Ch 05 Features of Fire Protection


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  • © AP Photos
  • © Saxon/AP Photos
  • © AP Photos
  • ASTM E 84 testing-Images provided by Marcelo M. Hirschler-GBH International-Mill Valley, CA.
  • Photo courtesy of the Govmark Organization, Inc.
  • © 2007 FM Global, Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.
  • Courtesy of the estate of Francis L. Brannigan.
  • Ch 05 Features of Fire Protection

    1. 1. 5 Features of Fire Protection
    2. 2. Objectives (1 of 2) <ul><li>Understand the basic concepts of fire protection and building construction </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the basics of fire behavior, including fire spread </li></ul>5
    3. 3. <ul><li>Explain the ways in which smoke and fire containment is achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the various types of fire protection systems </li></ul>Objectives (2 of 2) 5
    4. 4. Building Fire Protection: A Short History (1 of 2) <ul><li>Historically, fire containment was a primary objective of the fire fighter. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern building codes reduce conflagrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced conflagrations contributed directly to human safety. </li></ul>5
    5. 5. Building Fire Protection: A Short History (2 of 2) <ul><li>Compartmentation also contributed to human safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighting concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egress for occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire fighter safety </li></ul></ul>5
    6. 6. Fire Terminology (1 of 3) <ul><li>Noncombustible Buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material that does not aid combustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings contain noncombustible and combustible components </li></ul></ul>5
    7. 7. Fire Terminology (2 of 3) <ul><li>Fire-rating  </li></ul><ul><li>Fireproof  </li></ul><ul><li>Flameproof </li></ul><ul><li>Self-extinguishing  </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable  </li></ul><ul><li>Fire retardant  </li></ul><ul><li>Fire resistance  </li></ul>5
    8. 8. Fire Terminology (3 of 3) <ul><li>The meaning of fire terms vary. </li></ul><ul><li>The conditions of testing vary. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammable </li></ul>5
    9. 9. Fire Resistance Distinguished (1 of 2) <ul><li>Rated fire resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent fire resistance </li></ul>5
    10. 10. Fire Resistance Distinguished (2 of 2) <ul><li>The criteria for fire resistance are imprecise. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk/benefit calculation often cannot be done. </li></ul><ul><li>The protected combustible classification provides no safety for the fire fighter. </li></ul>5
    11. 11. Fire Behavior, Fire Fighters, and Buildings <ul><li>Concealed Fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bursts out of a hidden void </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As dangerous as a building collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to simulate in training exercises </li></ul></ul>5
    12. 12. Rapid Development of a Fire <ul><li>Flashovers </li></ul><ul><li>Backdrafts </li></ul><ul><li>Flameovers </li></ul>5
    13. 13. Preventing Fatalities <ul><li>Ventilation is essential in limiting risks to fire fighters operating inside the building. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation can cause backdrafts, flashovers, or flameovers. </li></ul>5
    14. 14. After a Fire <ul><li>Research abnormal situations </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate unusual heat, smoke, or burning </li></ul><ul><li>Revamp fire command and attack procedures </li></ul>5
    15. 15. Fire Growth <ul><li>Influenced by building construction </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by the materials lining the walls and ceilings of the space </li></ul>5
    16. 16. Flame Spread <ul><li>Also known as fire growth </li></ul><ul><li>Still a problem for fire prevention staffs </li></ul>5
    17. 17. Examples of Fire Growth <ul><li>Cocoanut Grove nightclub fire in Boston </li></ul><ul><li>Soldier’s hostel in Newfoundland </li></ul><ul><li>Mercy Hospital in Iowa </li></ul><ul><li>Dorothy Mae Apartments </li></ul><ul><li>Elliott Chambers Boarding House </li></ul>5
    18. 18. Combustible Tile Ceilings <ul><li>Suspended from ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a void in which explosive carbon monoxide gas can be generated and stored </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a violent explosion </li></ul>5
    19. 19. Examples of Fires Involving Combustible Tile Ceilings <ul><li>Silver Spring, Maryland, in 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Orlando, Florida </li></ul>5
    20. 20. Building or Content Hazard? (1 of 2) <ul><li>Building Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed </li></ul></ul>5
    21. 21. Building or Content Hazard? (2 of 2) <ul><li>Contents Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furnishings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior finish, including decorations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercantile stock </li></ul></ul>5
    22. 22. Hidden Building Elements <ul><li>Batt Insulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is fiberglass or rock-wool insulation with various thicknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laid in ceilings and must be kept free of light fixtures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The paper vapor seal gives a phenomenal flame spread. </li></ul></ul>5
