ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter

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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 6.chapter Document Transcript

  • 628 ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග් 06 mrspzfPAoh( 06 Chapter) ld,du iQ;@fhka fy<s jk fn#oaO idr OrAu & m@;sudk (The Norms : Buddhist Values and It’s Nature disclosed by Kalama Sutta ) emhfdF p&tfmAn yn vcneyn` adhs`vn`en` k=mk`d[yf vfmsFm v[dgt`y.emhfpAlf VbZdy‘pxfmAnft/ ptfmAnft’yn`nyf.in` adhs`vn`en` b<h<mn`(egUrv) krnld yn a#T%yyf.1i^g&FsfNASAevZ‘p&tfmAn’ h[Hdfn`evn<ey`‘Norms’ynvdennf.2Ehf a#T%yvn<ey` mfmZm,aAdr~Vy,nfymy,nYAy,Dm%y ynet`r[mZ im>hyyf. sf^hl BASAevhf‘p&tf’yn<evn` n[vt n[vt yn ar~Ty egned`‘mAn’ynvdnfn` mfmZm hA m[nb[lFm adhs`evZ.EmnfsA p&tf+mAn=p&tfmAn yn vcneyn`n[vt n[vt m[nblA lbAgn`nAld vfDfk&myn` h[Hdfn`evnbv s[lkfy h[kfy. ‘p&tfmAn’yn vcny pAlf i^g&Fsf sh sf^hl yn BASA t&ft`vey` vYvhAr vF a[tf ar~Tysms`tyk` vVeyn` pfHw<krgt`vfx vcney` nfyma#T%y l[bfy h[kfy E`an<v pAlfBASAevn`‘egUrveyn`’yn adhsd i^g&Fsf BASAevn` mfN<m yn adhsd gt`vfx EkepAz ar~Tyk`lbAgth[kfy.3 emm vdn p<d`gl sm>hyk` an`tr~gt smAj s^s`TAvt=L BAvftAvn vcnykf.emhf sHdhn`n[vt n[vt m[nb[lFm ynpdy smAjey` evesn`nAv> aenk=t` sAmAjfkyfn` ekerhfvfy y<t=y.emZnfsA smAjyk`t=L aenYA`nY egUrvy pfNfs mn<St`vy aArOSAvFm pfNfs ov<enAv<eg`adhs` m[nblA s^s$dnAt`mkv vfV`el`SNykr sks`kr gn`nA epAz smAjsmZm<tfy n[tehAt` smAj cyY%A p&Qp`tfyk`‘p&tfmAn’yn`enn` adhs`vnbv p[h[dflfy. emZ an<v p&tfmAnyn`enn` adhs`krn<ey` vfeV`Seyn` p<d`glcyY%Avn` pflfbHdv krn<lbnEk`trA mfN<mk` ehvt` m[nb[lFmkf.emym‘Dr~mtA’yn vcneyn`d adhs`eker~. EmnfsAp&tfmAn hA Dr~mtA yn vcnedkm smAnAr~TvAcF bvepen`.eb`Dfs#vyn`vhn`es` smZb$DebAehA`ed`vl`d emkF‘Dr~mtA’yn vcneyn` pAlf sAhftYyt=L h[Hdfn`evZ.4Et[n`hfdFt` DmZmtA ynvcny BAvftAekAx a[t`et` kfsfymZ smZmtyk` d[k`vFm pfNfsbv epen`.nfds<nk`els b<d`D#vyx epr kfsfymZ kAlsFmAvk` zS`krk&fyAkfrFm s{m b<zvreyk=xm aAevZNfkDm%tA vk` els1 md,s isxy, wldrdosh, fmd,aj;af;a nqoaOo;a; ysu, fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh, foysj,, 1998, 296 smsgqj.2 bx.@Sis isxy, YnzofldaIh, cS mS u,,fialr, tuz. vS. .`Kfiak iy iud.u, fl<U. 1992, 593, msgqj.3 Do This Noun’s adverb is Normally.It’s adjective is Normative.4 uyd j.a. md,s 1, nq. c. uq. 16 msgqj.
  • 629d[k`evZ.a[t[mZvfx ehAHdedyk` lbAg[nFmxnmZ E` pfNfs vfVAl k[pkfrFmk` evehsk` d[rfyy<t=yyn smAj smZm<tfyx EkHgv k&fyAkfrFm emhfdF ‘DmZmtA’ yn`enn` adhs`v>vA vfyh[kfyf.1 iajNdj kshduh fukau huz huz foaj, yd mqoa.,hkaf.a wfjzKsl iajNdjhka woyia lrf.k ‘Ouzu;d’ hk jHjydrh is|= flrsks. nq|=jreka jsIfhys muKla fkdj fndaOsi;ajhka jykafia jsIfh yso ‘Ouzu;d’ jHjydr jS ;sfnz. fndaOs i;ajhka jykafiag muKla idOdrK jk ‘Ouzu;d’ rdYshla uyd modk iQ;@fhys olajd ;sfnz. ksoiqkla jYfhka bka tla lreKla /f.k n,uq ‘Ouzu;d tid NslaLfjz hodfndaOsi;af;da ud;`l`pzPsx Tlalkaf;da fyd;s k fndaOsi;a; ud;d fldpsfoj wdndfOd WmamcAc;s’ huz ;sjsfgl fndaOsi;aj f;fuz ujzl`i ms<sisZo ,kshso t;eka mgkafldg fndai;a ujg lsis|= wdndOhlafkdWmoshs.2 sAmAnYeyn` Dr~mtA(pAlf:DmZmtA)yn`enn` adhs` krn`en` h[sfrfyy<t= aAkAry enAh[sfrfyy<t= aAkAry k=mk`d[yf kfyAedn m>LDr~mvlxy.smAjyk sAmAjfkyn` vfsfn` emykLy<t= aAkAryyf,emy enAkLy<t= aAkAryyf,yn<evn` ymZymZ cr~yAevn` vfs`trekAx avebA`DekAxegn a[t.nfds<nk`vVeyn` jnAkFr~N s`TAnyk nfr[vt`v obenAbyAm enAkLy<t=edykf.yemk` Ees`kLehAt` E` t[n[t`tA Dr~mtA ehvt` p&tfmAn kwkL p<<d`gleyk=els gNn`g[en`.Em Dr~mtAehvt` p&tfmAnvlx y<k`tf shgtbv(Iegtimization) els l[ebn`en` ekes`d[yf b[lfyy<t=y.apDr~mtAvk h[sfrfy y<t`et` a[yf? aep` jFvftyx kfsfymZ p<d`gleyk= hAnfyk`kfrFmx p[mfNfyehAt` E` avs`TAevZdF k&fyAkLy<t=aAkAry pfLfbHd(p&tfmAny pfLfbHdv)g[xHPvk` a[tfenAevZ.ap kfsfymZ ekenk=x atx atdF ehA`at`edk Ekt=ekAx ehA` aAy<ebA`vn` kfyn`en`` a[yf?emyx edn pfLft=rvn`en` E` k&fyAv smAjyvfsfn` vfVfS`Xy[yf VfS`X smZpn`ny[yf pflfegn a[tf p&tfmAnyk` ehvt` Dr~mtAvk` bvyf.emZp&tfmAn ehvt` Dm%tAvlxan<v h[sfernayx E` smZb$Deyn` kfsfymZ pArfetA`Snyk` l[ebZ.E`1 i ks 11, mpzph iq;a;, nq. c. uq. 40 msgqj.Wmamdodjd ;:d.;dkx wkqmamdojd ;:d.;dkx Gs;dj idOd;`Ouzu:s;s;d Ouzuks;du;d bomampzp;d.2 oS ks 11, uydmodk iq;a;, nq. c. uq. 19 msgqj.
  • 630pArfetA`SNy eBUtfk vVeyn`m l[ebn`nk`m enAv smhrvfx mAnsfk v>vk`` vfyh[kfyf.EnmZsfethf a[tfevn`nAv> st=x ehvt` p&Ftfyyf. ymZymZ p&tfmAn ehvt` Dr~mtAvn` sftAmtAm kwkfrFemn` apx dHw<vmk` vfHdfn`nx sfzvfyh[kfy.pAw<vk` vfHdfn`nx sfzvfyh[kfy.1emZ dHw<vmx ehA` pAw<vx m<h<NdFmx a[tf akm[t`t nfsAapf Dr~mtA ehvt` p&mAn enAkwm<.smhrvfx p&m<KgNey` p&tfmAn k[w>vfx rexZ epAznFtfyan<v dHw<vmZ vfHdFmx sfzevZ.emhf dF BfOS>n`vhn`es`lA h[xfyx vfny pfxkey` smhr nFtfrFtful`l^GnykLvfx vfHdfn`nx sfzvn dHw<vmZ pfLfbHdv sftAb[lFm v[dgt`y.2 lsishuz iudchla jsOsu;a whqrska kS;s.; lr fkdue;s tfia jqj;a fmd|= ck jHjydrfhys iudciuzu;hka f,i Ndjs;hg .efkkakdjQ fndfyda iuzuq;Ska m@;sudk f,i ie<flhs.tfia jkafka fmd|=jHjydrh ;`< Ndjs;h iZoyd talus;sFjfhka iuzu; lrjdf.k ;sfnk fohla jSu ksidhs.wd.uslixia:djka ;`< olakg ,efnk jskh m@Z{ma;Skao fuz whqrska iuzu; lrjd.kakd,o fmd|= iuzuq;Skanejska iuh iudc m@;sudk(Social Norms of Religion) f,i tajd yeZoskafjz.fuu iudc m@;sudkhkaf.ka we;euz tajd iudc fjkiluzj,g .;slj fjkiajkakdjQ yd fjkial< yelsldjQ foafjhs.we;euztajd tfia fkdl< yels tajd fjhs.fufia fjkial< yels iudc m@;sudk jkqfha we|=uz me<|=uz jdiia:dk wdydr fnfy;a jeks uq<sl wjYH;d jsIfhys meKjS we;a;djQ we;euz iqZM iuh iudc m@;sudkmuKs.NsCIQka jykafia,d jsIfhys meKjS we;s fiaLshd YsCIdmo fujeks iuh iudc m@;sudkhkagksoiqka fjhs.wd.uska ksrAosIaG prAhdjg iDcqju n,mdkq ,nkakdjQ nrm;< iuh iudc m@;sudkhkafjkia l< fkdyels tajd f,i ie<fla.ldka;d mCIh NsCIq ixia:djg wka;rA.@yKh lr.ekSufyj;a NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSu fjkial< fkdyels iuh iudc m@;sudkhkag ksoiqkls.l`uk ;;ajhla ;`,oS jqj;a NsCIQka jykafia,dg ia;@Ska mejsosl< fkdyelaflauh.tfial< yelafla nq|=jrhkajykafia kulgu muKs. pV`cAt` nvYvAdF mtdrn`nn` els s[lekn s`t&FvAdFh<(Femenism)3 ebUd`D BfOS< s^s`TAvxEl`l krn ecA`dnAvk` vn<ey` kAn`tAvn`x b<zss<en` p[vfd`d hA upsmZpdAv BfOS>n`vhn`es`xlbAdfy enAh[k`ek` mk`nfsAd ynkArNyyf.4emhfdF ar~ht`vhx avVY g=NDm% v[wFm ynkArNeyn` s`t&F p<r[S eB`dy m>Lfk#veyhf lA enAs[lk=nt` s`vBAveyn`m vfr[d`D lf^gfk aAkr~Snyk` shftv> s`t&F p<r[S edpOSy vfSeyhf emZ kxy<t`t adALvFmt` sms`t smAjyevtfn`BfOS>s^s`TAv evt pvrAa[tf smAjmy p&tfmAn aArOSAkfrFmx BfOS<vfny p&Qp`tfeyn`m(BfOS<vfny yn< BfOS< s^s`TAvt=L k&fyAt`mk vn p&tfmAn pd`Dtf yyf.)p&tfmAn pd`Dtfyk` pNvA1 oskusK oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d, fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr, tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 25. 03. 2005, 3 msgqj.2 iuka; mdidosld 111, fyajdjs;drK uq|@Kh, 756 msgqj.3 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE, wkq, o is,ajd, uxi,, oskusK, wZ.yrejdo tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U, 22. 03. 2005, 25 msgqj,4 vhkd fnda,agz ue;sKsh, nq|=r|=ka ia;@Skag oafjzYlrkafkla f,i olajd we;af;a nq|=iuh ms<snZoj l@udkQl~,yeoErSula is|=lr fkdfjz .
  • 631a[tfb[vfn` Em p&tfmAn enAkwekAx aArOSA kfrFm BfOS>n`vhn`es`lAeg` vgkFm vnb[vfn<t`BfOS>n`vhn`es`lA tmn`vhn`es`lAx uk`tkr[N adAL enAvn bv pvstf.1 kAn`tApOSy vfSeyhf p[nvF a[t`tAv> smAj p&tfmAn aArOSAkfrFemZ hA pvt`vAegny{emZ vgkFm p[vrF a[t`et` kAn`tAvn`xm2(BfOS<NFn`xm)nfsA kAn` tAvn` p[vfdfkfrFemZ avsrya[t`et` BfOS<NFpOSy vfSeyhfbv avDArNykrtf.emy p<r[SADfptYy ehA` lf^geB`dy m<lfkkregn s`t&Fn` ekAn`krd[mFemZ pht` mAnsfk#vy v[nf px< arm<Nfn` sfzvn`nk` enAevZ.aS`Xgr[Dr~m p[nvFm yn kr[N arByAd emZ s`t&FvAdFh(Femanism)3 b<zrzn`xd < emZ ecA`dnAv El`lkrtf. EhfdFt` b<zh< aS`Xgr[Dm% p[nv>ey` kAn`tApOSy aS`Xgr[Dr~m upeyA`gF kregn BfOS>n` vhn`es`lA yxet` BfOS<NFn` vhl` mAnsfk#veyn` ekAx<kr t[bFmx enAevZ.b<zrzn` m<lfn`m aArmZBkeL` BfOS<s^s`TAvyf.kAn`tA pOSyevtfn` p[vfdfvFmx avsrp[tFm sfzv<en` emm BfOS< s^s`TAv pfhfx<vFemn` ps<vb[vfn` al<etn` a[tfkfrFmx yn BfOS<NF s^s`TAv sAr~Tkels BfOS< s^s`TAvx bd`DkfrFmx avVYvfy.E` bd`DkfrFm n[tehAt` BfOS<NFn`d p[vfdf pOSyx an`tr~g&hN y krg[nFemZ k&fyAvlfy sAr~Tkels ix<kfrFm arByA aS`Xgr[Dm% pNvn ldF.aS`Xgr[Dm% vnAhF BfOS<NFn` s^Gs^s`TAvx an`tr~gt kfrFm arByA EkL BArtey` p[vtf smAjp&Qp`tfy t` BfOS<vfny p&Qp`tfyt` s[lkfl`lxegn pn vn ld`dAv> p&tfmAn pd`Dtfykf.4 ia;@SjdoSyq (Femanism) ldka;djkag NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSu ms<snZoj nq|=r|=ka ;`, ;snQ wdl,amhms<snZoj m@YaklsrSug mjd fm<fU;s.Tjqyq nq|=iuh;`< ldka;djg ysusj;snQ ia:dkh ms,snZo my;oelafjk wdldrfhka lreKq lsysmhla biau;` fldg olajd ;sfnz.tkuz1 wIaG .re OrAuj,g ldka;d iyNd.SFjhla ke;.2 NsCIqj iuznJOfhka wkq.ukl< ms<sfj<g jvd fjkia l@uhla wkq.ukh lsrSu.3 iqjsfYaIS kS;s moaO;shla wkqj msysgqjd ;snSu.4 m<uqj jhi ms<snZoj ie,ls,su;a fkdjSu yqfola ia;@SFjh u;u mokuzj ;snSu(jDoaO mgsmdgshke;).5 pq,a,j.a.md,sfha NsCIqKS LJOlfha wjqre|= 5 lg yd wjqre|= 320 lg miqj fuh iZoykajSu .egZMiy.;h.1 ldka;dj yd nq|= iuh, bJ|@dKs fmfrArd, tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda, fld<U, 2000 107-123 msgq.2 tu 123-125 msgq3 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE, wkq, o is,ajd, uxi,, oskusK wZ.yrejdod, tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u,fld<U. 22. 03. 2005, 25 msgqj.4 ldka;dj yd nq|=iuh, bJ|@dKs fmfrArd, tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda, fld<U, 2000 119-134 msgq.
  • 6326 NsCIqKS LJOlh ;snqKq ia:dkh ms<snZoj ix.dhkdj,g fmrjqk;a ix.dhkdj iuSmfhau fuz ms<snZoj iZoykajSu ksid fuh igykajS we;s ia:dkh ms<snZoj we;sjk ielh mokuzlrf.k fuh wi;Hhlah hk woyi u;`lrhs.fuu woyia iDcqju NsCIq m@;sudkh iuznJOfhka jQjls. wIaG .reOrAuj,g ldka;d iyNd.SFjhla fkdue;sh hk woyi t;ruz ;rAldkQl~, fkdfjz.uskawoyia lrkafka ienjskau l`ulao$wIaG.re OrAu meKjSfuysoS fmr we;sl<djQ NsCIqKS ixia:djlafkdue;s fyhska tnZ|= fohla ms<snZoj NsCIqKshlf.a woyia oek.ekSug l@uhla fkdjSh.wIaG.reOrAums<snZoj woyia uq,skau m@ldY lf<a m@cdm;S f.d;ushgh.weh jsjdohlska f;drj tu .reOrAu ysiauq|=kska ms<s.;awdldrh pq,a,j.a. md,sfha NslaLqKS LJOlh;`< oelafjz.1 nq|=r|=ka uq,skau .reOrAums<snZoj mekjSu is|=lr ta ms<s.kakjdo keoao hk lreK m@cdm;S f.da;ush wNsuqLfhysu u;`l<w;r thg wehf.a wOsl;r ukdmh ,ensKs.wjYHkuz ia;@SjdoSkag fuysoS nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKS mejsoaowemhg ;ndf.k f.da;ushf.ka fuz leue;a; jsuiQ ksid flfia fyda mejsoao ,nd .ekSfuz fpz;kdfjkaleue;a; |=kakd lshdo lreKla u;`lr .;yelsh.fuysoS tla;rd |=rlg nq|=r|=ka ;rAclfhl`f.aiajrEmfhka msgg ps;@Kh l<yelsjSu ksid ksrka;rfhkau mqreI mCIfhys jeros wvqmdvq fidhuskal,af.jSug repslrk ia;@SjdoSyq fuz ms<snZoj b;d leue;a;lska kq|=frAoSu idlpzPd lrkq we;. TzkEulreKla foi jeros weilska n,kjsg fmfkkafkao jeros ps;@hlauh.tnejska fuz lreK foi Ndjd;sYh weiska n,d ;SrKj,g t<USu fkdl<hq;`h. ia;@sjdoSka olajk fojk lreK .;fyd;a Tjqka olajkafka nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKSka iuznJOfhkawkq.ukh l< l@ufjzoh NsCIqka iuznJOfhka wkq.ukh l< l@ufjzohg jvd fjkiajQjla njhs. NersjSulska fyda fuz lreK fufia fkdjS wfkla w;g is|=jQjdkuz tkuz lsisjl`f.a b,a,Sulska f;drjnq|=r|=ka b;d leue;af;kau NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSug W;aiql jQjdkuz nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKSkag jsfYaIie,ls,a,la oelajQjd hehs fudjqka lshkakg bv ;snsk.NsCIqKSka hkq;a ldka;djkauh tnejska shf:dala; ;Fjh ovuSud fldgf.k nq|=iiqk flfrys BrAIHdfjka miqjQ fndfyda fofkl`g nq|=r|=kagwmydi jk mrsos lgl:djla ksrAudK lsrSug th losu wjia:djla i,idfokq fkdwkqudkh.tfiafkdl<;a flf;la mrSCIdldrSj lghq;`l<;a nq|=r|=kag t,a,jqkq jsjsO wi;H m@pdr wdosh jsuidn,kjsg2 fuh fufia is|=jSfuz iuzNdjs;dj by< w.hla .kakd nj fmfka.NsCIqKS mejsoao ,ndoSfuysW;aiql jSu iuznJOfhka mrsksrAjdKfhka miqj m@:u ix.dhkd ld,iSfusoS wdkkao ysushka ry;aNdjhg meusKSfuka miqj;a fiiq NsCIqkaf.a fpdokdjg3 ,lajSug is|=jSu;a ta f;rjre flfrysia:jsr f.#rjfhka fm#oa.,slju ;uka jrolalr ke;;a ;ud f;rjrekf.a fpdaokdj ms<s.kakdnj4 wdkkao ysushka mejiSu uZ.ska meyeos,s jkafka fiiq uyck;dj ;nd nqoaO ld,Sk uyf;rjrekaf.a mjd m@idohla NsCIqKS ixia:dj we;s lsrSu wrUhd fkdmej;s njhs.1 pq md NslaLqkS LJOlh" nq c uq2 ud.kaoshd nsij iqkaorS mrsn@dcsldj jeks isoaOSka ysoS nq|=r|=kafj; t,a,jQ jsreoaOjdoSkaf.a wi;H m@pdrhkaie<lsh yelsh3 ,laosj uydhdk woyia" fudrgqfjz idikr;k ysus" weuz vS .`Kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U"1962"7-8 msgq4 tu
  • 633 iuyrjsg nq|=r|=kag we;s f.#rjh fya;`fjka uqjska fkdneK ksYaYnzo jqj;a iuia; NsCIq ix>hdw;ru fuz ms<snZoj t;ruz m@idockl wdl,amhla ;snS fkdue;snj fuz is|=jSfuka fmfka.we;euzjsgfmd|= uyckhdf.a jsreoaO;djhkag wkql~,j l@shdlrkakg Wkajykafia,dg is|=jqkd jsh yelsh.flfia sfj;;a ia;@SjdoSka olajk wdldrfhka NsCIqkag jvd fjkia wdldrfhka NsCIqKSka flfrys lghq;` lr;sfnzkuz tfia lrkakg fya;`j fomCIh ldhslj yd cSj jsoHd;aulj fohdldr ,CIK fmkajkfldgzGdY folla nejsk.1hfula fuu ldhsl yd cSj jsoHd;aul ;;ajh ie,ls,a,g fkdf.k yqfola s;drAlslj ch.ekSfuz wruqKu fmroers lr f.k muKla fuz ms<snZoj os.ska os.gu jdohkays megf,akuz tnkaokaf.a jsfjzpkj,g ms<s;`reoSu ksrrA:l jQjls.2 ia;@SjdoSka olajk ;`kajk lreK jQ iqjsfYaIS kS;s moaO;shla u; msysgs nj ke;fyd;a NsCIqkag fkdue;s w;sfrAl jskhlska iukajs; jSu ms,s.; fkdyelsh hk foho ;rAldkQl~,j .;al< wj,x.`jS hk lreKls.NsCIqka jykafia,d w;`frka mjd ieufokd jykafiagu tlanZ|= wdldrhlska nq|=r|=ka lghq;`lr fkdue;.3 flduzhqgrA hka;@hla fuka huzlsis kHdhlg fyda isoaOdka;hlg wkql~, jk mrsoafoka iEu fokd jsIfhysu tlu wdldrhlska lghq;` lsrSfuys wdlD;sl rgdjla nq|=jre;`, fkdue;. ;uka wNsuqLhg meusfKk ta ta pska;k l`Y,;d iys; yd jsjsO udkisl rgdjkaf.ka iukajs; jQ mqoa.,hkaf.a ;rd;sru wkqj ta ta mqoa.,hdg .e,fmk wdldrfhka jsjsO m@Z{ma;s mKjd tlS mqoa.,hd i;`jQ ksirA. udkisl Yla;sh msnsZojSfuz lghq;a; nq|=jre bgq lr;s.tahgf;a idrOrAu jO!k l@shdj,sfhys ,d ldka;djkao mqreIhka yd muKgu iu;aluz oelajqj;a iudcm@;sudk iqrCIs; lsrSfuz l@shdj,sfhys ,d ldka;djka mqreIhka muKgu ksoyia yd iajdOSk f,i tlSlghq;a; bgqlsrSfuys,d wfmdfydi;ah hkak fyda iuia; iudch th tfiau wkqu; fkdlrkafkahhkak fyda fuz lreKq folu ksidu fyda NsCIqKSka jsIfhys wIaG .reOrAu kuzjk m@;sudk moaO;shmeKjSu is|=jS ;sfnz.41 w ks 1" rEm j.a.h" ps;a; mrshdh" j.a.h nq c uq2 u ks 11" ikaol iq;a;" n c uq 322 msgqj3 w ks 1" ta;o.a. md,s" fn# iuz ixia 56-64 msgq4 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou!m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998 1-78 msgq
