628          ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග්                                 06 mrspzfPAoh( 06 Chapter)            ld,du iQ;...
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630pArfetA`SNy eBUtfk vVeyn`m l[ebn`nk`m enAv smhrvfx mAnsfk v>vk`` vfyh[kfyf.EnmZsfethf a[tfevn`nAv> st=x ehvt` p&Ftfyyf....
631a[tfb[vfn` Em p&tfmAn enAkwekAx aArOSA kfrFm BfOS>n`vhn`es`lAeg` vgkFm vnb[vfn<t`BfOS>n`vhn`es`lA tmn`vhn`es`lAx uk`tkr...
6326 NsCIqKS LJOlh ;snqKq ia:dkh ms<snZoj ix.dhkdj,g fmrjqk;a ix.dhkdj iuSmfhau fuz ms<snZoj iZoykajSu ksid fuh igykajS we...
633    iuyrjsg nq|=r|=kag we;s f.#rjh fya;`fjka uqjska fkdneK ksYaYnzo jqj;a iuia; NsCIq ix>hdw;ru fuz ms<snZoj t;ruz m@id...
634     ia;@SjdoSka wIaG .reOrAuj,g jsreoaOj olajk i;rjk lreK kuz fuu wIaG.re OrAu uZ.skajDoaO mgsmdgsh W,a,x>kh jS ;sfnzh...
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637                                                      bkaoshdfjz ldka;d fojZ.kka mjd isgs wd.usl                       ...
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter

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Transcript of "ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter "

  1. 1. 628 ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග් 06 mrspzfPAoh( 06 Chapter) ld,du iQ;@fhka fy<s jk fn#oaO idr OrAu & m@;sudk (The Norms : Buddhist Values and It’s Nature disclosed by Kalama Sutta ) emhfdF p&tfmAn yn vcneyn` adhs`vn`en` k=mk`d[yf vfmsFm v[dgt`y.emhfpAlf VbZdy‘pxfmAnft/ ptfmAnft’yn`nyf.in` adhs`vn`en` b<h<mn`(egUrv) krnld yn a#T%yyf.1i^g&FsfNASAevZ‘p&tfmAn’ h[Hdfn`evn<ey`‘Norms’ynvdennf.2Ehf a#T%yvn<ey` mfmZm,aAdr~Vy,nfymy,nYAy,Dm%y ynet`r[mZ im>hyyf. sf^hl BASAevhf‘p&tf’yn<evn` n[vt n[vt yn ar~Ty egned`‘mAn’ynvdnfn` mfmZm hA m[nb[lFm adhs`evZ.EmnfsA p&tf+mAn=p&tfmAn yn vcneyn`n[vt n[vt m[nblA lbAgn`nAld vfDfk&myn` h[Hdfn`evnbv s[lkfy h[kfy. ‘p&tfmAn’yn vcny pAlf i^g&Fsf sh sf^hl yn BASA t&ft`vey` vYvhAr vF a[tf ar~Tysms`tyk` vVeyn` pfHw<krgt`vfx vcney` nfyma#T%y l[bfy h[kfy E`an<v pAlfBASAevn`‘egUrveyn`’yn adhsd i^g&Fsf BASAevn` mfN<m yn adhsd gt`vfx EkepAz ar~Tyk`lbAgth[kfy.3 emm vdn p<d`gl sm>hyk` an`tr~gt smAj s^s`TAvt=L BAvftAvn vcnykf.emhf sHdhn`n[vt n[vt m[nb[lFm ynpdy smAjey` evesn`nAv> aenk=t` sAmAjfkyfn` ekerhfvfy y<t=y.emZnfsA smAjyk`t=L aenYA`nY egUrvy pfNfs mn<St`vy aArOSAvFm pfNfs ov<enAv<eg`adhs` m[nblA s^s$dnAt`mkv vfV`el`SNykr sks`kr gn`nA epAz smAjsmZm<tfy n[tehAt` smAj cyY%A p&Qp`tfyk`‘p&tfmAn’yn`enn` adhs`vnbv p[h[dflfy. emZ an<v p&tfmAnyn`enn` adhs`krn<ey` vfeV`Seyn` p<d`glcyY%Avn` pflfbHdv krn<lbnEk`trA mfN<mk` ehvt` m[nb[lFmkf.emym‘Dr~mtA’yn vcneyn`d adhs`eker~. EmnfsAp&tfmAn hA Dr~mtA yn vcnedkm smAnAr~TvAcF bvepen`.eb`Dfs#vyn`vhn`es` smZb$DebAehA`ed`vl`d emkF‘Dr~mtA’yn vcneyn` pAlf sAhftYyt=L h[Hdfn`evZ.4Et[n`hfdFt` DmZmtA ynvcny BAvftAekAx a[t`et` kfsfymZ smZmtyk` d[k`vFm pfNfsbv epen`.nfds<nk`els b<d`D#vyx epr kfsfymZ kAlsFmAvk` zS`krk&fyAkfrFm s{m b<zvreyk=xm aAevZNfkDm%tA vk` els1 md,s isxy, wldrdosh, fmd,aj;af;a nqoaOo;a; ysu, fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh, foysj,, 1998, 296 smsgqj.2 bx.@Sis isxy, YnzofldaIh, cS mS u,,fialr, tuz. vS. .`Kfiak iy iud.u, fl<U. 1992, 593, msgqj.3 Do This Noun’s adverb is Normally.It’s adjective is Normative.4 uyd j.a. md,s 1, nq. c. uq. 16 msgqj.
  2. 2. 629d[k`evZ.a[t[mZvfx ehAHdedyk` lbAg[nFmxnmZ E` pfNfs vfVAl k[pkfrFmk` evehsk` d[rfyy<t=yyn smAj smZm<tfyx EkHgv k&fyAkfrFm emhfdF ‘DmZmtA’ yn`enn` adhs`v>vA vfyh[kfyf.1 iajNdj kshduh fukau huz huz foaj, yd mqoa.,hkaf.a wfjzKsl iajNdjhka woyia lrf.k ‘Ouzu;d’ hk jHjydrh is|= flrsks. nq|=jreka jsIfhys muKla fkdj fndaOsi;ajhka jykafia jsIfh yso ‘Ouzu;d’ jHjydr jS ;sfnz. fndaOs i;ajhka jykafiag muKla idOdrK jk ‘Ouzu;d’ rdYshla uyd modk iQ;@fhys olajd ;sfnz. ksoiqkla jYfhka bka tla lreKla /f.k n,uq ‘Ouzu;d tid NslaLfjz hodfndaOsi;af;da ud;`l`pzPsx Tlalkaf;da fyd;s k fndaOsi;a; ud;d fldpsfoj wdndfOd WmamcAc;s’ huz ;sjsfgl fndaOsi;aj f;fuz ujzl`i ms<sisZo ,kshso t;eka mgkafldg fndai;a ujg lsis|= wdndOhlafkdWmoshs.2 sAmAnYeyn` Dr~mtA(pAlf:DmZmtA)yn`enn` adhs` krn`en` h[sfrfyy<t= aAkAry enAh[sfrfyy<t= aAkAry k=mk`d[yf kfyAedn m>LDr~mvlxy.smAjyk sAmAjfkyn` vfsfn` emykLy<t= aAkAryyf,emy enAkLy<t= aAkAryyf,yn<evn` ymZymZ cr~yAevn` vfs`trekAx avebA`DekAxegn a[t.nfds<nk`vVeyn` jnAkFr~N s`TAnyk nfr[vt`v obenAbyAm enAkLy<t=edykf.yemk` Ees`kLehAt` E` t[n[t`tA Dr~mtA ehvt` p&tfmAn kwkL p<<d`gleyk=els gNn`g[en`.Em Dr~mtAehvt` p&tfmAnvlx y<k`tf shgtbv(Iegtimization) els l[ebn`en` ekes`d[yf b[lfyy<t=y.apDr~mtAvk h[sfrfy y<t`et` a[yf? aep` jFvftyx kfsfymZ p<d`gleyk= hAnfyk`kfrFmx p[mfNfyehAt` E` avs`TAevZdF k&fyAkLy<t=aAkAry pfLfbHd(p&tfmAny pfLfbHdv)g[xHPvk` a[tfenAevZ.ap kfsfymZ ekenk=x atx atdF ehA`at`edk Ekt=ekAx ehA` aAy<ebA`vn` kfyn`en`` a[yf?emyx edn pfLft=rvn`en` E` k&fyAv smAjyvfsfn` vfVfS`Xy[yf VfS`X smZpn`ny[yf pflfegn a[tf p&tfmAnyk` ehvt` Dr~mtAvk` bvyf.emZp&tfmAn ehvt` Dm%tAvlxan<v h[sfernayx E` smZb$Deyn` kfsfymZ pArfetA`Snyk` l[ebZ.E`1 i ks 11, mpzph iq;a;, nq. c. uq. 40 msgqj.Wmamdodjd ;:d.;dkx wkqmamdojd ;:d.;dkx Gs;dj idOd;`Ouzu:s;s;d Ouzuks;du;d bomampzp;d.2 oS ks 11, uydmodk iq;a;, nq. c. uq. 19 msgqj.
  3. 3. 630pArfetA`SNy eBUtfk vVeyn`m l[ebn`nk`m enAv smhrvfx mAnsfk v>vk`` vfyh[kfyf.EnmZsfethf a[tfevn`nAv> st=x ehvt` p&Ftfyyf. ymZymZ p&tfmAn ehvt` Dr~mtAvn` sftAmtAm kwkfrFemn` apx dHw<vmk` vfHdfn`nx sfzvfyh[kfy.pAw<vk` vfHdfn`nx sfzvfyh[kfy.1emZ dHw<vmx ehA` pAw<vx m<h<NdFmx a[tf akm[t`t nfsAapf Dr~mtA ehvt` p&mAn enAkwm<.smhrvfx p&m<KgNey` p&tfmAn k[w>vfx rexZ epAznFtfyan<v dHw<vmZ vfHdFmx sfzevZ.emhf dF BfOS>n`vhn`es`lA h[xfyx vfny pfxkey` smhr nFtfrFtful`l^GnykLvfx vfHdfn`nx sfzvn dHw<vmZ pfLfbHdv sftAb[lFm v[dgt`y.2 lsishuz iudchla jsOsu;a whqrska kS;s.; lr fkdue;s tfia jqj;a fmd|= ck jHjydrfhys iudciuzu;hka f,i Ndjs;hg .efkkakdjQ fndfyda iuzuq;Ska m@;sudk f,i ie<flhs.tfia jkafka fmd|=jHjydrh ;`< Ndjs;h iZoyd talus;sFjfhka iuzu; lrjdf.k ;sfnk fohla jSu ksidhs.wd.uslixia:djka ;`< olakg ,efnk jskh m@Z{ma;Skao fuz whqrska iuzu; lrjd.kakd,o fmd|= iuzuq;Skanejska iuh iudc m@;sudk(Social Norms of Religion) f,i tajd yeZoskafjz.fuu iudc m@;sudkhkaf.ka we;euz tajd iudc fjkiluzj,g .;slj fjkiajkakdjQ yd fjkial< yelsldjQ foafjhs.we;euztajd tfia fkdl< yels tajd fjhs.fufia fjkial< yels iudc m@;sudk jkqfha we|=uz me<|=uz jdiia:dk wdydr fnfy;a jeks uq<sl wjYH;d jsIfhys meKjS we;a;djQ we;euz iqZM iuh iudc m@;sudkmuKs.NsCIQka jykafia,d jsIfhys meKjS we;s fiaLshd YsCIdmo fujeks iuh iudc m@;sudkhkagksoiqka fjhs.wd.uska ksrAosIaG prAhdjg iDcqju n,mdkq ,nkakdjQ nrm;< iuh iudc m@;sudkhkafjkia l< fkdyels tajd f,i ie<fla.ldka;d mCIh NsCIq ixia:djg wka;rA.@yKh lr.ekSufyj;a NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSu fjkial< fkdyels iuh iudc m@;sudkhkag ksoiqkls.l`uk ;;ajhla ;`,oS jqj;a NsCIQka jykafia,dg ia;@Ska mejsosl< fkdyelaflauh.tfial< yelafla nq|=jrhkajykafia kulgu muKs. pV`cAt` nvYvAdF mtdrn`nn` els s[lekn s`t&FvAdFh<(Femenism)3 ebUd`D BfOS< s^s`TAvxEl`l krn ecA`dnAvk` vn<ey` kAn`tAvn`x b<zss<en` p[vfd`d hA upsmZpdAv BfOS>n`vhn`es`xlbAdfy enAh[k`ek` mk`nfsAd ynkArNyyf.4emhfdF ar~ht`vhx avVY g=NDm% v[wFm ynkArNeyn` s`t&F p<r[S eB`dy m>Lfk#veyhf lA enAs[lk=nt` s`vBAveyn`m vfr[d`D lf^gfk aAkr~Snyk` shftv> s`t&F p<r[S edpOSy vfSeyhf emZ kxy<t`t adALvFmt` sms`t smAjyevtfn`BfOS>s^s`TAv evt pvrAa[tf smAjmy p&tfmAn aArOSAkfrFmx BfOS<vfny p&Qp`tfeyn`m(BfOS<vfny yn< BfOS< s^s`TAvt=L k&fyAt`mk vn p&tfmAn pd`Dtf yyf.)p&tfmAn pd`Dtfyk` pNvA1 oskusK oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d, fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr, tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 25. 03. 2005, 3 msgqj.2 iuka; mdidosld 111, fyajdjs;drK uq|@Kh, 756 msgqj.3 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE, wkq, o is,ajd, uxi,, oskusK, wZ.yrejdo tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 22. 03. 2005, 25 msgqj,4 vhkd fnda,agz ue;sKsh, nq|=r|=ka ia;@Skag oafjzYlrkafkla f,i olajd we;af;a nq|=iuh ms<snZoj l@udkQl~,yeoErSula is|=lr fkdfjz .
  4. 4. 631a[tfb[vfn` Em p&tfmAn enAkwekAx aArOSA kfrFm BfOS>n`vhn`es`lAeg` vgkFm vnb[vfn<t`BfOS>n`vhn`es`lA tmn`vhn`es`lAx uk`tkr[N adAL enAvn bv pvstf.1 kAn`tApOSy vfSeyhf p[nvF a[t`tAv> smAj p&tfmAn aArOSAkfrFemZ hA pvt`vAegny{emZ vgkFm p[vrF a[t`et` kAn`tAvn`xm2(BfOS<NFn`xm)nfsA kAn` tAvn` p[vfdfkfrFemZ avsrya[t`et` BfOS<NFpOSy vfSeyhfbv avDArNykrtf.emy p<r[SADfptYy ehA` lf^geB`dy m<lfkkregn s`t&Fn` ekAn`krd[mFemZ pht` mAnsfk#vy v[nf px< arm<Nfn` sfzvn`nk` enAevZ.aS`Xgr[Dr~m p[nvFm yn kr[N arByAd emZ s`t&FvAdFh(Femanism)3 b<zrzn`xd < emZ ecA`dnAv El`lkrtf. EhfdFt` b<zh< aS`Xgr[Dm% p[nv>ey` kAn`tApOSy aS`Xgr[Dr~m upeyA`gF kregn BfOS>n` vhn`es`lA yxet` BfOS<NFn` vhl` mAnsfk#veyn` ekAx<kr t[bFmx enAevZ.b<zrzn` m<lfn`m aArmZBkeL` BfOS<s^s`TAvyf.kAn`tA pOSyevtfn` p[vfdfvFmx avsrp[tFm sfzv<en` emm BfOS< s^s`TAv pfhfx<vFemn` ps<vb[vfn` al<etn` a[tfkfrFmx yn BfOS<NF s^s`TAv sAr~Tkels BfOS< s^s`TAvx bd`DkfrFmx avVYvfy.E` bd`DkfrFm n[tehAt` BfOS<NFn`d p[vfdf pOSyx an`tr~g&hN y krg[nFemZ k&fyAvlfy sAr~Tkels ix<kfrFm arByA aS`Xgr[Dm% pNvn ldF.aS`Xgr[Dm% vnAhF BfOS<NFn` s^Gs^s`TAvx an`tr~gt kfrFm arByA EkL BArtey` p[vtf smAjp&Qp`tfy t` BfOS<vfny p&Qp`tfyt` s[lkfl`lxegn pn vn ld`dAv> p&tfmAn pd`Dtfykf.4 ia;@SjdoSyq (Femanism) ldka;djkag NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSu ms<snZoj nq|=r|=ka ;`, ;snQ wdl,amhms<snZoj m@YaklsrSug mjd fm<fU;s.Tjqyq nq|=iuh;`< ldka;djg ysusj;snQ ia:dkh ms,snZo my;oelafjk wdldrfhka lreKq lsysmhla biau;` fldg olajd ;sfnz.tkuz1 wIaG .re OrAuj,g ldka;d iyNd.SFjhla ke;.2 NsCIqj iuznJOfhka wkq.ukl< ms<sfj<g jvd fjkia l@uhla wkq.ukh lsrSu.3 iqjsfYaIS kS;s moaO;shla wkqj msysgqjd ;snSu.4 m<uqj jhi ms<snZoj ie,ls,su;a fkdjSu yqfola ia;@SFjh u;u mokuzj ;snSu(jDoaO mgsmdgshke;).5 pq,a,j.a.md,sfha NsCIqKS LJOlfha wjqre|= 5 lg yd wjqre|= 320 lg miqj fuh iZoykajSu .egZMiy.;h.1 ldka;dj yd nq|= iuh, bJ|@dKs fmfrArd, tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda, fld<U, 2000 107-123 msgq.2 tu 123-125 msgq3 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE, wkq, o is,ajd, uxi,, oskusK wZ.yrejdod, tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U. 22. 03. 2005, 25 msgqj.4 ldka;dj yd nq|=iuh, bJ|@dKs fmfrArd, tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda, fld<U, 2000 119-134 msgq.
