Cause & effect analysis part 1


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Prt 1 of the Cause nd effect workshop. This claass will intorduce the use of C&E in business problem-solving and the use of tools like the Fishbone (or Ishakawa) diagram.

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  • We’ll be learning a process-improvement and problem-solving tool called the Cause and Effect Diagram. • This tool helps you gather and display all of the possible causes of a particular problem . We’ll explore how this tool works and where it can be used to help you in your work. • Along with Cause and Effect Diagrams, many other tools for continuous improvement are featured in GOAL /QPC’s training materials and can be used in combination. During this workshop, you’ll also learn about which tools fit naturally with the Cause and Effect Diagram to increase its usefulness.
  • While this workshop won’t make you an expert in facilitating the C&E process, continues use and practice can provide you with expertise over time. The more often you use a tool like this, the more flexible you will find your approach. We will keep the approach fairly basic over this workshop. Experienced facilitators with real, complex problems would use a much more advanced approach. Remember that what we would like to learn over the next couple of sessions are some basics about cause and effect analysis and some basic practice so you could participate and even support a team working though a C&E problem-solving or process improvement session.
  • It helps a team develop a snapshot of a problem by showing the possible causes of a problem or condition in order to discover its root cause(s). • Cause and Effect Diagrams usually look like a skeleton of a fish, with the problem statement (the effect) as the “head” and all of the causes displayed on the “bones.” Each major “backbone” represents an important Cause Category, e.g., People, Equipment, etc. More detailed causes are recorded as smaller “bones.” • Not surprisingly, the Cause and Effect Diagram is often referred to as a Fishbone Diagram. It is also sometimes referred to as an “Ishikawa Diagram,” after the Japanese quality expert who developed it in the 1960s.
  • Cause and Effect Diagrams focus everyone more intensely on the entire problem. • Cause and Effect Diagrams create a place for everyone’s ideas. This encourages everyone to commit to the work of the team. • Cause and Effect Diagrams bring ideas together in new and interesting combinations. This makes it possible to come up with fresh ways of dealing with old problems. • Cause and Effect Diagrams allow a team to think creatively, but to be backed up with data when possible and helpful
  • Please note that we will be using a smaller set of cause classes in our exercises – using the 4P’s or 4M’s. 4 P’s: Process, People, Plant/Equipment, Policies 4 M’s Manpower, Methods, Machinery, Materials
  • The process is outlined in your study guide on pages 5-8…you can also revisit the website to play this video again if you wish to. You should try to read the case study ay least once without trying to do anything with it – just get a feel for the issues and the people. Then sit down and work through it again with a highlighter or pencil to underline points you think may indicate a cause or issue. Finally write some of the causes in the margins or on a separate piece of paper…don’t worry about the order or their categories. What is a good net effect problem statement – remember that a problem is usually the statement of a gap between what the ideal state is and the current state.
  • Cause & effect analysis part 1

    1. 1. Using a Fishbone Diagram PROG 1026: Logic & Problem Solving
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Workshop Introduction (tonight) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect Introduction (tonight) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect Practice (tonight & Monday) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect Follow-up (Monday) </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap-up and Exam Prep (Monday) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Workshop Introduction <ul><li>Why are we looking at C&E? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-Solving, Problem Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C&E Tools and Problem Solving Approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Improvement and Continuous Quality Improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root Causes, not Symptoms </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Objectives <ul><li> Help participants to use a Cause and Effect Diagram to increase the effectiveness of process-improvement and problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li> Help participants prepare for, construct and use a Cause and Effect Diagram </li></ul><ul><li> Help participants to become experts in facilitating a group using a Cause and Effect Diagram </li></ul>
    5. 5. Cause & Effect Diagram <ul><li>Definition: A Cause and Effect Diagram is a tool that helps a team to identify, explore, and display in increasing detail, all of the possible causes related to a problem or condition in order to discover its root cause(s). </li></ul>Problem Statement
    6. 6. Objectives of C&E Analysis <ul><li>To work as a team to intensively study and understand a problem, condition, or improvement opportunity, in order to identify its root cause(s). </li></ul><ul><li>To increase team motivation and commitment to solve a problem by including diverse ideas and creating consensus. </li></ul><ul><li>To encourage novel ways of solving problems by creatively grouping ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>To blend creative thinking with data collection and analysis in the problem-solving process. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Ground Rules <ul><li>Don’t be afraid to make mistakes; everyone is learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to each other as well as to the facilitator; each person has a lot of valuable experience and insight. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the tool a chance to work; don’t judge it before you’ve experienced the whole process. </li></ul><ul><li>Feel free to have fun; no one says learning has to be dull! </li></ul>
    8. 8. Illustrating C&E (Why? Why?) <ul><li>Define/ Assign Cause Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm more detailed causes </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a cause and ask “Why?” 2-5 times </li></ul><ul><li>Share lowest level causes and look for patterns </li></ul><ul><li>An issue for practice… </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t I get everything done on the weekend I plan to do? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Constructing a Fishbone Diagram <ul><li>Velaction Video </li></ul>
    10. 10. Application <ul><li>Review the Process for constructing a Fishbone Diagram </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pages 5-8 in handout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read the case study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pages 9-10 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write a problem statement for discussion next class </li></ul><ul><li>Jot down or highlight ideas, indications, possible causes </li></ul><ul><li>Come back prepared to engage in a discussion of causes and effects relative to this case </li></ul>
    11. 11. Break <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>See you in the application session… </li></ul>