  • 634 ia;@SjdoSka wIaG .reOrAuj,g jsreoaOj olajk i;rjk lreK kuz fuu wIaG.re OrAu uZ.skajDoaO mgsmdgsh W,a,x>kh jS ;sfnzh hk lreKhs.wNsjdokh jeZoSu .reire oelajSu jeks idrOrAuhkaf.a W#K;djh msKsi idudkHfhka flfkl`f.a udkisl|=rAj,luz f,i ie<flkakdjQ BrAIHdjuoh udkh ud;aihH!hh foay w,xlrKh jeks lreKq fya;`fjhs1 udkisl |=rAj,luz ms<snZo lreKqidudkHfhka mqoa., fjzu;a;;djh u; mokuzjk nj ms<s.ekS ;snqk;a ia;@shlf.a cSj jsoHd;auludkisl ieleiau;`, wehgu wkHkHjqkq fmd|= ,CIK .enzjS mj;sh.2BrAIHdj uoh udkh ud;aihH! shh foay w,xlrKh jeks lreKq idudkHfhka mqreIhkag jvd jevsfhka ldka;djka;`, ksi.!jYfhkau msysgd mj;sh.3isZ.df,dajdo iQ;@fhysoS ieusfhl` jsiska nsrsZog bgql<hq;` hq;`luz w;rg snsrsZog weZ|=uz me<Z|=uz muKla fkdj wehg wdNrK /f.k oshhq;` nj kduslj ioykalr ;snSuuZ.skao Tmamq jkafka by; olajk ,o udkisl iajNdjh fmd|=fjz ishZM ia;@Ska;`, tla;rd muKlgolakg we;snjhs.4oek W.;alu ksid fyda fjkhuz lreKla ksid fyda fulS udkisl iajNdjhhgm;a lrf.k isgSfuys fyda tfia hgm;alrf.k lghq;` lsrSfuys m@jK;djhla ldka;djkajsIfhys kuz lsisfia;a olakg fkd,efnk nj W.;a kQ.;a fNaohlska f;drj TzkEu iudc ;,hlldka;djl wyUqf,i .;al< olakg ,efnz.5NsCIqKS ixia:dj jeks w;sYh ne?reuz ldrAhhloS tlS|=rAj,;d jhka j,ska w;ausoS lghq;` lsrSfuys yelshdj ,enSu weh mjq,a ixia:djloS lghq;` lrkdldrhg jvd ;oska wjYHfjz.tjeks yelshdjla wehg ,ndoSu msKsi wIaG.re OrAu meKjS ;sfnz. ‘fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh’ kue;s .@J:fhys j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr(Ydia;@fjzoSf.#rj) jks;djf.a ijrEmh wehf.a jpkj,skau fuf,i olajd we;.‘ngysr os. we|=uz me<|=uz me;slv fndfyduhlau wmf.a wd.fuz jsYajdihkag fukau ixialD;shgo mgyeksh.jrA;udkfha olakg,efnk weZ|=uz w;r flgs,weZ.gu we,qKq iy jsksjso fmfkk idh yegzg ,sx.fNaohlska f;drj weZoshyels weZ|=uz fuz w;r fjz fuz;`,ska ldka;d YsIagnj .s,syS hkq we;.’6 ffcjjsoHd;aulj jqjo ldka;dj i;` woyia Woyia yd wdl,am lsishuz fkd.eUqre iajNdjhlaolakg ,efnz.ia;@sh ksrka;rfhka ;ekS we;af;a ffc jsoHd;aulj ujlf.a ldrAhNdrh yd j.lSubis,Sug yelshdj we;sjk mrsoafoks.fuz ;;ajh fmd|=fjz udkjhdgu iqjsfYaiS ;;ajhla fkdjk w;rfmd|=fjz iuia; cSjSj.!hdf.au .eyeKq iFjhdgu muKla ffcj mrsKduKfhaoS Wreujk ,oiycdYhls.fuz hgf;a wehf.a udkisl rgdj yd wdfjzok ;;ajhka iliajS we;af;a m@ckk iS>@;djhby<ugzgul mj;ajd .ekSu;a tauZ.ska ishjrA.hdf.a wLKav jrAOkh yd ffcj meje;au iqrCIs;lr.ekSu wrUhdh.1 pq md NslaLqKS jsNx.h" mdps;a;sh" ,iqK j.a.h" 6-10 YsCIdmo2 tu wkaOldr j.a.h"3 pq md NslaLqKS jsNx.h" k.ak j.a.h" 7-8 YsCIdmo4 oS ks 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nq c uq 290-310 msgq5 merKs ,laosj ldka;dj" bka|@dKs uqKisxy" Y@S foajs m@skagrAia" foysj," 2001" fmrjok i-vii msgq6 fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh" j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U2000" 145 msgqj
  • 635 ‘fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh’ kue;s lD;sfhys j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr ta nejz wehf.ajpkj,skau fuf,i olajkakSh.‘wyfia wdf,dalh we;sjSug iQrAhhd wjYHfj;au .Dyhla ,iaikjSug<orejka wjYHjkafkah.tfukau wefZoaoS fjiZ.klf.a ;;ajfhka isgskakg mqZMjka ldka;djlar;akhla jknjo olajd we;.fuz wkqj jsjycSjs;fhaoS jsfYaIfhka wUq ieus inZo;d j,oS ldka;djyeisrsh hq;af;a flfiao hkak ms<snZo wjOdrKh lsrSug .;a W;aiyhls.1’ ldka;dj i;` fkd.eUqre udkisl iajNdjh wehf.a wdfjzok repslFjhka uZ.ska m@lg lrjk wdldrh uekjska tu .@F:fhys l;Djrsf.a jpj,skau fuf,i jsia;r flfrA.‘uEkshka ;ukaf.a |=j oSug Okfhka jevs wh fidhk w;r mshd fidhkafka mKavs;fhls.kEoEhka fjfyfikafka jxYfhka Wiia wh fijSugh.tkuq;a ;reKsh fjfyfikafka rEmY!Sfhka w.;ekam;a flfkl` iuZ. hdugh.2’ ia;@SjdoSka wIaG .reOrAuj,g jsreoaOj olajk miajk lreK .;fyd;a tuZ.ska lshefjkqfha pq,a, j.a. md,sfhys fuz mqj; iZoyka jk ia:dkh ieliys; nj ksidu fuz lreK wi;Hjk njhs.huz lsis lreKl Ydia;@Sh i;Hdi;H;djh ms<snZoj huzlsis ks.ukhlg meusKSfuys,d fuh Wps; yd Ydia;@Sh jsOsl@uhla fkdfjz.jskh msglhu muKla fkdj fiiq msgl .@J:hkays mjd ta ta iQ;@ ix.@ylr ;sfnkqfha nq|=r|=ka tlS iQ;@ foaYkdl< wkqms<sfj<g fkdfjz.nq|=r|=ka wNsuqLfhysu ta ta jsIh fCIa;@hkays ta;.@;djh bis,Q uyf;rjre jsiska ix.S;sldrl uyf;rjreka yuqfjysoS ;uka weiQ iQ;@OrAu tajq wdldrfhkau foaYkd lsrSfuka miqj lgmdvuz lsrSfuys ydOdrK Yla;sh uZ.ska uqL mruzmrd.;j tajd f.khEfuys myiqj i<ld wka;rA;h w;ska ydwdlD;sh w;ska iudkFjh .kakd iQ;@ kej; lsishuz ksYaps; jsOs l@uhlg tlu ud;Dldjka hg;gkej; ix.@y lrk ,oS.3 nq|=r|=ka jsiska m@lSraKl f,i foaYs; iQ;@OrAuhkag tys wka;rA.; lreKqj,g wkql~,jkmrsoafoka jsjsO kuz ,ndoS lsishuz ksYaps; Ydia;@S jsOs l@uhlg fm< fmd;a ilialrk ,oafoa tajdmrsyrKh lrkakkaf.a myiqj i,ldf.kh.iQ;@ msglfhys ta ta ksldh.@J: mjd kuzlrk ,oafoawka;rA.; iQ;@j, oSrA>Fjh u;h.4 fuz ksid wkqms<sfj< jeks wYdia;@Sh l@uhla fuys i;Hdi;H;djhi;Hdi;H;djh ;SrKh lsrSfuys,d fhdod .ekSu jeks wYdia;@Sh wjsoHd;aul l@u Ydia;@Sh1 fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh" j;ai,d tuz. fldvsldr"tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U"2000" 27-28 msgq2 tu 29 msgqj3 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou!m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998" 72 msgqj4 fn#oaO Ou! ix.@yh" udm,.u isrs fidusiair ysus" iuhjrAOk fmd;ay," fld<U" 1990" 376 msgqj
  • 636.fjzIKfhys,d wkq.uk hlsrSu ia;@SjdoSka jekakkag kuz wNsu; jkakg mqZMjk.ta Tjqka ;ukaf.au;h taldOsldrSuh ;;ajfh ka wkqkau; megjSfuys,d oCI;djhla yd repsl;ajhla olajk nejskswOsldruh pska;k rgdjlg wdlD;s.; jS isgskakka nejsk.1 s wdkkao ysus jsiska ;rAldkQl~,j keZ.~ m@Yakh jk ldka;djkag W;a;rS;r ukqIH OrAuhkagm;ajSfuz yelshdjla ;sfnzo hk mekh f,dalfhysu ldka;djka flrys ohdfjka is;d kZ.k,o m@n,um@Yakhhs.fuz ms<snZoj ‘rSgd tuz ;DIagz’mjikqfha nq|=r|=ka ldka;djg mejsoao ,ndoSug is;d isgsh;a fuzm@Yakh weiQ wjia:dfjz thg ms<s;`re oS mejsoao ,ndoSug tlZ.jQ njhs.nq|=r|=ka ia;@Sf|@daysljQ w;rmqreIdOsm;SFjh m@shlrkafkl` jQ nj weh mjihs.fuz lshk woyia ngysrg wd.ka;`l fkdfjz Tjqkajqjukdfjkau huz huz whf.a woyia hgm;a lrkakg l@shdfldg ;sfnzh hk ldrKh b;sydihuZ.skau wmg TmamqlroS we;s ksidh.kuq;a nq|=r|=ka ;nd wkdrAh iuzm@odh ;`<g wh;a lsis|= wd.uslfldgzGdYhla jsiskaj;a ia;@S pska;kh md.d oeuqKqnj jsOsu;aj Tmamq l,fkdyel.tfia Tmamql<fkdyelafla tfia fkdl< ksidh fuz .@J:h ;`<g wkdrAh iuzm@odfhys l@usl jsldYh oelafjkmrspzfPaohlao tlalf<a.fuu lreKq meyeos,sjSu msKsih b;d meyeos,s f,iu wkdrAh ixialD;shgwh;a Y@uK iuzm@odhg wh;a ;jia fldgzGdYhka;`< ia;@Syq jsiQ nj;a fndai;`ka wd<drld<duiDIsjrhdfj; t<USug u;af;ka YdlHn@yauKS yd moaud kuzjQ ;dmishka fofofkl` fj;ska Wjegka,enQ mqj; fuhg tla idOlhls.fuz ksidu nq|=r|=ka ia;@S jsfrdaOs wdl,am oerE njg flfrkfpdaokdfjz lsis|= yrhla fkdue;. nq|=r|=ka mqreIdOsm;Hhg wkql~,j nq|=iiqk f.dvfkdkeZ.~ kuq;a fn#oaONsCIq iuzm@odh f.dvkeZ.`fjz.mqreI flaJ|@Sh jHdmdrhla f,i nj ;j;a woyilska oelafjz.fuu wdl,am ngysr.@J:l;`jrshka orkafka nq|=iuh ms<snZoj l@udkQl~, wOHhkhlska wk;`rej fkdfjz.2jsfYaIfhkau jsjsOwd.usl iuzm@odhka ms<snZoj yodrd tu wd.usl iuzm@odhhkays jsfYaIfhkau ksrAudKjdoS wd.uzj,wka;rA.; ia;@S jsfrdaOS we;euz wdl,am Tjqka jspdr mQrAjlFjfhka f;drj nq|=iuh wrnhdo j.lSuzjsrys; f,i yd mokula fkdue;s f,i Ndjs;d lrkq olakg ,efnz.3fuzjd fmd;am;a yd wka;rAcd,udrA.fhka ikaksfjzokh lr .kakd furg isgskakdjQ wkqldrljdoS we;euz ia;@SjdoSyq wka;rA.;hfyda moku ms<snZoj lsis|= oekqj;a Ndjhlska f;drj ;ukaf.a jsh;anj m@lg lsrSug fuka tajd ;`uQomqkrepzpdrKh lr;s.4tfia lruskau tu woyiaj,ska ys;`ukdmfha wkawhg oud.ikjd jskd tajdjsOsu;aj Ydia;@Sh wdldrfhka yd jspdrmQrAjl wdldrfhka wOHhkh lsrSug W;aiql fkdfjz.wju;ruska NsCIqKS ixia:dj ms<snZoj huz woyila m@isoaOsfhys m@ldYlsrSug u;af;ka nq|=iuh ms,snZojjsOsu;a wdldrfhka Ydia;@Sh yeoErSula l<hq;`j ;snsK.f,dalfhys TzkEu jsIhla .;a;;a fuz yeoErSu sl< hq;`uh ffjoH jsoHdj l@udkQl~,j fkdyodrd ffjoHjD;a;sfha ksr; fkdyelsjd fuks.1 tu2 ft;sydisl us:Hjka iuZ. .eyekshlf.a ixjdohla" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sld ixjdo irKsh" oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<U "09 04 2005" 17 msgqj3 tu4 ft;sydisl us:Hdjka iuZ. .eyeKshlf.a ixjdohla..,iQ;@.; l< mqreI n,h" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sldixjdo irKsh" oskusK tlai;a m@jD;a;s m;@ iud.u" fld<U" 11 06 2005" 17 msgqj
  • 637 bkaoshdfjz ldka;d fojZ.kka mjd isgs wd.usl jHdmdr mej;`ks kuq;a ldka;d flaJ|@Sh wd.usl wdh;k msysgqjd .ekSug fkdyelsjsh.fuz fpdaokdj ia;@sjdoSka jsiak t,a,l< hq;`j ;snqfKa n@dyauK iuh jeks ksrAudKjdoS pska;k flaJ|@lr.;a wd.uzj,gh.ia;@SjdoSka olajk ishZMu |=rAj,;d olakg ;snqfKa ksrAudKjdoS wd.uz;`< nejsks.wdkkao ysusf.a m@Yakfhka miq mejsoao ,ndoshhq;` jkafka l`ukd ldrhlgoehs jsuiqug ,lajsh wIag.re OrAu wkqj ,ndosh hq;`hehs ksrAfoaYjsh.fuz wg w;r fndfyda widOdrK fldkafoais we;ehs ia;@SjdoSyq (Femanism) mji;s.tfy;a tajd fudkjdoehs Tjqka m@isoaOsfh ys fkdmji;s.wIaG.re OrAuj, widOdrKnj mejsosj fkdfnda osklska m@cdm;S f.da;uSyg f;areK nj;a iegjhia msreKq NsCIqKshla tosku Wmimka NsCIqjlg jekaohq;`h hkak jDoaO mgsmdgshg wkqj lemlrk f,i m@cdm;S f.da;uS f;rKshnq|=r|=kaf.ka b,a,d isgsh;a th ksIaM, jQnj iaa;@SjdoSyq olaj;s.Tjqka wIag.reOu!j, olajk jsYd,widOdrK Ndjh we;euzjsg fuh jsh yelsh. ia;@SjdoSkag wkqj jkaokh hk lreK flfkl`f.a Wiia my;a nj ;SrKh lrkakdjQ usuzuls.kuq;affcjjsoHd;aul yd iudc jsoHd;aul hk ldrKd folla wrNhd nq|=r|=ka jsiska ldkaldjka jsIfhysfuu meKjSu is|=lr ;sfnz.ldka;djl ;`, ffcj jsoHd;aulj we;s udkh uoh BrAIHdj .`Kul`njjeks |=rA.`K urAOkh lsrSu msKsi Bg m@;slu!hla f,i jJokh kshuj we;.fuys iudc jsoHd;aulh:drA:h jkqfha NsCIq iudch;`< ia;@shlf.a meje;au iqrCIs; lsrSu;a tuZ.ska wehg wjYHlrkakdjQrCIdjrKh ie,eiajSu;a ta rCIdjrKh ,nuska ia;@sh ;ukag wjYHlrkakdjQ wd.usl jsuqla;shi<id .ekSu;a fuhska wfmaCIs; m@fhda.sl lreKq fjz.tu wruqK wu;l lroud fuh ia;@S mqreIoajJOj hqoaOhla fldg i<ld l@shdlsrSu yd;amiskau uQ<sl wruqfkka neyerjSuls.tjka idlpzPdjlwe;s m@fhda.sl jgskdlulao ke;.m@dfhda.sl fkdjkakdjQ oDIaGs WmojkakdjQ fujeks foa nq|=iuhi<lkafka iS,nzn; mrudi f,ihs. us:HdoDIagsl wd.uzj,j;a ia;@Skag jeZoSula ke;ehs mejiQ nq|=r|=ka ta b,a,Su m@;sfCIam lrhs.ish iqZMujjQ yd miqj ;ukaj ljdfmdjd fmdaIKh l<djQ m@cdm;S f.da;ushf.a b,a,Su iuznJOfhka funZ|=m@ldYhla lrhso hk ieluqiq woyila ia;@SjdoSkaf.ka t,a,jS ;sfnz.we;a;jYfhkau nq|=r|=ka NsCIqKSixi:djg wkd.;fhys t,a,jk oyila Wj|=re iajlSh nq|=Kekska oel oel;a NsCIqKS ixia:dj msysgqjSug l@shdlf<a ;ukaf.a uEKshka jykafia ms<snZo lD;Z{;dmQrAjl fpz;kdj ksiduh f,djz;`rd nq|=jre usil ud;D fifkyil uysu okafka fjk ljqo$fndaOsiuzNdr mqrkdjia:dfjys ishuEKshka
  • 638jykafia Wru; ysZ|=jdf.k ish cSjs;h .ekj;a fkd;ld i;aoskla uyuqyqfoa msyskd ish uEKhkaf.acSjs;h fnzrd .ekSug l@shdfldg weh w;ska mqf;a kqU nq|=fjzjd hehs m<uq ksh; jsjrK ,enqfjzo nq|=jSug m@:u;a fndai;`ka;`< mej;s lreKdj ksid fkdfjzo$ta ksid ia;@SjdoSka olajk fuz fpdaokdmokuz jsrys; wi;H wN~; fpdaokd fjz.Tjqka olajk wkaoug fuysoS meKjS mej;s wIaG .re OrAums<snZoj .egZM jsgska jsg mekkeZ.S we;.ta msKsi Tjqyq idOlhla f.k yer olaj;s.pq,a,j.a.fhaNsCIqKS LJOlh ;sfnkafka mxpi;sld LJOlhg;a i;a;i;sl LJOlhg;a uq,sks.fuz wkqj pq,a,j.a.md,sh nq|=ka msrsksjs jir 100 la hkf;la jsjD;j ;snqk;a fojk ix.dhkd fjz jdrA;dfjys iZoykafkdjSfuka fuzjk jsg fuz fmd; ksujd ;snQnj meyeos,s fjz.md;sfudlaLfha ijk LJOlh yd NslaLqKSLJOl hk fol miqld,Skj lrk ,oaolanj ia;@SjdoSkag mCIj fcda;sh OSrfialr uy;d(Rev.Prof.Dhammavihari Thero) fn#oaO wdrdusl md,kh kuz .@J:fhaoS myod fohs.kuq;a Ydia;@Shj js.@ylrn,oaoS tau;h t;`udf.a nq|=oyu ms<snZoj jsYdro yd jsoaj;a njg fkd ieifZok nj fu;a is;skai<lkq uekjs. fuz ms<snZoj .re;r uykdhl w;smQcHje,s.u Z[dKr;k uykdysushka Wkajykafiaf.a uyry;aix>us;a;d prs;h yd ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh hk .@J:fhys mjikafka fujeks woyils.1thWkajykafia f.au joka j,ska fufiah."NsCIqKska jsiska ms<smeosh hq;` wIag.reOu!h pq,a,j.a. md,sfhys we;`<;aj ;sfnk ksid ms<s.; fkdyelshhs.NsCIqKS Ydikh msysgqjSu ld,fdaps; l@shdjlehsmjikakdjQ we;efula mji;s. Tjqkag u;lal< hq;af;a wIag.reOu!h pq,a,j.a. md,sfha muKlafkdj wx.`;a;r ksldfha wgzGl ksmd;fha f.da;uS j.!fhyso ijsia;rj w;`<;aj ;sfnk njh.tmuKlaj;a fkdoek fuz m@Yakh .ek l:dlrkakdjQ uydpdrAhjreo isgs;s.yd fydZohs wIag .reOu!h we;`<;aj ;snkafka pq,a,j.a.md,sfhau muKlehs lSj;a pq,a,j.a. md,sh bj;,sh hq;`o$Tjqkaf.a tl woyila kuz nqoaO mrsksrAjdKfhka miqj is|= lrk,o m<uq jeks fojeks Ou! ix.dhkdjsia;ro tys we;`<;afldg ;sfnk ksid fuho tnkaola f,i ie,lsh yelsh hkakhs.2 nqoaO mrsksrAjdKfhka f;uilska kslsKs mif<diajlod m<uq Ou! ix.dhkdj lrk,oS.nq|=rcdKkajykafiaf.kau oyuz jskh W.;a uyry;a mkaishhla fofkl`ka jykafiaf.a iuznJOfhka l<djQ tuOu! ix.dhkdjg iuznJO jQ NsCIqka jykafia,d yer fiiq NsCIqka rc.ykqjr jia fkjeish hq;`hsjHia:djla mjd iuzu; fldg yd;ami /lj,a ;nd rdcH wkq.@yh we;sj is|=l< nj jdrAldjS we;.taishZM /lj,a fhdok ,oafoa wOu!h yd wjskh we;`<;ajSu je<elSu msKsih.3 thska jir iShla .;jqkdg miq fojeks Ou! ix.dhkdj is|=lrk ,oafoa isjqms<sisUshdm;a uyry;`ka jykafia i;aish kulaf.a iuznJOfhks Wkajykafia,d w;r nq|=rcdKkajykafia oel mqre|=ry;`ka jykafia,d mjd isgshy.wdkkao uyry;`ka jykafiaf.a ioaOs jsydrslhka jykafia,d jkinznlduS-id<ay frAj;-nqcAcfidaNs;-hi-idKiuzN~; hk uyry;a uyf;rekao wkqeoaO1 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus" u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou!m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998" 71 msgqj2 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou! m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998 "71-72 msgqj3 tu 72 msgqj