  5. 5. 6326 NsCIqKS LJOlh ;snqKq ia:dkh ms<snZoj ix.dhkdj,g fmrjqk;a ix.dhkdj iuSmfhau fuz ms<snZoj iZoykajSu ksid fuh igykajS we;s ia:dkh ms<snZoj we;sjk ielh mokuzlrf.k fuh wi;Hhlah hk woyi u;`lrhs.fuu woyia iDcqju NsCIq m@;sudkh iuznJOfhka jQjls. wIaG .reOrAuj,g ldka;d iyNd.SFjhla fkdue;sh hk woyi t;ruz ;rAldkQl~, fkdfjz.uskawoyia lrkafka ienjskau l`ulao$wIaG.re OrAu meKjSfuysoS fmr we;sl<djQ NsCIqKS ixia:djlafkdue;s fyhska tnZ|= fohla ms<snZoj NsCIqKshlf.a woyia oek.ekSug l@uhla fkdjSh.wIaG.reOrAums<snZoj woyia uq,skau m@ldY lf<a m@cdm;S f.d;ushgh.weh jsjdohlska f;drj tu .reOrAu ysiauq|=kska ms<s.;awdldrh pq,a,j.a. md,sfha NslaLqKS LJOlh;`< oelafjz.1 nq|=r|=ka uq,skau .reOrAums<snZoj mekjSu is|=lr ta ms<s.kakjdo keoao hk lreK m@cdm;S f.da;ush wNsuqLfhysu u;`l<w;r thg wehf.a wOsl;r ukdmh ,ensKs.wjYHkuz ia;@SjdoSkag fuysoS nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKS mejsoaowemhg ;ndf.k f.da;ushf.ka fuz leue;a; jsuiQ ksid flfia fyda mejsoao ,nd .ekSfuz fpz;kdfjkaleue;a; |=kakd lshdo lreKla u;`lr .;yelsh.fuysoS tla;rd |=rlg nq|=r|=ka ;rAclfhl`f.aiajrEmfhka msgg ps;@Kh l<yelsjSu ksid ksrka;rfhkau mqreI mCIfhys jeros wvqmdvq fidhuskal,af.jSug repslrk ia;@SjdoSyq fuz ms<snZoj b;d leue;a;lska kq|=frAoSu idlpzPd lrkq we;. TzkEulreKla foi jeros weilska n,kjsg fmfkkafkao jeros ps;@hlauh.tnejska fuz lreK foi Ndjd;sYh weiska n,d ;SrKj,g t<USu fkdl<hq;`h. ia;@sjdoSka olajk fojk lreK .;fyd;a Tjqka olajkafka nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKSka iuznJOfhkawkq.ukh l< l@ufjzoh NsCIqka iuznJOfhka wkq.ukh l< l@ufjzohg jvd fjkiajQjla njhs. NersjSulska fyda fuz lreK fufia fkdjS wfkla w;g is|=jQjdkuz tkuz lsisjl`f.a b,a,Sulska f;drjnq|=r|=ka b;d leue;af;kau NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSug W;aiql jQjdkuz nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKSkag jsfYaIie,ls,a,la oelajQjd hehs fudjqka lshkakg bv ;snsk.NsCIqKSka hkq;a ldka;djkauh tnejska shf:dala; ;Fjh ovuSud fldgf.k nq|=iiqk flfrys BrAIHdfjka miqjQ fndfyda fofkl`g nq|=r|=kagwmydi jk mrsos lgl:djla ksrAudK lsrSug th losu wjia:djla i,idfokq fkdwkqudkh.tfiafkdl<;a flf;la mrSCIdldrSj lghq;`l<;a nq|=r|=kag t,a,jqkq jsjsO wi;H m@pdr wdosh jsuidn,kjsg2 fuh fufia is|=jSfuz iuzNdjs;dj by< w.hla .kakd nj fmfka.NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSfuysW;aiql jSu iuznJOfhka mrsksrAjdKfhka miqj m@:u ix.dhkd ld,iSfusoS wdkkao ysushka ry;aNdjhg meusKSfuka miqj;a fiiq NsCIqkaf.a fpdokdjg3 ,lajSug is|=jSu;a ta f;rjre flfrysia:jsr f.#rjfhka fm#oa.,slju ;uka jrolalr ke;;a ;ud f;rjrekf.a fpdaokdj ms<s.kakdnj4 wdkkao ysushka mejiSu uZ.ska meyeos,s jkafka fiiq uyck;dj ;nd nqoaO ld,Sk uyf;rjrekaf.a mjd m@idohla NsCIqKS ixia:dj we;s lsrSu wrUhd fkdmej;s njhs.1 pq md NslaLqkS LJOlh" nq c uq2 ud.kaoshd nsij iqkaorS mrsn@dcsldj jeks isoaOSka ysoS nq|=r|=kafj; t,a,jQ jsreoaOjdoSkaf.a wi;H m@pdrhkaie<lsh yelsh3 ,laosj uydhdk woyia" fudrgqfjz idikr;k ysus" weuz vS .`Kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U"1962"7-8 msgq4 tu
  6. 6. 633 iuyrjsg nq|=r|=kag we;s f.#rjh fya;`fjka uqjska fkdneK ksYaYnzo jqj;a iuia; NsCIq ix>hdw;ru fuz ms<snZoj t;ruz m@idockl wdl,amhla ;snS fkdue;snj fuz is|=jSfuka fmfka.we;euzjsgfmd|= uyckhdf.a jsreoaO;djhkag wkql~,j l@shdlrkakg Wkajykafia,dg is|=jqkd jsh yelsh.flfia sfj;;a ia;@SjdoSka olajk wdldrfhka NsCIqkag jvd fjkia wdldrfhka NsCIqKSka flfrys lghq;` lr;sfnzkuz tfia lrkakg fya;`j fomCIh ldhslj yd cSj jsoHd;aulj fohdldr ,CIK fmkajkfldgzGdY folla nejsk.1hfula fuu ldhsl yd cSj jsoHd;aul ;;ajh ie,ls,a,g fkdf.k yqfola s;drAlslj ch.ekSfuz wruqKu fmroers lr f.k muKla fuz ms<snZoj os.ska os.gu jdohkays megf,akuz tnkaokaf.a jsfjzpkj,g ms<s;`reoSu ksrrA:l jQjls.2 ia;@SjdoSka olajk ;`kajk lreK jQ iqjsfYaIS kS;s moaO;shla u; msysgs nj ke;fyd;a NsCIqkag fkdue;s w;sfrAl jskhlska iukajs; jSu ms,s.; fkdyelsh hk foho ;rAldkQl~,j .;al< wj,x.`jS hk lreKls.NsCIqka jykafia,d w;`frka mjd ieufokd jykafiagu tlanZ|= wdldrhlska nq|=r|=ka lghq;`lr fkdue;.3 flduzhqgrA hka;@hla fuka huzlsis kHdhlg fyda isoaOdka;hlg wkql~, jk mrsoafoka iEu fokd jsIfhysu tlu wdldrhlska lghq;` lsrSfuys wdlD;sl rgdjla nq|=jre;`, fkdue;. ;uka wNsuqLhg meusfKk ta ta pska;k l`Y,;d iys; yd jsjsO udkisl rgdjkaf.ka iukajs; jQ mqoa.,hkaf.a ;rd;sru wkqj ta ta mqoa.,hdg .e,fmk wdldrfhka jsjsO m@Z{ma;s mKjd tlS mqoa.,hd i;`jQ ksirA. udkisl Yla;sh msnsZojSfuz lghq;a; nq|=jre bgq lr;s.tahgf;a idrOrAu jO!k l@shdj,sfhys ,d ldka;djkao mqreIhka yd muKgu iu;aluz oelajqj;a iudcm@;sudk iqrCIs; lsrSfuz l@shdj,sfhys ,d ldka;djka mqreIhka muKgu ksoyia yd iajdOSk f,i tlSlghq;a; bgqlsrSfuys,d wfmdfydi;ah hkak fyda iuia; iudch th tfiau wkqu; fkdlrkafkahhkak fyda fuz lreKq folu ksidu fyda NsCIqKSka jsIfhys wIaG .reOrAu kuzjk m@;sudk moaO;shmeKjSu is|=jS ;sfnz.41 w ks 1" rEm j.a.h" ps;a; mrshdh" j.a.h nq c uq2 u ks 11" ikaol iq;a;" n c uq 322 msgqj3 w ks 1" ta;o.a. md,s" fn# iuz ixia 56-64 msgq4 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou!m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998 1-78 msgq
  7. 7. 634 ia;@SjdoSka wIaG .reOrAuj,g jsreoaOj olajk i;rjk lreK kuz fuu wIaG.re OrAu uZ.skajDoaO mgsmdgsh W,a,x>kh jS ;sfnzh hk lreKhs.wNsjdokh jeZoSu .reire oelajSu jeks idrOrAuhkaf.a W#K;djh msKsi idudkHfhka flfkl`f.a udkisl|=rAj,luz f,i ie<flkakdjQ BrAIHdjuoh udkh ud;aihH!hh foay w,xlrKh jeks lreKq fya;`fjhs1 udkisl |=rAj,luz ms<snZo lreKqidudkHfhka mqoa., fjzu;a;;djh u; mokuzjk nj ms<s.ekS ;snqk;a ia;@shlf.a cSj jsoHd;auludkisl ieleiau;`, wehgu wkHkHjqkq fmd|= ,CIK .enzjS mj;sh.2BrAIHdj uoh udkh ud;aihH! shh foay w,xlrKh jeks lreKq idudkHfhka mqreIhkag jvd jevsfhka ldka;djka;`, ksi.!jYfhkau msysgd mj;sh.3isZ.df,dajdo iQ;@fhysoS ieusfhl` jsiska nsrsZog bgql<hq;` hq;`luz w;rg snsrsZog weZ|=uz me<Z|=uz muKla fkdj wehg wdNrK /f.k oshhq;` nj kduslj ioykalr ;snSuuZ.skao Tmamq jkafka by; olajk ,o udkisl iajNdjh fmd|=fjz ishZM ia;@Ska;`, tla;rd muKlgolakg we;snjhs.4oek W.;alu ksid fyda fjkhuz lreKla ksid fyda fulS udkisl iajNdjhhgm;a lrf.k isgSfuys fyda tfia hgm;alrf.k lghq;` lsrSfuys m@jK;djhla ldka;djkajsIfhys kuz lsisfia;a olakg fkd,efnk nj W.;a kQ.;a fNaohlska f;drj TzkEu iudc ;,hlldka;djl wyUqf,i .;al< olakg ,efnz.5NsCIqKS ixia:dj jeks w;sYh ne?reuz ldrAhhloS tlS|=rAj,;d jhka j,ska w;ausoS lghq;` lsrSfuys yelshdj ,enSu weh mjq,a ixia:djloS lghq;` lrkdldrhg jvd ;oska wjYHfjz.tjeks yelshdjla wehg ,ndoSu msKsi wIaG.re OrAu meKjS ;sfnz. ‘fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh’ kue;s .@J:fhys j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr(Ydia;@fjzoSf.#rj) jks;djf.a ijrEmh wehf.a jpkj,skau fuf,i olajd we;.‘ngysr os. we|=uz me<|=uz me;slv fndfyduhlau wmf.a wd.fuz jsYajdihkag fukau ixialD;shgo mgyeksh.jrA;udkfha olakg,efnk weZ|=uz w;r flgs,weZ.gu we,qKq iy jsksjso fmfkk idh yegzg ,sx.fNaohlska f;drj weZoshyels weZ|=uz fuz w;r fjz fuz;`,ska ldka;d YsIagnj .s,syS hkq we;.’6 ffcjjsoHd;aulj jqjo ldka;dj i;` woyia Woyia yd wdl,am lsishuz fkd.eUqre iajNdjhlaolakg ,efnz.ia;@sh ksrka;rfhka ;ekS we;af;a ffc jsoHd;aulj ujlf.a ldrAhNdrh yd j.lSubis,Sug yelshdj we;sjk mrsoafoks.fuz ;;ajh fmd|=fjz udkjhdgu iqjsfYaiS ;;ajhla fkdjk w;rfmd|=fjz iuia; cSjSj.!hdf.au .eyeKq iFjhdgu muKla ffcj mrsKduKfhaoS Wreujk ,oiycdYhls.fuz hgf;a wehf.a udkisl rgdj yd wdfjzok ;;ajhka iliajS we;af;a m@ckk iS>@;djhby<ugzgul mj;ajd .ekSu;a tauZ.ska ishjrA.hdf.a wLKav jrAOkh yd ffcj meje;au iqrCIs;lr.ekSu wrUhdh.1 pq md NslaLqKS jsNx.h" mdps;a;sh" ,iqK j.a.h" 6-10 YsCIdmo2 tu wkaOldr j.a.h"3 pq md NslaLqKS jsNx.h" k.ak j.a.h" 7-8 YsCIdmo4 oS ks 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nq c uq 290-310 msgq5 merKs ,laosj ldka;dj" bka|@dKs uqKisxy" Y@S foajs m@skagrAia" foysj," 2001" fmrjok i-vii msgq6 fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh" j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U2000" 145 msgqj
  8. 8. 635 ‘fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh’ kue;s lD;sfhys j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr ta nejz wehf.ajpkj,skau fuf,i olajkakSh.‘wyfia wdf,dalh we;sjSug iQrAhhd wjYHfj;au .Dyhla ,iaikjSug<orejka wjYHjkafkah.tfukau wefZoaoS fjiZ.klf.a ;;ajfhka isgskakg mqZMjka ldka;djlar;akhla jknjo olajd we;.fuz wkqj jsjycSjs;fhaoS jsfYaIfhka wUq ieus inZo;d j,oS ldka;djyeisrsh hq;af;a flfiao hkak ms<snZo wjOdrKh lsrSug .;a W;aiyhls.1’ ldka;dj i;` fkd.eUqre udkisl iajNdjh wehf.a wdfjzok repslFjhka uZ.ska m@lg lrjk wdldrh uekjska tu .@F:fhys l;Djrsf.a jpj,skau fuf,i jsia;r flfrA.‘uEkshka ;ukaf.a |=j oSug Okfhka jevs wh fidhk w;r mshd fidhkafka mKavs;fhls.kEoEhka fjfyfikafka jxYfhka Wiia wh fijSugh.tkuq;a ;reKsh fjfyfikafka rEmY!Sfhka w.;ekam;a flfkl` iuZ. hdugh.2’ ia;@SjdoSka wIaG .reOrAuj,g jsreoaOj olajk miajk lreK .;fyd;a tuZ.ska lshefjkqfha pq,a, j.a. md,sfhys fuz mqj; iZoyka jk ia:dkh ieliys; nj ksidu fuz lreK wi;Hjk njhs.huz lsis lreKl Ydia;@Sh i;Hdi;H;djh ms<snZoj huzlsis ks.ukhlg meusKSfuys,d fuh Wps; yd Ydia;@Sh jsOsl@uhla fkdfjz.jskh msglhu muKla fkdj fiiq msgl .@J:hkays mjd ta ta iQ;@ ix.@ylr ;sfnkqfha nq|=r|=ka tlS iQ;@ foaYkdl< wkqms<sfj<g fkdfjz.nq|=r|=ka wNsuqLfhysu ta ta jsIh fCIa;@hkays ta;.@;djh bis,Q uyf;rjre jsiska ix.S;sldrl uyf;rjreka yuqfjysoS ;uka weiQ iQ;@OrAu tajq wdldrfhkau foaYkd lsrSfuka miqj lgmdvuz lsrSfuys ydOdrK Yla;sh uZ.ska uqL mruzmrd.;j tajd f.khEfuys myiqj i<ld wka;rA;h w;ska ydwdlD;sh w;ska iudkFjh .kakd iQ;@ kej; lsishuz ksYaps; jsOs l@uhlg tlu ud;Dldjka hg;gkej; ix.@y lrk ,oS.3 nq|=r|=ka jsiska m@lSraKl f,i foaYs; iQ;@OrAuhkag tys wka;rA.; lreKqj,g wkql~,jkmrsoafoka jsjsO kuz ,ndoS lsishuz ksYaps; Ydia;@S jsOs l@uhlg fm< fmd;a ilialrk ,oafoa tajdmrsyrKh lrkakkaf.a myiqj i,ldf.kh.iQ;@ msglfhys ta ta ksldh.@J: mjd kuzlrk ,oafoawka;rA.; iQ;@j, oSrA>Fjh u;h.4 fuz ksid wkqms<sfj< jeks wYdia;@Sh l@uhla fuys i;Hdi;H;djhi;Hdi;H;djh ;SrKh lsrSfuys,d fhdod .ekSu jeks wYdia;@Sh wjsoHd;aul l@u Ydia;@Sh1 fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh" j;ai,d tuz. fldvsldr"tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U"2000" 27-28 msgq2 tu 29 msgqj3 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou!m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998" 72 msgqj4 fn#oaO Ou! ix.@yh" udm,.u isrs fidusiair ysus" iuhjrAOk fmd;ay," fld<U" 1990" 376 msgqj