    23. 23. Other Hidden Building Elements and Examples (1 of 3) <ul><li>A supermarket with a combustible ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>An electrical fire that ignited the vapor seal of the insulation </li></ul><ul><li>A torch set fire to the paper vapor seal on the insulation </li></ul>5
    24. 24. Other Hidden Building Elements and Examples (2 of 3) <ul><li>Combustible fiberboard </li></ul><ul><li>Foamed-plastic insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Old air-duct insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical insulation </li></ul>5
    25. 25. Other Hidden Building Elements and Examples (3 of 3) <ul><li>Tennessee Valley Authority’s Browns Ferry Nuclear Power reactor fire </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone company building, New York City, 1975 </li></ul>5
    26. 26. Interior Finish <ul><li>Plaster </li></ul><ul><li>Matchboarding  </li></ul>5
    27. 27. Modern Interior Finishes <ul><li>Increase fire extension by surface flame spread </li></ul><ul><li>Generate smoke and toxic gases </li></ul><ul><li>Add fuel to the fire </li></ul>5
    28. 28. Low-Density Fiberboard <ul><li>Bagasse </li></ul><ul><li>Often erroneously ignited by a plumber’s torch </li></ul><ul><li>Fire often goes undetected until it erupts violently. </li></ul>5
    29. 29. Combustible Acoustical Tile <ul><li>Fiberboard punched with holes </li></ul><ul><li>Used to cover deteriorated plaster ceilings </li></ul>5
    30. 30. Industry Opposition <ul><li>St. Anthony’s Hospital fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>April 1949 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>74 deaths in the fire, mostly infants </li></ul></ul>5
    31. 31. Void Spaces <ul><li>Formed by suspended ceilings of combustible tile </li></ul><ul><li>Fire can burn undetected until it bursts out furiously. </li></ul>5
    32. 32. Remodeled Ceiling Hazards <ul><li>Code requires that a new ceiling meet flame spread requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Code does not require the removal of the old ceiling. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire can build and burst out from between the old and new ceilings. </li></ul>5
    33. 33. Adhesive <ul><li>Corridor ceilings made of combustible acoustical tile glued to gypsum board </li></ul><ul><li>The MGM Grand Hotel fire in 1980 was linked to the 12 tons of adhesive used to attach tiles to the ceiling. </li></ul>5
    34. 34. High Density Fiberboard <ul><li>Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very dense fiberboard was selected for radiation shielding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tested via the blow torch test, which is considered inadequate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long continued heat from spontaneously ignited plutonium ignited the fiberboard. </li></ul></ul>5
    35. 35. Paper <ul><li>U.S. Atomic Energy Commission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project had a temporary snow roof of hemp-reinforced bituminous impregnated paper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This paper has a very high flame spread rating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A stove could have ignited the materials, but was removed. </li></ul></ul>5
    36. 36. Fabrics <ul><li>Flames spread rapidly on gasoline- and paraffin-impregnated canvas. </li></ul>5
    37. 37. Cork and Rattan <ul><li>Cork on the ceiling as decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Cork paneling </li></ul><ul><li>Rattan ceilings </li></ul>5
    38. 38. Wood <ul><li>Very popular and common </li></ul><ul><li>The unexposed side of plywood can burn unobserved and protected from fire department streams. </li></ul>5
    39. 39. Plastics <ul><li>Rigid-foamed polyurethane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for interior finish in many houses </li></ul></ul>5
    40. 40. Plastics Related Fires <ul><li>1971 fire in a French nightclub </li></ul><ul><li>Fire in a disco in Dublin, Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Expo ’67 in Montreal, Canada </li></ul>5
    41. 41. Aircraft Interiors <ul><li>Aircraft fires are exacerbated by plastic seats and other interior fittings. </li></ul><ul><li>August 1990; FAA standards increased for fire and heat resistance. </li></ul>5
    42. 42. Acoustical Treatment <ul><li>Flame spread consequences of materials used are not always known. </li></ul><ul><li>Station nightclub in West Warwick, Rhode Island </li></ul>5
    43. 43. Open-Plan Offices <ul><li>Where do the corridors begin and end? </li></ul><ul><li>Corridors should have rated walls and doors. </li></ul><ul><li>“If there is no wall there is no room.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is all a corridor. </li></ul></ul>5
    44. 44. Carpeting <ul><li>Now used on walls and ceilings </li></ul><ul><li>1980 fire in the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel </li></ul><ul><li>Carpeting on daycare center walls is dangerous. </li></ul>5
    45. 45. Alterations <ul><li>Be aware of building alterations with interior finish materials that would not have been permitted during construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Combustible paneling </li></ul>5