  • 639uyry;`ka jykafiaf.a YsIHhska jykafia,d jk iquk-jdiN.duS uyf;reka hk fulS ry;`kajykafia,d (osgzGmqnznd ;:d;x) ;:d.;hka jykafia oel mqre|= ry;`ka jykafia,dh.m<uqix.dhkdfjz fukau fuz fojeks ix.dhkdjo rdcH wkq.@yh we;sj uy;a /ljrK uOHfha is|=l<nj jdrA;djS we;.fufia ix.dhkd f;dr;`re wdosh we;`<;aj ;sfnk ksid pq,a,j.a. md,sh ms<s.ekSug wlue;s wh is;kjd we;af;a ta ix.dhkd lrk ,oafoa ;uka jekakjqkah lshd is;df.k jsh hq;`h. nq|=rcdKka jykafia mjd oel mqre|= ry;ka jykafia,d iuznJO jS lrk ,o ta ix.dhkdjk ksid f:rjdohg wh;a oyuz jskh iqrCIs; jsh hfula th fkdms<s.kafka kuz ta wh usysZ|= uyry;ka jykafia jsiska msysgqjk ,o mhH!dma;s m@;sm;a;s Ydikh flfryso jsYajdih ;nkafka ke; usysZ|= uyry;`ka jykafia jkdys nq|=rcdKka jykafia oji jevjsiQ jskOr jQ Wmd,s uyry;`ka jykafi f.a YsIHdkq YsIH mruzmrdjg wh;a jkfial Wmd,s-odil-fidkl- is.a.-fu#.a.,S mq;a; ;siai-uyskao hkq ta mruzzmrdjhs.usysZ|= uyry;`ka jykafia m@uqL Ou!|+; msrsi jsiska f.fkk ,o mhH!dma;s ;@smsglh uqL mruzmrdfjka (lgmdvuska) ud;f,a wZMjsydrfhaoS .@J:drEv lrk;`re mj;ajdf.k wdjyqh. pq,a,j.a. md,sh bj; ,kakjqkag oeka ;sfnk ;@smsglh ms<s.; yelso$"1 je,s.u Z{dKr;k ysushka fulS lreK wrUhd m<lrk ,oaodjQ woyi fuz lreKg fydZou ms<s;`rfjhs. tnejska fuz lrefKys,d f:arjjdo woyi fuhska fydZoskau uQrA;su;a fjz. ia;@SjdoSka olajkakdjQ ;j;a lreKlg wkqjmd;sfudlaLfhys ijk LJOlfhys nq|=rcdKkajykafia md;sfudlaLh foiSug meusK ksyZvjk fial.uq.,ka ysus ta.ek m@Yak lr;s.nq|=rvdKkajykafia msrsiays bkakd jsIujQ ;eke;af;l` wruqKq fldg ;ukajykafia mdfudla fkdWfoik njm@ldYlrk fial.fuys m@d;sfudCI foaYkdj hkqfjka oelajqko f:arjdofha yegshg nq|=r|=ka foikafkaTzjdo m@d;sfudlaLh muKs. wdKd m@d;sfudlaLh fkdjkakls Tzjdo m@d;sfudlaLh hkq jskh kS;srS;ske;s ld,fhaoS nq|=r|=ka NsCIQka leZojd .d:d ;`klska hq;`jQ wjjdouh jQ wkqYdikh foaYkdlsrSuhs.2jskh YsCIdmo nsysjSugfya;`jQfha iqoskak kuz jQ NsCIqjf.a nSclfrda;am;a;s kuzjQ mdrdcsldwej;hs.1 tu 72 msgqj2 uyry;a ix>us;a;d prs;h iy ;okqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh" je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysus"u,a,sldrdu jsydria:Ou! m@pdrl lusgqj" r;au,dk" 1998 "71-72 msgqj
  • 640 iS,h ms<snZoj jQ md,kh wkqj w;s yslauqKq msrsila uq,ska iiqfkys jsiQ kuq;a nScl frda;am;a;swej; ms<snZojjQ isoaOsh jskh ms<snZoj u;fNaoldrS wjia:djla u;`lrknj ia;@SjdoSyq fmkajd fo;s.tkuz Tzjdo m@d;sfudlaLh ;sfnk ld,fha jskh kS;s ;snS fkdue;.kS;s ke;s ld,fhoS;a ix> iNdfjkamsgux lsrSug jerosldrfhla jsh fkdyel.kS;shla fkdue;s l,l bka msg;oS oZvqjuz osh fkdyel.fuzksid fuh is|=jsh fkdyel.m<uq jrolre iqoskak ysus kuz w;S;hg n,mdk jeros nq|= oyfuz fkdue;sksid ta ysushka fkrmsh fkdyelsnj ia;@SjdoSyq fmkajd fo;s.wfkla w;g jskh kS;s hgf;a m@:u jeroslre lrwe;af;a iqoskak ysushka ffu:qk mdrdcsldfjks.tfy;a irAjdia;sjdo jskfhys woskakdodkdmdrdcsldjla .ek iZoyka fjz.irAjdia;sjdoS jskh YsCIdmo f:arjdo jskfhys wvqmdvqluz u;` lsrSuiZoyd Ndjs;d lsrSu t;ruz fhda.H lreKla fkdfjz. nq|=oyu fjkila fldkr tys ksrAu, uq,aiajrEmfhkau wdrCId lr.;af;a f:rjdoS iuzm@odh jk nejska wksjdrAhfhkau lskuz ;rd;srfuzfjkila oyfuz fyda YsCIdmoj, jsoHudkfj;akuz thska f:rjdo l@uhu ksjeroshehs ms<s.ekqujvd;a Wps; l@ufjzohhs. tfiakuz nq|=r|=ka yd iuznJO lrjuska m@d;sfudlaL ijk LkaOlfhys fuu mdrdcsldj ilialf<a|=iaiS, NsCIQkag md;sfudlaLh foiSug we;`ZMjsh fkdyelsh hk ixl,amh ,ndoSug nejz ia;@SjdoShqmji;s.l,a we;sj meusK mdfudla Wfoid.ekSu hqla;siy.; lr.ekSug;a tnZ|= miqld,Sk mrspzfPao;`kla ,Z. ;sfnkakdjQ NsCIqKs LJOlfha tk l;sldjka miqld,Sk jSug bv;sfnk njg Tjqyq ielmy< lr;s.fuz wkqj fuh mqreIdOsm;Hh ;yjqre lr.ekSug1 f.d;k ,oaolanj meyeos,s fjzh hklreK ia;@sjdoSyq u;`lr;s.tfukau Tjqka olajkdldrhg nq|=r|=ka m@cdm;shf.a jeZoSu ms<snZo lreKwrNhd idjOdkj ijka|=ka njla olakg fkd,efnk njo fmkajd fo;s.kuq;a idjOdrK b,a,Suzj,gljr wjia:djl jqjo ijkaoSfuz m@;sm;a;sh nq|=r|=ka i;`jQ fohla ksid funkaola jsh fkdyelsnjia;@SjdoSyq olaj;s.fuz fya;`j ksid wIaG .reOrAuo NsCIQkaf.a mYapd;a ld,Sk ksrAudKhla njg fuulreKq idOlhla fldg olaj;s.fuz ms<snZoj je,s.u Z[dKr;k ysushka m<l< uyry;a ix>us;a;dprs;h iy ;okqqnoaO NsCIqKS Ydikh keue;s lD;sfhys wka;rA.; f;dr;`re wdY@fhka by;mrspzfPAofhysoS lreKq iys;j fuz u;h idjoHnejz ;yjqrefldg ;sfnz. by; iqoskak NsCIqj iuznJOfhka nq|=iuh wkq.ukhl< l@shdudrA.h b;d meyeos,sj jskfhysolajd ;sfnz.m@:u mdrdcsld YsCIdmoh meKjSug iqoskak NsCIqjf.a prAhdj bjy,a jqj;a tlS wej;gm;a fkdfjz.ta tajk jsg tnZ|= wej;la ms<snZoj jskfhys iZoyka fkdjk nejsk.nq|=jrekaf.a m@d;sfud sCIh foaYkdlsrSu ms<snZoj jQ m@;sudkuh lreKla fuysoS ;uka lshk lreKg idOlhla f,iia;@SjdoSka jsiska Wmfhda.S lrf.k ;sfnz.idudkHfhka TzkEu nq|=jrfhl` iuznJOfhka fulS m@;sudkwod<fjz.nq|=jre wmrsis|= is,a we;s msrsiays mdfudla fkdWfoi;s.fuys mdfudla hkq jskh YsCIdmofkdfjz isysm;alsrSuz yd wjjdohs.;uka ;ukaf.a Y@djlhka yd tlaj tlu wruqKl .uka lrkakdjQ;dlal,a nq|=jre fuu Tzjdo md;sfudlaL foaYkdj mj;aj;s.nqoaO Y@djl hka iuznJOfhka funZ|=wdldrfhka mdfudla WfoiSugu;af;ka wmsrsis|= ;eke;a;ka msrsfika bj;a lsrSula is|= fkdfjz.NsCIqm@;sudkhka ;`, tnkaola fkdjk nejsk.ienjskau NsCIQka jykafia,d is|= lrkqfha jrog m;a jQjkao s1 tu 73 msgqj
  • 641tu iNdjg we;`ZM lrf.k Tjqkaf.a tlS jro uyd ix>hd uOHfha fy<sfldg tu jro iZoyd iq|=iqjskh lrAuhka uyd ix>hd fj;skau mKjd .ekSuhs. idudkHfhka fiiq NsCIQka jykafia,d iuZ. ix> iudch ksfhdackh lsrSfuz whs;sh wysusjkafkai;r mdrdcsld nZ|= b;du;a m@n,u .Kfha jrola l< NsCIQka jykafia kulg muKh.tfy;a tajro ix> iNdjla uOHfha jsOsu;a wOslrK l@shdj,shlska ;yjqrefldg .kakdf;la ta NsCIqjj fiiqNsCIka jsiska jrolre hhs kuzfldg fldkalrkafka ke;.huz fyhlska tnZ|= fohlg jrolre f,ijsOsu;a wdldrhlska wOslrK l@shdj,shlska ;yjqrelr .;a;;a thg oZvqju f,i kej; WmiuzmodNsCIQka jykafia flfkl` f,i lghq;` lsrSfuz bv m@ia;dj wysusjkjd usila wOslrK l@shdj,shlgmrsndysrj yd w;a;fkdau;sl f,i by; olajk whqrska oafjzI iy.; whqrska fkrmd ouk isrs;lafn#oaO ix> iudch;`< olakg ke;. tnejska ia;@SjdoSka olajk mrsoafoka fuu mdrdcsldj ilialf<a |=YaYS, NsCIQkag mdfudla WfoiSugmeusKSu msKsi bv,nd fkdoSugh hk ldrKh us:Hdjla nj ;yjqre fjhs.uydj.a. md,sfha uydLJOj,g wh;a jQ Wfmdai:LJOfhys oelafjk lreKq uZ.ska mqk mqkd wjOdrKh lrkq ,nkafkaWfmdai:h iZoyd ishZMu ix>hdf.a iyNd.SFjh w;HjYH lreKla jk njhs.1wfkla w;g Wfmdi:lu!hla is|= lsrSfuz ienE wjYH;d jh jkqfhao NsCIQka jykafia,df.a w;ska is|=jk wvqmdvq ksjeroslrf.k kej; wdh;s ixjrhg meusKSu msKsi wjYHjkakdjQ bvlv ,ndoSuh.ldw;skaj;a jeros is|=1 u md" uyLkaOl" Wfmdai:laLkaOlh
  • 642fkdfjkjdkuz Wfmdai:h meje;ajSfuz wrA:hlao ke;.lsis|= osfkl jrola is|= fkdfjkqfha iqmsrsis|=udkisl ;;ajhlg meusK isgskakdjQ ry;ka jykafi,d w;ska muKs.kuq;a ry;kajykafia,d jqjoWfmdai:lu!hkag meusKSu wksjdrAhfjz.nq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiska tfia kshulr ;sfnz. idudkHfhka wm is;kafka ry;ka jykafia,d hkq jeros wvqmdvqluz lsis;a rys; w;sYhskauirAjiuzmQrAK irAjf;daN|@ mqoa.,hka fldgzGdYhla njhs.tfy;a Wkajykafia,d w;ska jqjo we;euzwjia:dj,oS m@n, fkdjk iqZM iqZM wvqmdvq is|=jsh yelsnj jskh msglh wkqj fmfka.msKafvda,Ndroajdc f;reka iDoaOs m@d;sydrAh oelajSu ry;ka jykafia,d w;ska jqjo idudkH NsCIq m@;sudkhkag fkd.e,fmk iqZM iqZM w;miq jSuz is|=jsh yelsnjg ksorAYkhls.kuq;a tjka wjia:djloS mjdnq|=r|=ka Bg fodiakZ.d ;sfnkafka tjka is|=jSuz iuia; NsCIQ m@;sudkhkag wys;lrf,i n,mEyelsnejsks.tjka jd;djrKhl NsCIQka fldgila l,a;nd meusK mdfudlaWfoid .ekSu hqla;s iy.;lsrSug hehs iZoyka m@ldYkh wrA: jsrys; m@ldYkhla fjz. vhkd fnda,agz ue;sKsh iDcqju nq|=r|=ka ia;@Skag oafjzI lrkafkla f,i olajd we;.tfia m@ldYlrkafka tl, iudc mrsirh ms<snZoj nq|=r|=ka i,ldne,Sfuka miq .kq ,enQ ;SrK ms<snZo wkjfndaOfhks.nq|=r|=ka tl, mej;s iudc wdrA:sl yd foaYmd,k mrsirh ms<snZoj oevs jsuiSulska hq;`j l@shdlr we;.nq|=r|=kaf.a l@shdldrluz ms<snZoj w;a;fkdau;sl ks.ukhkag t<USug u;af;ka tjeks l@uj;a yeoErSula l,hq;`j ;snsKs. fndfydajsg bx.@Sis W.;`ka fkduZ. hdug fya;`j md,s NdIdj jsOsu;af,i fkdokakdnj fya;`fldgf.k md,s NdIdfjka ,shejS we;s uq,a md,s ;@smsgl .@F: lshjd f;dreuz.ekSug fkdyelslu ksid tjdfha ifodia bx.@sis mrsjrA;k lshjd ta wkqj is;kakg hduhs.odrAYkslwrA:fhys Ndjs;djk md,s jpkj,g fkd.eUqre bx.@sis wrA: iemhSu ksid nq|=oyu ms<snZo bx.@Sisfhkarpkdjk .@J:hkays jsYd, wvqmdvqluz olakg ,efnz.rSia fvzjsvzia uy;d iy tu uy;aushf.a uQ<slFjfhka hq;`j werUs ,kavka md,s fmd;a iud.fuys m@ldYkj, fuu wvqmdvqlu oelsh fkdyelaflaTjqka md,s NdIdj ms<snZo jsYdrohka nejsk.Tjqka w;rskq;a rSia fvzjsvzia uy;aushg jvd ksjerosj sfn#oaO wdl,am .@yKh lsrSfuz yelshdj rSia fvzjsvzia uy;dg ;snsfka Bg wod< W.;aNdjh jevsmqr;snqfka ta uy;dg nejsk.ffjosl pska;kh uq,aneif.k ;snQ iudcfha wd.usl idudcsl jYfhka sysusjS ;snQ wka;.duS iudch;`< hd.fydau lsrSfuz fyda bf.kSfuz fyda b.ekajSfuz fyda mqreIhkaf.awNsjdokh ,enSfuz fyda lsis|= bvlaa ldka;djlg tjlg iudc miqnsu;`, fkdjSh.jks;dj ms<snZof:rS.d:d j, oelafjkafka wehj udrhdf.a uqjg wdfrdamKh lsrSu wNsfhda.hg ,laflrekq miqnsulahgf;ah. wd.usl idOqFjh ,enSu ia;@shg wmyiq lreKla fkdjknj fuu f:rS.d:d md,sfhys f;rKsjrekaf.a wmodkhka ;`,ska meyeos,s fjz.kuq;a nq|=iuh bosrsm;a lrkafka uSg m@;sjsreoaO woyilanjia;@SjdoSyq mji;s.uska fmfkkafka merKs Ndr;Sh jks;dj yd nq|=iufha ldka;dj ms<snZo wdl,amuh.egSuls.1ia;@SFjhg idOqFjh,ndoSu ne?reuz wNsfhda.hla jYfhka olajhs.ia;@S mCIhg wd.usl1 ldka;dj yd nq|=iuh bka|@dKs fmfrArd" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U" 2000" 119-134 msgq
  • 643mejsoao ,ndoSu ksid mYapd;a ld,Skj th iudc mrsjrA;khla yg.ekSugo fya;`N~; jsh.fuznejzNsCIqKS ixia:dj we;slr fkdfnda l,lskau .egZMj,g uqyqK oSfukau meyeos,sfjz.1 wm@udK yd wOslf,i l< wdhdpkhlska miq mejsoao ,nd |=kako iudcfhka NsCIqKSkayg Wreu jQfha fydZo ms<s.ekSula fkdfjz.fndfydajsg NsCIqKSkag NsCIqkaf.a fydr wUqjka f,i wmuK .rANd lsrSuzj,go md;@jsh.2NsCIqkag ,wenk ksoyi ,nd fkdoS wehg wIaG .reOrAu kdufhka wrA: oelafjk idudkH NsCIqjskhg jH;sfrAljqkq oevs kS;srS;s jHjia:d ud,djla hg;g fhduqlrjd mejsoao ,ndoS ;snshoS;a fumrsos iudcfhka wehg wmuK kskaod .eryquz ,nkakg is|=jQjdkuz NsCIqKSkayg wIaG .re OrAu fkdmekjQ miqnsul meKjq YsCIdmo lvjSu fjkqfjka wehg .rANd lrkjdg ovqjuz lrkjdg jvd jeros is|=jk wjia:dj,oS tu jro ldreKslj fmkajdoSu uZ.ska wehj hyuZ.g .ekSfuz jvd jevs bvlvla ta uZ.ska ksrAudKh jkjdfkao hk lreK ia;@SjdoSyq wjOdrKh lrk lreKls.ta ksidu wIaG .reOrAu meKjSu ksIaM, njo Tjqyq olaj;s. ia;@SjdoSka ldka;d msrsus jYfhka iudch fnod Nskak lruska .egZMj,g jsiZ|=uz fidhkafka oekqu fldgia j,g lvd ta;`,ska flaj, ixl,amSh idrA:lFjhla oelSugwOsldruh pska;kh Tiafia ish udkislFjh ta;`< yeisrjSug ukdj mqre|=mqyqKq l<djQ tfiaungysr hqfojz fmdf;ia;ka;@ b.ekajSuz u; mokuzjQ ia;@SjdoS pska;khg wkq.;j ta;`, isgf.kfn#oaO b.ekajSuz jsYaf,aIkh lrkakg W;aiyfldg tfial< fkdyelsjQ wjudkh uld.ekSughs.jsfYaIfhkau ngysr ishZMu oekqu ksrAudKh jS ;sfnkqfha ksrAudKjdoS pska;khflJ|@fldg f.khs.fuz hgf;a Tjqkaf.a oekquz moaO;sh f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a tu oekqu Wlyd.kakdgis;Sug lsis|= bvlvla ,nd fkdfokakdjQ udkisl ixorANhla ksrAudKh lr.ksusks. ta;`, nqoaOs jsIhsl lreKq NdjjsIhsl lreKq .`Kd;aul lreKq hkqfjka oekqu fldgiaj,glvuska yodrkjd jskd th moaO;shla f,i f.k yeoErSula is|= lsrSug ;ruzz Tjqkaf.a ksrAudKjdoSwOHdmk ixl,am m@n, fkdjk nejsk.th Wmudjlska olajf;d;a usksfil` .ek wOHhkh lsrSug ta susksidf.a YrSrdjhj fjkafldg ta tla tlla mdid wOHhkh lsrSu ngysr ksrAudKjdoS wOHdmkiudkfldg olaj;yelsh.kuq;a fn#oaO pska;kh;`, iuia;h tajQ wdldrfhkau wOHhkh lsrSug;ruz oshqKq wOHdmk ixl,am mej;`kqnj ld,duiQ;@h uZ.ska bosrsm;a flfrkakdjQ idrOrAu ixl,amuZ.ska m@lgfjz.1 tu 1-12 msgq2 tu 102-115 msgq
  • 644 nq|=r|=ka m@dfhda.slj NsCIqKSkag iudcfhka we;sjkakdjQ n,mEu l,a;shd oek oel we;.iudcfhkafndre fpdaokd t,a,jSu NsCIq NsCIqKSka w;r fkdukd inZo;d we;sjSu NsCIQka fmd<Ujd .ekSugW;aiy oerSu jeks lreKq ksid kS;srS;s oud fomsrsiu wdrCId jk mrsos l@shdlsrSu idOdrKh.bkaoshdfjz b;d blaukska NsCIqKS ixia:dj msrsyqk.,xldfjz tfldf<diajk ishji f;la fuh mej;`k.1 s snqreufha b;d iqZM ld,hls.;dhs,ka;fha f;dr;`re we;af;au ke; m@n, uydhdk NsCIqKS ixia:djla.ek pSkfha cmdkfha fldrshdfjz jeks rgj,ska jdrA;dfjz.uydhdk rgj, mejf;k NsCIqKSixia:djka wmg ms<s.; fkdyelafla tajdfha ryfia wUqieushka f,i yeisrSu muKla fkdj bkq;aTnzng .shdjQ |+ orejka ,en l@uj;a wdldrhg m@isoaOsfha jsjdy cSjs; .;lsrSfuz ksoyi mjd mejsosmCIh i;` uQ<sl udkj whs;sjdislula f,i;a thg jskfhka lsis|= ndOdjla fkdue;s f,i;a jskfhkaBg wjYH jsOsjsOdk i<iajd we;s f,i;a trfgys idudkH uyck;dj i<lk nejsk.fujeks rgj, sta ta ksldhslhka mejsoao ,nd fokafkao ;ukaf.au orejkag muKs.ta ;ukaf.a ksldh fkdkeiS /l.ekSu iZoydh.tjeks wmlSrA;su;a miqnsula we;s jsfoaYSh uydhdk nq|=iufhys wdNdIh we;sj,furfgys uykdhl f;reka jykafia,d ishZM fokdf.au oevs jsfrdaO;djh uOHfha uOHia: woyiaork jevsfokdf.a fkdleue;af;ka lSm fofkl`f.a TZzkE tmdlu u; ta iZoyd ,laosj f:arjdo nq|=iuh jskdY uqLh lrdhjkakg ryfia msUqrem;a wZosk lf;da,sl m,a,sfha wkq.@yh u; l@shd;aul jkrdcH fkdjk iud.uz yryd ,efnk jsfoaYSh uqo,a fvd,rA usgsj,g jiZ.j furgg wdkhkhlrkakg udkn,k uydhdk NsCIqKS ixia:dj ,xldjjeks iqmsrsis|= f:arjdoS nq|= oyu l@shd;aul jkrglg lsisfia;a fkd.e<fmhs. vfny nFtfey` h[xfyx k=wA sAmen`rvr[n`x nFtfk[w>vfx,v[lf dHw<vmZ dfy dHw<vmZ aAdfypNvyf.2smhr avs`TAvldF v[wfhfxf BfOS<n`vhn`es`lA smAjvferA`Df a[t[mZ k&fyAvn` kLvfxb&h`mdN`wyv[nf dHw<vmZ pNvn<l[ebZ.3emy kyxvwA mnsx d[enn dHw<vmkf.mfnfs<n` p&tfmAnhA Dr~mtA gr[krn eh`t=vk` a[t.mfnfs<n` hftn`en` emZ Dr~mtA an<v h[sfrFm mfnfsAeg`s`vABAvfk h[sfrFmbvyf.kAlyk`t=L Dr~mtAv n`x an<v h[sfermfn`sfxf mfnfs<n`x ov<n`eg`jFvftey` evn` kLenAh[kf a^gbvx Dr~mtA prfvr~tny vn`en`y.4ymZkfsfedyk` tmn`xs`vBAvfk edyk`bvx pt`vF s`vkFy jFvftey` a^gyk`v> vfx,Ey sfzkfrFm sHdhA pArfetA`SN ehAdHw<vmZ avVYvn`en` n[t.5 Dm%tA s{msmAjykm epAzevZ dk`nxl[ebZ.E`vA Ek`Ek` smAjyk pvt`nA an`dmx vwAevns` vfdfhkx tvt` smAjykdF dkfn`nx p<HPvn.EmnfsA Dr~mtA ehvt` p&tfmAn klfn`klx1 ldka;dj iy nq|=iuh bJ|@sKs fmfrArd" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U" 2000" tu 55-98 msgq2 u md 1" nq c uq 208 msgqj wkqcdkdus NslaLfjz idufKardkx budks oi islaLdmodks bfuiqj idufKafrAys idufKaislaLs;`x3 iuka; mdidosld 1" fyajdjs;drK uq|@K" 168-179 msgqj4 wOHdmk ufkdjsoHdj" ixia csf;aJ|@ ufaydka" mrs iajrAKd jsfcA;`x." wOHdmk m@ldYk fomdrA;fuzka;`j"n;a;ruq,a," 1996" 262 msgqj5 ,ud wdl,am ixjrAOkh" foudmsh .`re ldrAhNdrh" fm@aud l`v,s.u" iSudiys; oSmdks uq|@K m@ldYkh"kqf.af.dv" 2000