  9. 9. 636.fjzIKfhys,d wkq.uk hlsrSu ia;@SjdoSka jekakkag kuz wNsu; jkakg mqZMjk.ta Tjqka ;ukaf.au;h taldOsldrSuh ;;ajfh ka wkqkau; megjSfuys,d oCI;djhla yd repsl;ajhla olajk nejskswOsldruh pska;k rgdjlg wdlD;s.; jS isgskakka nejsk.1 s wdkkao ysus jsiska ;rAldkQl~,j keZ.~ m@Yakh jk ldka;djkag W;a;rS;r ukqIH OrAuhkagm;ajSfuz yelshdjla ;sfnzo hk mekh f,dalfhysu ldka;djka flrys ohdfjka is;d kZ.k,o m@n,um@Yakhhs.fuz ms<snZoj ‘rSgd tuz ;DIagz’mjikqfha nq|=r|=ka ldka;djg mejsoao ,ndoSug is;d isgsh;a fuzm@Yakh weiQ wjia:dfjz thg ms<s;`re oS mejsoao ,ndoSug tlZ.jQ njhs.nq|=r|=ka ia;@Sf|@daysljQ w;rmqreIdOsm;SFjh m@shlrkafkl` jQ nj weh mjihs.fuz lshk woyia ngysrg wd.ka;`l fkdfjz Tjqkajqjukdfjkau huz huz whf.a woyia hgm;a lrkakg l@shdfldg ;sfnzh hk ldrKh b;sydihuZ.skau wmg TmamqlroS we;s ksidh.kuq;a nq|=r|=ka ;nd wkdrAh iuzm@odh ;`<g wh;a lsis|= wd.uslfldgzGdYhla jsiskaj;a ia;@S pska;kh md.d oeuqKqnj jsOsu;aj Tmamq l,fkdyel.tfia Tmamql<fkdyelafla tfia fkdl< ksidh fuz .@J:h ;`<g wkdrAh iuzm@odfhys l@usl jsldYh oelafjkmrspzfPaohlao tlalf<a.fuu lreKq meyeos,sjSu msKsih b;d meyeos,s f,iu wkdrAh ixialD;shgwh;a Y@uK iuzm@odhg wh;a ;jia fldgzGdYhka;`< ia;@Syq jsiQ nj;a fndai;`ka wd<drld<duiDIsjrhdfj; t<USug u;af;ka YdlHn@yauKS yd moaud kuzjQ ;dmishka fofofkl` fj;ska Wjegka,enQ mqj; fuhg tla idOlhls.fuz ksidu nq|=r|=ka ia;@S jsfrdaOs wdl,am oerE njg flfrkfpdaokdfjz lsis|= yrhla fkdue;. nq|=r|=ka mqreIdOsm;Hhg wkql~,j nq|=iiqk f.dvfkdkeZ.~ kuq;a fn#oaONsCIq iuzm@odh f.dvkeZ.`fjz.mqreI flaJ|@Sh jHdmdrhla f,i nj ;j;a woyilska oelafjz.fuu wdl,am ngysr.@J:l;`jrshka orkafka nq|=iuh ms<snZoj l@udkQl~, wOHhkhlska wk;`rej fkdfjz.2jsfYaIfhkau jsjsOwd.usl iuzm@odhka ms<snZoj yodrd tu wd.usl iuzm@odhhkays jsfYaIfhkau ksrAudKjdoS wd.uzj,wka;rA.; ia;@S jsfrdaOS we;euz wdl,am Tjqka jspdr mQrAjlFjfhka f;drj nq|=iuh wrnhdo j.lSuzjsrys; f,i yd mokula fkdue;s f,i Ndjs;d lrkq olakg ,efnz.3fuzjd fmd;am;a yd wka;rAcd,udrA.fhka ikaksfjzokh lr .kakd furg isgskakdjQ wkqldrljdoS we;euz ia;@SjdoSyq wka;rA.;hfyda moku ms<snZoj lsis|= oekqj;a Ndjhlska f;drj ;ukaf.a jsh;anj m@lg lsrSug fuka tajd ;`uQomqkrepzpdrKh lr;s.4tfia lruskau tu woyiaj,ska ys;`ukdmfha wkawhg oud.ikjd jskd tajdjsOsu;aj Ydia;@Sh wdldrfhka yd jspdrmQrAjl wdldrfhka wOHhkh lsrSug W;aiql fkdfjz.wju;ruska NsCIqKS ixia:dj ms<snZoj huz woyila m@isoaOsfhys m@ldYlsrSug u;af;ka nq|=iuh ms,snZojjsOsu;a wdldrfhka Ydia;@Sh yeoErSula l<hq;`j ;snsK.f,dalfhys TzkEu jsIhla .;a;;a fuz yeoErSu sl< hq;`uh ffjoH jsoHdj l@udkQl~,j fkdyodrd ffjoHjD;a;sfha ksr; fkdyelsjd fuks.1 tu2 ft;sydisl us:Hjka iuZ. .eyekshlf.a ixjdohla" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sld ixjdo irKsh" oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<U "09 04 2005" 17 msgqj3 tu4 ft;sydisl us:Hdjka iuZ. .eyeKshlf.a ixjdohla..,iQ;@.; l< mqreI n,h" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sldixjdo irKsh" oskusK tlai;a m@jD;a;s m;@ iud.u" fld<U" 11 06 2005" 17 msgqj
  10. 10. 637 bkaoshdfjz ldka;d fojZ.kka mjd isgs wd.usl jHdmdr mej;`ks kuq;a ldka;d flaJ|@Sh wd.usl wdh;k msysgqjd .ekSug fkdyelsjsh.fuz fpdaokdj ia;@sjdoSka jsiak t,a,l< hq;`j ;snqfKa n@dyauK iuh jeks ksrAudKjdoS pska;k flaJ|@lr.;a wd.uzj,gh.ia;@SjdoSka olajk ishZMu |=rAj,;d olakg ;snqfKa ksrAudKjdoS wd.uz;`< nejsks.wdkkao ysusf.a m@Yakfhka miq mejsoao ,ndoshhq;` jkafka l`ukd ldrhlgoehs jsuiqug ,lajsh wIag.re OrAu wkqj ,ndosh hq;`hehs ksrAfoaYjsh.fuz wg w;r fndfyda widOdrK fldkafoais we;ehs ia;@SjdoSyq (Femanism) mji;s.tfy;a tajd fudkjdoehs Tjqka m@isoaOsfh ys fkdmji;s.wIaG.re OrAuj, widOdrKnj mejsosj fkdfnda osklska m@cdm;S f.da;uSyg f;areK nj;a iegjhia msreKq NsCIqKshla tosku Wmimka NsCIqjlg jekaohq;`h hkak jDoaO mgsmdgshg wkqj lemlrk f,i m@cdm;S f.da;uS f;rKshnq|=r|=kaf.ka b,a,d isgsh;a th ksIaM, jQnj iaa;@SjdoSyq olaj;s.Tjqka wIag.reOu!j, olajk jsYd,widOdrK Ndjh we;euzjsg fuh jsh yelsh. ia;@SjdoSkag wkqj jkaokh hk lreK flfkl`f.a Wiia my;a nj ;SrKh lrkakdjQ usuzuls.kuq;affcjjsoHd;aul yd iudc jsoHd;aul hk ldrKd folla wrNhd nq|=r|=ka jsiska ldkaldjka jsIfhysfuu meKjSu is|=lr ;sfnz.ldka;djl ;`, ffcj jsoHd;aulj we;s udkh uoh BrAIHdj .`Kul`njjeks |=rA.`K urAOkh lsrSu msKsi Bg m@;slu!hla f,i jJokh kshuj we;.fuys iudc jsoHd;aulh:drA:h jkqfha NsCIq iudch;`< ia;@shlf.a meje;au iqrCIs; lsrSu;a tuZ.ska wehg wjYHlrkakdjQrCIdjrKh ie,eiajSu;a ta rCIdjrKh ,nuska ia;@sh ;ukag wjYHlrkakdjQ wd.usl jsuqla;shi<id .ekSu;a fuhska wfmaCIs; m@fhda.sl lreKq fjz.tu wruqK wu;l lroud fuh ia;@S mqreIoajJOj hqoaOhla fldg i<ld l@shdlsrSu yd;amiskau uQ<sl wruqfkka neyerjSuls.tjka idlpzPdjlwe;s m@fhda.sl jgskdlulao ke;.m@dfhda.sl fkdjkakdjQ oDIaGs WmojkakdjQ fujeks foa nq|=iuhi<lkafka iS,nzn; mrudi f,ihs. us:HdoDIagsl wd.uzj,j;a ia;@Skag jeZoSula ke;ehs mejiQ nq|=r|=ka ta b,a,Su m@;sfCIam lrhs.ish iqZMujjQ yd miqj ;ukaj ljdfmdjd fmdaIKh l<djQ m@cdm;S f.da;ushf.a b,a,Su iuznJOfhka funZ|=m@ldYhla lrhso hk ieluqiq woyila ia;@SjdoSkaf.ka t,a,jS ;sfnz.we;a;jYfhkau nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKSixi:djg wkd.;fhys t,a,jk oyila Wj|=re iajlSh nq|=Kekska oel oel;a NsCIqKS ixia:dj msysgqjSug l@shdlf<a ;ukaf.a uEKshka jykafia ms<snZo lD;Z{;dmQrAjl fpz;kdj ksiduh f,djz;`rd nq|=jre usil ud;D fifkyil uysu okafka fjk ljqo$fndaOsiuzNdr mqrkdjia:dfjys ishuEKshka
  11. 11. 638jykafia Wru; ysZ|=jdf.k ish cSjs;h .ekj;a fkd;ld i;aoskla uyuqyqfoa msyskd ish uEKhkaf.acSjs;h fnzrd .ekSug l@shdfldg weh w;ska mqf;a kqU nq|=fjzjd hehs m<uq ksh; jsjrK ,enqfjzo nq|=jSug m@:u;a fndai;`ka;`< mej;s lreKdj ksid fkdfjzo$ta ksid ia;@SjdoSka olajk fuz fpdaokdmokuz jsrys; wi;H wN~; fpdaokd fjz.Tjqka olajk wkaoug fuysoS meKjS mej;s wIaG .re OrAums<snZoj .egZM jsgska jsg mekkeZ.S we;.ta msKsi Tjqyq idOlhla f.k yer olaj;s.pq,a,j.a.fhaNsCIqKS LJOlh ;sfnkafka mxpi;sld LJOlhg;a i;a;i;sl LJOlhg;a uq,sks.fuz wkqj pq,a,j.a.md,sh nq|=ka msrsksjs jir 100 la hkf;la jsjD;j ;snqk;a fojk ix.dhkd fjz jdrA;dfjys iZoykafkdjSfuka fuzjk jsg fuz fmd; ksujd ;snQnj meyeos,s fjz.md;sfudlaLfha ijk LJOlh yd NslaLqKSLJOl hk fol miqld,Skj lrk ,oaolanj ia;@SjdoSkag mCIj fcda;sh OSrfialr uy;d(Rev.Prof.Dhammavihari Thero) fn#oaO wdrdusl md,kh kuz .@J:fhaoS myod fohs.kuq;a Ydia;@Shj js.@ylrn,oaoS tau;h t;`udf.a nq|=oyu ms<snZoj jsYdro yd jsoaj;a njg fkd ieifZok nj fu;a is;skai<lkq uekjs. fuz ms<snZoj .re;r uykdhl w;smQcHje,s.u Z[dKr;k uykdysushka Wkajykafiaf.a uyry;aix>us;a;d prs;h yd ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh hk .@J:fhys mjikafka fujeks woyils.1thWkajykafia f.au joka j,ska fufiah."NsCIqKska jsiska ms<smeosh hq;` wIag.reOu!h pq,a,j.a. md,sfhys we;`<;aj ;sfnk ksid ms<s.; fkdyelshhs.NsCIqKS Ydikh msysgqjSu ld,fdaps; l@shdjlehsmjikakdjQ we;efula mji;s. Tjqkag u;lal< hq;af;a wIag.reOu!h pq,a,j.a. md,sfha muKlafkdj wx.`;a;r ksldfha wgzGl ksmd;fha f.da;uS j.!fhyso ijsia;rj w;`<;aj ;sfnk njh.tmuKlaj;a fkdoek fuz m@Yakh .ek l:dlrkakdjQ uydpdrAhjreo isgs;s.yd fydZohs wIag .reOu!h we;`<;aj ;snkafka pq,a,j.a.md,sfhau muKlehs lSj;a pq,a,j.a. md,sh bj;,sh hq;`o$Tjqkaf.a tl woyila kuz nqoaO mrsksrAjdKfhka miqj is|= lrk,o m<uq jeks fojeks Ou! ix.dhkdjsia;ro tys we;`<;afldg ;sfnk ksid fuho tnkaola f,i ie,lsh yelsh hkakhs.2 nqoaO mrsksrAjdKfhka f;uilska kslsKs mif<diajlod m<uq Ou! ix.dhkdj lrk,oS.nq|=rcdKkajykafiaf.kau oyuz jskh W.;a uyry;a mkaishhla fofkl`ka jykafiaf.a iuznJOfhka l<djQ tuOu! ix.dhkdjg iuznJO jQ NsCIqka jykafia,d yer fiiq NsCIqka rc.ykqjr jia fkjeish hq;`hsjHia:djla mjd iuzu; fldg yd;ami /lj,a ;nd rdcH wkq.@yh we;sj is|=l< nj jdrAldjS we;.taishZM /lj,a fhdok ,oafoa wOu!h yd wjskh we;`<;ajSu je<elSu msKsih.3 thska jir iShla .;jqkdg miq fojeks Ou! ix.dhkdj is|=lrk ,oafoa isjqms<sisUshdm;a uyry;`ka jykafia i;aish kulaf.a iuznJOfhks Wkajykafia,d w;r nq|=rcdKkajykafia oel mqre|=ry;`ka jykafia,d mjd isgshy.wdkkao uyry;`ka jykafiaf.a ioaOs jsydrslhka jykafia,d jkinznlduS-id<ay frAj;-nqcAcfidaNs;-hi-idKiuzN~; hk uyry;a uyf;rekao wkqeoaO1 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus" u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou!m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998" 71 msgqj2 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou! m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998 "71-72 msgqj3 tu 72 msgqj
  12. 12. 639uyry;`ka jykafiaf.a YsIHhska jykafia,d jk iquk-jdiN.duS uyf;reka hk fulS ry;`kajykafia,d (osgzGmqnznd ;:d;x) ;:d.;hka jykafia oel mqre|= ry;`ka jykafia,dh.m<uqix.dhkdfjz fukau fuz fojeks ix.dhkdjo rdcH wkq.@yh we;sj uy;a /ljrK uOHfha is|=l<nj jdrA;djS we;.fufia ix.dhkd f;dr;`re wdosh we;`<;aj ;sfnk ksid pq,a,j.a. md,sh ms<s.ekSug wlue;s wh is;kjd we;af;a ta ix.dhkd lrk ,oafoa ;uka jekakjqkah lshd is;df.k jsh hq;`h. nq|=rcdKka jykafia mjd oel mqre|= ry;ka jykafia,d iuznJO jS lrk ,o ta ix.dhkdjk ksid f:rjdohg wh;a oyuz jskh iqrCIs; jsh hfula th fkdms<s.kafka kuz ta wh usysZ|= uyry;ka jykafia jsiska msysgqjk ,o mhH!dma;s m@;sm;a;s Ydikh flfryso jsYajdih ;nkafka ke; usysZ|= uyry;`ka jykafia jkdys nq|=rcdKka jykafia oji jevjsiQ jskOr jQ Wmd,s uyry;`ka jykafi f.a YsIHdkq YsIH mruzmrdjg wh;a jkfial Wmd,s-odil-fidkl- is.a.-fu#.a.,S mq;a; ;siai-uyskao hkq ta mruzzmrdjhs.usysZ|= uyry;`ka jykafia m@uqL Ou!|+; msrsi jsiska f.fkk ,o mhH!dma;s ;@smsglh uqL mruzmrdfjka (lgmdvuska) ud;f,a wZMjsydrfhaoS .@J:drEv lrk;`re mj;ajdf.k wdjyqh. pq,a,j.a. md,sh bj; ,kakjqkag oeka ;sfnk ;@smsglh ms<s.; yelso$"1 je,s.u Z{dKr;k ysushka fulS lreK wrUhd m<lrk ,oaodjQ woyi fuz lreKg fydZou ms<s;`rfjhs. tnejska fuz lrefKys,d f:arjjdo woyi fuhska fydZoskau uQrA;su;a fjz. ia;@SjdoSka olajkakdjQ ;j;a lreKlg wkqjmd;sfudlaLfhys ijk LJOlfhys nq|=rcdKkajykafia md;sfudlaLh foiSug meusK ksyZvjk fial.uq.,ka ysus ta.ek m@Yak lr;s.nq|=rvdKkajykafia msrsiays bkakd jsIujQ ;eke;af;l` wruqKq fldg ;ukajykafia mdfudla fkdWfoik njm@ldYlrk fial.fuys m@d;sfudCI foaYkdj hkqfjka oelajqko f:arjdofha yegshg nq|=r|=ka foikafkaTzjdo m@d;sfudlaLh muKs. wdKd m@d;sfudlaLh fkdjkakls Tzjdo m@d;sfudlaLh hkq jskh kS;srS;ske;s ld,fhaoS nq|=r|=ka NsCIQka leZojd .d:d ;`klska hq;`jQ wjjdouh jQ wkqYdikh foaYkdlsrSuhs.2jskh YsCIdmo nsysjSugfya;`jQfha iqoskak kuz jQ NsCIqjf.a nSclfrda;am;a;s kuzjQ mdrdcsldwej;hs.1 tu 72 msgqj2 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou! m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998 "71-72 msgqj