    46. 46. Decorations and Contents <ul><li>Christmas trees were common fire hazards. </li></ul><ul><li>Decorations and furniture are difficult to control from a fire prevention perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Halloween haunted houses are a concern. </li></ul>5
    47. 47. Fires from Decorations <ul><li>Six Flags Haunted Castle in New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Girls’ dormitory in Rhode Island </li></ul><ul><li>A water treatment plant under construction </li></ul><ul><li>Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Science and Technology </li></ul>5
    48. 48. Today’s Fire Loads <ul><li>Both fire loads and rates of heat release are increasing. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid and foamed plastics replacing wood, cotton, wool, and other materials have often unrecognized hazards. </li></ul>5
    49. 49. First Interstate Bank Fire <ul><li>Floor had open spaces crammed with computers and related equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid fire spread </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Research Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) report discusses this fire. </li></ul>5
    50. 50. Hotel Remodeling <ul><li>Mattresses and furniture are removed from rooms and stored in hallways. </li></ul><ul><li>Targets for arson </li></ul>5
    51. 51. Regulations <ul><li>Little on national level, but some state and municipal involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City of Boston </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Port Authority of New York and New Jersey </li></ul></ul>5
    52. 52. Certification of Interior Designers <ul><li>New York State requires two examinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One on interior design itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other on building codes and fire safety </li></ul></ul>5
    53. 53. Residential Fire Tests <ul><li>National Bureau of Standards (NBS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted fire tests on the contents of typical residential basement recreation rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study the full report. </li></ul></ul>5
    54. 54. Available Films <ul><li>National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) produced movies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire: Countdown to Disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Power </li></ul></ul>5
    55. 55. Difficulties <ul><li>Materials used in building interiors can be confusing. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific information is required to make an accurate assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t make assumptions. </li></ul>5
    56. 56. Control of Rapid Fire Growth (1 of 4) <ul><li>Eliminate high flame-spread surfaces. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign ships may contain combustible trim and veneer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. merchant ships severely limit the combustibility of construction materials and surface finishes. </li></ul></ul>5
    57. 57. Control of Rapid Fire Growth (2 of 4) <ul><li>Cut off extensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some codes require a metal door sill separating more flammable materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective only if the door is closed </li></ul></ul>5
    58. 58. Control of Rapid Fire Growth (3 of 4) <ul><li>Coat the material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire-retardant surface coatings are effective only if applied as specified and not too thinly. </li></ul></ul>5
    59. 59. Control of Rapid Fire Growth (4 of 4) <ul><ul><li>Wooden materials can also be formulated to be flame resistant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One manufacturer has produced structural glass-fiber-reinforced plastics. </li></ul></ul>5
    60. 60. Testing and Rating Materials <ul><li>First attempts at testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed due to inexact, legally unenforceable language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developing adequate tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests must be consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests also should be reproducible </li></ul></ul>5
    61. 61. NFPA 255 <ul><li>Commonly referred to as the Steiner Tunnel Test </li></ul><ul><li>Sample 25 feet long and 2 feet wide forms the top of a tunnel or long box. </li></ul><ul><li>A gas fire is lighted at one end; fire progresses along the underside. </li></ul>5
    62. 62. NFPA 255 Test Results <ul><li>Class A: 0–25 </li></ul><ul><li>Class B: 26–75 </li></ul><ul><li>Class C: 76–200 </li></ul>5
    63. 63. Building Codes <ul><li>Most rely on the tunnel test standard </li></ul><ul><li>Class A flame-spread rating for corridors and exit ways </li></ul><ul><li>Less restrictive requirements for offices </li></ul>5
    64. 64. Running the Tunnel Test <ul><li>“Smoke developed” is measured and indexed. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated by measuring the obscuration as the smoke passes a photoelectric cell </li></ul><ul><li>Materials with ratings of 300 or more generate substantial amounts of smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>This testing standard is widely accepted. </li></ul>5
    65. 65. Fire Rated <ul><li>Term often causes confusion in the building trades. </li></ul><ul><li>Term is without a specific meaning. </li></ul>5