  • 645evns`vFmx BAjnyevZ.(tr[N tr[Nfyn`eg` ymZ ymZ kAlvl a[tfvn h[sfrFm udAhrNvVeyn` gth[kfy.)1 smAjyk` eds blnvfxdF smAjjFvfty gtkfrFm sHdhA Dr~mtA ektrmZ v[dgt` vnvAd[yfp[h[dflfevZ.Dr~mtA ehvt` Dr~mtA enAtfebn`nx smAjyk` pvt`vAgnyAm aphs<evyf.nm<t`apx emZ kArNy EtrmZ enAv[xeh`.Dm%tA ehvt` p&tfmAn kfyA ekAxsk` pvtfnvAd[yf kfyAvt` enAsfet`.Ix eh`t=v emZ Dm%tA ehvt` p&tfmAnvlx ap h<r[p<r[zvF E`vA apeg` jFvftvlxjFr~NvF kA v[dF a[tf nfsAy.2 smhrvfxk emZ Dm%tA atr prmAdr~VF Dm%tA hA yTAr~T Dm%tA dk`nx p<HPvn.eevreyn`eevry enAsn`sfeHd`,yn<prmAdr~VF yTAr~TDm%tAvykf.p&tfmAnykf.nm<t` apf aep` sAmAnYjFvftey`dF apx ymZkfsf akxy<t`tk` kLekenk=x Ekx Ek krn`nx ut`shkrn`enm<.Ees`ut`shkLt` prmAdr~VFp&tfmAn yk` h[xfyx emy kv<r[t` pfLfgn`nA edykf.smAjyeds blnvfx Dm%tA ehvt` p&tmAnvl tvt` p[t`tk` dk`nxl[ebZ.EnmZ smhr Dm%tA agykrn< lbmfn`E` atrm E` Dm%tAvlx p&tfmAnvlx Eerhfv kxy<t=kfrFemZ rxAvk`d dk`nx tfbFmyf. udAhrNyk` vVeyn` mt`p[n`bFemn` v[LkFm ebUd`D Dm%tAvyk`vVeyn` pfLfgn`nA Ekkf.nm<t` b<zdhmaArOSAkfrFmx vYvs`TAevn` b[HdFa[tff rxk s{m rjyk` mHgfn`m mt`p[n` nfS`pAdnyx an<bldFmk`d eker~.1 kqU kdvka foajodis" uq;`uqo,df.a kYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U" 06 032005"24 msgqj2 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHd m@fjzYh"tka jS cS ta fyauka; l`udr"weia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U"1997" 132-140 msgq
  • 646 rjey` an<m[tfy enAm[tfv nfS`pAdnykrn< lbn nFtfvferA`Dfy[yf hHzn`vn< lbn mt`p[n`uvzrk` h[xfyx slkA m[wp[v[t`vFmxd kxy<t=kryf.p&tfmAn pfLfbHdv emt[ndF g[xHPvk` pvtF.smAjyk p<d`glyn`vfsfn` pfLfp[dfyy<t= ehA` enApfLfp[dfyy<t= ehA` nFtfrFtf vYvs`TA sfrft` vfrft`th^cf dHw<vmZ an<sAsnA aAdfy smAjk&fyAdAmyt=L nfsfprfdf k&fyAvx enAn[eHg`nmZ E`vAmt pfhfxAenAsfxFnmZ Evn` smAjy bfHdv[exZ.smAj vY<heyhf smZmtyx blp[v[t`evn hrpd`Dtfyt=L m<l`b[sgt` cr~yAmy lOSN pfLfgt` p&tfmAn ehvt` Dm%tAels s[lek`.1 emhfdF ap sAkcZCAkrn< lbn`en` kAlAms>t&eyn` ehlfvn ebUd`D sArDm% hA iht dk`vnld ‘p&tfmAn(Norms)’atr pvtfn sbHdtAvey` s`vr{py pfLfbHdvyf2.kAlAm s>t&eyhf vfvrNyvn smAj p&tfmAny vnAhF Ehf d[k`evn smAj sdAcAr p&Qp`tfyyf.emZ v>klF p^cVFlp&tfpdAvmb[vZ 3vn prfcZeC~dey` sAkcZCAvx lk`vfnf.(3 prfcZeC~dy bln`n) Em prfcZeC~dey`sAkcZCAvx bHzn`v> prfdf p^cVFl p&tfpdAv s<rOSftvFm pfNfs aADYAt`mfk sArDm%s^kl`pv>aelA`B,aedA`s hA aemA`h yn sArDm% s^kl`pt&ft`vy udvZv>bv d[k`vfnf.3 emm sArDm% s^kl`pt&ft`vy hxgn<lbn`en` itAm s>Osm sArDm% s^kl`pyn` strk`v>emt`tA, kr[NA,m<dftA hA uep`k`KA yn sArDr~mFy s^kl`pyn` str pdnmZekAx bv vfs`trekrfnf.4emes` aDYAt`mfk sArDm% s^vD%nykrn` nAv> p<d`glyA aADYAt`mfk hA bAhfr vVeyn`s[nsFmZvg% strk` lbnbv kAlAm s>t&eyhf vfs`tr ekrfnf.EnmZ,51.prelAvk` tfebZnmZ,prelAvdF yhpt` uptk` lbenmf yn<evn` emelAvdFm lbn s[nsFm.62.prelAvk` n[tfnmZ,emZ aAt`myhf s<ves` vfsfmf yn<evn` emelAvdFm lbn s[nsFm.73.pvZkLAh<x vfpAked`nmZ,mAvfsfn` EbHz pvZ enAkrnldF yn<evn` emelAvdFm lbn s[nsFm.84.pvZkLAh<x vfpAk enAed`nmZ,mAvfsfn` EbHz pvZ enAkrnldF yn<evn` emelAvdFmlbns[nsFm.9 cft`tVAn`tfy ehvt` s[nsFmyn< p<d`gleyk= tm jFvnp[v[t`m nfrr~b<dv1 iudc jsoHdj yd udkj jsoHd m@fjzYh"tka jS cS ta fyauka; l`udr"weia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U" 1997"135 msgqj2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;d ….w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskakps;af;da…..wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkj mdKxyka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x kxys;dh iqLdh;s3 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wf,dafNda …wfodafida….wfudafyda….mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAC;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;4 tu i fLda fid ld,dud wrshidjfld tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;NHdmdfoda wiuzuQMafyda iuzmcdfkda m;siai ld,dudf;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id fm-lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id-uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id-WfmalaLd fm- id- id-iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix Mrs;ajd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshxinznzOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKakwfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s5 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx wfjzzr ps;af;daa tajx wnHdmcACOps;af;da tajx wixls,sgzG ps;af;datjx jsiqoaO ps;af;da ;iai osgzfGj Ouzfuz p;a;dfrda wiaidid wOs.;d fydka;s ;ia6 tu ifpz fLda mk wF:s mfrda f,daflda wF:s iqlg |=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda Gdkuyx ldhiai fNaodmruzurKd iq.;sx i.a.x f,dalx WmamcAcsiaiduS;s whuiai mGfuda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s7 tu ifpz fLda mk kF:s mfrda f,daflda kF:s iqlg |=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda bodyx osgzfGk Ouzfuzwfjzrx wnHdmcACOx wkS>x iqqLx w;a;dkx mrsydrduS;s whuiai |=;sfhda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s8 tu ifpz fLda mk lfrdaf;da lrshH;s mdmx k fLda mkdyx liaips mdmx fpzf;aus wlfrdka;x fLda mk ux ;xmdmx luzux l`f;da |=laLx Mqiai;S;s whuziai ;;sfhda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s9 tu ifpz fLda mk lfrdaf;da k lrshH;s mdmx bodyx WNfhfkaj jsiqoaOx w;a;dkx iukqmiaiduS;s whuiaip;`;af:da wiaidfida wOs;f;da fyda;s
  • 647gtkfrFm eh`t=evn` bAhfr smAjy hA p<d`glyA atr pvtfn smAjmy smZm<tfy enAbfHdaArOSAkfrFm atYvVY kArNykf.smAj smZm<tfy ehvt` smAj sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy kwkrn`nAv>p<d`glyAevt smAjeyn` enAeyk` bADAvn` El`lvfyh[kf b[vfn` EvfxEm p<d`glyAeg` jFvftydEyfn` enAeyk` ar~b<dshft evZ. smAjyk` yn< p<d`glyfn` 1 sm>hykf. ov<n` EkfenkA tm tmn` p<d`glfkjFvft gt krn atrm smAjey` k=wAm smAj E`kky vn pv<l ek`$z& ekAx egAw nHgA gt` smAj h[sfrFmk`d Ek` Ek` p<d`glyA vfSeyhf dk`nx l[ebZ.2 smAjey` k=wAm smAj smAj E`kky vn pv<l` s^s`TAv nfrr~b<dv p[vt`m sHdhA eh`t=evyf.pv<l` s^s`TAvt=L nfr~bADFyjFvfkAv pfNfs ivhl`vn p^cvfD v>p&tfpt`tFn`egn` p^cVFl p&tfpdAv s[zmZld`ed` evyf.p^cVFl p&tfpdAvt=L an`tr~gtv> p&ANGAteyn` v[LkFmt=lfn` ar~Tvt` vn`en` smAjyt=L evesn aenk=t` sAmAjfkyn`eg` jFvt`vFemZa[tf ayftfy ov<n`x lbAdFmyf. emm anYyn`eg` hfrfh[r vDb$Dnvlx lk`enAvF tm jFvnp[v[t`m s<vdAyfk kAyfk hAmAnsfk prfsryk`t=L gtkfrfemZ ayfftfy ov<n`hx lbAdFm pLm< VfOSAdpdeyn` aT%vt`eker~.3ekenk= emes` tmk&fyA pxfpAxfy sks`krg[nFmxnmZ EbHz p<d`gleyk=eg` aADYAt`mfk s^vryitAm vfVfS`X tt`vykx s^vD%ny krg[nFm avVYy.eevrsftfvflft=lfn` GAtnykfrfmZ hA vDb$Dnvlx p[mfNvFmZ sfzeker~.avYApAd sftfvflft=lfn` eemt&fy ehvt` mft=r[bv vD%ny eker~.mft=r[bv mft&t`vy thv<r[v<n smAj smZb$DtA pd`DtfykdF E`t=L vAsy krn mAnv p&jAveg`m>Lfk mfnfs` ayftfvAskmZ phmt p^cVFl p&tfpdAevn` nfr~ed`Vft sdAcAr Dm%tA ph aArOSAevZ.kAlAm s>t&eyhfdF elA`By n[m[tf ak=slm>ly eh`t=ekAxegn sdAcAr KN`wnyt` EmHgfn`smAj p&tfmAn rAm<vvn p^cVFl p&tfpdAv bfHdv[exn ay<r[ epn`vA a[t`et` emZ ay<rfnf. ‘kAlAmeynf,elA`Beyn` y<k`tv> emZ p<r[S p<d`gletm vnAhF elA`Byvfsfn` mwnAld`ed`,hAt`psfn` vfnAVkrn sft` a[t`et`,st=rn` mryf.esArkmZd kryf.prdArAvn` krAd yyf.ebAr[dkfyyf.yemk=x dFr~GkAlyk` ahft pfNfs zk` pfNfs evZd,anYyAd E`b[vZ pfNfs smAdn` eker~d?’1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq k mrodrx .pzP;s2 A. iudc jsoHdfjz uQ<Ou!"kkaofiak r;akmd,"iSudiys; f,alayjqia bkafjiagzukagz iud.u"fld<U"1986 B.oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d"fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr"oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"2503 2005" 3 msgqj3 wuzud wmamd ke;s uqje;a;s"iqOrAud chiQrsh"oskusK fikiqrdod"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@iud.u"fld<U"19 032005" 19 msgqj
  • 648 elA`By vnAhF ak=slm>L t=enn` Ek` ak=sl m>Lykf.ak=sly yn< sfet` s[nsFmkrA sftemehyvFemZ k=sltAvy rhftyn<yf.h[kfyAv rhftbv yn<yf.p&ANGAtyx,adt`tAdAnyx,kAmmfTYAcAryx ihtd[k`v> v[rdf sterhf eyAm< krvFm yn kr[N< ps vnAhF ekenk=eg` sfet`s[nsFm n[tfkrlFmx eh`t=vn kr[Nk` b[vfn` ak=slm>Lykfn` p&Bvv>vkf.1emyfn` p[h[dflfvn`en`ekenk= sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy vVeyn` s[lekn smAjp&tfmAny vVeyn` s[lekn smAj p&tfmAny ehvt` p^cVFlp&tfpdAv kwkfrFmx ivhl`vn>ey` vfSm cft`t s^kl`pyn`eg` blp{m bvyf.emhfdf vfSm s^kl`py els blpA a[t`et` elA`By ehvt` asFmft aAVAvyf. an<n`eg` jFvftvlx vwA d[wfels tmAeg` jFvftyx aAVAkfrFmt` tmAeg` jFvfty pvt`vAegnyAm pfNfs an<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tfayftfy E` sHdhA uzrA g[nFmx eh`t=evyf.emZ p&NGAtyxeh`t=vyf.2m@dK >d;h ia:r follska hqla;h m<uqj wkHhkaf.a cSjs; whs;sh fkd;ld yerSuhs.fyj;a wkHhkaf.a cSjs;j,g oevs wka;drhlr jkakdjQ l@shdj, ksr;jSuhs.fuz uZ.ska m@dK >d;his|= jSug wjYH lrkakdjQ jgdmsgdj iuzmdokh flfrA.fojk ia:rh jkdyS iDcqju wkHhkaf.acSj;ajSfuz ksoyi W|=rd oeuSuhs fulS fowxYh uZ.skau m@dK >d;h YsCIdmoh is|=fjz. an<n` st=vs`t=v eker~ d[wfelA`B sft`ipfdvFm an<n`st=vs`t=v tmn`st=krg[nFmx eh`t=vyf.3emy adt`tA dAnyyf.ehvt` esArkmyf.4;ukaf.a csjs;h mj;ajd .ekSug iq|=iq fohla Wmhd.ekSug ;uka jer jEhfuka l@shdfldg hula idOdrK f,i yuznl< hq;`h.;ukaf.a csjs;h mj;ajd.ekSu msKsi wkqka jerjEhfuka yuznl<djQ fohla whqla;s iy.;f,i jxpdiy.;f,i widOdrKf,i W|=rd .ekSu w;sYhskau fkdukd fohls.iudc jsfrdaOs idyisl l@shdjls kS;sh uZ.ska fuhgoZvqjuz ,efnkjdg wu;rj ;ukaf.a yDo YdCIsfhkao oZvqjuz jsZoskakg is|=fjz.fujka jerosj,fhfokakkag csjs;fha lsis osfkl udkisl i;`glska l,af.jsh fkdyel.ksrka;rfhka ;ud lrk,ojro fya;`fjka ksrka;r mSvdjlska hq;`j iudcfhys osjs f.jSug funZ|= mqoa.,hkag is|=fjz. ;uka lrk ,o jrog iq|=iq oZvqju ksrka;rfhka ;udj ,qyqnZos;shs ielfhka l,af.jkakg is|=jSuksid fuznZ|= mqoa.,fhda iudcfhys miqjkafka ksrka;rfhkau nsfhks ;udj lskuz fudfyd;l fydayiqfj;shs oevs f,i nsfhka miqjSu ksid cSjs;fha lsis osfkl ysf;a i;`fgka miqjsh yels fkdfjz.wkqka lrkq ,nkakdjQ fkdfhla jeros iZoydo ;udj iel lrkafkl` njg m;ajSfuka ;j w;lskafmf<kafkl` njg m;afjz.funZ|= flfkl` mjik jpkh iudcfhys fndfyda fofkla fkdms<s.kakd;ekg m;ajSu ksid iudcfhka fldkajSu ksrdhdifhka we;sfjz.jeo.;a Wiia W.;a iudchg fkdjeoaod.; hq;` mqoal,fhl` fldg ;elSu ksid cSjs;fha lsis osfkl fydZo wjjdo fydZo Wmfoia fkd,nkafkl` jS wjik b;du;a |=laLs;fhl` jS w;sYh fLzockl urKhlg Wreuluz lshkafkl` njgm;afjhs.1 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06 032005"24msgqj2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq 377-343 msgq mdKuzms yka;s3 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud$f,dafNda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAc;s….4 tu woskakuzms wdosh;s
  • 649 s`pr~VkAmy eker~ pmNik`mvA d[wfels gfj<vFm an<n` st= s`pr~V kAmmy vs`t+n` ekern` tmn` kAms^tRp`tfy l[bFm sHdhA ekenk= eyAm<vFmx eh`t=kArNAvn s^sfd`Dfykf.emZ krN ekAx egn d[wf elA`BF ecZtnA evn` p<d`gleyA` prdAres`vny sfz krtf.1 mrodr fiajkh hk lreK ia:r follska hq;`j l@shd;aul flfrA m<uq foh jkqfha fuz uZ.ska mjq,a ixia:dj i;` jsOsu;a Ndjhg ydks is|= lsrSuhs fojk ia:rrh jkqfha wkshuska fyj;a jl@dldrfhka ta iZoyd Wojzfokafkl` f,i l@shd lsrSuhs. fyj;a ta iZoyd wkshuzf,i bv m@ia:dj ,efnk mrsos ls@shdlsrSuhs. ke;fyd;a fjk;a whg ta iZoyd bv m@ia;djkdj ,efnk mrsos ;uka l@shdlsrSuhs.jvd;a mqZM,a mrsos mrodr fiajkh hk YsCIdmoh ms<snZoj idlpzPd l<fyd;a fulS ia:r fol ms<snZoju wjOdkh fhduql< hq;`fjz . d[wf elA`Beyn` y<t=v tmn`krn`nAv> mfcZCAp[v[t`mn` an<n`egn` sHgvA t[bFemZ uvmnAevn` E`vA tmn` enAkLbv kFm eh`t=evn` m<sAvAdy n[m[tf smAj p&tfmAny kwkfrFm 2 sfzker~. tmA krn vredhf brptlkm aw<vFmx, Ey sAmAnYkrNy kfrFmx anYyn`d tmAemn`m emZ v[rdf sfzkrnehyfn` emZvA v[rdf enAv uss` nvFn smAjyp^tFn`x a[t=HPvFmx p&evZVyn`vn sAmAnY k&fyAb[vZ epn`vFmx ebAehA`ednA d[wfelA`B shgt cft`teyn` y<t=vk&fyA krtf.ov<n` E` sHdhAupk&myk`els BAvftAkrn< lbn`en` an<n`d tmn`elsm v[rdfkfrFm sHdhA epLMvFmyf.3 emyv[rdfkrn ebAehA` p<d`glyn`eg` s<vfeV`SF crft lOSNykf.emelsvFmx eh`t=v,tmn`vrdk`ekAx as<v>vt` ar asvl` ayt` emZ vrdmtmA krn`en` y[yf pvsA a[HgebZrA g[nFemZmt=blAepAerAt`t= shftv emAv<n` emZ ay<rfn` an<n`d tmAemn`m v[rdf kfrFmx epALMvtf.emZnfsA b<zrzn` kAlAm v[sfyn`x epn`vAedn< l[b<evZ p^cVFlp&tfpdAevn` d[k` evn smAjp&tfmAnps kwkfrFmx sRj<vm vfSm menA`m>Lfk s^kl`pyk`v> elA`By eh`t=vn bvyf.4 in` ant=r[v d`evZSy n[m[tf ak=slm>Ly eh`t=ekAxegn smAjp&tfmAn rAm<v elss[lekn p^cVFl p&tfpdAv kwvn ay<r[ kAlAm s>t&ey`dF kAlAm v[sfyn`x epn`vAedn< l[b<evZpht d[k`evn prfd`ednf.51 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06 032005"24msgqj2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uqidms NK;s3 tu mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s4 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud$f,dafNda mqrsi mq.a.f,da wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$ wys;dh Nkaf;5 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud fodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda wmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$wys;dh Nkaf;
  • 650 ‘kAlAmeynf d`evZSeyn` y<k`tv> emZ p<r[Sp<d`gletm vnAhF d`evZSyvfsfn` mwnAld`ed`hAt`psfn` vfnAVkrn sft`a[t`et` st=n`mryf esArkmZd kryf prdArAvn`krAd yyf ebAr[dkfyyfyemk=x dFG%kAlyk` ahftpfNfs zk`pfNfsevZd anYyAd E`b[vZ pfNfs smAdn`eker~d?’1 d`evZSy yn< ak=slm>L t&ft`veyn` edvn ak=slm>Lyyf2.elA`By emn`m d`evZSeyn`d sfzevn<ey` yTAr~Ty d[kgtenAh[kfvn prfd`edn` sftk[LMFmx pt` krlFmyf.d`evZSy g[xFmx h[pFmxt=w<ed`.ap&fy amnAp ynlOSNeyn` hxgnF.ehAHd sArvt`edyk`v<vt` ap&fy amnAp elsfn` BArg[nFm d`evZSey` lOSNyyf.Ees`m ek&A`Dy,trhv,kfpFm v[nfaAGAtynx t=w<edn k&fyAvn`ebAehAmykeg` menA`m>L vfSm s^kl`py vn>ey` d`evZSyyf.emhfdF m>Lfk smAj sdAcArp&Qp`tfyelsfn` s[lekn p^cVFly smAj p&tfmAnyk` elsfn` kwkfrFmx lk`vn>ey` emkF d`evZSy n[m[tfvfSmmenA`m>L s^kl`py eh`t=ekAx egnb[vZ kAlAms>t& ey`dF b<zrzn` kAlAmv[sfyn`x phdAedtf.3 an<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tf ayftfy,tmAeg` jFvt`vFemZa[tf ayftfy evn<evn` uzrAgn`en` d`evZSym>Lfk vFemnf.emhfdF an<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tf ayftfyx d`evZSkfrFmt` tmAeg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tfayftfyx bADAvk` els Ey d`evZSeyn`y<t=v upkl`pnykfrFmt` p&ANGAty n[m[tf pLm< smAjmyp&tfmAny bfHdd[mFmx ivhl`evZ.4 an<n`eg` a[tf vs`t=v tmn`eg`a[tf nfr~Dn BAvyx sAep`OSkekAx kl`pnAkfrFm nfsAd`evZSy phL evZ.an<n`st= vs`t=v tmn`st=krg[nFemZ d`evZSshgt sft=vfl`lk` updfyf.esArkmn[m[tf edvn smAj p&tfmAny emZ ay<rfn` d`evZSy pAdkekAx egn p<d`glyA atfn`bfHdd[emnbv kAlAm v[sfyn`x b<zh< epn`vAedtf.5 an<n` tmAst=va[tf kAmsmZpt` mHgfn` DAr~mfkels kAms^tRp`tfy l[bFmt` anYyn` tmn`eg`k=x<mZB jFvfty nfrr~b<dv gtkfrFmt` tmAeg` jFvfty hA jFvnp[v[t`m hA ssHdAbln`nAv>p<d`glyA an<n` eker~ d`evZSeyn` m<LAvxpt`evyf.6Ees` d`evZSeyn` m<LAvx pt`v> p<d`glyAan<n`st= kAmsmZpt` ekern` tmA kAms^tRp`tfy l[bFmx eyAm<evyf.7an<n`eg` k=x<mZBs^s`TAvxd`evZSshgt sftfn` y<t=v eddrAy[vFmx sftAmtAm kxy<t= kryf.emZay<rfn` d`evZSy pAdkekAxegn a[t[mZ p<d`gleyA` kAm 8mfTYAcAry n[m[tf edvn smAj p&tfmAny kwkfrFmx epLeMnbv b<zh< vdArtf.91 tu |=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud fodafida mqrsimq.a.f,da fodafiak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms nka;swoskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;s oS> r;a;xwys;dh |=laLhd;s2 tu3 tu4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq mdKuzms yka;s5 tu woskakuzms yka;s6 ksisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE"wkq, o is,ajd" uxi,"oskusK wZ.yrejdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"22 03 2005 25 msgqj7 oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d"fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr"oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"25 03 2005 3 msgqj8 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06032005"24 msgqj9 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq
  • 651 an<n`vfSeyhf ihtkF v[rdfkrn`nAv> p<d`glyA atfn` smAj p&tfmAn t=nk` bfHdd[emyf.smAj p&tfmAn bfHddmn`nAv> p<d`glyA ekerhf smAjy andr els k&fyA kryf.oh<eg` sAmAjfk ayftfvA sfkmZ oh<x ahfmfkrn< lbyf. emZeh`t=evn` bfyx hA k[LMFmx pt`vn vrdkArF t[n[t`etA` d`evZSeyn`y<t=v tmn` Ebn`dk`keL` n[t[yf astYy pvstf.Em p<d`gleyA` astYy vcny mHgfn` an<n` rvxn`en` d`evZS shgt ecZtnAv eprd[rf kregny. emZmHgfn` strvn smAj p&tfmAn kwkfrFmv> m<sAvAdy ehvt` ebAr[kFm nm[tf sdAcArvferA`Df k&fyAv sfz eker~. emZay<rfn` p&ANGAty,adt`tAdAny,kAmmfTYAcAry1 hA m<sAvAdy ynstrv[d{r[mZ smAj p&tfmAnyn` bfHdfn`nAv> kwkrn`nAv> p<d`gleyA` an<n` smAj p&tfmAn aArOSAkr s[ptx hA kFr~tfyx pt`vFmt` tmn` smAjp&tfmAn kwekAx zkx nfn`dAvx pt`vFmt` d`evZSeyn` y<t=v emenhfekAx an<n`eg` sft`d z|SY ekAx ov<n` lbn`nAv> s[ptfn` hA kFr~tfeyn` ov<n` pfrfhFmx pt`krvFmx d`evZS shgtv sftA s[ls<mZ shgtv upk&mVFlFv an<n`d tmAkrn`nAv> smAj p&tfmAn bfHdd[mFemZ k&fyAvlfyx Ek`kr g[nFmx hA E`vAeyhfm nfrtkrvFmxut`sAh drtf.evr drtf.2epALMvn`nA p&tfvfr[d`D lf^gfkeyk=nmZ epALMvn< lbn p<d`glyAeg`VR^gArAt`mk h[HgFmZ k=HPgn`vA3ehA` emkF epLMvFemZ k&fyAvlfy sAr~Tk krg[nFmx ov<h<ut`sh drtf.fuz iZoyd jpkh m@fhdackh .kakd ;eke;a;ka fyda ;eke;a;shka b;du;a ishquzf,i taiZoyd wkqm@di rih l`ZM.kajk oajsFj(Double Meanind Words);@s;aj(Trible Meaning Words)ydnyqjsO wF:! we;s(Multiply Meaning Words)ryia ,sx.sl wdrdOkdjka iys; bZ.sj,ska msreKqf;areuz iys; jpkhka idudkH jpk iuZ.u wkawhg fkdf;afrk f,i ;ukag wjYH whygmuKla wre;a .ekafjk f,i jrskajr f;m,uska ;ukaf.a wNsudrA: idOkfhys,d;;amrfj;s.sfy<mZels d`evZS shgt els kLs[ls<mZ t=lfn` an<n`d tmAeg` smAj p&tfmAnbfHdd[mFemZ s[ls<mZshgt k&fyAv lfyx ekAx<kr g[nFm ehA` Ees`kfrFmx ut`shg[nFm sfzkrtf.4emZmHgfn` d`evZSy pAdkekAx egn ps`vn smAjp&tfmny bfHdd[mFmx smhrp<d`gleyA` ihtsdhn` aAkAreyn` k&fyA krn bv kAlAm v[sfyn`x emZay<rfn` b<zh< p[h[dflfkredtf.51 A. ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq,"tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq B.fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh"j;ai,d tuzfldvsldr"tia f.dvf.a iyifydaorfhda"fld<U"2000"97-129msgq2 oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d"fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr"oskusK tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"25 03 2005 3 msgqj3 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06032005"24 msgqj4 tu5 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq |=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fodafiak wNsN~f;daa mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yk;s woskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms ;dNK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x wys;dh |=laLdhd;s
  • 652 ant=r[v b<zh< emA`hyn[m[tf t=n`vn ak=slm>Ly eh`t=ekAxegn p&tfmAn rAm<v elss[lekn p^cVFlp&tfpdAv kwvn ay<r[ kAlAms>t&eyhfdF kAlA mv[sfyn`x epn`vAedn< l[b<evZphtd[k`evn prfd`ednf.1 ‘kAlAmeynf,emAheyn`y<k`tv> emZ p<r[Sp<d`gletm vnAhF emAhyvfsfn` mwnAld`ed` hAt`psfn`vfnAVkrn sft`a[t`et` st=n`d mryf.esArkmZd kryf.prdArAvn` krAd yyf.ebAr[d kfyyf. yemk=x dFG% kAlyk` ahftpfNfs zk`pfNfs evZd anYyAd E`b[vZ pfNfs smAdn` eker~d?’ emA`hy yn< ak=slm>Lt=enn` etvn hA avsAn ak=slm>Lyyf.2emA`hymHgfn` stYy v[sFyAmsfzevZ.ess<ak=slm>L edkvn elA`Byx hA d`evZSyx eh`t=kArNAvn`en`d emA`hy eh`t=evn`n<vN m<vhvFmyf.emy itAmsfy<mZ ak=slm<Lykf.Eb[vfn` emm k=slm>Ly k&fyAt`mkvFemn` sfzkrn`nAv> smAjp&tfmAn kwkfrFmZ nfv[rdfv hHznAg[nFmx aphs<y.sft ymZkfsf dRS`XfshgtedykEL`Mg[nFm sfzvn>ey`d emA`hyn[m[tf mAnsfkaAvRtbv a[tfkrn menA`m>Lfk Dm%tAvy nffsAy. jrA;udk ld,fhys cSj;ajk udkjhd osfkka osk wd;audrA:lduS nfjka wka;hgu hkq olakg,efnz;ukaf.a cSj;ajSfuz we;s whs;sh ,nd.ekSu msKsi wkqkaf.a cSj;ajSfuz we;s whs;sh W,a,x>khkrn`nAv>p<d`gleyA` E`k&fyAv sADArNFykrNykfrFm pfnfs vfvfD mtvAdyn`eg` s^kl`pyn`eg`aAgmfk hA dr~VnvAdyn`eg` pfhfxpttf.3rs tRS`NAv s^sfHdvFmpfNfst` tmAeg` jFvt`vFmxavVYaAhAry lbA g[nFm pfNfst` m<s`lfmZ Bk`tfkeyA`‘hlAl`’n[m[tfk&myx krn s#vGAtnyan<mtkrtf.s#v GAtny hf^sAkArFk&fyAvk`bv m<s`lfmZdhemZ epn`vAdFtfb<Nt` pV`cAt`kAlFnvov<n` vfsfn`m aAgmfk s^kl`pvlx rf^gvAgn`nAld ov<n`eg`k&fyAvn` an<mt krvAgn`nA ld`dAv>ymZymZ s^kl`p hA a#T%kTn aADAr kregn ov<h< s#v GAtny Ek`trA vt`pfLfevt` pfrFmkfn` ant=r[vsfzkfrFm pfLfgnftf.hf$zDm%ey`d b&h`myA evn<evn` krn`nAv> yAgsHdhA dsdhs`gNnk` st=n`mrAkrn bflfp>jA aAgmfk kxy<t`tk`es` EdA BArtFy smAjyvfsfn` s[lkfnf.GAtnypfNfs eyAdAgn`nA s#vvg%y mt emkF yAg egA`emZD ehA` aV`vemZD nmfn` aAgmfk g&$Tvlh[Hdfn`vfnf.EpmNk` enAv p<r[SemZD nmfn` h[Hdfn`evn mfnfs<n` itAvf VAl s^KYAvk` mrAkrn`nAv> dr[N<gNey` bflfp<jAvn` pvA ov<n`eg` aAgmfk g&$Tvl s`vr~ggAmFvFm pfNfskLy<t=v>pfn`kmZelsx hHzn`vAdFtfbfNf.4 emZvAx vfr[d`Dv EdA jFvmAnv v[wsfxf b<zrzn` kLAv> mtvAdFmy argly pfLfbHd p<vt` epLdhmt=L itAvfVAlels an`tr~gtevZ.un`vhn`es` b<zvFmx epr sfd`DAT%tv<s`v sfxfnAvs`TAevhfpvA iht dk`vnld mZel`cZC GAtnvlx vfr[d`Dv k&fyAkLes`k.evZdnfymy an<v vfsAlA mh1 tu ;x lsxuZ[aZ[: ld,dud fudafyda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$wys;dh Nkaf; uq<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafyak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;s Nkawoskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS>r;a;x wys;dh|=laLdhd;s2 tu3 oS ks 1 iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;" nq c uq 96 msgqj kF:s uydrdc oskakx kF:s hzgzGx kF:s yq;x kF:s iqlg|=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda kF:s whx f,daflda kF:s mfrda f,daflda kF:s ud;d kF:s ms;d kF:s iF:dTzmmd;sld kF:s f,dfl iuK n@yauKd iuzu.a.;d iuzud mgsmkakd fh bux p f,dalx mrxp f,dalx ihxwNsZ[aZ[d ipzPslFjd mfjoka;s [d4 ;@smsglfhys ixialD;sl ,CIK" ;,,af,a Ouzudkkao ysus"iuhjO!k uq|@Kd,h"fld<U"1980"105-116 msgq
  • 653n<vr aslv>ed`vAleyhf bfmZbfsAr rj<x aAVfr~vAdptA sfzkrn`nx nfymv p[vtf embHz mZel`cZCyAgyk` ebA`Dfs#vyn`vhn`es`` eg` m[dfht`vFm eh`t=ekAxegn nvtAd[mFmx sfzvFm emyx Ek`nfds<nkf.1BArd`vAj bm<NA smHg kL mtvAdFmy arglyd Eyfn` s<p&kx tvt` nfds<nkf.emZay<rfn` mtvAdFmy kr[Nk` ehA` dRS`Xfmy kr[Nk` ek`$z& ekAxegn smAjp&tfmAnyn` atrpLm<evnf p&tfmAnyvn p&ANGAty sfzkfrFm emA`hyn[m[tf ak=slm>Ly eh`t=ekAxegn sfzvn`nAv> edyk`els pfLfg[en`.2emA`hyyn< vfSm menA`m>L s^kl`pykf. Ey ek`$z&kregn EypdnmZkregn pLm<v[nf smAjp&tfmAny bfHdd[mFmx p<d`gleyk= eyAm<vFemZ s^sfd`Dfy kAlAms>t&eyhf mnAv idfrfpt`ekAx tfebZ. an<n`st= ed`pLhfmfkmZ pfLfbHd mtvAdy dRS`Xfshgtv sftAbln a[t[mZednA ov<n` EkFed`pLhrfhmZbkrtfebn<ey` ay<t=shgtels ay<k`tfshgtels asADArNels zp`pt`(nfr~Dn)jntAvs>rAkA ov<n`eg` lABy atfrfk`tyk`ekAx V&ms>rAk{m mHgfn` at`pt`krgn`nAld ecUrv> Dnyk`bvt` E`nfsA E`Dny kfsfymZ k&mykfn`lbAg[nFm sADArNFkrNyekAx E`vA tmn`eg` ehA` an<n`eg` p&eyA`jnypfNfs esArkmZkLAx vrdk`n[t[yf upkl`pnyekAx esArkemZnfrtvFm emA`hyn[m[tf vfSmcft`t s^kl`py eh`t=ekAxegn aAvrNyv> mnsfn` edvn smAjp&tfmAny kwkfrFmv> adt`tAdAneyhf eydFmnmZevZ.3 ebAehA`vfx ov<n` esArkmZkrgn`nAld Dny zp`pt`jnyAxebdAdfyh[kfy.gfln<n`sHdhA aAerA`gYVAlA anATnfvAs v[wfhfxfnfvAs p<nr[t`TApn mDYs`TAnBAvnAmDYs`TAn aAgmfks`TAn egAwn[^vFmsHdhA v[ykrn<dkfn ebAehAjnyAd ov<n`eg` Emk&fyA an<mtkrnvA vfyh[kfyf.emyfn` Em esArkm krn<lbnp<d`glyn`x tvtvt` an<bll[bFmxov<n`eg` k&fyAvn` sAmAnY mhjntAv an<mtkr n<l[bFm eh`t=vk`evZ.smhrvfx ov<n` smAjypFwnyx Eerhf vferA`DAkl`pFymt drn`nn`atr vFrt`vykfn` slkn<l[bFmxd sAmAnY mhjntAvevtfn` lbn`nA v> emkF vfeV`S s[lkfl`l aADArevZ.a[t[mZvfx ov<n` smAjp&tfmAnyk` bfHddmn<l[b<vt` ov<n`krn<lbn`en` y<gey` avVYtAvyn` elsfn`sLkA ov<n` smAjy vfsfn`m ehAHdp<d`glyn` els pfLfgn< l[bFmdd[kfyh[kfy.lk`dfv nfdhslbn`nx epry<gey` aDfrAjYvAdF pAlny<gp[vtfvkvAn<vldF zr~dAn`taAN`w<kArvr[ s[h[sfels emrxpAlnykL y<gvldF ihtkF aAkAreyn` kxy<t=kLAv> p<d`glyn` pflfbHdvd emrx sAmAnYjntAv dk`vAa[t`et`d yxd[k`v> aAkArey` s<bvAdF h[HgFmkf.ov<h< jntAvAdF p<d`glyn` els sAmAnYjntAv sftn`nx epLMF a[t. kAlAm s>t&ey`dF b<zrzn` epn`vAedn<ey` emZaAkAreyn` p<d`gleyk` esArkmZ kfrFmyn edvnsmAj p&tfmAny bfHdd[mFmx epLeMn`en` emA`hyn[m[tf vfSm menA`m>L s^kl`py eh`t=kregnbvyf.iht dk`vnld ay<rfn` tmn`sfzkrn`en` v[rdk&fyAvk`bv E`p<d`glyApvA smAjypvA enAh[HdfnFmx eh`t=v emA`hy itA sfy<mZ menA`m<L Dm%tAvyk`b[vfnf.4Eb[vfn` emA`hy ek`$z&ekAxkrnsmAj p&tfmAn bfHdd[mFmZ v[rdfels s[lkFmxpvA Eykrn p<d`glyApmNk` enAvoh< vxAsfxfn anYeyA`d aepAehAst`evtf.nm<t` smAjp&tfmAn bfHdd[mFmx eh`t=vn b[vfn` emA`hyvfSmm>L s^kl`pyk` b[vZ thv<r[evZ.1 YdlHuqkSka|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA: f.#;u nqoaO prs;h"n<kaf.dv wdkkao ffu;@sh ysus"iuhjO!kuq|@Kd,h" fld<U"1986"37-38 msgq2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uq<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;…. s3 tu woskakuzms yka;s4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud fudafydamqrsiiai wcACO;;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$
  • 654 anYyn` tmAeg` k=x<mZBs^rOSNykrmfn` nfr~bADfk pv<l`jFvftyk` gtkfrFm ekerhf dRS`Xfshgtv ‘emA`hy’yn vfSmmenA`m>L s^kl`peyn` mAnsfkaAvRt bvkfn` y<t=v s[lkFmnfsAtmn`x hfmfenAvn kAmvs`t+n`ekerhf s`pr~VkAm s^tRp`tfyl[bFmx t[t`kfrFm sfzevZ.1emZmHgfn`t=n`vn smAjp&tfmAny kw kfrFm kAmmfTYAcAry ehvt` prdAres`vny sfzevZ.2smAjey` k=wAmE`kky pv<lvn nfsAt` Ey ek`$z& ekAxegn sms`t smAjym p&tfnfr~mANyvF a[tfnfsAt` ymZkfsf smAj pd`Dtfyk itA evZgeyn` pv<ln[m[tf smAjE`kky bfHdv[xFmkxt=w< edn`en`nmZ EmsmAjpd`Dtfyd itAsFG&eyn` bfHdv[xFmx t=w< edyf.3rxk sArDm%pfrfhFyAmx fukau rexhf smHgfy,sdAcAry pfrfhFyAmx p&DAntm eh`t=v emm pv<ln[m[tf smAjE`kky eddrAyAmyf.4 rgl idrOrAu iq/lSug tu rfgys fjfik l`, ia;@Ska jsIfhys trg idudkH ck iudch olajkf.#rjKSh wdl,amh fya;`jk nejs mejish yel.ldu us:Hdpdrh we;sjkafka fuu f.#rjKShwdl,amh nsZo negSu ksid nj iudc jsoHdZ{fhda lreKq olaj;sjcAjFn`eg` sp`taprfhAnF Dm%setn`Ekk`els d d[k`evn`en` kAmmfTYAcAreyn` v[LkFmyn kArNyxm ayt`vn‘k=ls`t&Fn`ekerhfmnAv pfLf p[dFm’yn kArNyyf.5emy vr~tmAney` pvA eprdfgemn`m bxhfrs^s`kRtfey`dEhfs^s`kRtfk hryn` m[nb[lFm sHdhA ymZkfsf nfr~NAykyk` elsd BAvftAkrn<l[ebZ.aAvRts^s`kRtfyk` pArmZprfk sArDm%pd`Dtffyk` a[t[yf s[lekn cFney` gt v>vsrkFpyt=L Ekz s`t&Fz|SNyk`v t` vAr~tAvF n[tfbv p[ves`.ebAehA`vfx kAm mfTYAcAryxeh`t=vn emA`hyn[m[tf6 vfSm menA` m<L s^kl`py jntAveg` mnsx a[t=HPvn p&DAntmk&myvn<ey` n>tney` vANfjY aADfptYy mHgfn` pAlnyvn nfdhs` vfdY<t`mADY s^s`kRtfyb[vZiDcqju p[vsfyh[kfy.71 ia;@S whs;sh mqreI ,sx.sl m@fndaOfhka Tnzng";s,skd jSrisxy"l;sld ixjdo irKsh"oskusK fikiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"19 03 2005 17 msgqj2 A.fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrhj;ai,d tuz fldvsldr" tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda" fld<U"2000" 145-153 msgq B. ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq,"tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq3 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la kE"wkq, o is,ajd"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"uxi,"oskusK wZ.yrejdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u fld<U" 22 03 2005" 25 msgqj4 tu5 oS ks uydmrsksnzndK iq;a;" nq c uq" 112-116 msgq i wNsKakx ikaksmd;d ikaksmd; nyq,d ii iu.a.d ikaksm;ka;s iu.a.d jqgzGyka;s iu.a.d jcAcs lrKShdks lfrdka;ss ; iii wmZ[aZ[;a;x k mZ[aZ[fmka;s mZ[aZ[;a;x k iuqpzPsJoa;s iv fh f; jcAcSkx uy,a,ld f; ilalfrdka;s udfkka;s mQfcka;s v hd ;d l`,sF:sfhda l`, l`ursfhda ;d k Tlaliai mihay jdfika;s vi hdks ;dks jcAcSkx fp;shdks wnzNka;rdks fpj ndysrdks p ;dks ilalfrdka;s .relfrdka;s udfkka;smQfcka;svii wrykaf;iq rlaLdjrK .`;a;sx iqixjsys;d6 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[afZ[: ld,dud fudfydamqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmmcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ wys;dh Nkaf;7 kqU kdvka fojodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl"isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"06032005"24msgqj