  13. 13. 640 iS,h ms<snZoj jQ md,kh wkqj w;s yslauqKq msrsila uq,ska iiqfkys jsiQ kuq;a nScl frda;am;a;swej; ms<snZojjQ isoaOsh jskh ms<snZoj u;fNaoldrS wjia:djla u;`lrknj ia;@SjdoSyq fmkajd fo;s.tkuz Tzjdo m@d;sfudlaLh ;sfnk ld,fha jskh kS;s ;snS fkdue;.kS;s ke;s ld,fhoS;a ix> iNdfjkamsgux lsrSug jerosldrfhla jsh fkdyel.kS;shla fkdue;s l,l bka msg;oS oZvqjuz osh fkdyel.fuzksid fuh is|=jsh fkdyel.m<uq jrolre iqoskak ysus kuz w;S;hg n,mdk jeros nq|= oyfuz fkdue;sksid ta ysushka fkrmsh fkdyelsnj ia;@SjdoSyq fmkajd fo;s.wfkla w;g jskh kS;s hgf;a m@:u jeroslre lrwe;af;a iqoskak ysushka ffu:qk mdrdcsldfjks.tfy;a irAjdia;sjdo jskfhys woskakdodkdmdrdcsldjla .ek iZoyka fjz.irAjdia;sjdoS jskh YsCIdmo f:arjdo jskfhys wvqmdvqluz u;` lsrSuiZoyd Ndjs;d lsrSu t;ruz fhda.H lreKla fkdfjz. nq|=oyu fjkila fldkr tys ksrAu, uq,aiajrEmfhkau wdrCId lr.;af;a f:rjdoS iuzm@odh jk nejska wksjdrAhfhkau lskuz ;rd;srfuzfjkila oyfuz fyda YsCIdmoj, jsoHudkfj;akuz thska f:rjdo l@uhu ksjeroshehs ms<s.ekqujvd;a Wps; l@ufjzohhs. tfiakuz nq|=r|=ka yd iuznJO lrjuska m@d;sfudlaL ijk LkaOlfhys fuu mdrdcsldj ilialf<a|=iaiS, NsCIQkag md;sfudlaLh foiSug we;`ZMjsh fkdyelsh hk ixl,amh ,ndoSug nejz ia;@SjdoShqmji;s.l,a we;sj meusK mdfudla Wfoid.ekSu hqla;siy.; lr.ekSug;a tnZ|= miqld,Sk mrspzfPao;`kla ,Z. ;sfnkakdjQ NsCIqKs LJOlfha tk l;sldjka miqld,Sk jSug bv;sfnk njg Tjqyq ielmy< lr;s.fuz wkqj fuh mqreIdOsm;Hh ;yjqre lr.ekSug1 f.d;k ,oaolanj meyeos,s fjzh hklreK ia;@sjdoSyq u;`lr;s.tfukau Tjqka olajkdldrhg nq|=r|=ka m@cdm;shf.a jeZoSu ms<snZo lreKwrNhd idjOdkj ijka|=ka njla olakg fkd,efnk njo fmkajd fo;s.kuq;a idjOdrK b,a,Suzj,gljr wjia:djl jqjo ijkaoSfuz m@;sm;a;sh nq|=r|=ka i;`jQ fohla ksid funkaola jsh fkdyelsnjia;@SjdoSyq olaj;s.fuz fya;`j ksid wIaG .reOrAuo NsCIQkaf.a mYapd;a ld,Sk ksrAudKhla njg fuulreKq idOlhla fldg olaj;s.fuz ms<snZoj je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysushka m<l< uyry;a ix>us;a;dprs;h iy ;okqqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh keue;s lD;sfhys wka;rA.; f;dr;`re wdY@fhka by;mrspzfPAofhysoS lreKq iys;j fuz u;h idjoHnejz ;yjqrefldg ;sfnz. by; iqoskak NsCIqj iuznJOfhka nq|=iuh wkq.ukhl< l@shdudrA.h b;d meyeos,sj jskfhysolajd ;sfnz.m@:u mdrdcsld YsCIdmoh meKjSug iqoskak NsCIqjf.a prAhdj bjy,a jqj;a tlS wej;gm;a fkdfjz.ta tajk jsg tnZ|= wej;la ms<snZoj jskfhys iZoyka fkdjk nejsk.nq|=jrekaf.a m@d;sfud sCIh foaYkdlsrSu ms<snZoj jQ m@;sudkuh lreKla fuysoS ;uka lshk lreKg idOlhla f,iia;@SjdoSka jsiska Wmfhda.S lrf.k ;sfnz.idudkHfhka TzkEu nq|=jrfhl` iuznJOfhka fulS m@;sudkwod<fjz.nq|=jre wmrsis|= is,a we;s msrsiays mdfudla fkdWfoi;s.fuys mdfudla hkq jskh YsCIdmofkdfjz isysm;alsrSuz yd wjjdohs.;uka ;ukaf.a Y@djlhka yd tlaj tlu wruqKl .uka lrkakdjQ;dlal,a nq|=jre fuu Tzjdo md;sfudlaL foaYkdj mj;aj;s.nqoaO Y@djl hka iuznJOfhka funZ|=wdldrfhka mdfudla WfoiSugu;af;ka wmsrsis|= ;eke;a;ka msrsfika bj;a lsrSula is|= fkdfjz.NsCIqm@;sudkhka ;`, tnkaola fkdjk nejsk.ienjskau NsCIQka jykafia,d is|= lrkqfha jrog m;a jQjkao s1 tu 73 msgqj
  14. 14. 641tu iNdjg we;`ZM lrf.k Tjqkaf.a tlS jro uyd ix>hd uOHfha fy<sfldg tu jro iZoyd iq|=iqjskh lrAuhka uyd ix>hd fj;skau mKjd .ekSuhs. idudkHfhka fiiq NsCIQka jykafia,d iuZ. ix> iudch ksfhdackh lsrSfuz whs;sh wysusjkafkai;r mdrdcsld nZ|= b;du;a m@n,u .Kfha jrola l< NsCIQka jykafia kulg muKh.tfy;a tajro ix> iNdjla uOHfha jsOsu;a wOslrK l@shdj,shlska ;yjqrefldg .kakdf;la ta NsCIqjj fiiqNsCIka jsiska jrolre hhs kuzfldg fldkalrkafka ke;.huz fyhlska tnZ|= fohlg jrolre f,ijsOsu;a wdldrhlska wOslrK l@shdj,shlska ;yjqrelr .;a;;a thg oZvqju f,i kej; WmiuzmodNsCIQka jykafia flfkl` f,i lghq;` lsrSfuz bv m@ia;dj wysusjkjd usila wOslrK l@shdj,shlgmrsndysrj yd w;a;fkdau;sl f,i by; olajk whqrska oafjzI iy.; whqrska fkrmd ouk isrs;lafn#oaO ix> iudch;`< olakg ke;. tnejska ia;@SjdoSka olajk mrsoafoka fuu mdrdcsldj ilialf<a |=YaYS, NsCIQkag mdfudla WfoiSugmeusKSu msKsi bv,nd fkdoSugh hk ldrKh us:Hdjla nj ;yjqre fjhs.uydj.a. md,sfha uydLJOj,g wh;a jQ Wfmdai:LJOfhys oelafjk lreKq uZ.ska mqk mqkd wjOdrKh lrkq ,nkafkaWfmdai:h iZoyd ishZMu ix>hdf.a iyNd.SFjh w;HjYH lreKla jk njhs.1wfkla w;g Wfmdi:lu!hla is|= lsrSfuz ienE wjYH;d jh jkqfhao NsCIQka jykafia,df.a w;ska is|=jk wvqmdvq ksjeroslrf.k kej; wdh;s ixjrhg meusKSu msKsi wjYHjkakdjQ bvlv ,ndoSuh.ldw;skaj;a jeros is|=1 u md" uyLkaOl" Wfmdai:laLkaOlh
  15. 15. 642fkdfjkjdkuz Wfmdai:h meje;ajSfuz wrA:hlao ke;.lsis|= osfkl jrola is|= fkdfjkqfha iqmsrsis|=udkisl ;;ajhlg meusK isgskakdjQ ry;ka jykafi,d w;ska muKs.kuq;a ry;kajykafia,d jqjoWfmdai:lu!hkag meusKSu wksjdrAhfjz.nq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiska tfia kshulr ;sfnz. idudkHfhka wm is;kafka ry;ka jykafia,d hkq jeros wvqmdvqluz lsis;a rys; w;sYhskauirAjiuzmQrAK irAjf;daN|@ mqoa.,hka fldgzGdYhla njhs.tfy;a Wkajykafia,d w;ska jqjo we;euzwjia:dj,oS m@n, fkdjk iqZM iqZM wvqmdvq is|=jsh yelsnj jskh msglh wkqj fmfka.msKafvda,Ndroajdc f;reka iDoaOs m@d;sydrAh oelajSu ry;ka jykafia,d w;ska jqjo idudkH NsCIq m@;sudkhkag fkd.e,fmk iqZM iqZM w;miq jSuz is|=jsh yelsnjg ksorAYkhls.kuq;a tjka wjia:djloS mjdnq|=r|=ka Bg fodiakZ.d ;sfnkafka tjka is|=jSuz iuia; NsCIQ m@;sudkhkag wys;lrf,i n,mEyelsnejsks.tjka jd;djrKhl NsCIQka fldgila l,a;nd meusK mdfudlaWfoid .ekSu hqla;s iy.;lsrSug hehs iZoyka m@ldYkh wrA: jsrys; m@ldYkhla fjz. vhkd fnda,agz ue;sKsh iDcqju nq|=r|=ka ia;@Skag oafjzI lrkafkla f,i olajd we;.tfia m@ldYlrkafka tl, iudc mrsirh ms<snZoj nq|=r|=ka i,ldne,Sfuka miq .kq ,enQ ;SrK ms<snZo wkjfndaOfhks.nq|=r|=ka tl, mej;s iudc wdrA:sl yd foaYmd,k mrsirh ms<snZoj oevs jsuiSulska hq;`j l@shdlr we;.nq|=r|=kaf.a l@shdldrluz ms<snZoj w;a;fkdau;sl ks.ukhkag t<USug u;af;ka tjeks l@uj;a yeoErSula l,hq;`j ;snsKs. fndfydajsg bx.@Sis W.;`ka fkduZ. hdug fya;`j md,s NdIdj jsOsu;af,i fkdokakdnj fya;`fldgf.k md,s NdIdfjka ,shejS we;s uq,a md,s ;@smsgl .@F: lshjd f;dreuz.ekSug fkdyelslu ksid tjdfha ifodia bx.@sis mrsjrA;k lshjd ta wkqj is;kakg hduhs.odrAYkslwrA:fhys Ndjs;djk md,s jpkj,g fkd.eUqre bx.@sis wrA: iemhSu ksid nq|=oyu ms<snZo bx.@Sisfhkarpkdjk .@J:hkays jsYd, wvqmdvqluz olakg ,efnz.rSia fvzjsvzia uy;d iy tu uy;aushf.a uQ<slFjfhka hq;`j werUs ,kavka md,s fmd;a iud.fuys m@ldYkj, fuu wvqmdvqlu oelsh fkdyelaflaTjqka md,s NdIdj ms<snZo jsYdrohka nejsk.Tjqka w;rskq;a rSia fvzjsvzia uy;aushg jvd ksjerosj sfn#oaO wdl,am .@yKh lsrSfuz yelshdj rSia fvzjsvzia uy;dg ;snsfka Bg wod< W.;aNdjh jevsmqr;snqfka ta uy;dg nejsk.ffjosl pska;kh uq,aneif.k ;snQ iudcfha wd.usl idudcsl jYfhka sysusjS ;snQ wka;.duS iudch;`< hd.fydau lsrSfuz fyda bf.kSfuz fyda b.ekajSfuz fyda mqreIhkaf.awNsjdokh ,enSfuz fyda lsis|= bvlaa ldka;djlg tjlg iudc miqnsu;`, fkdjSh.jks;dj ms<snZof:rS.d:d j, oelafjkafka wehj udrhdf.a uqjg wdfrdamKh lsrSu wNsfhda.hg ,laflrekq miqnsulahgf;ah. wd.usl idOqFjh ,enSu ia;@shg wmyiq lreKla fkdjknj fuu f:rS.d:d md,sfhys f;rKsjrekaf.a wmodkhka ;`,ska meyeos,s fjz.kuq;a nq|=iuh bosrsm;a lrkafka uSg m@;sjsreoaO woyilanjia;@SjdoSyq mji;s.uska fmfkkafka merKs Ndr;Sh jks;dj yd nq|=iufha ldka;dj ms<snZo wdl,amuh.egSuls.1ia;@SFjhg idOqFjh,ndoSu ne?reuz wNsfhda.hla jYfhka olajhs.ia;@S mCIhg wd.usl1 ldka;dj yd nq|=iuh bka|@dKs fmfrArd" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U" 2000" 119-134 msgq
  16. 16. 643mejsoao ,ndoSu ksid mYapd;a ld,Skj th iudc mrsjrA;khla yg.ekSugo fya;`N~; jsh.fuznejzNsCIqKS ixia:dj we;slr fkdfnda l,lskau .egZMj,g uqyqK oSfukau meyeos,sfjz.1 wm@udK yd wOslf,i l< wdhdpkhlska miq mejsoao ,nd |=kako iudcfhka NsCIqKSkayg Wreu jQfha fydZo ms<s.ekSula fkdfjz.fndfydajsg NsCIqKSkag NsCIqkaf.a fydr wUqjka f,i wmuK .rANd lsrSuzj,go md;@jsh.2NsCIqkag ,wenk ksoyi ,nd fkdoS wehg wIaG .reOrAu kdufhka wrA: oelafjk idudkH NsCIqjskhg jH;sfrAljqkq oevs kS;srS;s jHjia:d ud,djla hg;g fhduqlrjd mejsoao ,ndoS ;snshoS;a fumrsos iudcfhka wehg wmuK kskaod .eryquz ,nkakg is|=jQjdkuz NsCIqKSkayg wIaG .re OrAu fkdmekjQ miqnsul meKjq YsCIdmo lvjSu fjkqfjka wehg .rANd lrkjdg ovqjuz lrkjdg jvd jeros is|=jk wjia:dj,oS tu jro ldreKslj fmkajdoSu uZ.ska wehj hyuZ.g .ekSfuz jvd jevs bvlvla ta uZ.ska ksrAudKh jkjdfkao hk lreK ia;@SjdoSyq wjOdrKh lrk lreKls.ta ksidu wIaG .reOrAu meKjSu ksIaM, njo Tjqyq olaj;s. ia;@SjdoSka ldka;d msrsus jYfhka iudch fnod Nskak lruska .egZMj,g jsiZ|=uz fidhkafka oekqu fldgia j,g lvd ta;`,ska flaj, ixl,amSh idrA:lFjhla oelSugwOsldruh pska;kh Tiafia ish udkislFjh ta;`< yeisrjSug ukdj mqre|=mqyqKq l<djQ tfiaungysr hqfojz fmdf;ia;ka;@ b.ekajSuz u; mokuzjQ ia;@SjdoS pska;khg wkq.;j ta;`, isgf.kfn#oaO b.ekajSuz jsYaf,aIkh lrkakg W;aiyfldg tfial< fkdyelsjQ wjudkh uld.ekSughs.jsfYaIfhkau ngysr ishZMu oekqu ksrAudKh jS ;sfnkqfha ksrAudKjdoS pska;khflJ|@fldg f.khs.fuz hgf;a Tjqkaf.a oekquz moaO;sh f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a tu oekqu Wlyd.kakdgis;Sug lsis|= bvlvla ,nd fkdfokakdjQ udkisl ixorANhla ksrAudKh lr.ksusks. ta;`, nqoaOs jsIhsl lreKq NdjjsIhsl lreKq .`Kd;aul lreKq hkqfjka oekqu fldgiaj,glvuska yodrkjd jskd th moaO;shla f,i f.k yeoErSula is|= lsrSug ;ruzz Tjqkaf.a ksrAudKjdoSwOHdmk ixl,am m@n, fkdjk nejsk.th Wmudjlska olajf;d;a usksfil` .ek wOHhkh lsrSug ta susksidf.a YrSrdjhj fjkafldg ta tla tlla mdid wOHhkh lsrSu ngysr ksrAudKjdoS wOHdmkiudkfldg olaj;yelsh.kuq;a fn#oaO pska;kh;`, iuia;h tajQ wdldrfhkau wOHhkh lsrSug;ruz oshqKq wOHdmk ixl,am mej;`kqnj ld,duiQ;@h uZ.ska bosrsm;a flfrkakdjQ idrOrAu ixl,amuZ.ska m@lgfjz.1 tu 1-12 msgq2 tu 102-115 msgq