    66. 66. The Radiant Panel Test <ul><li>NBS developed the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) E162, Radiant Panel Flame Spread Test. </li></ul><ul><li>Samples measure only 6 by 18 inches. </li></ul><ul><li>Is more fully described in the NFPA Fire Protection Handbook </li></ul>5
    67. 67. Factory Mutual Corner Test <ul><li>Corner test </li></ul><ul><li>Simulates an actual fire within the corner of a building </li></ul><ul><li>Walls are up to 25 feet high. </li></ul><ul><li>The exposure fire is a pile of pallets. </li></ul>5
    68. 68. Carpet Tests <ul><li>Floor covering is contributing factor in a number of serious fires. </li></ul><ul><li>Current standards require the passing of the screening test. </li></ul><ul><li>Seven out of eight samples must pass the test. </li></ul>5
    69. 69. Test for Spreading Flames <ul><li>NFPA 253: Standard Method of Test for Critical Radiant Flux of Floor Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source </li></ul>5
    70. 70. Radiant Flux Test <ul><li>Radiant Flux Test (NFPA 253) measures resistance to flame spread. </li></ul><ul><li>Test gives the critical radiant flux (CRF) of the sample. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the CRF number, the less flammable the carpeting </li></ul>5
    71. 71. Classes of Interior Floor Finish Ratings <ul><li>Class I: ≥ CRF minimum of 0.45 watt/sq cm </li></ul><ul><li>Class II: ≥ CRF minimum of 0.22 watt/sq cm </li></ul>5
    72. 72. Don’t Be Mousetrapped <ul><li>Be wary of conducting your own tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave testing to the experts. </li></ul>5
    73. 73. Research <ul><li>Present efforts to improve building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Continued challenges </li></ul>5
    74. 74. Fire and Smoke Containment <ul><li>Products of Combustion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctions must be made among smoke, particles, and fire gases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke and toxic gases are more significant as fire killers than is thermal exposure. </li></ul></ul>5
    75. 75. Smoke <ul><li>First warning of most fires </li></ul><ul><li>Does considerable damage </li></ul><ul><li>May reduces visibility to zero </li></ul>5
    76. 76. Gases <ul><li>Can cause injury or death </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide (CO) can paralyze or slow human ability to function or escape. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) is as great a danger as CO. </li></ul>5
    77. 77. Toxic Effect of Gas <ul><li>A product of concentration and exposure time </li></ul><ul><li>Habel’s Rule </li></ul><ul><li>CO is the most common toxic fire gas. </li></ul>5
    78. 78. Other Fire Gases <ul><li>Nitric acid and hydrochloric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrocellulose base film in commercial motion pictures and x-rays </li></ul>5
    79. 79. Flammability <ul><li>Gases can accumulate in any enclosed area. </li></ul><ul><li>Overpressures occur when gases ignite. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas ignites when sufficient oxygen is available. </li></ul><ul><li>CO detonation can blow buildings apart. </li></ul><ul><li>CO is flammable. </li></ul>5
    80. 80. Smoke vs. Gases <ul><li>Have different physical effects on people. </li></ul><ul><li>Old-style filter masks let odorless CO through. </li></ul><ul><li>CO can stratify above a fire, creating death clouds. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke particles can plug up screens. </li></ul>5
    81. 81. Smoke Damage <ul><li>Water damage is often considered the most expensive byproduct of fire suppression. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke damage may be the most expensive byproduct of a fire. </li></ul>5
    82. 82. Contaminated Smoke <ul><li>Cost of cleanup can be astronomical. </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive material can damage living tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) </li></ul>5
    83. 83. Corrosion <ul><li>Equipment, brickwork, and concrete can be damaged by corrosive products of combustion. </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics can form corrosive acids when combined with hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul>5
    84. 84. Gravity <ul><li>Pulls down on surrounding heavier, colder air, causing lighter, heated air to rise upward </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity vents  </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical vents  </li></ul>5
    85. 85. Containment of Fire (1 of 4) <ul><li>Compartmentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating fire areas no larger than one floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All connections between floors designed to stop the spread of fires. </li></ul></ul>5
    86. 86. Containment of Fire (2 of 4) <ul><li>Sprinklers above stairway openings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required by some fire departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No proof that this will prevent the extension of fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will not stop smoke and gases </li></ul></ul>5
    87. 87. Containment of Fire (3 of 4) <ul><li>Self-closing doors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered a nuisance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stairway doors are often blocked open with wooden wedges. </li></ul></ul>5
