Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors
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  • 1. Dr. Soumya Nath Maiti IMO Chairperson Dr. F.A Sattar HOD, Dept of Psychiatry VIMS n RC
  • 2. I. Introduction II. Pharamacodynamics III.Pharmacokinetics IV.Therapeutic Indications V.Precautions and Adverse Reactions VI.Drug Interactions VII.Summary Overview
  • 3. The introduction of the first phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor, sildenafil (Viagra), in 1998 revolutionized the treatment of the major sexual dysfunction affecting men as erectile disorder. They are also being misused as recreational drugs that are believed to enhance sexual performance.These drugs have been used by more than 20 million men, if not more, around the world.  Sildenafil was originally developed to treat angina pectoris but later on was recognized as novel treatment option for impotence.To date, sildenafil has been the most extensively studied PDE-5 inhibitor. Introduction
  • 4. The development of sildenafil provided important information about the physiology of erection. Sexual stimulation causes the release of the neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO), which increases the synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), causing smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum that allows blood to flow into the penis and that results in turgidity. The concentration of cGMP is regulated by the enzyme PDE-5, which, when inhibited, allows cGMP to increase and enhance erectile function. Because sexual stimulation is required to cause the release of NO, PDE-5 inhibitors have no effect in the absence of such stimulation Pharamacodynamics
  • 5. Absorption - Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, with maximal plasma concentrations reached in 30 to 120 minutes.Because it is lipophilic, concomitant ingestion of a high-fat meal delays the rate of absorption Excretion - Excretion of 80 percent of the dose is via feces, and another 13 percent is eliminated in the urine. Elimination is reduced in persons over age 65 years, Elimination is also reduced in the presence of severe renal or hepatic insufficiency. Pharmacokinetics
  • 6. Half life -The mean half-lives of sildenafil and vardenafil are 3 to 4 hours and that of tadalafil is about 18 hours. Tadalafil can be detected in the bloodstream 5 days after ingestion, and because of its long half-life, it has been marketed as effective for up to 36 hours.
  • 7. Erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunctions have traditionally been classified as organic, psychogenic, or mixed. Over the last 20 years, the prevailing view of the cause of erectile dysfunction has shifted away from psychological causes toward organic causes.The latter include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, peripheral vascular disease, pelvic or abdominal surgery (especially, prostate surgery), multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathy, and Parkinson's disease. Therapeutic Indications
  • 8. Pulmonary Hypertension – Because PDE5 is also present in the arterial wall smooth muscle within the lungs, PDE5 inhibitors have also been explored for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Sildenafil is more selective for pulmonary circultaion than vardenafil, and is the only PDE 5 inhibitor shown to improve arterial oxygenation in PAH
  • 9. Other Uses Currently two more PDE-5 inhibitors, tadalafil and vardenafil, are under study. Newer compounds have certain advantages over sildenafil, including greater selectivity for PDE-5 compared with other isoenzymes, absence of effect of food on absorption, faster onset and longer duration of action.
  • 10. PDE-5 inhibitors are emerging as novel therapeutic tools with a potential to protect or enhance endothelial function in humans and to selectively improve regional blood flow.The FDA has recently approved a reformulation of sildenafil for the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon, respiratory disorders with ventilation/perfusion mismatch, congestive cardiac failure, hypertension and stroke are the other conditions in which PDE-5 inhibitors are being tried. Tadalafil
  • 11. Myocardial infraction The most important potential adverse effect associated with use of these drugs is myocardial infarction (MI). FDA distinguished the risk of MI caused directly by these drugs from that caused by underlying conditions, such as hypertension, atherosclerotic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and other atherogenic conditions. Increased oxygen demand and stress is placed on the cardiac muscle by sexual intercourse, however.Thus, coronary perfusion may be severely compromised and cardiac failure may occur as a result. Precautions and Adverse Reactions
  • 12. Non arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy Recently there have been 50 reports and 14 verfied cases of a serious condition in men taking Sildenafil called non arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION).This is an eye ailment that causes restriction of blood flow to the optic nerve and can result in permanent vision loss. The first symptoms appear within 24 hours after use of Sildenafil and include blurred vision and some degree of vision loss. The incidence of this effect is very rare. In the reported cases, many patients had preexisting eye problems which may have increased their risk.
  • 13. Common adverse effects- Headache, flushing, and stomach pain. Less common adverse effects - Nasal congestion, urinary tract infection, abnormal vision, increased sensitivity to light, or blurred vision), diarrhea, dizziness, and rash. Use of PDE-5 inhibitors is contraindicated in persons who are taking organic nitrates in any form.The combination of organic nitrates and PDE inhibitors can cause a precipitous lowering of blood pressure (BP) and can reduce coronary perfusion to the point of causing MI and death.
  • 14. Sildenafil - Sildenafil is available as 25-, 50-, and 100- mg tablets. The recommended dose of sildenafil is 50 mg taken by mouth 1 hour prior to intercourse. The duration of the effect is usually 4 hours, Based on effectiveness and adverse effects, the dose should be titrated between 25 and 100 mg. Sildenafil is recommended for use no more than once a day. Vardenafil - Vardenafil is supplied in 2.5-, 5-, 10-, and 20-mg tablets. The initial dose is usually 10 mg taken with or without food about 1 hour before sexual activity. The dose can be increased to a maximum of 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg based on efficacy and side effects. Dosage and Clinical Guidelines
  • 15. Tadalafil -The recommended dose of tadalafil is 10 mg before sexual activity, which may be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg, depending on efficacy and side effects. Because of its long half-life, it should probably not be used more than once every 36 hours,
  • 16. The major route of PDE-5 metabolism is through CYP450 (CYP) 3A4, and the minor route is through CYP 2C9. Inducers or inhibitors of these enzymes, therefore, will affect the plasma concentration and half-life of sildenafil. For example, 800 mg of cimetidine, a nonspecific CYP inhibitor, increases plasma sildenafil concentrations by 56 percent, Erythromycin (E-mycin) increases plasma sildenafil concentrations by 182 percent. Drug Interactions
  • 17. PDE 5 inhibitors are effective regardless of the baseline severity of erectile dysfunction, race, or age.  PDE 5 inhibitors increase cGMP to enhance erectile function Sildenafil is more selective for pulmonary circultaion than vardenafil, and is the only PDE 5 inhibitor shown to improve arterial oxygenation in PAH The most important potential adverse effect associated with use of these drugs is myocardial infarction (MI). Use of PDE-5 inhibitors is contraindicated in persons who are taking organic nitrates Sildenafil is recommended for use no more than once a day. Dosage is between 25 mg 100mg Summary
  • 18. Kaplan & Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry, 10th Edition by Sadock, Benjamin James; Sadock,Virginia Alcott p 1079-1080 Essentials of Medical pharamcology by K D Tripathi Principals of pharmacology by Bennet and Brown References