  17. 17. 644 nq|=r|=ka m@dfhda.slj NsCIqKSkag iudcfhka we;sjkakdjQ n,mEu l,a;shd oek oel we;.iudcfhkafndre fpdaokd t,a,jSu NsCIq NsCIqKSka w;r fkdukd inZo;d we;sjSu NsCIQka fmd<Ujd .ekSugW;aiy oerSu jeks lreKq ksid kS;srS;s oud fomsrsiu wdrCId jk mrsos l@shdlsrSu idOdrKh.bkaoshdfjz b;d blaukska NsCIqKS ixia:dj msrsyqk.,xldfjz tfldf<diajk ishji f;la fuh mej;`k.1 s snqreufha b;d iqZM ld,hls.;dhs,ka;fha f;dr;`re we;af;au ke; m@n, uydhdk NsCIqKS ixia:djla.ek pSkfha cmdkfha fldrshdfjz jeks rgj,ska jdrA;dfjz.uydhdk rgj, mejf;k NsCIqKSixia:djka wmg ms<s.; fkdyelafla tajdfha ryfia wUqieushka f,i yeisrSu muKla fkdj bkq;aTnzng .shdjQ |+ orejka ,en l@uj;a wdldrhg m@isoaOsfha jsjdy cSjs; .;lsrSfuz ksoyi mjd mejsosmCIh i;` uQ<sl udkj whs;sjdislula f,i;a thg jskfhka lsis|= ndOdjla fkdue;s f,i;a jskfhkaBg wjYH jsOsjsOdk i<iajd we;s f,i;a trfgys idudkH uyck;dj i<lk nejsk.fujeks rgj, sta ta ksldhslhka mejsoao ,nd fokafkao ;ukaf.au orejkag muKs.ta ;ukaf.a ksldh fkdkeiS /l.ekSu iZoydh.tjeks wmlSrA;su;a miqnsula we;s jsfoaYSh uydhdk nq|=iufhys wdNdIh we;sj,furfgys uykdhl f;reka jykafia,d ishZM fokdf.au oevs jsfrdaO;djh uOHfha uOHia: woyiaork jevsfokdf.a fkdleue;af;ka lSm fofkl`f.a TZzkE tmdlu u; ta iZoyd ,laosj f:arjdo nq|=iuh jskdY uqLh lrdhjkakg ryfia msUqrem;a wZosk lf;da,sl m,a,sfha wkq.@yh u; l@shd;aul jkrdcH fkdjk iud.uz yryd ,efnk jsfoaYSh uqo,a fvd,rA usgsj,g jiZ.j furgg wdkhkhlrkakg udkn,k uydhdk NsCIqKS ixia:dj ,xldjjeks iqmsrsis|= f:arjdoS nq|= oyu l@shd;aul jkrglg lsisfia;a fkd.e<fmhs. vfny nFtfey` h[xfyx k=wA sAmen`rvr[n`x nFtfk[w>vfx,v[lf dHw<vmZ dfy dHw<vmZ aAdfypNvyf.2smhr avs`TAvldF v[wfhfxf BfOS<n`vhn`es`lA smAjvferA`Df a[t[mZ k&fyAvn` kLvfxb&h`mdN`wyv[nf dHw<vmZ pNvn<l[ebZ.3emy kyxvwA mnsx d[enn dHw<vmkf.mfnfs<n` p&tfmAnhA Dr~mtA gr[krn eh`t=vk` a[t.mfnfs<n` hftn`en` emZ Dr~mtA an<v h[sfrFm mfnfsAeg`s`vABAvfk h[sfrFmbvyf.kAlyk`t=L Dr~mtAv n`x an<v h[sfermfn`sfxf mfnfs<n`x ov<n`eg`jFvftey` evn` kLenAh[kf a^gbvx Dr~mtA prfvr~tny vn`en`y.4ymZkfsfedyk` tmn`xs`vBAvfk edyk`bvx pt`vF s`vkFy jFvftey` a^gyk`v> vfx,Ey sfzkfrFm sHdhA pArfetA`SN ehAdHw<vmZ avVYvn`en` n[t.5 Dm%tA s{msmAjykm epAzevZ dk`nxl[ebZ.E`vA Ek`Ek` smAjyk pvt`nA an`dmx vwAevns` vfdfhkx tvt` smAjykdF dkfn`nx p<HPvn.EmnfsA Dr~mtA ehvt` p&tfmAn klfn`klx1 ldka;dj iy nq|=iuh bJ|@sKs fmfrArd" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U" 2000" tu 55-98 msgq2 u md 1" nq c uq 208 msgqj wkqcdkdus NslaLfjz idufKardkx budks oi islaLdmodks bfuiqj idufKafrAys idufKaislaLs;`x3 iuka; mdidosld 1" fyajdjs;drK uq|@K" 168-179 msgqj4 wOHdmk ufkdjsoHdj" ixia csf;aJ|@ ufaydka" mrs iajrAKd jsfcA;`x." wOHdmk m@ldYk fomdrA;fuzka;`j"n;a;ruq,a," 1996" 262 msgqj5 ,ud wdl,am ixjrAOkh" foudmsh .`re ldrAhNdrh" fm@aud l`v,s.u" iSudiys; oSmdks uq|@K m@ldYkh"kqf.af.dv" 2000
  18. 18. 645evns`vFmx BAjnyevZ.(tr[N tr[Nfyn`eg` ymZ ymZ kAlvl a[tfvn h[sfrFm udAhrNvVeyn` gth[kfy.)1 smAjyk` eds blnvfxdF smAjjFvfty gtkfrFm sHdhA Dr~mtA ektrmZ v[dgt` vnvAd[yfp[h[dflfevZ.Dr~mtA ehvt` Dr~mtA enAtfebn`nx smAjyk` pvt`vAgnyAm aphs<evyf.nm<t`apx emZ kArNy EtrmZ enAv[xeh`.Dm%tA ehvt` p&tfmAn kfyA ekAxsk` pvtfnvAd[yf kfyAvt` enAsfet`.Ix eh`t=v emZ Dm%tA ehvt` p&tfmAnvlx ap h<r[p<r[zvF E`vA apeg` jFvftvlxjFr~NvF kA v[dF a[tf nfsAy.2 smhrvfxk emZ Dm%tA atr prmAdr~VF Dm%tA hA yTAr~T Dm%tA dk`nx p<HPvn.eevreyn`eevry enAsn`sfeHd`,yn<prmAdr~VF yTAr~TDm%tAvykf.p&tfmAnykf.nm<t` apf aep` sAmAnYjFvftey`dF apx ymZkfsf akxy<t`tk` kLekenk=x Ekx Ek krn`nx ut`shkrn`enm<.Ees`ut`shkLt` prmAdr~VFp&tfmAn yk` h[xfyx emy kv<r[t` pfLfgn`nA edykf.smAjyeds blnvfx Dm%tA ehvt` p&tmAnvl tvt` p[t`tk` dk`nxl[ebZ.EnmZ smhr Dm%tA agykrn< lbmfn`E` atrm E` Dm%tAvlx p&tfmAnvlx Eerhfv kxy<t=kfrFemZ rxAvk`d dk`nx tfbFmyf. udAhrNyk` vVeyn` mt`p[n`bFemn` v[LkFm ebUd`D Dm%tAvyk`vVeyn` pfLfgn`nA Ekkf.nm<t` b<zdhmaArOSAkfrFmx vYvs`TAevn` b[HdFa[tff rxk s{m rjyk` mHgfn`m mt`p[n` nfS`pAdnyx an<bldFmk`d eker~.1 kqU kdvka foajodis" uq;`uqo,df.a kYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U" 06 032005"24 msgqj2 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHd m@fjzYh"tka jS cS ta fyauka; l`udr"weia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U"1997" 132-140 msgq
  19. 19. 646 rjey` an<m[tfy enAm[tfv nfS`pAdnykrn< lbn nFtfvferA`Dfy[yf hHzn`vn< lbn mt`p[n`uvzrk` h[xfyx slkA m[wp[v[t`vFmxd kxy<t=kryf.p&tfmAn pfLfbHdv emt[ndF g[xHPvk` pvtF.smAjyk p<d`glyn`vfsfn` pfLfp[dfyy<t= ehA` enApfLfp[dfyy<t= ehA` nFtfrFtf vYvs`TA sfrft` vfrft`th^cf dHw<vmZ an<sAsnA aAdfy smAjk&fyAdAmyt=L nfsfprfdf k&fyAvx enAn[eHg`nmZ E`vAmt pfhfxAenAsfxFnmZ Evn` smAjy bfHdv[exZ.smAj vY<heyhf smZmtyx blp[v[t`evn hrpd`Dtfyt=L m<l`b[sgt` cr~yAmy lOSN pfLfgt` p&tfmAn ehvt` Dm%tAels s[lek`.1 emhfdF ap sAkcZCAkrn< lbn`en` kAlAms>t&eyn` ehlfvn ebUd`D sArDm% hA iht dk`vnld ‘p&tfmAn(Norms)’atr pvtfn sbHdtAvey` s`vr{py pfLfbHdvyf2.kAlAm s>t&eyhf vfvrNyvn smAj p&tfmAny vnAhF Ehf d[k`evn smAj sdAcAr p&Qp`tfyyf.emZ v>klF p^cVFlp&tfpdAvmb[vZ 3vn prfcZeC~dey` sAkcZCAvx lk`vfnf.(3 prfcZeC~dy bln`n) Em prfcZeC~dey`sAkcZCAvx bHzn`v> prfdf p^cVFl p&tfpdAv s<rOSftvFm pfNfs aADYAt`mfk sArDm%s^kl`pv>aelA`B,aedA`s hA aemA`h yn sArDm% s^kl`pt&ft`vy udvZv>bv d[k`vfnf.3 emm sArDm% s^kl`pt&ft`vy hxgn<lbn`en` itAm s>Osm sArDm% s^kl`pyn` strk`v>emt`tA, kr[NA,m<dftA hA uep`k`KA yn sArDr~mFy s^kl`pyn` str pdnmZekAx bv vfs`trekrfnf.4emes` aDYAt`mfk sArDm% s^vD%nykrn` nAv> p<d`glyA aADYAt`mfk hA bAhfr vVeyn`s[nsFmZvg% strk` lbnbv kAlAm s>t&eyhf vfs`tr ekrfnf.EnmZ,51.prelAvk` tfebZnmZ,prelAvdF yhpt` uptk` lbenmf yn<evn` emelAvdFm lbn s[nsFm.62.prelAvk` n[tfnmZ,emZ aAt`myhf s<ves` vfsfmf yn<evn` emelAvdFm lbn s[nsFm.73.pvZkLAh<x vfpAked`nmZ,mAvfsfn` EbHz pvZ enAkrnldF yn<evn` emelAvdFm lbn s[nsFm.84.pvZkLAh<x vfpAk enAed`nmZ,mAvfsfn` EbHz pvZ enAkrnldF yn<evn` emelAvdFmlbns[nsFm.9 cft`tVAn`tfy ehvt` s[nsFmyn< p<d`gleyk= tm jFvnp[v[t`m nfrr~b<dv1 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHd m@fjzYh"tka jS cS ta fyauka; l`udr"weia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U" 1997"135 msgqj2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;d ….w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskakps;af;da…..wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkj mdKxyka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x kxys;dh iqLdh;s3 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wf,dafNda …wfodafida….wfudafyda….mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAC;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;4 tu i fLda fid ld,dud wrshidjfld tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;NHdmdfoda wiuzuQMafyda iuzmcdfkda m;siai ld,dudf;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id fm-lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id-uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id-WfmalaLd fm- id- id-iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix Mrs;ajd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshxinznzOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKakwfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s5 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx wfjzzr ps;af;daa tajx wnHdmcACOps;af;da tajx wixls,sgzG ps;af;datjx jsiqoaO ps;af;da ;iai osgzfGj Ouzfuz p;a;dfrda wiaidid wOs.;d fydka;s ;ia6 tu ifpz fLda mk wF:s mfrda f,daflda wF:s iqlg |=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda Gdkuyx ldhiai fNaodmruzurKd iq.;sx i.a.x f,dalx WmamcAcsiaiduS;s whuiai mGfuda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s7 tu ifpz fLda mk kF:s mfrda f,daflda kF:s iqlg |=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda bodyx osgzfGk Ouzfuzwfjzrx wnHdmcACOx wkS>x iqqLx w;a;dkx mrsydrduS;s whuiai |=;sfhda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s8 tu ifpz fLda mk lfrdaf;da lrshH;s mdmx k fLda mkdyx liaips mdmx fpzf;aus wlfrdka;x fLda mk ux ;xmdmx luzux l`f;da |=laLx Mqiai;S;s whuziai ;;sfhda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s9 tu ifpz fLda mk lfrdaf;da k lrshH;s mdmx bodyx WNfhfkaj jsiqoaOx w;a;dkx iukqmiaiduS;s whuiaip;`;af:da wiaidfida wOs;f;da fyda;s
  20. 20. 647gtkfrFm eh`t=evn` bAhfr smAjy hA p<d`glyA atr pvtfn smAjmy smZm<tfy enAbfHdaArOSAkfrFm atYvVY kArNykf.smAj smZm<tfy ehvt` smAj sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy kwkrn`nAv>p<d`glyAevt smAjeyn` enAeyk` bADAvn` El`lvfyh[kf b[vfn` EvfxEm p<d`glyAeg` jFvftydEyfn` enAeyk` ar~b<dshft evZ. smAjyk` yn< p<d`glyfn` 1 sm>hykf. ov<n` EkfenkA tm tmn` p<d`glfkjFvft gt krn atrm smAjey` k=wAm smAj E`kky vn pv<l ek`$z& ekAx egAw nHgA gt` smAj h[sfrFmk`d Ek` Ek` p<d`glyA vfSeyhf dk`nx l[ebZ.2 smAjey` k=wAm smAj smAj E`kky vn pv<l` s^s`TAv nfrr~b<dv p[vt`m sHdhA eh`t=evyf.pv<l` s^s`TAvt=L nfr~bADFyjFvfkAv pfNfs ivhl`vn p^cvfD v>p&tfpt`tFn`egn` p^cVFl p&tfpdAv s[zmZld`ed` evyf.p^cVFl p&tfpdAvt=L an`tr~gtv> p&ANGAteyn` v[LkFmt=lfn` ar~Tvt` vn`en` smAjyt=L evesn aenk=t` sAmAjfkyn`eg` jFvt`vFemZa[tf ayftfy ov<n`x lbAdFmyf. emm anYyn`eg` hfrfh[r vDb$Dnvlx lk`enAvF tm jFvnp[v[t`m s<vdAyfk kAyfk hAmAnsfk prfsryk`t=L gtkfrfemZ ayfftfy ov<n`hx lbAdFm pLm< VfOSAdpdeyn` aT%vt`eker~.3ekenk= emes` tmk&fyA pxfpAxfy sks`krg[nFmxnmZ EbHz p<d`gleyk=eg` aADYAt`mfk s^vryitAm vfVfS`X tt`vykx s^vD%ny krg[nFm avVYy.eevrsftfvflft=lfn` GAtnykfrfmZ hA vDb$Dnvlx p[mfNvFmZ sfzeker~.avYApAd sftfvflft=lfn` eemt&fy ehvt` mft=r[bv vD%ny eker~.mft=r[bv mft&t`vy thv<r[v<n smAj smZb$DtA pd`DtfykdF E`t=L vAsy krn mAnv p&jAveg`m>Lfk mfnfs` ayftfvAskmZ phmt p^cVFl p&tfpdAevn` nfr~ed`Vft sdAcAr Dm%tA ph aArOSAevZ.kAlAm s>t&eyhfdF elA`By n[m[tf ak=slm>ly eh`t=ekAxegn sdAcAr KN`wnyt` EmHgfn`smAj p&tfmAn rAm<vvn p^cVFl p&tfpdAv bfHdv[exn ay<r[ epn`vA a[t`et` emZ ay<rfnf. ‘kAlAmeynf,elA`Beyn` y<k`tv> emZ p<r[S p<d`gletm vnAhF elA`Byvfsfn` mwnAld`ed`,hAt`psfn` vfnAVkrn sft` a[t`et`,st=rn` mryf.esArkmZd kryf.prdArAvn` krAd yyf.ebAr[dkfyyf.yemk=x dFr~GkAlyk` ahft pfNfs zk` pfNfs evZd,anYyAd E`b[vZ pfNfs smAdn` eker~d?’1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq k mrodrx .pzP;s2 A. iudc jsoHdfjz uQ<Ou!"kkaofiak r;akmd,"iSudiys; f,alayjqia bkafjiagzukagz iud.u"fld<U"1986 B.oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d"fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr"oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"2503 2005" 3 msgqj3 wuzud wmamd ke;s uqje;a;s"iqOrAud chiQrsh"oskusK fikiqrdod"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@iud.u"fld<U"19 032005" 19 msgqj