    88. 88. Containment of Fire (4 of 4) <ul><li>Enclosing stairways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open grand staircase was a crowning architectural feature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1940s, an effort was made to enclose open stairways. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stairway is a transmitter of smoke and heat. </li></ul></ul>5
    89. 89. Fire Door Closure Devices <ul><li>Self-closing </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic </li></ul>5
    90. 90. Inspections of Closure Devices <ul><li>Should include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating fire doors and shutters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterweights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusible links </li></ul></ul>5
    91. 91. Problems with Closure Devices <ul><li>Closure devices may be completely inadequate to control smoke movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people block open self-closing doors. </li></ul>5
    92. 92. Smoke-Sensitive Releases <ul><li>Door latch system can be triggered automatically. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy doors are held by mechanical latches. </li></ul><ul><li>Doors can be controlled individually. </li></ul>5
    93. 93. Horizontal Exits and Smoke Barriers <ul><li>Horizontal exits reduce travel distances and subdivide floors. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke barriers give occupants a smoke-free area </li></ul>5
    94. 94. Escalators <ul><li>Strong resistance to enclosing escalators </li></ul><ul><li>Water spray nozzles can be directed downward through the opening. </li></ul><ul><li>A line of sprinklers can be located around the escalators. </li></ul>5
    95. 95. Public Education <ul><li>Misinformation from movies and TV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backdraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defending Your Life </li></ul></ul>5
    96. 96. Smoke Detectors <ul><li>Detectors are often missing or out of service. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: ionization and photoelectric </li></ul><ul><li>Fire protection and fire detection are not synonymous. </li></ul>5
    97. 97. Unwarranted Alarms <ul><li>Alarms transmitted erroneously </li></ul><ul><li>Some cities have instituted penalties for repeated, unwarranted alarms. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a disincentive for reporting a fire </li></ul>5
    98. 98. Ventilation (1 of 2) <ul><li>Compartmentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cut off a fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create unventilated compartments </li></ul></ul>5
    99. 99. Ventilation (2 of 2) <ul><li>Makes building habitable for occupants and fire fighters </li></ul><ul><li>New Law Tenement House Act </li></ul>5
    100. 100. Fire <ul><li>Book published in 1903 included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A design for automatic vents tripped by fusible links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception to “Don’t vent till you have water.” </li></ul></ul>5
    101. 101. Theaters <ul><li>Designed so that a fire could occur and the occupants would be protected from the combustion products. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic vents above the stage reduce the pressure on the proscenium fire curtain. </li></ul>5
    102. 102. Holland Tunnel <ul><li>Designed to reduce the maximum amount of CO that could be generated by auto exhausts to an acceptable level </li></ul><ul><li>Airflow required would be 50 mph. </li></ul><ul><li>Triple tunnel arrangement </li></ul>5
    103. 103. Eurotunnel “Chunnel” <ul><li>A service tunnel between the two train tunnels is kept at a higher pressure than the train tunnels to exclude smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>Access is provided through “smokeproof” doors. </li></ul>5
    104. 104. Fire Department Ventilation <ul><li>Consisted of opening and breaking windows and cutting holes in the roof </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke ejectors were developed to increase the volume of airflow. </li></ul><ul><li>Fans were used to exhaust smoke, generally during overhaul. </li></ul>5
    105. 105. Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Automatic sprinkler systems </li></ul><ul><li>Standpipe systems </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Alarm detection and communication systems </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Other fire protection systems </li></ul>5
    106. 106. Automatic Sprinkler Systems <ul><li>Sprinklers were once almost exclusively installed in factory and mercantile buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, sprinkler designs have been developed specifically for multiple dwellings and single-family homes. </li></ul>5
    107. 107. Types of Sprinkler Systems <ul><li>Wet pipe </li></ul><ul><li>Dry pipe </li></ul><ul><li>Preaction </li></ul><ul><li>Deluge </li></ul>5
    108. 108. Design and Operation of Sprinkler Systems <ul><li>Hydraulically designed </li></ul><ul><li>Only a certain number of heads operating </li></ul><ul><li>Each head flows a specific amount of water </li></ul><ul><li>Prewetting </li></ul>5
    109. 109. Density and Demand <ul><li>Density is the unit rate of water application to an area or surface; expressed in gallons per minute per square foot (gpm/ft 2 )[(L/min)/m2]. </li></ul><ul><li>Demand area is the gpm/ft 2 required within a sprinkler system. </li></ul>5
