Organizing For Innovation & Growth
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Organizing For Innovation & Growth

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Some thoughts on how to organize for innovation and growth.

Some thoughts on how to organize for innovation and growth.

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  • Organizing for InnovationOrganizational models that support strategic innovationor most organizations, the ability to deliver innovative solutions on a sustainable basis requires them to look within and to renew the fabric of the business itself. There are three aspects of this internally-focused innovation:· Culture – the mindset and norms that allowindividuals and teams to think imaginatively, to take prudent risks, and to seek out, create and introduceinnovative solutions· Process – the general business processes andpractices that enable functional groups to operate effectively and collaborate toward a common goal –as well as a robust set of innovation methodologies and tools· Structure – organizational structures andsupporting technologies that enable collaboration across functional linesThis paper looks at the third aspect and briefly describes six organizational models that supportinnovation, each with different goals and levels of formality and complexity. All except the “ambidextrousorganization” are relatively informal, “virtual” models in which the personnel involved continue to report into their traditional functional groups.Innovation Project TeamThis is a multi-disciplinary virtual team that works together for a finite period – perhaps to identifyinnovation opportunities and/or to deliver a specific project. The team is comprised of (1) different functions (e.g., consumer insights, R&D, marketing, brand management, manufacturing, channel management, sales, and from outside the sponsoring business unit or geography, etc.), (2) different levels and perspectives (decision makers, subject matter experts and implementers), and (3) different mindsets (strategic thinkers comfortable with an ambiguous, exploratory process, and pragmatic, operational thinkers.Expert NetworkThis is a set of individuals inside an organization with specialized expertise/knowledge who are known as the “Go To” persons on that topic. Typically, these individuals do not often interact with each other, but arecalled upon independently as needed. However, some combination of the network may be brought together on an “event” basis to address a specific issue. As these experts become more actively involved with each other, an Expert Network might evolve to become a Community of Practice. Sometimes a set of content experts from outside the organization may be formed as an external Advisory Board.Shared Services OrganizationSome enterprises establish corporate-level functional groups to provide specialized services (e.g., “Corporate Marketing”, “Corporate Market Research”, “Central R&D”) that act as a resource to their counterpart functions in the business units. These groups often offer specialized skill sets not available at the BU level. They may conduct ongoing research (e.g., scanning for emerging technologies, large-scale trend analysis) or short-term projects, or seek out and contract with specialized third party resources.These shared services groups are tightly aligned with the needs of the business units, so that they can deliver explicit value. At the same time, part of their charter is to “push the envelope” of BU-level thinking, by engaging in activities and explorations that are not on the business unit’s radar screen. Example: 3M.Innovation Community of PracticeA “Community of Practice” is a self-governing, multidisciplinary virtual community focused on learning,generating knowledge and building capability around a specific topic – in this case, Innovation. One goal of such a community is to gather “tacit knowledge” so it can be leveraged as “explicit knowledge” that becomes more accessible across the organization. Supported by a technology platform with onlinecollaborative tools, an Innovation Community of Practice might share several types of information: marketresearch, consumer insights, “work-in-progress thinking”, specific new product platforms and concepts,procedures, templates, best practices/“next practices”, and an “idea bank”. Over time the goals, levels of formality and participant roster of the community will change. After initially focusing on information sharing, the community may evolve so that members collaborate in real time on specific projects. A successful community is not viewed as a “rogue activity”, but is acknowledged and supported by senior management as a critical enabler and driver of innovation across the organization.Ambidextrous OrganizationThis is a small, autonomous, multi-disciplinary group, whose role is to drive rapid implementation. Thiscohesive group typically has its own staff, a physically distinct location, separate funding, discrete performance metrics, and often a highly entrepreneurial culture, etc. This relatively independent operating structure is intended to allow the group to effectively manage its own destiny without interference from the larger organization. With “starved resources” a reality at many large organizations, functional managers are often reluctant to allocate funding and staff, especially to projects they perceive as risky, or that don’t help them meet their own performance metrics. The ambidextrous approach establishes strong operating agreements that protect fragile start-ups or experimental ventures, especially in the area offinancial and human resource allocation. The ambidextrous organization draws upon selectedcorporate resources (both initially and over time) and may in some cases have special provisionsthat facilitate better access to resources or quicker turnaround. Example: 8th Continent, a jointventure by DuPont and General Mills.Innovation CouncilComposed of senior personnel from various functions (e.g., an executive sponsor for