  21. 21. 648 elA`By vnAhF ak=slm>L t=enn` Ek` ak=sl m>Lykf.ak=sly yn< sfet` s[nsFmkrA sftemehyvFemZ k=sltAvy rhftyn<yf.h[kfyAv rhftbv yn<yf.p&ANGAtyx,adt`tAdAnyx,kAmmfTYAcAryx ihtd[k`v> v[rdf sterhf eyAm< krvFm yn kr[N< ps vnAhF ekenk=eg` sfet`s[nsFm n[tfkrlFmx eh`t=vn kr[Nk` b[vfn` ak=slm>Lykfn` p&Bvv>vkf.1emyfn` p[h[dflfvn`en`ekenk= sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy vVeyn` s[lekn smAjp&tfmAny vVeyn` s[lekn smAj p&tfmAny ehvt` p^cVFlp&tfpdAv kwkfrFmx ivhl`vn>ey` vfSm cft`t s^kl`pyn`eg` blp{m bvyf.emhfdf vfSm s^kl`py els blpA a[t`et` elA`By ehvt` asFmft aAVAvyf. an<n`eg` jFvftvlx vwA d[wfels tmAeg` jFvftyx aAVAkfrFmt` tmAeg` jFvfty pvt`vAegnyAm pfNfs an<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tfayftfy E` sHdhA uzrA g[nFmx eh`t=evyf.emZ p&NGAtyxeh`t=vyf.2m@dK >d;h ia:r follska hqla;h m<uqj wkHhkaf.a cSjs; whs;sh fkd;ld yerSuhs.fyj;a wkHhkaf.a cSjs;j,g oevs wka;drhlr jkakdjQ l@shdj, ksr;jSuhs.fuz uZ.ska m@dK >d;his|= jSug wjYH lrkakdjQ jgdmsgdj iuzmdokh flfrA.fojk ia:rh jkdyS iDcqju wkHhkaf.acSj;ajSfuz ksoyi W|=rd oeuSuhs fulS fowxYh uZ.skau m@dK >d;h YsCIdmoh is|=fjz. an<n` st=vs`t=v eker~ d[wfelA`B sft`ipfdvFm an<n`st=vs`t=v tmn`st=krg[nFmx eh`t=vyf.3emy adt`tA dAnyyf.ehvt` esArkmyf.4;ukaf.a csjs;h mj;ajd .ekSug iq|=iq fohla Wmhd.ekSug ;uka jer jEhfuka l@shdfldg hula idOdrK f,i yuznl< hq;`h.;ukaf.a csjs;h mj;ajd.ekSu msKsi wkqka jerjEhfuka yuznl<djQ fohla whqla;s iy.;f,i jxpdiy.;f,i widOdrKf,i W|=rd .ekSu w;sYhskau fkdukd fohls.iudc jsfrdaOs idyisl l@shdjls kS;sh uZ.ska fuhgoZvqjuz ,efnkjdg wu;rj ;ukaf.a yDo YdCIsfhkao oZvqjuz jsZoskakg is|=fjz.fujka jerosj,fhfokakkag csjs;fha lsis osfkl udkisl i;`glska l,af.jsh fkdyel.ksrka;rfhka ;ud lrk,ojro fya;`fjka ksrka;r mSvdjlska hq;`j iudcfhys osjs f.jSug funZ|= mqoa.,hkag is|=fjz. ;uka lrk ,o jrog iq|=iq oZvqju ksrka;rfhka ;udj ,qyqnZos;shs ielfhka l,af.jkakg is|=jSuksid fuznZ|= mqoa.,fhda iudcfhys miqjkafka ksrka;rfhkau nsfhks ;udj lskuz fudfyd;l fydayiqfj;shs oevs f,i nsfhka miqjSu ksid cSjs;fha lsis osfkl ysf;a i;`fgka miqjsh yels fkdfjz.wkqka lrkq ,nkakdjQ fkdfhla jeros iZoydo ;udj iel lrkafkl` njg m;ajSfuka ;j w;lskafmf<kafkl` njg m;afjz.funZ|= flfkl` mjik jpkh iudcfhys fndfyda fofkla fkdms<s.kakd;ekg m;ajSu ksid iudcfhka fldkajSu ksrdhdifhka we;sfjz.jeo.;a Wiia W.;a iudchg fkdjeoaod.; hq;` mqoal,fhl` fldg ;elSu ksid cSjs;fha lsis osfkl fydZo wjjdo fydZo Wmfoia fkd,nkafkl` jS wjik b;du;a |=laLs;fhl` jS w;sYh fLzockl urKhlg Wreuluz lshkafkl` njgm;afjhs.1 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06 032005"24msgqj2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq 377-343 msgq mdKuzms yka;s3 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud$f,dafNda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAc;s….4 tu woskakuzms wdosh;s
  22. 22. 649 s`pr~VkAmy eker~ pmNik`mvA d[wfels gfj<vFm an<n` st= s`pr~V kAmmy vs`t+n` ekern` tmn` kAms^tRp`tfy l[bFm sHdhA ekenk= eyAm<vFmx eh`t=kArNAvn s^sfd`Dfykf.emZ krN ekAx egn d[wf elA`BF ecZtnA evn` p<d`gleyA` prdAres`vny sfz krtf.1 mrodr fiajkh hk lreK ia:r follska hq;`j l@shd;aul flfrA m<uq foh jkqfha fuz uZ.ska mjq,a ixia:dj i;` jsOsu;a Ndjhg ydks is|= lsrSuhs fojk ia:rrh jkqfha wkshuska fyj;a jl@dldrfhka ta iZoyd Wojzfokafkl` f,i l@shd lsrSuhs. fyj;a ta iZoyd wkshuzf,i bv m@ia:dj ,efnk mrsos ls@shdlsrSuhs. ke;fyd;a fjk;a whg ta iZoyd bv m@ia;djkdj ,efnk mrsos ;uka l@shdlsrSuhs.jvd;a mqZM,a mrsos mrodr fiajkh hk YsCIdmoh ms<snZoj idlpzPd l<fyd;a fulS ia:r fol ms<snZoju wjOdkh fhduql< hq;`fjz . d[wf elA`Beyn` y<t=v tmn`krn`nAv> mfcZCAp[v[t`mn` an<n`egn` sHgvA t[bFemZ uvmnAevn` E`vA tmn` enAkLbv kFm eh`t=evn` m<sAvAdy n[m[tf smAj p&tfmAny kwkfrFm 2 sfzker~. tmA krn vredhf brptlkm aw<vFmx, Ey sAmAnYkrNy kfrFmx anYyn`d tmAemn`m emZ v[rdf sfzkrnehyfn` emZvA v[rdf enAv uss` nvFn smAjyp^tFn`x a[t=HPvFmx p&evZVyn`vn sAmAnY k&fyAb[vZ epn`vFmx ebAehA`ednA d[wfelA`B shgt cft`teyn` y<t=vk&fyA krtf.ov<n` E` sHdhAupk&myk`els BAvftAkrn< lbn`en` an<n`d tmn`elsm v[rdfkfrFm sHdhA epLMvFmyf.3 emyv[rdfkrn ebAehA` p<d`glyn`eg` s<vfeV`SF crft lOSNykf.emelsvFmx eh`t=v,tmn`vrdk`ekAx as<v>vt` ar asvl` ayt` emZ vrdmtmA krn`en` y[yf pvsA a[HgebZrA g[nFemZmt=blAepAerAt`t= shftv emAv<n` emZ ay<rfn` an<n`d tmAemn`m v[rdf kfrFmx epALMvtf.emZnfsA b<zrzn` kAlAm v[sfyn`x epn`vAedn< l[b<evZ p^cVFlp&tfpdAevn` d[k` evn smAjp&tfmAnps kwkfrFmx sRj<vm vfSm menA`m>Lfk s^kl`pyk`v> elA`By eh`t=vn bvyf.4 in` ant=r[v d`evZSy n[m[tf ak=slm>Ly eh`t=ekAxegn smAjp&tfmAn rAm<v elss[lekn p^cVFl p&tfpdAv kwvn ay<r[ kAlAm s>t&ey`dF kAlAm v[sfyn`x epn`vAedn< l[b<evZpht d[k`evn prfd`ednf.51 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06 032005"24msgqj2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uqidms NK;s3 tu mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s4 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud$f,dafNda mqrsi mq.a.f,da wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$ wys;dh Nkaf;5 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud fodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda wmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$wys;dh Nkaf;
  23. 23. 650 ‘kAlAmeynf d`evZSeyn` y<k`tv> emZ p<r[Sp<d`gletm vnAhF d`evZSyvfsfn` mwnAld`ed`hAt`psfn` vfnAVkrn sft`a[t`et` st=n`mryf esArkmZd kryf prdArAvn`krAd yyf ebAr[dkfyyfyemk=x dFG%kAlyk` ahftpfNfs zk`pfNfsevZd anYyAd E`b[vZ pfNfs smAdn`eker~d?’1 d`evZSy yn< ak=slm>L t&ft`veyn` edvn ak=slm>Lyyf2.elA`By emn`m d`evZSeyn`d sfzevn<ey` yTAr~Ty d[kgtenAh[kfvn prfd`edn` sftk[LMFmx pt` krlFmyf.d`evZSy g[xFmx h[pFmxt=w<ed`.ap&fy amnAp ynlOSNeyn` hxgnF.ehAHd sArvt`edyk`v<vt` ap&fy amnAp elsfn` BArg[nFm d`evZSey` lOSNyyf.Ees`m ek&A`Dy,trhv,kfpFm v[nfaAGAtynx t=w<edn k&fyAvn`ebAehAmykeg` menA`m>L vfSm s^kl`py vn>ey` d`evZSyyf.emhfdF m>Lfk smAj sdAcArp&Qp`tfyelsfn` s[lekn p^cVFly smAj p&tfmAnyk` elsfn` kwkfrFmx lk`vn>ey` emkF d`evZSy n[m[tfvfSmmenA`m>L s^kl`py eh`t=ekAx egnb[vZ kAlAms>t& ey`dF b<zrzn` kAlAmv[sfyn`x phdAedtf.3 an<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tf ayftfy,tmAeg` jFvt`vFemZa[tf ayftfy evn<evn` uzrAgn`en` d`evZSym>Lfk vFemnf.emhfdF an<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tf ayftfyx d`evZSkfrFmt` tmAeg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tfayftfyx bADAvk` els Ey d`evZSeyn`y<t=v upkl`pnykfrFmt` p&ANGAty n[m[tf pLm< smAjmyp&tfmAny bfHdd[mFmx ivhl`evZ.4 an<n`eg` a[tf vs`t=v tmn`eg`a[tf nfr~Dn BAvyx sAep`OSkekAx kl`pnAkfrFm nfsAd`evZSy phL evZ.an<n`st= vs`t=v tmn`st=krg[nFemZ d`evZSshgt sft=vfl`lk` updfyf.esArkmn[m[tf edvn smAj p&tfmAny emZ ay<rfn` d`evZSy pAdkekAx egn p<d`glyA atfn`bfHdd[emnbv kAlAm v[sfyn`x b<zh< epn`vAedtf.5 an<n` tmAst=va[tf kAmsmZpt` mHgfn` DAr~mfkels kAms^tRp`tfy l[bFmt` anYyn` tmn`eg`k=x<mZB jFvfty nfrr~b<dv gtkfrFmt` tmAeg` jFvfty hA jFvnp[v[t`m hA ssHdAbln`nAv>p<d`glyA an<n` eker~ d`evZSeyn` m<LAvxpt`evyf.6Ees` d`evZSeyn` m<LAvx pt`v> p<d`glyAan<n`st= kAmsmZpt` ekern` tmA kAms^tRp`tfy l[bFmx eyAm<evyf.7an<n`eg` k=x<mZBs^s`TAvxd`evZSshgt sftfn` y<t=v eddrAy[vFmx sftAmtAm kxy<t= kryf.emZay<rfn` d`evZSy pAdkekAxegn a[t[mZ p<d`gleyA` kAm 8mfTYAcAry n[m[tf edvn smAj p&tfmAny kwkfrFmx epLeMnbv b<zh< vdArtf.91 tu |=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud fodafida mqrsimq.a.f,da fodafiak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms nka;swoskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;s oS> r;a;xwys;dh |=laLhd;s2 tu3 tu4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq mdKuzms yka;s5 tu woskakuzms yka;s6 ksisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE"wkq, o is,ajd" uxi,"oskusK wZ.yrejdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"22 03 2005 25 msgqj7 oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d"fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr"oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"25 03 2005 3 msgqj8 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06032005"24 msgqj9 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq
  24. 24. 651 an<n`vfSeyhf ihtkF v[rdfkrn`nAv> p<d`glyA atfn` smAj p&tfmAn t=nk` bfHdd[emyf.smAj p&tfmAn bfHddmn`nAv> p<d`glyA ekerhf smAjy andr els k&fyA kryf.oh<eg` sAmAjfk ayftfvA sfkmZ oh<x ahfmfkrn< lbyf. emZeh`t=evn` bfyx hA k[LMFmx pt`vn vrdkArF t[n[t`etA` d`evZSeyn`y<t=v tmn` Ebn`dk`keL` n[t[yf astYy pvstf.Em p<d`gleyA` astYy vcny mHgfn` an<n` rvxn`en` d`evZS shgt ecZtnAv eprd[rf kregny. emZmHgfn` strvn smAj p&tfmAn kwkfrFmv> m<sAvAdy ehvt` ebAr[kFm nm[tf sdAcArvferA`Df k&fyAv sfz eker~. emZay<rfn` p&ANGAty,adt`tAdAny,kAmmfTYAcAry1 hA m<sAvAdy ynstrv[d{r[mZ smAj p&tfmAnyn` bfHdfn`nAv> kwkrn`nAv> p<d`gleyA` an<n` smAj p&tfmAn aArOSAkr s[ptx hA kFr~tfyx pt`vFmt` tmn` smAjp&tfmAn kwekAx zkx nfn`dAvx pt`vFmt` d`evZSeyn` y<t=v emenhfekAx an<n`eg` sft`d z|SY ekAx ov<n` lbn`nAv> s[ptfn` hA kFr~tfeyn` ov<n` pfrfhFmx pt`krvFmx d`evZS shgtv sftA s[ls<mZ shgtv upk&mVFlFv an<n`d tmAkrn`nAv> smAj p&tfmAn bfHdd[mFemZ k&fyAvlfyx Ek`kr g[nFmx hA E`vAeyhfm nfrtkrvFmxut`sAh drtf.evr drtf.2epALMvn`nA p&tfvfr[d`D lf^gfkeyk=nmZ epALMvn< lbn p<d`glyAeg`VR^gArAt`mk h[HgFmZ k=HPgn`vA3ehA` emkF epLMvFemZ k&fyAvlfy sAr~Tk krg[nFmx ov<h<ut`sh drtf.fuz iZoyd jpkh m@fhdackh .kakd ;eke;a;ka fyda ;eke;a;shka b;du;a ishquzf,i taiZoyd wkqm@di rih l`ZM.kajk oajsFj(Double Meanind Words);@s;aj(Trible Meaning Words)ydnyqjsO wF:! we;s(Multiply Meaning Words)ryia ,sx.sl wdrdOkdjka iys; bZ.sj,ska msreKqf;areuz iys; jpkhka idudkH jpk iuZ.u wkawhg fkdf;afrk f,i ;ukag wjYH whygmuKla wre;a .ekafjk f,i jrskajr f;m,uska ;ukaf.a wNsudrA: idOkfhys,d;;amrfj;s.sfy<mZels d`evZS shgt els kLs[ls<mZ t=lfn` an<n`d tmAeg` smAj p&tfmAnbfHdd[mFemZ s[ls<mZshgt k&fyAv lfyx ekAx<kr g[nFm ehA` Ees`kfrFmx ut`shg[nFm sfzkrtf.4emZmHgfn` d`evZSy pAdkekAx egn ps`vn smAjp&tfmny bfHdd[mFmx smhrp<d`gleyA` ihtsdhn` aAkAreyn` k&fyA krn bv kAlAm v[sfyn`x emZay<rfn` b<zh< p[h[dflfkredtf.51 A. ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq,"tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq B.fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh"j;ai,d tuzfldvsldr"tia f.dvf.a iyifydaorfhda"fld<U"2000"97-129msgq2 oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d"fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr"oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"25 03 2005 3 msgqj3 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06032005"24 msgqj4 tu5 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq |=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fodafiak wNsN~f;daa mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yk;s woskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms ;dNK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x wys;dh |=laLdhd;s