    110. 110. Sprinkler Installation Incentives (1 of 3) <ul><li>Typical code incentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heights and areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of corridors and tenant separations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior finishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel distances to exits and exit widths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standpipe requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire detection systems and draftstopping in attic spaces </li></ul></ul>5
    111. 111. Sprinkler Installation Incentives (2 of 3) <ul><li>Site development incentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer fire hydrants with greater spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced fire flow, small supply pipe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased allowable distance from public access way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street width reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cul-de-sac allowances </li></ul></ul>5
    112. 112. Sprinkler Installation Incentives (3 of 3) <ul><li>Tax or insurance incentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of value of sprinkler system from assessed valuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property tax rebates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of water department fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance premium reductions </li></ul></ul>5
    113. 113. Opposition to Sprinklers <ul><li>Not everyone supports automatic sprinklers. </li></ul><ul><li>Some claim that sprinklers are ugly. </li></ul>5
    114. 114. Popular Misconceptions About Sprinkler Systems (1 of 2) <ul><li>The sprinkler system will discharge on even a trifling fire.  </li></ul><ul><li>The entire building will be drowned when the sprinklers go off.  </li></ul><ul><li>The pulling of a manual fire alarm box will set off all the sprinklers.  </li></ul><ul><li>The pipes might leak.  </li></ul>5
    115. 115. Popular Misconceptions About Sprinkler Systems (2 of 2) <ul><li>Smoke is the big killer so smoke detectors are better than sprinklers.  </li></ul><ul><li>We have smoke detectors and the fire department is right down the block.  </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinklers cause damage to libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke detectors set off all the sprinklers.  </li></ul>5
    116. 116. Fire Activities to Correct Erroneous Opinions <ul><li>Sprinkler demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinklers and flammable liquids  </li></ul>5
    117. 117. Fire Service Misconceptions (1 of 2) <ul><li>Building is sprinklered; there is no problem.  </li></ul><ul><li>Supplying the fire department connection (FDC) is a secondary operation.  </li></ul>5
    118. 118. Fire Service Misconceptions (2 of 2) <ul><li>Sprinklers should be shut down as soon as possible to prevent excessive water damage or to clear the air.  </li></ul><ul><li>Residential sprinklers are the same as other sprinkler systems. </li></ul>5
    119. 119. The Fire Department and Sprinklers <ul><li>Fire chiefs support automatic sprinklers. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkler protection often is traded off for concessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire department should take action when notified of a sprinkler shutoff or other disabling functions. </li></ul>5
    120. 120. Non-Working Sprinklers <ul><li>What should happen when the fire department learns that a sprinkler system is out of service? </li></ul><ul><li>Fire department should have no hesitation in shutting a building until sprinklers are fixed. </li></ul>5
    121. 121. Why Were Sprinklers Installed? <ul><li>Determine reasons for installation.  </li></ul><ul><li>What might happen if system not working? </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t hesitate to close building until system problems are corrected. </li></ul>5
    122. 122. Fire Department Policy <ul><li>Fire department notification </li></ul><ul><li>Formal legal action </li></ul><ul><li>Informal action </li></ul><ul><li>Authority to modify requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Formal personnel instruction </li></ul>5
    123. 123. Fire Department Instruction <ul><li>Should provide an understanding of why sprinklers were installed </li></ul><ul><li>Should cover fire department policy </li></ul><ul><li>Should provide knowledge of situations that decrease efficiency of sprinklers </li></ul>5
    124. 124. Company-Level Inspections <ul><li>Water supply or water distribution problems </li></ul><ul><li>Some systems depend solely on the city water main pressure to provide adequate sprinkler flow. </li></ul>5
    125. 125. Sprinkler Fraud <ul><li>A sprinkler contractor in California was discovered to have installed unconnected sprinklers that were simply glued to the ceiling. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection of sprinkler systems should look beyond the obvious. </li></ul>5
    126. 126. Management <ul><li>Management is managing the fire department, rather than managing the fire problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Have sprinkler system protocols in your standard operating procedures (SOPs). </li></ul>5
    127. 127. Special Situations <ul><li>Most flammable liquids float on water. </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable liquids have a high Btu (British thermal unit) content. </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable liquid containers can result in a BLEVE (boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion). </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff water may create a significant contamination problem. </li></ul>5
