patterns of the warehouse </li></ul>11
    176. 176. The Building <ul><li>If a building is concrete, it is inherently noncombustible </li></ul><ul><li>Building is not inherently fire resistive </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete T-beam roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional metal deck built-up roof </li></ul>11
    177. 177. Static Defenses: Fire Walls and Fire Doors (1 of 2) <ul><li>Fire walls in steel structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probably are not free standing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer passive fire protection as long as no openings exist </li></ul></ul>11
    178. 178. Static Defenses: Fire Walls and Fire Doors (2 of 2) <ul><li>Solid masonry wall parapeted through the roof is the most dependable fire barrier, but may be decorative or pierced </li></ul><ul><li>Combined elements may not function together effectively </li></ul>11
    179. 179. Dynamic Defenses: Automatic Sprinkler Protection <ul><li>Unparalleled record of suppression or control of incipient fires </li></ul><ul><li>Record cannot be taken as an indication of what can happen in a high or dense storage warehouse </li></ul>11
    180. 180. Failure in a Sprinkler System <ul><li>Early distortion and collapse of the steel roof from which the sprinkler system is suspended </li></ul><ul><li>Exacerbated by the exposure presented by a fire in stored pallets </li></ul>11
    181. 181. Fire Hazards Growing <ul><li>Fixed oscillating nozzles may be used </li></ul><ul><li>Such systems used for large lumber piles and refineries </li></ul>11
    182. 182. Foam System Protection <ul><li>Some sprinkler systems deliver low expansion foam </li></ul><ul><li>Used for flammable liquid fires </li></ul><ul><li>Case use: The Chicago Tribune’s rolled-paper warehouse </li></ul>11
    183. 183. Attitudes: Management <ul><li>Unlikely that management is fully familiar with the details of serious fires </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Smithsonian Institution </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Warehouses holding what they were not designed to hold </li></ul>11
    184. 184. Fire Department Actions <ul><li>Initial planning and plan review </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection of construction </li></ul><ul><li>Routine and special inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Regular liaison with the warehouse manager </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate planning for fire suppression </li></ul>11
    185. 185. Preplanning <ul><li>Liaison officer disseminates information to all who should have it </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse manager should designate a specific senior subordinate to maintain relationship with the fire department liaison officer </li></ul>11
    186. 186. On the Fire Ground <ul><li>Watch for these collapses or failures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustible metal deck roof fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretensioned concrete T-beams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truss roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections of heavy timber roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilt-slab walls, outward and inward </li></ul></ul>11
    187. 187. Racks <ul><li>May be erected across the openings at the far end of aisles </li></ul><ul><li>May make dead-end aisles </li></ul>11
    188. 188. Fire Fighter Access Doors <ul><li>Should be every 100 feet in a high-piled stock warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>The doors should be opened/forced early in the fire to provide emergency egress for fire fighters </li></ul>11
    189. 189. Solid Rack Shelves <ul><li>Garment making generates huge amounts of combustible scraps </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Triangle Shirtwaist fire (New York, 1912) </li></ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding about unsprinklered shelving </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkler spray blocked by shelves </li></ul>11
    190. 190. Ventilation <ul><li>Better to close up the building and let the sprinklers do the job, or to vent it and attempt a combined attack? </li></ul><ul><li>Case example: Smoke removal fans for a fire in a walk-in dumpster </li></ul>11
    191. 191. Handline Operations <ul><li>“Follow the hose back to safety if lost” </li></ul><ul><li>Hose line fed from an interior hose outlet is not a lifeline </li></ul><ul><li>If interior outlets are used, lifelines should be strung to the exterior from the outlet </li></ul>11
    192. 192. Personal Safety <ul><li>All planning should place the safety of fire fighters first </li></ul><ul><li>No one else is going to take care of it </li></ul>11
    193. 193. Summary (1 of 3) <ul><li>Occupancy influences building construction </li></ul><ul><li>Combustible multiple dwellings include garden apartments, modern row and townhouses and similar structures </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals and nursing homes have numerous non-ambulatory people </li></ul>11
    194. 194. Summary (2 of 3) <ul><li>Jail and prison inmates rely on staff and fire fighters for evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Houses of worship span the five basic types of construction and can present a myriad of challenges for fire fighters </li></ul><ul><li>Office buildings can be built using any of the five types of construction </li></ul>11
    195. 195. Summary (3 of 3) <ul><li>Nightclubs are typically overcrowded and occupant judgment may be impaired </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse rack storage has brought major fire problems to Anyplace, USA </li></ul>11

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