  25. 25. 652 ant=r[v b<zh< emA`hyn[m[tf t=n`vn ak=slm>Ly eh`t=ekAxegn p&tfmAn rAm<v elss[lekn p^cVFlp&tfpdAv kwvn ay<r[ kAlAms>t&eyhfdF kAlA mv[sfyn`x epn`vAedn< l[b<evZphtd[k`evn prfd`ednf.1 ‘kAlAmeynf,emAheyn`y<k`tv> emZ p<r[Sp<d`gletm vnAhF emAhyvfsfn` mwnAld`ed` hAt`psfn`vfnAVkrn sft`a[t`et` st=n`d mryf.esArkmZd kryf.prdArAvn` krAd yyf.ebAr[d kfyyf. yemk=x dFG% kAlyk` ahftpfNfs zk`pfNfs evZd anYyAd E`b[vZ pfNfs smAdn` eker~d?’ emA`hy yn< ak=slm>Lt=enn` etvn hA avsAn ak=slm>Lyyf.2emA`hymHgfn` stYy v[sFyAmsfzevZ.ess<ak=slm>L edkvn elA`Byx hA d`evZSyx eh`t=kArNAvn`en`d emA`hy eh`t=evn`n<vN m<vhvFmyf.emy itAmsfy<mZ ak=slm<Lykf.Eb[vfn` emm k=slm>Ly k&fyAt`mkvFemn` sfzkrn`nAv> smAjp&tfmAn kwkfrFmZ nfv[rdfv hHznAg[nFmx aphs<y.sft ymZkfsf dRS`XfshgtedykEL`Mg[nFm sfzvn>ey`d emA`hyn[m[tf mAnsfkaAvRtbv a[tfkrn menA`m>Lfk Dm%tAvy nffsAy. jrA;udk ld,fhys cSj;ajk udkjhd osfkka osk wd;audrA:lduS nfjka wka;hgu hkq olakg,efnz;ukaf.a cSj;ajSfuz we;s whs;sh ,nd.ekSu msKsi wkqkaf.a cSj;ajSfuz we;s whs;sh W,a,x>khkrn`nAv>p<d`gleyA` E`k&fyAv sADArNFykrNykfrFm pfnfs vfvfD mtvAdyn`eg` s^kl`pyn`eg`aAgmfk hA dr~VnvAdyn`eg` pfhfxpttf.3rs tRS`NAv s^sfHdvFmpfNfst` tmAeg` jFvt`vFmxavVYaAhAry lbA g[nFm pfNfst` m<s`lfmZ Bk`tfkeyA`‘hlAl`’n[m[tfk&myx krn s#vGAtnyan<mtkrtf.s#v GAtny hf^sAkArFk&fyAvk`bv m<s`lfmZdhemZ epn`vAdFtfb<Nt` pV`cAt`kAlFnvov<n` vfsfn`m aAgmfk s^kl`pvlx rf^gvAgn`nAld ov<n`eg`k&fyAvn` an<mt krvAgn`nA ld`dAv>ymZymZ s^kl`p hA a#T%kTn aADAr kregn ov<h< s#v GAtny Ek`trA vt`pfLfevt` pfrFmkfn` ant=r[vsfzkfrFm pfLfgnftf.hf$zDm%ey`d b&h`myA evn<evn` krn`nAv> yAgsHdhA dsdhs`gNnk` st=n`mrAkrn bflfp>jA aAgmfk kxy<t`tk`es` EdA BArtFy smAjyvfsfn` s[lkfnf.GAtnypfNfs eyAdAgn`nA s#vvg%y mt emkF yAg egA`emZD ehA` aV`vemZD nmfn` aAgmfk g&$Tvlh[Hdfn`vfnf.EpmNk` enAv p<r[SemZD nmfn` h[Hdfn`evn mfnfs<n` itAvf VAl s^KYAvk` mrAkrn`nAv> dr[N<gNey` bflfp<jAvn` pvA ov<n`eg` aAgmfk g&$Tvl s`vr~ggAmFvFm pfNfskLy<t=v>pfn`kmZelsx hHzn`vAdFtfbfNf.4 emZvAx vfr[d`Dv EdA jFvmAnv v[wsfxf b<zrzn` kLAv> mtvAdFmy argly pfLfbHd p<vt` epLdhmt=L itAvfVAlels an`tr~gtevZ.un`vhn`es` b<zvFmx epr sfd`DAT%tv<s`v sfxfnAvs`TAevhfpvA iht dk`vnld mZel`cZC GAtnvlx vfr[d`Dv k&fyAkLes`k.evZdnfymy an<v vfsAlA mh1 tu ;x lsxuZ[aZ[: ld,dud fudafyda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$wys;dh Nkaf; uq<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafyak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;s Nkawoskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS>r;a;x wys;dh|=laLdhd;s2 tu3 oS ks 1 iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;" nq c uq 96 msgqj kF:s uydrdc oskakx kF:s hzgzGx kF:s yq;x kF:s iqlg|=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda kF:s whx f,daflda kF:s mfrda f,daflda kF:s ud;d kF:s ms;d kF:s iF:dTzmmd;sld kF:s f,dfl iuK n@yauKd iuzu.a.;d iuzud mgsmkakd fh bux p f,dalx mrxp f,dalx ihxwNsZ[aZ[d ipzPslFjd mfjoka;s [d4 ;@smsglfhys ixialD;sl ,CIK" ;,,af,a Ouzudkkao ysus"iuhjO!k uq|@Kd,h"fld<U"1980"105-116 msgq
  26. 26. 653n<vr aslv>ed`vAleyhf bfmZbfsAr rj<x aAVfr~vAdptA sfzkrn`nx nfymv p[vtf embHz mZel`cZCyAgyk` ebA`Dfs#vyn`vhn`es`` eg` m[dfht`vFm eh`t=ekAxegn nvtAd[mFmx sfzvFm emyx Ek`nfds<nkf.1BArd`vAj bm<NA smHg kL mtvAdFmy arglyd Eyfn` s<p&kx tvt` nfds<nkf.emZay<rfn` mtvAdFmy kr[Nk` ehA` dRS`Xfmy kr[Nk` ek`$z& ekAxegn smAjp&tfmAnyn` atrpLm<evnf p&tfmAnyvn p&ANGAty sfzkfrFm emA`hyn[m[tf ak=slm>Ly eh`t=ekAxegn sfzvn`nAv> edyk`els pfLfg[en`.2emA`hyyn< vfSm menA`m>L s^kl`pykf. Ey ek`$z&kregn EypdnmZkregn pLm<v[nf smAjp&tfmAny bfHdd[mFmx p<d`gleyk= eyAm<vFemZ s^sfd`Dfy kAlAms>t&eyhf mnAv idfrfpt`ekAx tfebZ. an<n`st= ed`pLhfmfkmZ pfLfbHd mtvAdy dRS`Xfshgtv sftAbln a[t[mZednA ov<n` EkFed`pLhrfhmZbkrtfebn<ey` ay<t=shgtels ay<k`tfshgtels asADArNels zp`pt`(nfr~Dn)jntAvs>rAkA ov<n`eg` lABy atfrfk`tyk`ekAx V&ms>rAk{m mHgfn` at`pt`krgn`nAld ecUrv> Dnyk`bvt` E`nfsA E`Dny kfsfymZ k&mykfn`lbAg[nFm sADArNFkrNyekAx E`vA tmn`eg` ehA` an<n`eg` p&eyA`jnypfNfs esArkmZkLAx vrdk`n[t[yf upkl`pnyekAx esArkemZnfrtvFm emA`hyn[m[tf vfSmcft`t s^kl`py eh`t=ekAxegn aAvrNyv> mnsfn` edvn smAjp&tfmAny kwkfrFmv> adt`tAdAneyhf eydFmnmZevZ.3 ebAehA`vfx ov<n` esArkmZkrgn`nAld Dny zp`pt`jnyAxebdAdfyh[kfy.gfln<n`sHdhA aAerA`gYVAlA anATnfvAs v[wfhfxfnfvAs p<nr[t`TApn mDYs`TAnBAvnAmDYs`TAn aAgmfks`TAn egAwn[^vFmsHdhA v[ykrn<dkfn ebAehAjnyAd ov<n`eg` Emk&fyA an<mtkrnvA vfyh[kfyf.emyfn` Em esArkm krn<lbnp<d`glyn`x tvtvt` an<bll[bFmxov<n`eg` k&fyAvn` sAmAnY mhjntAv an<mtkr n<l[bFm eh`t=vk`evZ.smhrvfx ov<n` smAjypFwnyx Eerhf vferA`DAkl`pFymt drn`nn`atr vFrt`vykfn` slkn<l[bFmxd sAmAnY mhjntAvevtfn` lbn`nA v> emkF vfeV`S s[lkfl`l aADArevZ.a[t[mZvfx ov<n` smAjp&tfmAnyk` bfHddmn<l[b<vt` ov<n`krn<lbn`en` y<gey` avVYtAvyn` elsfn`sLkA ov<n` smAjy vfsfn`m ehAHdp<d`glyn` els pfLfgn< l[bFmdd[kfyh[kfy.lk`dfv nfdhslbn`nx epry<gey` aDfrAjYvAdF pAlny<gp[vtfvkvAn<vldF zr~dAn`taAN`w<kArvr[ s[h[sfels emrxpAlnykL y<gvldF ihtkF aAkAreyn` kxy<t=kLAv> p<d`glyn` pflfbHdvd emrx sAmAnYjntAv dk`vAa[t`et`d yxd[k`v> aAkArey` s<bvAdF h[HgFmkf.ov<h< jntAvAdF p<d`glyn` els sAmAnYjntAv sftn`nx epLMF a[t. kAlAm s>t&ey`dF b<zrzn` epn`vAedn<ey` emZaAkAreyn` p<d`gleyk` esArkmZ kfrFmyn edvnsmAj p&tfmAny bfHdd[mFmx epLeMn`en` emA`hyn[m[tf vfSm menA`m>L s^kl`py eh`t=kregnbvyf.iht dk`vnld ay<rfn` tmn`sfzkrn`en` v[rdk&fyAvk`bv E`p<d`glyApvA smAjypvA enAh[HdfnFmx eh`t=v emA`hy itA sfy<mZ menA`m<L Dm%tAvyk`b[vfnf.4Eb[vfn` emA`hy ek`$z&ekAxkrnsmAj p&tfmAn bfHdd[mFmZ v[rdfels s[lkFmxpvA Eykrn p<d`glyApmNk` enAvoh< vxAsfxfn anYeyA`d aepAehAst`evtf.nm<t` smAjp&tfmAn bfHdd[mFmx eh`t=vn b[vfn` emA`hyvfSmm>L s^kl`pyk` b[vZ thv<r[evZ.1 YdlHuqkSka|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA: f.#;u nqoaO prs;h"n<kaf.dv wdkkao ffu;@sh ysus"iuhjO!kuq|@Kd,h" fld<U"1986"37-38 msgq2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uq<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;…. s3 tu woskakuzms yka;s4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud fudafydamqrsiiai wcACO;;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$
  27. 27. 654 anYyn` tmAeg` k=x<mZBs^rOSNykrmfn` nfr~bADfk pv<l`jFvftyk` gtkfrFm ekerhf dRS`Xfshgtv ‘emA`hy’yn vfSmmenA`m>L s^kl`peyn` mAnsfkaAvRt bvkfn` y<t=v s[lkFmnfsAtmn`x hfmfenAvn kAmvs`t+n`ekerhf s`pr~VkAm s^tRp`tfyl[bFmx t[t`kfrFm sfzevZ.1emZmHgfn`t=n`vn smAjp&tfmAny kw kfrFm kAmmfTYAcAry ehvt` prdAres`vny sfzevZ.2smAjey` k=wAmE`kky pv<lvn nfsAt` Ey ek`$z& ekAxegn sms`t smAjym p&tfnfr~mANyvF a[tfnfsAt` ymZkfsf smAj pd`Dtfyk itA evZgeyn` pv<ln[m[tf smAjE`kky bfHdv[xFmkxt=w< edn`en`nmZ EmsmAjpd`Dtfyd itAsFG&eyn` bfHdv[xFmx t=w< edyf.3rxk sArDm%pfrfhFyAmx fukau rexhf smHgfy,sdAcAry pfrfhFyAmx p&DAntm eh`t=v emm pv<ln[m[tf smAjE`kky eddrAyAmyf.4 rgl idrOrAu iq/lSug tu rfgys fjfik l`, ia;@Ska jsIfhys trg idudkH ck iudch olajkf.#rjKSh wdl,amh fya;`jk nejs mejish yel.ldu us:Hdpdrh we;sjkafka fuu f.#rjKShwdl,amh nsZo negSu ksid nj iudc jsoHdZ{fhda lreKq olaj;sjcAjFn`eg` sp`taprfhAnF Dm%setn`Ekk`els d d[k`evn`en` kAmmfTYAcAreyn` v[LkFmyn kArNyxm ayt`vn‘k=ls`t&Fn`ekerhfmnAv pfLf p[dFm’yn kArNyyf.5emy vr~tmAney` pvA eprdfgemn`m bxhfrs^s`kRtfey`dEhfs^s`kRtfk hryn` m[nb[lFm sHdhA ymZkfsf nfr~NAykyk` elsd BAvftAkrn<l[ebZ.aAvRts^s`kRtfyk` pArmZprfk sArDm%pd`Dtffyk` a[t[yf s[lekn cFney` gt v>vsrkFpyt=L Ekz s`t&Fz|SNyk`v t` vAr~tAvF n[tfbv p[ves`.ebAehA`vfx kAm mfTYAcAryxeh`t=vn emA`hyn[m[tf6 vfSm menA` m<L s^kl`py jntAveg` mnsx a[t=HPvn p&DAntmk&myvn<ey` n>tney` vANfjY aADfptYy mHgfn` pAlnyvn nfdhs` vfdY<t`mADY s^s`kRtfyb[vZiDcqju p[vsfyh[kfy.71 ia;@S whs;sh mqreI ,sx.sl m@fndaOfhka Tnzng";s,skd jSrisxy"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"oskusK fikiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"19 03 2005 17 msgqj2 A.fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrhj;ai,d tuz fldvsldr" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U"2000" 145-153 msgq B. ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq,"tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq3 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE"wkq, o is,ajd"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"uxi,"oskusK wZ.yrejdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u fld<U" 22 03 2005" 25 msgqj4 tu5 oS ks uydmrsksnzndK iq;a;" nq c uq" 112-116 msgq i wNsKakx ikaksmd;d ikaksmd; nyq,d ii iu.a.d ikaksm;ka;s iu.a.d jqgzGyka;s iu.a.d jcAcs lrKShdks lfrdka;ss ; iii wmZ[aZ[;a;x k mZ[aZ[fmka;s mZ[aZ[;a;x k iuqpzPsJoa;s iv fh f; jcAcSkx uy,a,ld f; ilalfrdka;s udfkka;s mQfcka;s v hd ;d l`,sF:sfhda l`, l`ursfhda ;d k Tlaliai mihay jdfika;s vi hdks ;dks jcAcSkx fp;shdks wnzNka;rdks fpj ndysrdks p ;dks ilalfrdka;s .relfrdka;s udfkka;smQfcka;svii wrykaf;iq rlaLdjrK .`;a;sx iqixjsys;d6 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[afZ[: ld,dud fudfydamqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmmcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ wys;dh Nkaf;7 kqU kdvka fojodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl"isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06032005"24msgqj