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  • 656dr[vn` lbmfn` k&mAn>k+laAkAreyn` emetk` p[vetmfn`aA y<gjFvfty pvA itAmvfkRtf hAmAnsfkerA`gFn`eg` vfkArr{pF h[sfrFmZdk`vA pfrfhF a[tfs[xf dk`nxl[ebZ.1 b<zn`vhn`es` vfsfn` vfnynFtfrFtf p[NvFmx eh`t=vk`ekAx dk`vAa[tf prfdf smAjey` g=NDm%pfrfhFmx dk`vnld kr[N<atr‘bh<sRttAvy’ehvt` d[nugt`kmZ v[wfvFyAmd2 Ekeh`t=vk`vVeyn` dk`vA a[t`et` iht dk`vnld aAkAreyn` vfvfDvfkArr{pF s^kl`pmt pdnmZv> vfkRtfmAnsfk h[sfrFmZ rxA ebehvfn` dk`nx l[ebn<ey` sAmAnY ugt`kmk`shft ihLpAn`tfkan<kArkvAdF jntAv atr b[vfnf.tfy;a Tjqka fuzjd kjSk iudc iuzu; iqisrs;a f,i;a fuzjdgjsreoaOjk idrOu! ms<snZoj is;k wmjeks wh kQ.;a fudav .eushka f,i;a |+m;a udkislFjfhkahqla; f.da,ShlrK ixl,amhka fkdokakd ,sx ueZvshka f,i;a i<ld l@shdr;s.W.;alu prs; ixjrAOkh;a iuZ.u tlg tlaj iudka;rj .ukal<hq;` fohls.jsoHdprK iuzmkakNdjh jYfhka yeZoskafjkafka jsoHdj prKmdCIsl jshhq;`njhs.emZsfyHPm v[rdfvlx pAdkvn<ey` emA`hyn[m[tf dRS`Xfeyn` mns v[sFyAmyf.E` aAvRt mAnsfk mxZxmt=lfn` prdAr es`vnyx eyAm<vFmyf.3fujekakkagyqfola wkqluzmdlrkjd yer fjk lrkafka l`ulao$fujekakka wju ;ruska fojshkaj;a jsYajdilrkjd kuz fojshkaf.a msysgj;a m;kakg yelshdj ;snsK. s emA`hy n[m[tf vfSm menA`m>Ls^kl`pey` blp{m eh`t=ekAxegn p&ANGAtey` adt`tAdAney` hA kAmmfTYAcArey` eyeedn`nAv>p<d`gleyA` tmn`krn`nA v> vrd anYyn`x ehArrhes`sfzkrnbv kl`pnAekAx tmn` kfsfdfenk EbHz k&fyAvl nfrtenAvnbv d[k`vFm sHdhA ebAr[kFm n[m[tf strvn smAjp&tfmAny kwkryf.4emA`heyn` m<lAvx pt`vn t[n[t`et` tmn`klAv> vrd an<n`hx rhsk` enAv>vt` tmn` sfhfm<lAvF a[tfb[vfn` E`bv tmn`x enAet`er~.EyEes`ehyfn` vrdkrt` krt` Eysfz enAkLAy[yf astYp[vsFmnfsA mn<SYyn` atr‘vcny’pfLfbHd a[tfkregntfb<nAv> ymZymZ smZm<tFn` hA EkHgt`vyn` emZ nfsA bfHdv[xFmkx lk`evyf.ebAr[kfyn`nAx kLenAh[kf ak=slyk` enAm[tfbv b<zrcd Kn`vhn`es` vdArAa[t`et`demZnfsAy.b<zvr[smZb$Deyn` a[tf Dm%tAvyk` ehvt` ebA`Dfs#v p&tfmAN yk` vn<ey`ssrebA`DfsmZBArp<rmfn` s[rfsrn`nAv> kl`p as^KY lOSgNnk` kAlyp<rA kfsfz aAt`mBAvyk kfsfm aAkArykfn` ebA`Dfs#vvr[ ebAr[vk`kfyA enAm[tfvFmyf.sfyHP ebA`Dfs#vvr[ mhAstYvAdF nAmeyn` h[Hdfn`evtf. ymZkfsf p<d`gleyk= p&ANGAtykryfd,adt`tAdAnykryfd,kAmmfTYAcAreyhf eyedyfd,Ees`E`vA enAkrtfyf m<sAvAd ebenyfd,oh< smAjp&tfmAn strk`kw krnatr iht smAjp&tfmAnkwkfrFm pfNfs oh< mt`p[n` shykrgnfyfd oh< tmAvm Em ak=slDm%yn`hf n[vt n[vtsmAdn`krgt`etk` bvx pt`evyf.5emhf smAdn`vnvA yn`enhf et`r[m epALMvnvA yn`nyf.tmAm tmAvm epALMvAgn`en` mt`p[n` epvFemn` sfhfy av<l`krg[nFmt=lfnf.ekenk` tmn`1 kqU kdvka foajodis"uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl"isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U" 06 032005"24msgqj2 lsisu ia;@Sjdosfhl`g mjq,la Ke"wkq, o is,ajd"uxi," oskusK wZ.yrejdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U" 22 03 2005" 25 msgqj3 ia;@S whs;sh mqreI ,sx.sl m@fndaOfhka Tnzng" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sld ixjdo irKsh" oskusK fikiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<T" 19 03 2005" 17 msgqj4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq uqidms NK;s5 nqoaO Ou!h"udm,.u isrs fidusiair ysus"weuz vS .`kfiak iy iud.u" fld<U"1962"56-58 msgq
  • 657emA`heyn` m<LAvx p[mfN Ek`ekA` elAkeyhf pfn`pv< lshd hula enAm[tfy.ekAehAmhfxfyt`avsAney` mrNy ur[mb[vfn` in`nAkAlyt=L a[tftAk` sftx kyx enAmnAk&m vlfn`ehA`s^tRp`tfy lbAzn`nd vrdk` n[tyyn aDr~mfS`X s^kl`pnA eh`t= ekAxegn emA`heyn` mnsaAvrNykregn E`eh`t=evn` anYyn`d tmAvd ihtkF v[rdfvlx eyAm< krvAg[nFmdepALMvAg[nFmd ps`vn smAjp&tfmny bfHdd[mFm h[xfyx b<zn`vhn`es` kAlAm s>t&eyhfdF kAlAmv[sfyn`x dk`vtf. emZ ay<rfn` elA`B d`evZS hA emA`h yn vfSm menA`m>L s^kl`pt&ft`vy(ak=sl Dm%)eh`t=evn`p<d`glyA atfn` m>LfksmAj p&tfmAnps bfHdd[emnaAkAry p[h[dflfkredn b<zn`vhn`es` ILHgxkAlAm v[sfyn`x phdAedn`en` aelA`B aedA`s hA aemA`h yn sArDm%t&ft`vy(ak=slm>Lt=n)eh`t=ekAxegn p<d`glyA atfn` m>LfksmAjp&tfmAn ph aArOSAvn ay<r[yf.1kAlAm s>t&ey`dFb<zn` kAlAm v[sfyn`x aelA`Bn[m[tf sArDm%s^kl`py eh`t=ekAxegn m>lfksmAjp&tfmAnDm%ph aArOSAvnaAkAry phdAedn<l[b>evZ emZ aAkAreynf. ‘kAlAmeynf,elA`Beyn` enAa[l<nAv> elA`Beyn` enAmwnA ld`dAv> vfnAVenAv>sft`a[t`tAv>p<r[S p<d`gletm st=n` enAmryf.esArkmZ enAkryf.prdArAvn` krAenAyyf.ebAr[ enAkfyyf.ymk` oh<x ebAehA`kAlyk` m<HPl`elhf hfts[p pfNfs evyfnmZ Ehf anYyAd smAdn` krvyfd?’2 emZ aAkAreyn` aelA`By n[m[tf menA`m>lfk sArDm%s^kl`py ehvt` k=slm>Ly aADYAt`mfkvvD%ny krn`nAv> p<d`gleyA` E`mHgfn` pLm<v[nf smAjp&tfmAny vn prpN n[sFemn` v[LkFemZVfOSA pdy aArOSAkrtf.3emy k=slm>Lyk` vn`en` sft nfvFemZ h[kfyAevn` ehvt` k=VltAveyn` y<k`t b[vfnf.EmnfsA aelABy mHgfn` sftnfvFemZ h[kfyAv a[tfb[vfn` E` upeyA`gF kregnprpN n[sFemZdF E` pfNfs a[tfvn d[wf cft`tevZgfk h[HgFmZ emZt=lfn` avmkrn< l[ebZ.EmnfsAGAtnsft nfvFyyf. ekenk` tmAeg` jFvt`vfemZ a[tf ayftfy aArOSAkfrFmxt` tmAeg`jFvfty epA`SNy krg[nFmZvfSeyhft` elABeyn`y<t=v krn`nAv> prpNn[sFemZ aAdFnv d[k ymZkfsf p&QAsmZpn`n p<d`gleyk` emes`kl`pnAkryf.emelAv vsn`nAv> aenk` sfyHPm st`vyn`eg` jFvftt` meg`jFvfty hAsmAnyf.mm meg`jFvftyx aAdrykrnvAes`m ov<h<d ov<n`eg`jFvftvlx aAdrykrtf.E`nfsA mmmeg`jFvf ty pvt`vAegn yAmpfNfs evnekenk=eg` jFvt`vFemZ a[tfayftfy uzrAgn` en` a[yf?Emels aelA`B evZtnAv epd[rfkregn emelAvjFvt`vn sfyHPm s#vvg%yAekerhf emt` hAk=HPN<sft phdAegn ov<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ ayftfy ov<n`xp&dAny kfrFm Ek`trAay<rkfn` dAnyk`dFmkf.Ey aBydAnyels a#T% d[k` evZ.dAnecZtnAv elA`BfecZtnAv a[t`etk=x klenAh[kf1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a." ld,du iq;a;" nq c uq 337-343 msgq w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dudmqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;d … w|=gzfGda mkdhdx ld,dud mqrsiamq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;d …wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyk wkNsN~f;d wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkj mdKx yk;s kwoskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdhd;s2 tu w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s kwoskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdhd;s3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a." ld,du iq;a;" nq c uq 337-343 msgq fkj mdKx yka;s
  • 658edykf.EmnfsA aelA`By yn sArDm% ecZtnAv a[tfkrgt` p<d`glyAatfn` prpNn[sFemn`v[LkFm yn smAjp&tfmAny aArOSAvFm nfrn`treyn`m sfzevZ.1 aelA`By yn sArDm% s^kl`py pAdkekAxegn smhrp<d`gleyA` an<n` sn`tk vs`t=v hAed`pL esArsftfn` mAeg` p&eyA`jnypfNfs enAgnfmfyf adfxn`ekAxegn an<n`st= vs`t=evZ ayftfypfLfbHd elA`BF ecZtnAv sftfn` ivt` krgnftf.2emZmHgfn` ov<h< esArkmZ enAkfrFmyn edvnsmAjp&tfmAny aArOSA krtf.an<n`vfsfn` itAzkes` hrfhmZbkL Dny ov<n`eg` p&eyA`jnypfNfspvtFvA y[yf emt` sh k=HPN< sftfn` krnemm aAt`mprftYAgy v>klF aelA`B sArDm% s^kl`pyeprd[rfv sfzkryf.3 anYyn` ov<n`st= kAmvs`t+n`ekern` DAr~mfk kAms^tRp`tfy lbt`vAyf an<n` vfSeyhf a[tfayftfy ov<n`xm p&dAnykfrFmt` anYyn`st= kAmvs`t+n`hf tRS`NAkfrFm ath[rFmt`4 aelA`Byn[m[tf sArDm% s^kl`py eprd[rfkregn aArOSAvn t=n`vn smAjp&tfmAnyvn prdAres`vneyn` v[LkFmyf.5kAm vs`t+n`hf a[tf atRp`tkr s`vBAvy krNekAxm ebAehA`ednAtmbfrfHd ehA` s[mfyAegn` lbn DAr~mfk kAms^tRp`tfeyn` pmNk` s{hFmkx pt`enAevtf.6jsjyixia:dfjka mrsndysrj ;u ldu mji ixisZ|=jd .ekSug fjr oerSu iudc iuzu;hla muKgu uqZMuy;a iudch fj,d me;sr hkakdjQ ms<sldjla njg m;aj we;.7 jsfYaIfhka mjq,a ixia:dj;`, ujf.a yeisrSu yd wehf.a is;`uz me;`uz rgdj orejkaf.a yeisrSu ydis;`uz me;``uz rgdj ilia lsrSfuys,d jsfYaIfhka jeo.;a ldrAhNdrhla bgqlrknj wOHdmk ufkdajsoHdZ{hka mjd ms<sf.k we;s ldrKhls.mq;d mshdf.a fm#reIFj rgdj wkqlrKh lrkjd fiauoshKsh ujf.a ishZM yeisrSuz yd mqre|= wkqlrKh lrkakSh.mq;d fiiq ldka;djka w.hkq ,nk usuzujkqfhao ish ujhs.fuz wkqj mjq,a ixia:dj;`< ujf.a ldrAhNdrh b;d jeo.;a ia:dkhla w;am;alrf.k isgS.kuq;a fuu ldrAhNdrh bgqlsrSug jrA;udk ldka;dj iu;a jkafkao hk .egZMju;`jkafka wehf.a w;ska tlS j.lSu .s,syS hdu fya;`fjka Woa.; jkakdjQ iudc .egZMj,ska uqZMuy;a iudch wdl~< jHdl~< ;;ajhla f.k we;s nejsk. s fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh kue;s lD;sfhysoS j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr olajkafkaldka;dj jrAudkfhys fj<Zo iudch jsiska fufyhjkq ,nk fj<Zo WmlrKhl ;;ajhg uqo,af,da,Fjh fya;`fjka ish leue;af;kau m;ajSu ksid uq|= ldreKsl ud;D;ajh wNsnjd ldka;d foayfhaudxYuh jsoydmEfuka jDoaOhkamjd oevsfia ldud;`r lrjkakg jHdc yd uq.aO iu;aluz mEu;`<ska1 tu w,qoafOda mkdhx mqrsiq.a.f,da f,dafNak wNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkj mdKx yka;s rs2 tu w,qoafOda mkdhx mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da … k woskakx wdosh;s3 tu4 tu k mrodrx .pzP;s5 A.fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh" j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr" tia f.dvf.a iy iud.u" fld<U"2000" 149 msgqj B. ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq," tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq6 kqU kdvka foajodis uq;`uqo,sf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod" tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<U" 06 032005"24 msgqj7 oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d" fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr" oskusK" tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<U" 25 03 2005" 3 msgqj
  • 659weh ;ukaju yE,a,qlrf.k we;snjh.tfia kuz ujlf,i ia;@shg ;snQ m@;srEmh nsZo oukakg uq,ajSl@shdlr ;sfnkqfha mqreIhd fkdj uqo,g wiSus; f,da,Fjh olajkakjQ ;j;a ldka;djkau nj fuhskameyeos,s fjz. mjq,l jqj;a fuz ;;ajh olakg ,efnz fndfydajsg ish NdrAhdjka yd oshKsjre kqiq|=iq YrSrhfmfkk js,dis;d lrkjdg oevsfia jsreoaO jkafka mshjrejka jkw;r ujzjreka lrkafka ta fkd|=gQfkdweiQkaj fkd;ldyer ;ukaf.a iajdus mqreIhd wjjdo lrkafka ;uka ,iaikg isgskakg TyqBrAIHdlrk ksid hehs Tyqg kskaod wmydi foia fodfjd,a ;shd neKjefouskau ;ukaf.a iudc;;ajhg yd jhig fkd,e<fmk js,dis;d lrk w;ru ;ukaf.a oshKsjreo tjka wixjr js,dis;dlrkakg ;j;j;a fm<UjSuhs.fndafydajsg ;uka ;u oshKsjreka w;r ,dnd,jSug ;rZ.hlfhfokakdla fuka js,dis;d lrk Wiauy;ajQ oshKsjreka isgsk ujzjreka jrA;udk iudcfhysnyq,ju oel.; yelsh.fujka we;euz ujzjreka ysiflia fkdfhla jrAKhkaf.ka jrAKj;a lsrSuysiflia whka lsrSu jeksfoa lruska iajdus mqreIhd b;d |=lfia yrsyuzn lrk ;ukaf.a |=jdorejkag jevs|=r wOHdmk lghq;` msKsi wkd.;fhysoS jehlsrSu msksi b;`relr ;enshhq;` us<uqo,ajeks foa kslrefka jshmeyeouz lr;s1 ishZMu kjSk jsoHd;aul oshqKqj oekqu yd ;dCIKh w;ska fmdfydi;a hehs wKfnr .ik kuq;ata lsis;a myiqluz fkd;snQ Bkshd ldka;d jsuqla;sjdoSka jsiska ldka;dj jevjiuz iudcfha jy,shlf,i .;lf,a hehs fmkajdfokq ,nkakdjQ w;S; iudcfha jqj;a iduzm@odhsl uj w;ska bgqjQ hq;`luzgslmjd jrA;udk f.da,ShlrK ixl,amiys; ldka;d jsuqla;slduS .DyKsh w;ska bgq fkdjkafkawehs$jrA;udk ldka;dj wehg Wreu iduzm@odhsl ujz mojsfhka neyerg f.dia lghq;` lsrSug repslrk ksido$ke;fyd;a mqreI mCIh iuZ. WfrkaWr .egS igka lsrSug ojfia ;`ka;sia meh uqZM,af,awjs wfudrdf.k igk nsug msjsi isgsk wehg ;udf.a iduzm@odhsl hq;`luz gsl bgq lsrSug wjYHld,h fkdue;sjSo$Husband & Boyfriend ( ieushd iy fmuzj;d ) hk ksoyia ngysr ixl,amwkqlrKh weh ,nkakdjQ Bkshd ldka;d jsuqla;sho$ ;u nsrsZo fyda ieushd mjd ;udf.a ,sx.sl jy,shl fyda jyf,l` fldg i,ld Tyqg fyda wehgldhsl yd udkisl jYfhka uy;a jOhla lrorhla ysrsyerhla jk muKgu wfkldf.a ldrAhnyq,nj ksosnrnj jsvdm;anj frda.S iajNdjh .rANkS Ndjh Timafjzokd fkd;ld oevsf,i wd;audrA:lduS wkaouska ,sx.sl ;Dma;sh ,nkakg;;u w;Dma;lrldumji ixisZ|=jd.ekSu iZoyd fjroerSuolduus:Hdpdrfha jevsfokd fkdolsk ;j;a uqyqKqjrls.2l`gquzN ixlrCIKfhys fhfok ieushd ;`ka;sia meh uqZM,af,a oyosh j.`rjuska lrkakdjQ fufyh weZ.hSug ,lafkdlrk nsrsZo Tyqf.ka fkd,efnk wjOdkh yd ms<s.ekSu .egjrjsfha fl<sf,d,a fmuzjf;l`f.ka ,nkakg ;e;alrk nsrsZoo;u nsrsZof.ka ojfia lghq;`j,ska jsvdm;ajk nsrsZof.ka fkd,efnk ldhsl yd udkisl WKqiufhdjqkajsfhys kEUq,a fmuzj;shlf.ka ,nkakg ;e;a lrk ieushdo lhska tla;ekl fjfi;;a is;ska1 fn#oaO ldka;djf.a iudc ldrAhNdrh" j;ai,d tuz fldvsldr" tia f.dvf.a iy iud.u" fld<U" 2000"88-126 msgq2 ia;@S whs;sh mqreI ,sx.sl m@fndaOfhka Tnzng" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sld ixjdo irKsh" oskusK fikiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<U" 19 03 2005" 17 msgqj
  • 660 1f.jkafka fjka fjkajQ cSjs;h. jsjdyh hkq Tjqkaf.a wF:!l:kh wkqj yqfola f,dj rjgkq msKsilrk jHdc ujd mEula muKs.lvodishl ;nk,o yq|= w;aika folla muKs.fofokdu fofokdf.aufujka ;;ajhka fydZoska oek oek;a .;lrkafka yqfola f,dlpdrs;@hla f,i muKla jQ jsjdyhls.fofokdu fofokdf.au wkshuz iuznJO;dj,g Wkqka ndOdfkdlr .ksuska jHdc iuZ.shlska hq;`jcSj;afj;s.wkqka bosrsfhys w;sidrA:l f,i .;lrk nj ujdfmkajk kuq;a is;ska wmdhl cSj;ajkfujka jsjdycSjs; fldmuKkuz fuz iudcfhys ;sfnzo$lduh kuz y,dy< jsIhlauh.ta oek muKfkdblaujd ta miqmi yUd fkdh; hq;`h. pmN ik`mvA hA itAaV`lFlels E` os`es` hMAyAmnfsA sfyehAHdnmx pvA k[l[l` a[tfkrgnF.2sfy smAj tt`vy pvAenAtkA tmn`xvwA pht` n<s<zs< p<d`glyn` smHg pvA tfrV`cFnaAkAreyn` kAmsmZeBA`geyhf nfrtkrvFmx eyA`gYels s#vyAeg` mns sks`krvFmx kAms^kl`pnAvn`x h[kfyAv a[t.3tfukau ;ek fkd;ek fkdn,d fj,dj wfjz,dj fkdn,d lduhkagjiZ.jSu fya;`fjka fndfyda fokd m@isoaOsfhau jeros yeisrSu lrd fhduqjkafka wkHhkaf.a oEia ;udfj; fhduqjS ;sfnkjd hehs jegySula mjd fkdue;sjh.;ukaf.a orejka mjd ;uka fhfokakdjQ jerosyeisrSu ksid |=lg m;ajk nj;a jsfYaIfhkau l`vd <orejkaf.a udkislFjh fuz ksid nsZo jefgknj;a tnZ|= orejka ;u foujzmshkaf.a jeros ksid iudch yuqfjz jsjsO kskaod wmydij,g ,lajknj;a fndfyda ujzjre l,amkd fkdlsrSu4 fya;`fjka w;sW;`uz ud;D;ajh mjd ks.rejk wjia:djlgjrA;udk iudch m;ajS we;snj oskm;d mqj;am;aj, ks;r ks;r m<jk iq,N mqj;aj,ska fmfka. ;u;uka ryfia N`la;s jsZoskakdjQ mjq,a ixia:dfjka mrsndysr ;ykuz fm@auhka ms<snZoj fujekakshka ksrka;rfhka tlg tl;`jS f;drf;daxpshla ke;sj fodvuZMjkakdjQ mdie,a yd <ore mdie,a5wi, ;u orejka meusfKkf;la l,auruska isgskakdjQ ;ukaf.a l`ZMm. us;`rshka iuZ. riuqiqlrmejiSuksid th js,dis;djla lr wkq.ukh lrkakg is;k tfukau fuf;la ;uka fkd,;a w,q;aw;aoelSula ;ukaf.a cSjs;hg tlalr .ekSug fuuZ.ska w,q;a wdYdjla we;slr .kakdjQ fydZo hym;acSjs; .;lrk Wiia W.;a6 jeo.;a wh;a bfnzu jeros yeisrSu lrd fhduqjSfuz m@jK;djhla ydyels blaukska ms,shuz l<hq;` jsYd, iudcuh wjodkula wo olakg ,efnz.7 /lshdjg hdfuz;a jsjsO iudcu h lgqh;`j, ksr;jSfuz;a wjYH;djh ksid fudjqkaf.a ohdnriajdusjrekag ksrka;rfhka fuz ishZM lghq;` ms<snZoj ksrka;rfhka wjOdkfhka isgSug fkdyelsjSufujeks yeisrSuzj, fhfok whg;a ta iZoyd fjk;a wh fmd<Uk whg;a uy;a /l`,la jS ;sfnz.emZsfyHP ed` sfzvn`en` atRp`tf kr v> elA`By n[m[tf vfSm menA`uQ< s^kl`py nfsAy.emhf1 ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq,"tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq2 kqU kdvka foajodis" uq;`uqosf.a ksYaYxl" isZMusK brsod" tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<U" 06 03 2005"24 msgqj3 tu4 ia;@S mqreI iudcNdjh yd mjq," tuzcS ukqrka;"wdrsh m@ldYlfhda"jrlfmd,"2004"88-90msgq5 oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d" fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr" oskusK" tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<U" 25 03 2005" 3 msgqj6 ia;@S whs;sh mqreI ,sx.sl m@fndaOfhka Tnzng" ;s,skd jSrisxy" l;sld ixjdo irKsh" oskusK fikiqrdod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<U" 19 03 2005" 17 msgqj7 oshKsh fmr mdie,g wer,jd uj ;ykuz .fya f.vs ld,d" fikr;a nKavdr l`,fialr" oskusK" tlai;am@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u" fld<U" 25 03 2005" 3 msgqj