enterprise innovation, R&D, business line executives, marketing, finance, HR, etc.), the Innovation Council’s role is to establish corporate priorities for new ventures, and to sponsor and support entrepreneurial efforts that may drive growth in new areas. A “venture team” (or an individual) with an unfunded idea or business concept presents a proposal to the Council. The Council provides feedback, funds the most promising ventures, provides a variety of resources and facilitates introductions to external parties that can provide support. Examples: Intel, HP, IBM, 3M, Shell.First stepsSeveral of these models (as well as the usual informal interactions between functional groups) may exist within an organization at the same time. All help an enterprise drive growth by taking a strategic approach to innovation. Some models arise and evolve spontaneously, while others need to be intentionallycreated and managed. As seen below, increasing levels of complexity are accompanied by increasingcommitments in terms of cost, time and maintenance. At the same time the organization will benefit from the “social capital” that drives sustainable innovation, namely personal networks, cross-functional trust and shared values. There is no typical “migration path” that an enterprise would follow. When exploring alternative organizational structures the first steps are to understand what kinds of structures currently exist within the enterprise, and then to assess the extent to which these structures are aligned with and support the organization’s strategic goals. The key is to choose the organizational model(s) thatbest supports strategy execution. Too little organization results in poor execution, while too much results in excessive cost.About InnovationPoint LLCInnovationPoint is a non-traditional consulting firm that helps its Fortune 1000 clients take a strategic approach to innovation. InnovationPoint blends traditional and unconventional methodologies to identify breakthrough opportunities, develop growth strategies and new products, and to align organizational strategy and design in a way that supports sustainable innovation. InnovationPoint’s clients include Hewlett-Packard, Cisco, PepsiCo, Frito-Lay, Philips, Charles Schwab and Nestlé.

Organizing For Innovation & Growth Organizing For Innovation & Growth Presentation Transcript

  • „The organizational designs that support innovation are very different from those that support delivery of current performance.“
    John Roberts, Professor of Economics, Strategic Management, and International Business Stanford Graduate School of Business
  • But…what are they???
    14 March 2008
    2
    © Marc Sniukas
  • Organizing for Innovation & Growth
    A synthesis of readings & research findings
  • Organizing for Innovation + Efficiency
    Exploitation
    Achieve maximal performance delivering the current strategy
    Requires organisational designs that facilitate focus and execution
    No slack
    Continous innovations in the current business
    Exploration
    Develop new opportunities
    High uncertainty
    Depends on slack
    Radical innovations outside the current paradigm
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    4
    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • Organizing for Performance
    Exploitation
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    5
  • The Disaggregated Model
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    6
    Key Architectual Elements
    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • The Disaggregated Model
    High strategic focus
    Divest unrelated businesses
    Focus activities to a select set
    Focus on the activities where the organization can create most value
    Outsourcing & vertical disintegration
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    7
    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • The Disaggregated Model
    Small subunits
    Significant decision rights
    Clear scope of responsibility
    Clear accountability
    Accountable for delivering performance(supported by outines and processes)
    Linked together by various means to manage the interdependencies
    Decreased number of management layers
    Decreased extent of central staff
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
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    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • The Disaggregated Model
    Peer groups
    Align teams, functions, and businesses into peer groups for support (instead of relying on the center)
    Introduce peer challenges on performance and targets
    Best practice sharing
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
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    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • The Disaggregated Model
    Performance incentives
    Routines and processes hold subunits accountable for delivering performance
    Tie all employees‘ compensation to performance of their unit and the overall business
    Cultural norms facilitate the pursuit and realization of improved performance
    Push (individual) performance evaluation discussions down
    Performance contracts
    Track performance closely (e.g. quarterly reviews)
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
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    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • The Disaggregated Model
    Decision making
    Improved speed and effectiveness of managerial decision-making
    Transfer decision making from the center to local management on how to run operations and how to meet performance targets
    Eliminate layers of management
    Reduce headquarters employment
    Encourage employees to take respsonsibility and exercise initiative
    Values needed: caring, trust, opennes, teamwork, cooperation
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    11
    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • The Disaggregated ModelHow to do it?