  28. 28. 655 kAmmfTYAcAryx eh`t=vn`en` emA`hy enAv elA`By b[vZ ekenk=x sftfy h[kfyf.nm<t` sfy<mZvprFOSAkrb[l>kL EyEes`enAvnbv epen`.1esA`tApn`n mAg% PllABF p<d`glyA vfeV`Seyn`mps`pv< kfrFemhflA aBvYeyk`bv Dm%eyhfdk`vA tfebZ.2emZps`v<vlx kAmmfTYAcAry ayt`y.esA`tApt`tf mAg%Pl lABfyA atfn` iht dk`vnld ak=sly sfzenAvFmx oh< p&hANykrn`nAv>ak=sl`sft` kver~d[yf esAyA b[lfy y<t=y.DmZms^gNFp&krNey` d[k`evn`en` esA`vAn`mAg%eyn`elA`Bm>lfk sft`aexn` sft`strk` hA emA`hm>lsft`edekn` Ekk`yn sft`psp&hFn krnbvyf.emkFelA`B m>Lsft` htrxm vfeV`Svn epAz lOSNynmZ E`sft` strm dfxZXfgt smZp&y<k`t vFmyf.3emA`hsft vfcfkfcZCA smZp&y<k`t vFmyf.dfxZXfy hA vfcfkfcZCAv hxg[enn<ey` emA`hy ek`$z&kregnyf.esA`tApt`tfmAg%eyn` emA`hy s`vl`pvVeyn` zr[vn b[vfn` E`eh`t=ekAxegn apAygAmFvFmxeh`t=vn kAmmfTYcAryt`,E`kAmmfTYAcArey` eydFmpfNfs p<d`gl cft`tsn`tAney` hxgn`nAv>aDfkkAmAVAvt` itA s`vl`pvVeyn` ehA` zr[vFm sfzvfyy<t=my.4 s<rApAnyv[nf mfnfs`mns emA`heyn` hA asfhfeyn` aAvRttt`vyx pt`krn`nAv> mt`vns<HPed` smAjey` sFG&vYAp`tfyd kAmmfTYAcAry vD%nyx sRj<vm dAykt`vyk` spyyf.5kAlAms>t&yt=lfn` ehLfvn prdAres`vnyx eh`t=vnz|Sft menA`m>L s^kl`pyvn emA`hynfsA sms`tsmAjp&tfmAny bfHdv[xFmxt=w<ednb[vZ p[h[dflfy.pv<l` s^s`TAv bfHdv[xFmxt` vfvfDp<d`glyn` atfn`k=wAdr[vn` lf^gfk6 apeyA`jnyx hA sAvdY aphrNyx lk`vFmxt` mvZvr[ hA pfyvr[n` eg`vfed`VgtvFmd p&DAn sADkyk`vFa[t.7sfyl`l Dnymt pAlnykLh[kfy yn z|Sft emA`hm>LfkmenA`s^kl`py emyx eh`t=evZ.8bxhfrsfx emrxx p[mfeNn vfkRtfv> a[t[mZ cft`ts^kl`p hAdr~VnvAdyn` avfcArAt`mkv v[LHdg[nFm eh`t=evn` Eyfn` emA`hnyx pt`v EvAyfn` smAjgtkrn<lbnd{ hA fj<Zo iudcfha wkq.@ylFjfhka ia;@S mqreIhka w;r md,khlska yd j.lSulskaf;drj is|=jk nfdhs` eemT<nvfDFn`9 an`DAn<krNeyn` emrx s^s`kRtfyt=Ld k&fyAt`mkkfrFmxyAm eh`t=evn` s`vABAvfk mn<SY Dm%yk`v p[vt=n< p&tfvfr[d`Dlf^gfk s^tRp`tfy mt pdnmZv1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uQ<afyda mdkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;daa ….mrodruzms .pzP;s….hx ix fyda;s oS> r;a;x wys;dh ;d|=laLdhd;s2 A i ks 11" mxpNhfjr iq;a;"nq c uq 108 msgqj bO .ym;s wrsidjfld nqoafO wfjpzpmamidfokiukakd.f;d fyd;s … Ouzfu wfjpzpmamidfok …. ixf> wfjpzpmamidfok …. wrshldka; iSf,ysiukakd.f;d fyd;s … bfuys p;~ys fida;dm;a;s wxf.ys iukakd.f;d fyd;s B w ks 11" m;a;luzu iq;a;" nq c uq 124 msgqj l;udp .ym;d iS, iuzmod$bO .ym;s wrshidjfldmdkd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s uqidjdodmgsjsrf;d fyd;s iqrdfuzrh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod fyd;s3 wNsOu!pJ|@sldj"ud;r Y@S Ou!jxY ysus" Y@S Ou!jxY .`kdkqiaurK ix.uh" ud;r"1956"9 msgqj wgzGOd f,dNuQ,dks-fodi uQ,dks p oajsOd fuday uQ,dlsp oafj;s-owjdoid l`i,d ishqx4 tu13 msgqj 1 WfmlaLd iy.; jspslspzPd iuzmhq;a; ps;a;h 2 WfmlaLd iy.; WoaOpzp iuzmhq;a; ps;a;h5 nqoaO Ou!h"udm,.u isrs fidusiair ysus"weuz vS .`kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U"1962"56-58 msgq6 wuzud wmamd ke;s uqje;a;s"iqOrAud chiQrsh"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"oskusK fikiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@iud.u"fld<U"19032005"19 msgqj7 A.fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh"j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr"tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U"2000" 149 msgqj B. ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq,"tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq8 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl"isZMusK brsod"tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"0603200524msgqj9 ia;@S whs;sh mqreI ,sx.sl m@fndaOfhka Tnzng";s,skd jSrisxy"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"oskusK f.kiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"19 03 2005" 17 msgqj
  29. 29. 656dr[vn` lbmfn` k&mAn>k+laAkAreyn` emetk` p[vetmfn`aA y<gjFvfty pvA itAmvfkRtf hAmAnsfkerA`gFn`eg` vfkArr{pF h[sfrFmZdk`vA pfrfhF a[tfs[xf dk`nxl[ebZ.1 b<zn`vhn`es` vfsfn` vfnynFtfrFtf p[NvFmx eh`t=vk`ekAx dk`vAa[tf prfdf smAjey` g=NDm%pfrfhFmx dk`vnld kr[N<atr‘bh<sRttAvy’ehvt` d[nugt`kmZ v[wfvFyAmd2 Ekeh`t=vk`vVeyn` dk`vA a[t`et` iht dk`vnld aAkAreyn` vfvfDvfkArr{pF s^kl`pmt pdnmZv> vfkRtfmAnsfk h[sfrFmZ rxA ebehvfn` dk`nx l[ebn<ey` sAmAnY ugt`kmk`shft ihLpAn`tfkan<kArkvAdF jntAv atr b[vfnf.tfy;a Tjqka fuzjd kjSk iudc iuzu; iqisrs;a f,i;a fuzjdgjsreoaOjk idrOu! ms<snZoj is;k wmjeks wh kQ.;a fudav .eushka f,i;a |+m;a udkislFjfhkahqla; f.da,ShlrK ixl,amhka fkdokakd ,sx ueZvshka f,i;a i<ld l@shdr;s.W.;alu prs; ixjrAOkh;a iuZ.u tlg tlaj iudka;rj .ukal<hq;` fohls.jsoHdprK iuzmkakNdjh jYfhka yeZoskafjkafka jsoHdj prKmdCIsl jshhq;`njhs.emZsfyHPm v[rdfvlx pAdkvn<ey` emA`hyn[m[tf dRS`Xfeyn` mns v[sFyAmyf.E` aAvRt mAnsfk mxZxmt=lfn` prdAr es`vnyx eyAm<vFmyf.3fujekakkagyqfola wkqluzmdlrkjd yer fjk lrkafka l`ulao$fujekakka wju ;ruska fojshkaj;a jsYajdilrkjd kuz fojshkaf.a msysgj;a m;kakg yelshdj ;snsK. s emA`hy n[m[tf vfSm menA`m>Ls^kl`pey` blp{m eh`t=ekAxegn p&ANGAtey` adt`tAdAney` hA kAmmfTYAcArey` eyeedn`nAv>p<d`gleyA` tmn`krn`nA v> vrd anYyn`x ehArrhes`sfzkrnbv kl`pnAekAx tmn` kfsfdfenk EbHz k&fyAvl nfrtenAvnbv d[k`vFm sHdhA ebAr[kFm n[m[tf strvn smAjp&tfmAny kwkryf.4emA`heyn` m<lAvx pt`vn t[n[t`et` tmn`klAv> vrd an<n`hx rhsk` enAv>vt` tmn` sfhfm<lAvF a[tfb[vfn` E`bv tmn`x enAet`er~.EyEes`ehyfn` vrdkrt` krt` Eysfz enAkLAy[yf astYp[vsFmnfsA mn<SYyn` atr‘vcny’pfLfbHd a[tfkregntfb<nAv> ymZymZ smZm<tFn` hA EkHgt`vyn` emZ nfsA bfHdv[xFmkx lk`evyf.ebAr[kfyn`nAx kLenAh[kf ak=slyk` enAm[tfbv b<zrcd Kn`vhn`es` vdArAa[t`et`demZnfsAy.b<zvr[smZb$Deyn` a[tf Dm%tAvyk` ehvt` ebA`Dfs#v p&tfmAN yk` vn<ey`ssrebA`DfsmZBArp<rmfn` s[rfsrn`nAv> kl`p as^KY lOSgNnk` kAlyp<rA kfsfz aAt`mBAvyk kfsfm aAkArykfn` ebA`Dfs#vvr[ ebAr[vk`kfyA enAm[tfvFmyf.sfyHP ebA`Dfs#vvr[ mhAstYvAdF nAmeyn` h[Hdfn`evtf. ymZkfsf p<d`gleyk= p&ANGAtykryfd,adt`tAdAnykryfd,kAmmfTYAcAreyhf eyedyfd,Ees`E`vA enAkrtfyf m<sAvAd ebenyfd,oh< smAjp&tfmAn strk`kw krnatr iht smAjp&tfmAnkwkfrFm pfNfs oh< mt`p[n` shykrgnfyfd oh< tmAvm Em ak=slDm%yn`hf n[vt n[vtsmAdn`krgt`etk` bvx pt`evyf.5emhf smAdn`vnvA yn`enhf et`r[m epALMvnvA yn`nyf.tmAm tmAvm epALMvAgn`en` mt`p[n` epvFemn` sfhfy av<l`krg[nFmt=lfnf.ekenk` tmn`1 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl"isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U" 06 032005"24msgqj2 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la Ke"wkq, o is,ajd"uxi," oskusK wZ.yrejdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U" 22 03 2005" 25 msgqj3 ia;@S whs;sh mqreI ,sx.sl m@fndaOfhka Tnzng" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sld ixjdo irKsh" oskusK fikiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<T" 19 03 2005" 17 msgqj4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uqidms NK;s5 nqoaO Ou!h"udm,.u isrs fidusiair ysus"weuz vS .`kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U"1962"56-58 msgq
  30. 30. 657emA`heyn` m<LAvx p[mfN Ek`ekA` elAkeyhf pfn`pv< lshd hula enAm[tfy.ekAehAmhfxfyt`avsAney` mrNy ur[mb[vfn` in`nAkAlyt=L a[tftAk` sftx kyx enAmnAk&m vlfn`ehA`s^tRp`tfy lbAzn`nd vrdk` n[tyyn aDr~mfS`X s^kl`pnA eh`t= ekAxegn emA`heyn` mnsaAvrNykregn E`eh`t=evn` anYyn`d tmAvd ihtkF v[rdfvlx eyAm< krvAg[nFmdepALMvAg[nFmd ps`vn smAjp&tfmny bfHdd[mFm h[xfyx b<zn`vhn`es` kAlAm s>t&eyhfdF kAlAmv[sfyn`x dk`vtf. emZ ay<rfn` elA`B d`evZS hA emA`h yn vfSm menA`m>L s^kl`pt&ft`vy(ak=sl Dm%)eh`t=evn`p<d`glyA atfn` m>LfksmAj p&tfmAnps bfHdd[emnaAkAry p[h[dflfkredn b<zn`vhn`es` ILHgxkAlAm v[sfyn`x phdAedn`en` aelA`B aedA`s hA aemA`h yn sArDm%t&ft`vy(ak=slm>Lt=n)eh`t=ekAxegn p<d`glyA atfn` m>LfksmAjp&tfmAn ph aArOSAvn ay<r[yf.1kAlAm s>t&ey`dFb<zn` kAlAm v[sfyn`x aelA`Bn[m[tf sArDm%s^kl`py eh`t=ekAxegn m>lfksmAjp&tfmAnDm%ph aArOSAvnaAkAry phdAedn<l[b>evZ emZ aAkAreynf. ‘kAlAmeynf,elA`Beyn` enAa[l<nAv> elA`Beyn` enAmwnA ld`dAv> vfnAVenAv>sft`a[t`tAv>p<r[S p<d`gletm st=n` enAmryf.esArkmZ enAkryf.prdArAvn` krAenAyyf.ebAr[ enAkfyyf.ymk` oh<x ebAehA`kAlyk` m<HPl`elhf hfts[p pfNfs evyfnmZ Ehf anYyAd smAdn` krvyfd?’2 emZ aAkAreyn` aelA`By n[m[tf menA`m>lfk sArDm%s^kl`py ehvt` k=slm>Ly aADYAt`mfkvvD%ny krn`nAv> p<d`gleyA` E`mHgfn` pLm<v[nf smAjp&tfmAny vn prpN n[sFemn` v[LkFemZVfOSA pdy aArOSAkrtf.3emy k=slm>Lyk` vn`en` sft nfvFemZ h[kfyAevn` ehvt` k=VltAveyn` y<k`t b[vfnf.EmnfsA aelABy mHgfn` sftnfvFemZ h[kfyAv a[tfb[vfn` E` upeyA`gF kregnprpN n[sFemZdF E` pfNfs a[tfvn d[wf cft`tevZgfk h[HgFmZ emZt=lfn` avmkrn< l[ebZ.EmnfsAGAtnsft nfvFyyf. ekenk` tmAeg` jFvt`vfemZ a[tf ayftfy aArOSAkfrFmxt` tmAeg`jFvfty epA`SNy krg[nFmZvfSeyhft` elABeyn`y<t=v krn`nAv> prpNn[sFemZ aAdFnv d[k ymZkfsf p&QAsmZpn`n p<d`gleyk` emes`kl`pnAkryf.emelAv vsn`nAv> aenk` sfyHPm st`vyn`eg` jFvftt` meg`jFvfty hAsmAnyf.mm meg`jFvftyx aAdrykrnvAes`m ov<h<d ov<n`eg`jFvftvlx aAdrykrtf.E`nfsA mmmeg`jFvf ty pvt`vAegn yAmpfNfs evnekenk=eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tfayftfy uzrAgn` en` a[yf?Emels aelA`B evZtnAv epd[rfkregn emelAvjFvt`vn sfyHPm s#vvg%yAekerhf emt` hAk=HPN<sft phdAegn ov<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ ayftfy ov<n`xp&dAny kfrFm Ek`trAay<rkfn` dAnyk`dFmkf.Ey aBydAnyels a#T% d[k` evZ.dAnecZtnAv elA`BfecZtnAv a[t`etk=x klenAh[kf1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a." ld,du iq;a;" nq c uq 337-343 msgq w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dudmqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;d … w|=gzfGda mkdhdx ld,dud mqrsiamq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;d …wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyk wkNsN~f;d wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkj mdKx yk;s kwoskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdhd;s2 tu w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s kwoskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdhd;s3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a." ld,du iq;a;" nq c uq 337-343 msgq fkj mdKx yka;s
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