  • 661aAdFnv kl`pnAkrn t[n[t`et` aelA`By n[m[tf sArDm% s^kl`py sfysfet` a[tf kregn kAmmfTYAcAreyn` v[LkFmt=lfn` smAjey` evesn s{m ednAxm nfrr~b<d smAjjFvftyk` gtkfrFemZayftfy ov<nx p<dkrn< lbn`en` evyf.emyd Ek`trA ay<rkfn` dAnyk` dFmk`evyf.EnmZ smAjey`k=wAm smAj E`kkyvn pv<l` E`kky evt nfrr~b<d vfvAh s^s`TAvk` gtkfrFemZ avs`TAvov<n`x p&dAnykfrFmyf.1 an<n` enA!vxFemZt` stYvcny mt pfhfxAsfx kxy<t=kfrFemZt` an<ss`vx hA gn`nAp<d`gleyA` aelA`By n[m[tf sArDm% s^kl`py ek`$z&gtekAxegn ebAr[kFemn` v[LkFmynsmAjp&tfmAny aArOSA krtf.ebAr[ kFemn`v[LkFemn` tmn`ekerhf smAjey` an`ayt=LvfV`vAsyk` egAwn[eHg`.stYd[ng[nFemZ anYyn` st=ayftfvAsfkmZ ov<n`x p&dAnykfrFmk` b[vfn`emyd dAnykf.2stYmt pfhfxA ymk yTAr~Ty avebA`DekAx E` an<v kxy<t=frFemZ ayftfy hAvfvRt mnskfn` kxy<t=kfrFemZ ayftfvAsfkm smAjey` evesn anYyn`x lbAdFmt=lfn` m<sAvAdeyn` v[LkFm yn smAj p&tfmAny s<!ek`. Eemn`m iht dk`vnld smAjp&tfmAn strvn st=n` enAm[rFm,esArkmZ enAkfrFm,prdArAvn` krAenAy{m hA ebAr[enAkFm yn sfv<v[d{r[mZ smAj p&tfmAnyn` aArOSAkfrFmxanYyn`d epLMvFm ps`vn smAjp&tfmAny aArOSAkfrFm els s[Lek`.3aelA`B sArDm% s^kl`pnAv eprd[rfkregn smAj p&tfmAnyn` aArOSAkrn`nAv> p<d`glyn` ekerhf smAjy dk`vnDnAt`mk p&tfcAry dkfn nvt` ebAehA`edenk` ihtkF sdAcArsmZpn`n p<d`glyA an<gmnyxhA an<krNyx epLeMZ.4 emZ eh`t=evn` EkF sdAcArsmZpn`n p<d`glyA anfk`ayvfsfn` tmn`vfsfn` an<gmnykLy<t=p<d`gleyk=els s[LkFmpvA EkF sdAcArsmZ pn`n p<d`glyAeg` ps`vn smAj p&tfmAny(p^cVFlp&tfpdAevZ)s<r[kFmels s[lek`. ehvt` emZeh`t=evn` oh<atfn` atfer~ksmAj p&tfmAnyk`vnp^cVFlp&tfpdA evZ ps`vn smAjp&tfmAny vn anYyn`d ihtkF smAjp&tfmAn aArOSAkfrFemhflA epLMvFemZ smAjp&tfmAny oh<atfn` s<!ek`. emyd smAjp&tfmAnyk`els s[lekn`en`emZmHgfn` ebAehA`edenk` s<crftvAdFn`vFmx mAnsfkn[M<r[vk` a[tfvn ehyfn` sh Ees` n[M<r[vFmt=lfn` sms`t smAjey`m sdAcArvD%nFy p&vNtAvyk` EmHgfn` epn`n<mZkrn b[vfnf.smAjey`sdAcArvD%ny DnAt`mkp[t`tx sfzvn kr[NkdF Eyx an<bl lbAedn`nAv> k&fyA hA Ehfk&fyAvn` sfzkrn`nAv> p<d`glyn`d sdAcAr emehv<mZels s[lek`. b<zn`vhn`es` kAlAm s>t&ey`dF kAlAm v[sfyn`x epn`vAedn ILHg sArDm% s^kl`pyvnad`evZSy5 hA k=slm>ly mHgfn` m>LfksmAjp&tfmAn m>LDm%ph aArOSAkrn aAkAry emes`d[k`v>es`k.ad`evZSy yn< vYApAd rhftbvyf.ehvt` eemt&Fshgt aAkl`pyyf.eemt&fyyn sArDm%1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq k mrodrx .pzP;s2 tu k uqid NK;s3 tu mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq5 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$ ys;dh Nkaf;
  • 662s^kl`py eh`t=evn` m>LfksmAjp& tfmAn m>LDm%ph aArOSAvn an`dm epn`vAzn`en` phtd[k`evn aAkAreynf.1 ‘kAlAmeynf,d`evZVeyn` enAa[l<NAv>,d`evZVeyn` enAmvwnA ld`dAv>,vfnAV enAv> sft`a[t`tAv>,p<r[S p<d`gletm st=n` enAmryf.esArkmZ enAkryf.prdArAvn`krA enAyyf.ebAr[enAkfyyf.ymk` oh<x ebAehA`kAlyk` m<HPl`elhf hft s[p pfNfs evyfnmZ Ehf anYyAd smAdn`krvyfd?’2 emZ ay<rfn` ad`evZSy ehvt` eemt&fyyn menA`m<L sArDm%s^kl`py eh`t= kregn mn<SYyn` atfn` pLm<vn smAjp&tfmAny vn prpNn[sFemn` v[LkFm yn smAjp&Qp`tfy aArOSAevZ.3a[t`etn`m an<n` vfnAVevZvA n[es`vAyyf GAtncfn`tny ek`$z&kregn prpNn[sFm hAanYyn` vfSeyhf hf^sAv sfz vn<ey`d emkF d`evZS cft`ty tmAevt El`lekAx g[nFm nfsAy.ffu;@sh jevSfuysoS m<uqfldgu us;`renj we;slr.; hq;`f;a ;uka iuZ.uhwd;au ysxikfhkaje<lSu fuys wruqKhsemZnfsA eemt&fy nm[tf sArDm% s^kl`py smAjyevt oelajSug m@:utmA eemt&fyp&tYOSekAx Ehf p&AeyA`gFk#vy at`d[k mYapd;ald,Skj iudch yd an<n`vfSeyhftmAeg` i$z&fyyp&tYOSy t=lfn` l[b<vAv> eemt&fy fhduqlr h[rFmyf.4 emZ aAkAreyn` tmn`eg` jFvftyx tmAp&fykrn an`dmfn` anYyn`d ov<n` eg` jFvftvlxp&fykrn bvt` E`nfsA ov<n`eg` jFvt`vFemZ ayftfy s<!kfyy<t=bvt` vxhAgnF.tmA hA an<n`ynsFmAvd bfHddmA ILHg pfyvr t=LdF ehtm eemt&fy p&g=NkfrFm sHdhA avVYkrn m>Lfk awftAlmoh<atfn`d[emn<ey` emZay<rfnf.wkHhkaf.a cSjs; jskdYlsrSfuka je<lSu muKla fkdj wkHhkaf.acSj;ajSfuz we;s whs;sh iqrCIs; lsrSuo ;uka i;` iudcuh j.lSfuys fldgilanj jgyd.ekSuojeo.;ah.5fuh ;ukau m@;HCIlr .ekSu b;du wjYHh flfkl` mjik ksid fyda wd.usliuzm@odhhkays jsia;rjk ksid fyda fuz lreK tfiau hhs ms<s.ekSug jvd jeo.;a ldrKh kuzl`uk wd.ul l`uk fohla tlS w.usl b.ekajSuz f,i jsia;r lrkq ,enqj;a ;ukaf.a yDo YdCIshgtlZ.j ukqIH cSjs;hl jgskdlu us<l< fkdyelsnj ;ukau ish m@;HCI oekqu wkqidrfhkawjfndaOlr .ekSu nq|=iuh miihs.ffu;@sh mdol lr.kakd,o osjs meje;au uZ.ska ishZM iFj m@cdjflfrys ys;j;anj yd Z[d;S;aj ixl,amh we;slr.ksh.6 s1 tu w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;dawmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkj mdKx yka;s kwoskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyd;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdhd;s2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dudmqrsimq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx wmrs.pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdhd;s3 tu w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;a;f;da fkaj mdKx yka;s4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq i fLda fid ld,dud wrshidjfld tajxjs.;dNscAfCOd js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id-fm- lreKd id-fm-iy.f;ak fpz;id- uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id – WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id taalx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d id- t|=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOd ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLdiy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s5 tu fkaj mdK yka;s6 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjfld tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda idjfldm;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id – fm- lrekd iy.f;ak fpz;id – uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id – fm-WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s
  • 663 f,dalfhys wd.usl ixl,amhka wkqj fuz ldrKh .;fyd;a we;euz wd.usl ixl,amhka wkqj jvdjeo.;a jkafka ukqIH cSjs;h muKs.tajdg wkqj fiiq iFjhka we;af;a usksidf.a cSjs;h mj;ajd.ekSu yd iqjodhsj mj;ajdf.k hdu msKsi jQ fuj,ul f,i Wmfhd.S lr.ekSug muKs.kuq;anq|=iuh ukqIH cSjs;h yd iudkju jgskdlula fiiq iFj cSjs; flfryso m@odkh fldg we;af;ainzfnz i;a;d hkqfjka ukqIHhkao weZ;`ZMj ishZMu cSjSka tlu iuia;hla f,i ie,lSu ;`,sk. s an<n`st= ed`pL smZpt`,vs`t=v ynAdfeyhf nfrr~b<d prfhrNy anYyn`st=bv1 vxhAgn`nA ehtm eemt&fy pAdkkrgt` sArDm%s^kl`pyn` os`es` sfy cyY%ApxfpAxfy sks` krgnF.emZmHgfn` d`vFtfy smAjp&tfmAnyvn esArkmZenAkfrFm ynkr[N oh< atfn`ix<evZ2.emZt=lfn`bfys[k vfrhft smAjvxA pfxAvk` an<n` hxnfr~mANy kredyf.an<n`st= ed`vlx Ir~SYAv hxgn`en` d`evZScfn`tnym>LfkvFemnf. eemt&fy p&g=NkfrFmnfsA d`evZSy ivt`vFmt=lfn` smAjp&tfmAnDm%tA aArOSAevZ. fuz lreK hgf;a mejfikafka fm#oa.,sl foam< mrsyrKh lsrSfuz whs;sh iqrCIs; lsrSuhswe;af;kau usksidg fm#oa.,sl foaam< mrsyrKh lsrSfuys wjYH;djh mekkZ.skafka wehs$mejsososjshla fkdf.jkakdjQ iEu .Dyia:fhl`gu fm#oa.,sl foam< mrsyrKh lsrSfuys wjYH;djhwe;sfjz mejsos iudchg fm#oa.,sl foam< mrsyrKh wjYHfkdjkafka .sys iudcfhka mejsos iudchfj; isjqmih uZ.ska Wkajykafia,d fmdaIH jSug wjYHlrkakdjQ foa iemfhk nejsks fuz ksid mejsosiudchla mej;Sug .sysiudcfhys odhlFjh wjYHu jQjls .sys iudcfhys odhlFjfhka f;drjmejsos iudchg mej;sh fkdyel jrA;udkfhys NsCIQka jykafia,dg ;ukau uqo,a Wmhd.ksuska;ukaf.a fmdaIKh ;ukau is|=lr.ekSug is|=jS ;sfnkafkao Wkajykafia,d ms<snZoj uq,a hq.fhaoSmuK fidhdne,Sula fyda isjqmih iemhSula .sys mCIfhka is|= fkdjk ksidhjrA;udkfhys fukauyuZ. niakej;`um<j, |=uzrshm<j, Wkajykafia,d l`i.skafkys la,dka;j weZojegS wmj;ajk;`reu fkdfidhd fkdn,d isgSula uq,anq|= iuh mej;s ld,jljdkqfjys is|=fkdjsks taksid tl w;lg fuz ldrKh NsCIQka jykafia,df.a iS,h ms<snZoj ldrKhla fkdjWkajykafia,d f.a cSj;ajSu ms<snZoj jQ ldrKhls cSj;ajSug l@uhla fkdue;sj fjz,a .Kka yduf;aisg wirKj uyuZ. weZojegS wmj;ajk NsCIQka jykafia,d wmuK we; nq|=r|=ka cSjudk ld,fhysnq|=r|=ka NsCIQka jykafia,d jevisgs iEu wdrduhlgu iEu wdrKHfiakdikhlgu fm#oa.,sljujev Wkajykafia,dg isjqmih ksishdldrfhka ,efnkafkaoehs fidhdn,kakdjQ isrs;la ;snsKsWkajykafiaf.a m<uq m@Yakh jQfha lsfulao uyfKks hemsh yelso$ iqjfia fjfiao$ hk ldrKhhsjrA;udkfhys fuka tl, nqoaO Ydik wud;HxYhla ;snqfkao ke; kuq;a NsCIQka jykafia,d ms<snZojksis fidhdne,Sula yd b;du;a j.lSuz iy.;f,i kv;a;` lsrSula tod is|=jsks1 tu k woskakx wdosh;s2 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjfld tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkdam;siaif;d fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id- kreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id- uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id-WfmalaLd id- id- id-iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix TrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshxinznOs inzn;a;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKakwfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s
  • 664 mQK! fldushqksgzia iudchla fyda iudcjdoS wrA:l@uhla mj;sk ld, jljdkQjloS yefrkakgiudch jsiska mqoa., j.lSu fkdorkakdjQ iudc jgmsgdjla iys; iudchkaysoS mqoa., meje;auis|=jkqfha fm#oa.,sl foam< l@uh u; mokuzjh fuys wka;jdoh oel.; yelsjkqfha mQK! Okjdoh;`<h tu ld, jljdkqj ;`,oS frday<g hk urKdikak frda.shdg mjd wjYH uqo,a yo,afkdue;skuz ffjoHjre wjYH m@;sldr lrkq fkd,efnz fu hgf;a iEu flfkl`gu ish cSjs;hmj;ajdf.k hdu msKsi fm#oa.,sl foam< (Okh)mrsyrKh lsrSu w;HjYH jQ fohls ukqIHFjfhkaTnzfnys we;s ldu N~uSkajk ksrAudK r;S fojz f,dj m@uqL osjH f,dalhkays kuz ;ukag wjYH foawjYHjkakdjQ CIKhlska my<jk ksid fm#oa.,sl foam< mrsyrKh lsrSug wjYH fkdjsh yelshkuq;a ukqIH f,dj;`< ;uka ;ukaf.a wjYH;djhkao msrsuidf.k fiiq idudcsl hq;`luz bgqlsrSugm@udKj;a Okhla iEu ukqIHfhl`gu iuzmdokh lr.kakg is|=fjz an<n` nfrr~b<d pv<l`jFvftyk` gtkrn<d[k E`ekerhf eemt&Fsftfn` kl`pnA kfrFmnfsA eemt&FsArDm%y pAdk kregn oh<atfn` etvn smAj p&tfmAn Dm%tAvy vn prdAres`vneyn`v[LkFm ynkr[N ix<evyf.1yemk` d[nd[n an<n`eg` hA tmAeg` pv<l`jFvft kwAihfrvn<ey`d`evZSy epro[rfkrgt` sftkfnf.fndfydajsg ukqIH iudch;`< olakg ,efnkakdjQ fohla jkqfha;ukag lsis|= ,dNhla fkdue;s jqjo iudcfhys fydZoska jeo.;a f,i cSj;a jkakdjQ fofofkl` |=gqjsgta ms<snZoj BrAIHdjyd oafjzIh fmrgqfldg .;a is;ska hq;`j Tjqkaf.a mjq,a cSjs;hl lvdbysrjSfuzmdmS fpz;kdfjka hq;`j Tjqka fofokdgu fjk fjku fofokd ms<snZoju wi;Hh f;dr;`re mjidfofokdju fldgjd fjkalrkq ,nkakdjQ isoaOSkah fndfyda fokd jsfkdaoh msKsi yd fjk;a iQCIulmgs wruqKq YdlaId;a lr.ekSu msKsi fufia lrkq olakg ,enqK;a OrAudkql~,j kuz fuh b;du;amy;a wi;aOrAuhla f,i fmkajdosh yelsh fuh jrA;udk iudcfhys fnfyjska jHdma;j mj;sk wi;aOrAuhls fujeks foa lrkakdjQfndfydafokd iudch flfrys wm@udK BrAIHdfjka yd oafjzIfhka miqfjk Wojshhs fujeks whksrka;rfhka ;u jsreoaO ,sx.slhdj fmd<Ujd .kq msKsi YDx.drd;aul joka Ndjs;h fhdod.kqolakg ,efnz YDx.drd;aul joka Ndjs;d lrkafkao Tjqkaf.a mjq,a cSjs;h thska nsZojegzgjSu iZoydlrkakdjQ Wml@uhla msKsi nejska oafjzIh mdol lr.kakd,o fpz;kdj fuhg uq,sjk njjsurAYkd;aul ne,Qjsg fmfka fuu YDx.drd;aul joka;`< .enzjkafka fu:qkh msKsi jQ wkshuz wdrdOkhkah fuz msKsi nyqjsOwrA:we;s jpk Ndjs;dlsrSu Tjqyq is|=lr;s tfukau funZ|= wh ia;@S mqreI fNaohla fkdue;sj fomCIhw;ru isgs;s fjkilg we;af;a mqreI mCIh fndfydafldg t<smsgu ;u woyia m@ldYlrk w;r ia;@SmCIh Bgfndfydafldg jpk yd mohkays Ozjks:drA:h yd jHx.h fhdod.ekSuhs emmz|Sft menA`m>L s^kl`pyevn<vx eemt&fy yn sArDm% s^kl`py sfet` a[tfkrgn`nA t[n[t`tA atfn`eemt&fy pAdk kregn an<n`vfSeyhf ov<n`eg` pv<l` s^s`TAv nfrr~b<dv gtkrn<vx k[mtfevyf.2eemt&Fsftfn` m<HPsmAjy ekerhf an<kmZpAevn` kxy<t=kfrFmx emZnfsA p<d`glyA epLeMZ.1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq k mrodrx .pzP;s2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;d fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id -fm- lreKd fm-iy.f;ak fpz;id – uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id – WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d Fjd
  • 665 ess< smAj p&tfmAn t=nvn st=n`enAm[rFm,esArkmZ enAkfrFm hA prdArAvn`krAenAy{m.yn smAj p&tfmAn Dm%tA t=n aArOSAkrn p<d`glyAx ebAr[ kFemZ v<vmnAvk` a[tfenAevZ.1fndrelSu iEu wl`i,hlgu uq,ajkakdjQ fya;`jla jYfhka iZoyka jkafka fuz ksidh sArDm%s^kl`p vVeyn` eemt&fy eprd[rf krgn`nA ehtm E`eemt&fy pAdkkAxegn astYvcneyn`an<n`enArvxyf.2 E`nfsA str vn smAjp&tfmAn Dm%tAvyvn ebAr[enAkFmn[m[tf Dm%tAvyoh<atfn` aArk`SAevyf. an<n`vfSeyhf ov<n`eg` stY d[ng[nFemZ a[tfayfftfyx gr[kfrFm emmp&tfmAny enAkwekAxaArOSA krn<lbn`nAeg` Ek`lOSNykf.3E`mHgfn` an<n` pmNk` enAv tmAvd enArvxn<lbn`enk` ekAxhHgfyf.wi;Hh mjkakdg fjk fkdl<yels mfjla ke;ehs oekafjkafka fiiq wl`i,hkag fuh wdlrjlajk fyhskstfia fyhska wi;Hfhka f;drjSu ishZM l`I,q oyuz jO!kh lrkakgof;d;ekakls uss` udArgtfg=Nyk`v> stYvAdFvFm udAr ebA`st` st` Dm%tAvykf.4ebA`Dfs#vyn`vhn`es` sserhfdF kfsfmavs`TAvkdF astYvdn` bfN>avs`TAvk`nmZ n[t.Ey ebA`Dfs#v Dm%tAvykf.ehvt` ebA`st` p&tfmAnykf. avfdYAv hA emA`hyv[nf kr[N< hxg[nFmx ebehvfn` ivhl` vn>ey`d m<sAvAdym[yf.5avfdYAevZ hA emA`hey` lOSNyvn<ey` yTAtt`vy m<vhkfrFmyf.astYey` lOSNyvn<ey`dyTAtt`vy m<vhkfrFmyf.EmnfsA avfdYAv hA emA`hyyn kr[N<edk m<sAvdyx dk`vn emmLHgsbHdtAvy nfsAm ebA`st`vr[ eemt&fyeprd[rfkregn stYvcneyhfpfhfxA yTAs`vBAvyd[kFemZ n<vN dfy<N<kLAh< evtf.tT+aAgt=tTAgt6 ynvcney` a#T%yvn<ey`d elA`key`prmAr~Tmy stYtAvyx lHgAv>b[vfn` b<zvr[ E`nmZvnbv ar~Tvt`evZ.E`nyfn` b<d`D#vy pfNfspArmFp<rN ebA`st`vr[ Dm%tAvyk` ehvt` p&tfmAnyk` vVeyn` stYvcneyhf pfhfxA sfxkxy<t=krtf.E`nfsA sAmAnY p<d`glyn`pvA stY vcn eyhf pfhfxAsfx kxy<t=kfrFm emZ an<vv[dgt`bv p[h[dflfy.7|=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznzOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLdiy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s1 tu k uqid NK;s2 tu I fLda fid ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda cAm;siaif;d fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id-fm- lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id-uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id-WfmalaLd id-fm- id- id-iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix trsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshxinznOs inzn;a;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKakwfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk trsFjd jsyr;s3 tu k uqid k NK;s4 oS ks 11"uyd ksodk iq;a;"nqc uq" 86 msgqj b;s fLda mfk;x wdkkao fjokx mgspzp ;Kayd ;Kayx mgspzpmrsfhikd … ,dfNda … jskspzPfhd … PJordf.da … wcAfCOdidkx … mrs.a.fyd … upzPrshx … wdrlafLda PJordf.da… oKavdodk iF:dodk l,y js.a.y jsjdo ;`jx ;`jx fmiqqZ[aZ[ iqudjdod wfkfl mdmld wl`i,d Ouzud fmiiuzNjka;s5 u ks 1"inzndij iq;a;"nq c uq" 22 msgqj osgzGs ixfhdackiai ixhq;af;da NslaLfjz wiaiq;jd mq:qcAcfkda kmrsuqpzp;s cd;shd crdurfKys fidflys mrsfofjys |=lafLys fodukiafiys Wmdhdfiys k mrsuqpzp;s|=laLiaud;s jodus6 I ks 11"uydmodk iq;a;" nq c uq" 18 msgqj Wmamdojd ;:d.;dkx wkqmamdojd ;:d.;dkx :s;dj idOd;`OuzugzGs;s;d Ouzukshdu;d bomampzp;d7 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq k uqid NK;s