    Establish clarity about strategy and corporate policies
    Create discrete organizational units that are smaller than previously favored
    Give the units‘ leaders increased operational and strategic authority
    Hold them strictly accountable for results
    Reduce the number of layers in the hierachy (delayering)
    Reduce the number of central staff positions
    Increase incentives for performance at the unit and individual levels
    Increase rewards tied to overall performance
    Increase the resources devoted to management training and development
    Promote horizontal linkages and communication among managers, staff and peer units
    Improve information systems that facilitate both the measurement of performance and communication across units and up and down the hierachy.
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    12
    John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004 pages 232f
  • Organizing for Innovation
    Exploration
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    13
  • What does it take?
    Imagination
    Thinking outside the box
    Willingness to take significant risk
    Accept failures (and even celebrate them)
    Opennes to the new and untried
    Slack resources to generate and develop ideas
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
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    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • How to do it?
    Organizational models supporting innovation
    Establish multiple R&D groups
    Do not attempt to coordinate and rationalize activity across them
    Encourage direct communication among the groups
    Give them the freedom and autonomy to decide how and what to work on
    Performance measures & rewards: subjective evaluations or milestones achieved (not financial numbers generated)
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    15
    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • How to do it?
    Organizational models supporting innovation
    Informal interaction between functional groups
    Innovation Project Team
    Expert Network
    Shared Services Organization
    Innovation Community of Practice
    Ambidextrous Organization
    Innovation Council
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    16
    „Organizing for Innovation“ www.innovation-point.com 2004
  • Complexity and Cost
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    17
    „Organizing for Innovation“ www.innovation-point.com 2004
  • Innovation…the Tom Peters way
    A Bias for Action
    Close to the Customer
    Autonomy and Entrepreneurship
    Productivity Through People
    Hands On, Value-Driven
    Stick to the Knitting
    Simple Form, Lean Staff
    Simultaneous Loose-Tight Properties
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    18
    www.tompeters.com
  • Innovation…the Whirlpool way
    Making innovation a central topic in Whirlpool‘s leadership development programs.
    Setting aside a substantial share of capital spending every year for projects that were truly innovative.
    Requiring every product-development plan to contain a sizable component of new-to-market innovation.
    Training more than 600 innovation mentors charged with supporting innovation throughout the company.
    Enrolling every employee in an online course on business innovation.
    Establishing innovation as a large component of top management‘s long-term bonus plan.
    Setting aside time in quarterly business review meetings for an in-depth discussion of each unit‘s innovation performance
    Creating an Innovation Board to review and fast-track the company‘s most promising ideas.
    Building an innovation portal to give employees access to a compendium of innovation tools, data on the company‘s global innovation pipeline, and the chance to input their ideas.
    Developing a set of metrics to track innovation inputs, throughputs, and outputs.
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    19
    Gary Hamel „The Future of Management“ Harvard Business School Press 2007, page 30
  • „…firms must develop multiple business opportunities, and to continue to grow and survive they must do this on an ongoing basis.“
    John Roberts, Professor of Economics, Strategic Management, and International Business Stanford Graduate School of Business
  • HOW???
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    21
  • Have a portfolio of activities!