    128. 128. Protection of Glass Fire Barriers <ul><li>Wetting must occur early to avoid thermal shock to hot glass. </li></ul><ul><li>Window treatments should not be installed between the glass and the sprinklers. </li></ul>5
    129. 129. Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR) Sprinklers <ul><li>Early discharge of a larger quantity of water </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkler orifice is 0.75 inches; conventional sprinklers are 0.5 inches. </li></ul>5
    130. 130. Standpipe Systems <ul><li>Fixed networks of piping and hose valves </li></ul><ul><li>Installed in tall and/or large buildings to provide quick fire attack </li></ul><ul><li>Classes are I through III. </li></ul>5
    131. 131. Standpipe Operations <ul><li>Class I through III used throughout 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>One Meridian Plaza fire </li></ul><ul><li>Need for thorough preplanning </li></ul>5
    132. 132. Standpipes Water Supply Classifications <ul><li>Automatic-wet standpipe system </li></ul><ul><li>Semiautomatic-dry standpipe system </li></ul><ul><li>Manual-dry standpipe system </li></ul><ul><li>Manual-wet standpipe system </li></ul>5
    133. 133. NFPA 72: National Fire Alarm Code Initiating Devices (1 of 2) <ul><li>Manual pull stations </li></ul><ul><li>Spot type smoke detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Line type smoke detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Duct smoke detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Spot type heat detectors </li></ul>5
    134. 134. NFPA 72: National Fire Alarm Code Initiating Devices (2 of 2) <ul><li>Line type heat detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Gas detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Flame detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Water flow switches and water pressure switches </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisory switches </li></ul>5
    135. 135. Indicating Devices <ul><li>Strobes, horns, chimes, buzzers, and sirens </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers and lamps </li></ul>5
    136. 136. Panels <ul><li>No design standards </li></ul><ul><li>Small red and yellow lights may give you information. </li></ul><ul><li>Devices often are grouped by zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire alarm systems that are positioned with fire fighter communication systems are not very useful. </li></ul>5
    137. 137. Preplanning Considerations <ul><li>Area(s) protected by the system </li></ul><ul><li>Types of detection and other initiating devices </li></ul><ul><li>Location of alarm panel and any remote annunciators </li></ul><ul><li>Type of panel and type of zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Silence switch </li></ul>5
    138. 138. Smoke Management Systems <ul><li>Smoke control </li></ul><ul><li>Purge </li></ul><ul><li>Zoned smoke control </li></ul><ul><li>Air flow </li></ul><ul><li>Original design and testing criteria </li></ul>5
    139. 139. Design Requirements and Guidelines <ul><li>International Building Code </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 92A </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 92B </li></ul>5
    140. 140. Control Panel <ul><li>Most use toggle switches to turn on/off various parts of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Beware of a wrong flip of a switch. </li></ul>5
    141. 141. Preplanning Knowledge <ul><li>System and the type of smoke management </li></ul><ul><li>Location and extent of system </li></ul><ul><li>System design criteria </li></ul><ul><li>A step-by-step sequence of system operation </li></ul><ul><li>Location and description of control panel </li></ul>5
    142. 142. Firefighting Considerations <ul><li>Assess the system operation. </li></ul><ul><li>When activating a system manually, let all fire fighters know so they will not be endangered. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave a fire fighter with a radio at the system controls. </li></ul>5
    143. 143. Other Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Dry chemical and foam </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and clean agent </li></ul><ul><li>Halon </li></ul><ul><li>Water mist or water spray </li></ul><ul><li>Total flooding or local </li></ul>5
    144. 144. Summary (1 of 3) <ul><li>Fire containment is a primary objective of fire fighters. </li></ul><ul><li>Terms describing combustibility and flammability are not always used accurately or in a technically accurate way. </li></ul>5
    145. 145. Summary (2 of 3) <ul><li>Collapsing buildings are a hazard to fire fighters, but concealed fires and rapid fire spread are also very hazardous. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire growth and spread are influenced by building construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire loads and rates of heat release are higher today. </li></ul>
    146. 146. Summary (3 of 3) <ul><li>Compartmentation creates fire areas no larger than one floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Venting makes the conditions inside a fire building somewhat habitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire suppression and detection systems are critical to fire protection. </li></ul>