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    22
  • „Searching for new opportunities, selecting among identified opportunities, building new businesses, running existing ones, exiting others – all may need to be done at once.“
    John Roberts, Professor of Economics, Strategic Management, and International Business Stanford Graduate School of Business
  • Difficulties with Multi-Tasking
    Motivation!
    Exploratory activity is typically hard to measure in a precise and timely way.
    According behavior is hard to specify, connection between efforts and results achieved is subject to randomness
    Exploitation is more easily measured  rewarded
    Inducing one sort of behavior increases the cost of getting the other.
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    24
    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • Job Design for Multi-Tasking
    Divide the jobs: some explore, while others exploit.
    Internal competition
    Costly
    Morale problems
    Attention and energy
    Backwards integration of the new unit?
    Change the fundamental trade-offs involved, by working on the people and cultural elements of organizational design.
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    25
    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • High Commitment HRM
    Trust
    Transparency
    Empowerment
    Egalitarianism
    Job enrichment
    Teamwork
    Abscence of explicit individual monitoring and performance pay
    Employees identifying their interests and those of the firm
    Accepting the vision
    Motivation
    Personal pride
    Inspiration
    Strong identification with the company
    Fluid architecture, project teams
    Lots of opportunities for learning and taking new responsiblities
    Value-based leadership (customer satisfaction, respect for the individual, achievement, continous learning)
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
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    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • Roberts‘ How To Do It
    Strategic and organizational choices must be made holistically, recognizing the interdependencies
    Scope of the Firm: what, where, how, for whom
    How is it going to distinguish itself from competition, gain competitive advantage, create value
    Right people must be attracted, retained, assigned to different roles
    Formal architecture must be crafted to allow effective coordination and motivation
    The processes, procedures, and routines that guide and control behavior must be be developed
    The fundamental beliefs, and norms that will be shared across the firm must be created, transmitted, and adopted
    All these must mesh properly with one another, so the organization really does allow the strategy to be executed.
    The people, the networks among them, and the routines they follow must give the firm the capabilities it needs to create value.
    The system of incentives must motivate the particulat people that have been attracted to deliver the strategy and let the firm reach ist goals.
    The formal structure and the allocation of decision authority need to be aligned with where expertise liea and with what motivates the people.
    Finally, all the elements of the strategy and organization need to fit with the competitive, technological, social, legal, and regulatory realities the firm face.
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    27
    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • Roberts‘ How To Do It
    People throughout the firm must be involved, the knowledge of how things really work, how customers really behave, how choices really interact is highly dispersed.
    Leaders must provide a vision of the strategy and organization, indicating the underlying principles and how the basic trade-offs are to be resolved. They need to communicate the model in a clear and compelling way, so that others understand and embrace it and are motivated to try to realize it in designing their parts of the organization.
    The formal elements of the design can influence the networks and culture, so managers can have some indirect control over them.
    Leadship must play a crucial role in successfully shaping the culture.
    Leaders must give specific meaning to the values, which then sets the basis for the generating of expected behavior.
    Solving the problems of strategy and organization is an act of real creativity.
    Chasing after best practices is largely futile if the aim is to achieve differentiation.
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    28
    Following John Roberts „The Modern Firm“ Oxford University Press 2004
  • The Organizational Context of Strategic Innovation
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
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    Research has shown that strategically innovative companies are characterized by a distinctive organizational context enabling strategic innovation.
  • Characteristics of Strategically Innovative Companies
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    30
  • Well folks…that‘s it!
    All you‘ll have to do now is getting started!
    14 March 2008
    © Marc Sniukas
    31
  • Want more?
    © Marc Sniukas www.sevenprophets.com
    32
    10.08.2009
  • www.sevenprophets.com
    © Marc Sniukas www.sevenprophets.com
    33
    10.08.2009
  • A presentation by Marc Sniukas
    www.sniukas.com
    10.08.2009
    © Marc Sniukas www.sevenprophets.com
    34