  • 666 iht d[k`v> smAjp&tfmAn Dm%tAstrvn st=n` enAm[rFm,esArkmZ enAkfrFm,prdAres`vnyenAkfrFm hA ebAr[enAkFm yn strv[d{r[mZ Dm%tA eemt&fy eprx<ekAxegn aArOSAkrn`nAv>t[n[t`tA tmAin` aBfvRd`Dfyx p[mfN tmAemn`m tvt` ebAehA`ednAd E`pfNfseeDr~yymt`eker~d oh<atfn` ps`vn smAjp&tfmAn Dm%tAvyt` aArOSAevyf.E`ihtkF Dm%tAstr aArOSAkfrFemhflA an<n` epLMvFmy.1 emyt` ebA`Dfs#vDm%tAvykf.tmAt=L a[tfv<nAv> ymZymZ g=NDm% an<n` vfSeyhfdF ov<n`xugn`vA ov<n` s[pvt`jFvft gtkrn`nn` bvx pt`krvFm ebA`Dfs#vvr[ sfzkrnbv pn`sfypns`jAtk epAet` d[k`evn jAtkkTA pfrfk`sA b[lFm t=lfn` d[ngth[kfy.b<zvFemn`ps<elA`ks#vyA vfSeyhf mhAkr[NA evn` y<t=v krn`nAv> elA`kAr~TcY%Av sfzkfrFm sHdhAun`vhn`es`x avVYm>Lfk p<h<N<vlbA g[enn<ey` ebA`DfsmZBAry p<rnkL un`vhnes`lA vfsfn`p>rNy krn<lbn`nAv> ihtkF Dm%tAvy eh`t=ekAx egny.2sAmAnY p<d`gleyk=v<vt` ihtkFaAkAreyn` kxy<t=krn`en`nmZ Em p<d`glyAeg` epUd`glfk dfy<N<vd oh<eg` kFr~tfyv[wdfy<N<vFmd ebAehA` pfrfs`blyl[bFmd ynaAnfs^s in`oh<x l[ebZ.3emyx amtrv ihtsHdhn` ps`v[d{r[mZ smAjDm%tAps aArOSAvFmt=lfn` mAnsfk pFwnyrhft vfevZk b<d`Dfykfn`smn`vft d[h[mf smAjyk` a[tfkr lFmx iwp&s`tAvnAv l[ebZ.4 I`LHgx b<zrzn` kAlAm v[sfyn`x ed`VnAkrn<ey` un`vhn`es`eg` emm smAjp&tfmAnDm%tApsvn st=n`m[rFemn` v[LkFm,esArkmZ enAkfrFm,prdArAvn` krAenAy{m,ebAr[enAkFm,an<n` yhpethf epLMvFm ynkr[N< ps aArOSA krgn`nx kfyn`en` kfsfm ay<rkfn`kfsf vYvs`TAvk`,dN`wNyk` ehA` kfsfz aDfkrNmy tt`vyk` yxet` enAvnbvyf.5E`bvthv<r[krlFm pfNfs kAlAm v[sfyn`x bAhfr blp{mk` vfyh[kf kr[N<10k` epn`vA E`vAmtenApfhfxA tmn`eg`m i$z&fyp&tYOSy mt pfhfxAkxy<t= kr apOSpAtF vfnfV`cyk` lbAgn`nAels p[vs>h.6sArDm% h[Hdfn`vFm pfNfs eyednebAehA` nAmyn` vn hr,vxfnAkmZ,p<r[SAr~T,agyn` hA vfV`cysArDm% yn et`r[mZ an`tr~gtevZ.emyfn` sArDm% a[t[mZvfexk vfnfV`cy sArDm% nAmeyn` d[kevZ.ymk yTAr~Ty vfnfV`cy kfrFemhflA sArDm% 7mehA`pkArF vn b[vfnf.1 tu wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkj mdKx nka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms NK;s;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdhd;s2 is;shuz iys; mkaish mKia cd;l fmd;a jykafia"iuz jSrisxy m@;srdc weu;s;`ud"ixfYda kdjq,af,aOuzudkkao ysus yd fojskqjr r;kfcda;s ysus"iuhjO!k fmd;ay,"fld<U"1955"1064,1169,1433, msgq3 ;@smsglfhka fy<sjk nqoaO prs;h"Wvqydjr wdkkao ysus"weiaf.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U"2000"61-70msgq4 ;@smsglfhka fy<sjk nqoaO prs;h"Wvqydjr wdkkao ysus"weiaf.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U"2000"119-127 msgq5 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;da … w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;da … wuQ<afydamkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s k woskakxwdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdhd;s6 tu ta: ;`ufyak ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzk ud mrusmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl iuzmodfkak ud ;lalfya;` udkhfya;` ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd ud NnznrE;dh ud iufKda fkda .rE;s hod;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhahd: bfuz Ouzud l`I,d bfuz Ouzud wkjcAcd bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+mami;a:dbfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfya ld,dud WmiuzmcAc jsyfrhahd:7 idrOu! wOHdmkh"tiatia nd,iQrsh"jsfcAiQrsh .@F:flaF|@h" mshisrs m@skagska isiaguzia" kqf.af.dv"1997"27msgqj
  • 667 Eb[vfn` aelA`By ad`evZSy hA aemA`hy ynnAmeyn` sArDm%s^kl`p h[Hdfn`evZ.b<zrzn`‘aemA`h’yn sArDm%s^kl`py t=lfn` smAjp&tfmAnDm%tA aArOSAvn an`dmkAlAmv[sfyn`x epn`vAedn<ey` kfsfz bAhfr aDfkArfyk blp{mkfn`etAr v nfdhs` 1cfn`tnyk`mt pfhfxAsfxfmfnf. ‘kAlAmeynf,emA`heyn` enAa[l<NAv>,emA`heyn` enAmnAld`dAv>,vfnAVenAv> sft` a[t`tAv>p<r[S p<d`gletm st=n`enAmryf.esArkmZ enAkryf.prdArAvn` krA enAyyf.ebAr[enAkfyyf.ymk` oh<x ebAehA` kAlyk` m<HPl`elhf hfts[p pfNfsevyf nmZ Ehf anYyAdsmAdn`krvyf.’2 aemA`h ecZtnAv ehvt` m<LAenAv> p&QA smZpn`n cft`teyn`,Em menA`m>L sArDm%s^kl`peyn` y<k`tv> t[n[t`et` b<d`DfvfSyfk kr[N<an<v sftAblA pr pNn[sFemn` 3v[Lekyf. ugt`km yd nqoaOsu;a nj pAdkekAx egn ehA` BAvnAmy QAny pAdk ekAxegntmn`eg` n<vN dfy<N<kr gnfyf.tfiau yTAr~Ty v[sFtfb<n< mAyA jAly ivt`kr elA`kyd[kFmx p<l<vn`km lbAgnfyf.b<d`DfvfSyfk els cfn`tny emehyvFmd emZan<v b<zrzn` sArDm%s^kl`pyk`els kAlAms>t&ey`dF kAlAmyn`x uekjska ed`VnAekAx tfebZ.emZan<v tmAx hm<vnsmAjDmtA ekerhf b<d`Dfy eprx< ekAxegn h[HgFmZvlx vhl`enAvF kxy<t=kfrFm p&QAsmZpn`n bevZ lOSNy elst` emZmHgfn` smAjp&tfmAn Dm%tA aArOSAvn bvt` emhfd[k`evZ.emZay<rfn` p&QAv n[m[tf sArDm% s^kl`py pAdkkregn prpN n[sFemn` v[LkFm ynpLm<evnf smAjp&tfmAn Dm%tAvy aArOSA krgn< lbyf.4 tmn`eg` jFvfty ;K w.msKs nsZ|=fuka flgsl,lska wjikajk wia:sr wks;HjQjlanj fydZoskanqoaOsuh jYfhka ;yjqrelr.kakd m@{diuzmkak jQ ;eke;af;l` wkqka i;`cSjs;ho tnZ|=uwdldrhlska jskdYhg meusfKk nejz Wml,amkhlr iiZodn,d ;ukaf.a cSjs;h huz jQ wdldrfhkaurKska fl<jrfjzkuz wkqkaf.a cSjs;ho flgsl,lskaurKska fl<jr jknj oekjgyd .kshsfuf,i jgyd.kakdjQ m@Z{d iuzmkakhd ishZM i;aj cSjs;j,g fmd|=jQ blaukska jekfikakdjQiajNdjh cSjs;fhys h:d iajNdjh f,i f;areuz .kshs ;ud fyda wkHhkaf.a hkqfjka mej;siSudiuzfNaohka yeroud fmd|=fjz ishZMfokdf.a cSjs;flfrys mej;s wd>d;ps;a;h yeroudmrmKkeiSfuka je<l`fka fjhs5 emZ mHgfn` prpN n[sFemn` v[LkFemZ smAj p&tfmAny1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wf,dafNdamqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfodafida mqrsiaii wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd udfkdawys;dhhjd;s$ys;dh Nkaf; ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfudafyda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;sys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;a2 tu wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafyak wnNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s kwoskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdhd;s3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq fkaj mdKx yka;s4 w ks 11"m;a;luzu iq;a;"nqc uq"124 msgqj l;udp NslaLfjz iS, iuzmod$ bO .ym;s wrshidjfldmdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s uqidjdodmgsjsrf;d fyd;s iqrdfuzrh ucAc mud ogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS, iuzmod5 i ks 11"mxpNhfjzr iq;a;"nq c uq"106 msgqj hx .ym;s mdKd;dmd;S mdKd;dmd; mpzphdosgzGOuzusluzms Nhx fjrx mij;s iuzmrdhsluzms Nhx fjrx mij;s fpz;sisluzms |=laLx fodaukiaixmgsixfjzosh;s mdkd;smd;d mgsjsr;iai tajx ;x Nhx fjrx jQmika;x fyd;s
  • 668b<d`DfvfSyfk kr[N< ek`$z&kregn aArOSA krn`en` mht` p&QAsmZpn`n t[n[t`etk= bvxp[mfeN`. an<n`st=sn`tk d[eyhf prfeBA`jn ayftfy ov<n`st=b[vZ pfLfgn`nA aemA`h sArDm%s^kl`pneyn` y<k`t t[n[t`et` edvn smAj p&tfmAnDm%tAvyvn esArkmZ enAkfrFmynDm%tAvy aArOSAkryf.1 an<n` sh tmA yn sFmAv zrlAkl`pnAkrn emAh< yTAr~Ty m<LAevn`v[sFtfbFm emes` vfprft dRS`Xfyk` a[tfvFmx eh`t=v vVeyn` sLkA EkF aAvrNy zr[krp&QAsmZpn`n els kl`pnA krn oh< an<n`st=d{ yn kr[eNhft` anftYt`vy asrN#vydkfyf.Ehf a[tf ayftfy ekerhft` h<zp&Qp`tfy k` ehvt` p[nvFmk`bv dkfyf.2tmA hA an<n`yn<p<d`glyn` ededenk=enAv Ekm sms`tybvp&QAevn` vfnfvfddkF.tmA hA an<n` Ekmsms`tey`avyvels slkAsms`tyeds blA sms`tyd anftY#veyn` slkyf.3 emes`m<HP mht` p&s`t=tyxp&s`t=tyx anftYt`vyx nHgA kl`pnAkrn oh<eg` emA`hy ivt`evyf.p&QA a[s lbyf. emes`stfmt`v p&QAsmZpn`nv>ey` esArkm vnAhF itAmt`m aQAnv>vk`bv sLkA esArkmfn` v[LkFedvn smAj p&tfmAnDm%tAvy aArOSAkrn< lbyf.4 kAmyvnAhF s^evZdnAvn`ekerhf p&k`eOS`pny krgn`nAld tmn`eg`m menA`BAvyn`m<lAevn`hq;`j s[lkFmk`bv avebA`Dkrgn`nA p&QAsmZpn`n t[n[t`;d lduhkag .scqjSu yeroudta flfrys WfmaCIl fjz.5E`eh`t=evn` kAms^evZdnyeker~ a[tfaDfk atRp`tkr s`vBAvyoh<ekern` vfy[kFyyf. upy<k`t Dm%tAveyhf vD%nFy s`vr{pyn` aAyY%p<d`glBAveyhfvfdYmAnevyf.6anAgAmFp<d`gl avs`TAv dk`vA aAr~y p<d`glyAeg` kAmsn`nfevZdny OSyvFm1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq wuQ<afyd mkdhx ld,dud mqrsmq.a.f,da fudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da …. k woskakx wdosh;s …. hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdh;s2 A. tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfudafyda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$ ys;dh Nkaf; B. u ks 1"pQ, ipzpl iq;a;"nqc uq" 552 msgqj humkdkspzpx |=laLxjd ;x iqLx jd;s$|=laLx fNd f.da;u3 A. W md fu>sh iq;a;"ixia fidaudf,dal ;siai ysus"49 msgqjwkspzp iZ[aZ[d Ndfj;nznd wiaus udkiuq.a>d;dh B. i ks v, os>djq Wmdil iq;a;" nq c uq" 142 msgqj P jscAcdNd.Sfh Ouzfuz W;a;rsx NfjhHdis bO Fjxos>djq inzn ixldfriq wkapzpdkqmiaiS jsyrys wkspzfp |=laL iZ[aZ[S |=lafLz wk;a; iZ[aZ[S mydk iZ[aZ[S jsrd.iZ[aZ[S ksfrdaO iZ[aZ[S C. The Three Singnata,O.H.De A. Wijesekara,Colombo,p.1. The the singnata,the three universalproperties of all existing of the phenomenal world…4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da … k woskakx wdosh;s… hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdhd;s5 A.u ks iv, pQ< |=laLJO iq;a;" nq c uq" 218 msgqj bfuz mZ[ap ldu .`fKa mgspzp WmamcAc;s iqLxfidaukiaidkx whx ldudkx wiaidfoda B. i iq iv, wNskkao iq;a;" nq c uq" 26 msgqj fhd fLda NslaLfjz plaLqx wnskkao;s |=laLx fid wNskkao;s fhd|=laLx wNskkao;s wmrsuq;af;d fid |=laLiaud;s jodus C.ix ks iv, |=;sh k ;`uzydlx iq;a;"nq c uq 174 msgqj hx NslaLfj k ;`uzydlx ;x mcy: ;x fjd mySkxys;dh iqLdh Njsiai;s D.i ks v, Ouzuplalmamj;a;k iq;a;" nq c uq 378 msgqj ldfuiq lduiqL,a,sldkqfhdf.d ySfkd Ouzfudfmd:qcAcksfld wkrsfhd wkF: ixysf;d E.w ks v, fu>sh iq;a;"nq c uq 378 msgqjwiqNd Nfj;nznd rd.iai mydkdh F fuys iZoykajk m@Z{dj;aNdjhkuz m@:u ud.!dOs.uhjQ fida;dm;a;sM,hg m;ajSuhs orAYk m@;s,dNh,efnkafka fida;dm;a;s ud.!fhka jk nejsks6 A.w. ks iv, uydkdu iq;a;"nq c uq 12 msgqj b;sms fida N.jd …. nqoafOd N.jd hiausx uydkdu iufhwrshidjfld ;:d.;x wkqiair;s fkjiai ;iausx iufh rd.mrshqgzGs;x ps;a;x fyd;s k fodi…k
  • 669 1dk`nx l[ebn<ey` aD%vVeynf. anAgAmF tley`dF m<HPmnfn`m kAmsn`nfevZdyn`eg` OSyvFmvn`en`ar~ht`v mxZxemZdFy.2emZnfsA epenn`en` (ldudYdj)kAmsn`nfevZdnyn` mHgfn` g[enn<ey`i$z&fybd`Dv a[tfvn iamrAYuh rsvf$dnAep`OSAv arm<N<krgt` oZlArfk mAnsfkp&eOS`pnekAxs bvyf.3 kAms^kl`pyn`eg` t=nFvFmk` dk`nx l[ebn ihtkF mAnsfkmxZxmkfn`y<t= p&QAshftp<d`gleyA` vfvhs^s`TAvk`t=L v<vd nfrr~b<d pv<l`jFvftyk` gtkffrFmx h[kfyAv 4a[t`etA`evtf. vfvh s^s`TAvt=L sfrgtv<vd enAv>vd kAms^evZdnyn` ekerhf pvtfnelA`l#vy itAavm mxZxmk(nfevn`nx aAsn`nv> phn` sfHPvk` emn`v>)pvtfnb[vfn` t=n`vnsmAjp&tfmAn Dm%tAvyvn prdAres`vneyn` v[LkFemZ Dm%tAvy emAv<n` atfn` s`vBAveyn`mVfOSApd!kFmkfn` etArv s`vy^k&Fyvemn` aArOSAevZ.5E` yTAr~Ty dkfn aemA`h sArDr~mFys^kl`peyn` smAjp&tfmAny ar~TkTnykrn nfsAy.6 yTAr~Ty dkfn m<LAevn` y<k`tenAv> p&QAsmZpn`n t[n[t`tA p&QAvyn sArDm% s^kl`pypAdk kregn iht d[k`v> smAjp&tfmAn strvn st=n` enAm[rFm,esArkmZ enAkfrFm,prdrvn` krAenAy{m ynDm%tAvyn`t=n aArOSAkrnb[vfn` E`eh`t=evn` m<sAvAdeyn` v[LkFmfudy…Wcq.;fuj ;iausx iufh ps;a;x fyd;s ;:d.;x wdrnzN Wcq.; ps;af;d fLd mk uydkduwrshidjfld ,N;s wF:fjox ,N;s Ouzufjox ,N;s OuzuQmixys;x mdfudcAcx muqos;iai mS;scdh;s mS;sukiaildfhd miaiuzN;s miaioaOldfhd iqLx fjosh;s iqLsfkd ps;a;x iudOsh;s B.tu 14 msgqj mkp mrx uydkdu wrsshidjfld w;a;fkd iS,dks wkqiair;s wLKavdks wpzPsoaodks win,dks wrwluzudidks N~csiaidks jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:dks wmrugzGdks iudOs ixj;a;ksldks hiausx uydkdu iufhawrshidjfld iS,x wkqiair;s C.u ks 11 uyd ud,qxlH mq;a; iq;a; nq c uq 168-170 msgq bOdkJo NslLq WmOs jsfjzld wl`I,dkx Ouzudkxmydkd inznfid ldh|=gzGq,a,dkx mgsmamiaioaOshd jsjspzfpj ldfuys jsjspzfpj wlqif,ys Ouzfuys ijs;lzlxijspdrx jsfjzlcx mS;s iqLx mGucACOdkx WmiuzmcAc jsyr;s fid hfoj ;F: fyd;s rEm.;x fjokd.;xiZ[aZ[d.;x ixLdr.;x jsZ[aZ[dK.;x f; Ouzfu wkspzpf;d |=laLf;d frd.f;d .Kavf;d I,a,f;d wif;dwdndOf;d mrf;d mf,dafld iqZ[aZ[f;d w;a;kd iukqmiaika;s fid f;ys Ouzfuys ps;a;x mgsjdfm;ajdwu;dh fid; Od;`hd ps;a;x Wmixyr;s t;x ika;x t;x mK;x hosox inznixLdr iuf:dainznQnOsmgsksiaif.da ;KaylaLfhda jsrdf.daa ksfrdafOda ksnzndkx df.d1 I ks 111"fnzul iq;a;" nq c uq 224 msgqj lsZ[apdms wdjqfid wrshidjliai mxp UzruzNd.shdksixZ[afZ[ddackdks mySkdks Njka;s w:Lzjiai fyd;s fhj mxpqmdodklaLkafOiq wKqiy.f;d wiauS;s udfkdwiauS;s PfJod wiauS;s wkqifhd wiuQyf;d…2 oS ks 1"iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;" nq c uq 144 msgqj ;iai tjx cdkf;d tjx miaif;d ldudijd ms ps;a;xjsuqpzp;s Njdijd ms … jsuq;a;iausx jsuq;a; us;s Z[dKx fyd;s LSKd cd;s jqis;x n@yauprshx l;x lrKShxkdmrx b;a;;a;dhd;s mcdkd;s3 A.i ks 1"iusoaOs iq;a;"nq cuq 18 msgqj kLdjyx wdjqfid ikaosgzGslx ys;ajd ld,slx wkqoaOdjdusld,slZ[apLjdyx wdjqfid ys;ajd iJosgzGslx wkqOdjdus ld,sldys wdjqfid ldud jq;a;d N.j;d nyq|=laLdmyQmdhdid wdoSkfjd tF: NsfhHda ikaosgzGsfld whx Ouzfuda wld,sfld tys miaisfld Uzmkhafld mpzp;a;x ;xfjos;nzfnda jsZ[aZC|+ysB.u ks 111"uyd p;a;drSxil iq;a;"nq c uq 218 msgqjiuzud osgzGsiai Nslalfjz iuzud ixlmafmd mfyd;siuzud ixlmamiai iuzud jdpd mfyd;s iuzud jdpiai iuzud luzukaf;d mfyd;s iuzud luzuka;iai iuzudwdcSfjd mfyd;s…..iuzud Z[dKiai iuzud jsu;a;s mfyd;s udC.Ouzumo ps;a; j.a. 40 .d:dj wkjiaiq; ps;a;iai-wkkajdy; fpz;id mqZ[aZ[mdm mySKiai –kJ:scd.rf;d Nhx4 tu5 tu6 i ks 11"wiaiq iq;a;"nq c uq278 msgqj wku;.af.dhx nslalfjz ixidrda mqnznfldgs k mZ[aZ[dh;swjscAcdkSjrKdkx I;a;dkx ;Kayd ixfhdackdkx ixir;x oS> r;a;x fjd NslaLfjz |=laLx mpzpkqN~;x ;Ka
  • 670 1yn strv[nf smAjDm%tAvyd aArOSAvFm sfzvn<l[ebZ. E` m<sAvAdyx avkAVyk` enAs[Lesnb[vfnf.m<sAvAdy yn ak=sly sfzvn<ey` smAjp&tfmAn kwkfrFm nfsAvnb[vfnf2. Eb[vfn` p&QAsmZpn`n p<d`glyA tmn`s`vBAveyn` n<vN[tf ehyfn` ebAr[evn` smAjyrvxn`nx enAsftyf.yTAr~Ty pfNfsm kxy<t=kryf.an<n`eg` a[t`t d[ng[nFemZ a[tf ayftfyxgr[kryf.tmn`d emA`heyn` m<lAenAvF an<n`d emA`heyn` m<lAvFm v[LkFm pfNfs m<sAvAdeyn`vLkfyf.3 p&QAsmZpn`n t[n[t`tA iht d[k`v> smAjp&tfmAn Dm%tA strvn prpN n[sFemn`v[LkFm, esArkmZ enAkfrFm,prdAres`vneyn` v[LkFm hA ebAreevn` v[LkFm yn 4smAjp&tfmAn str tmn`d aArOSAkrn atr an<n`d E` aArOSAkfrFm pfNfs epALMvyf. E`mHgfn` m<HP mht` smAjy ps`v[d{r[mZ smAjDm%tAvyn` kwvFm ekern` aArOSAkrgn<lbyf.avsAn smAjDm%tAvy nmZ an<n` ihkF Dm%tAvyn` str ekerhf epLMvFmyf.5ehAHdedyxyhpt` s^kl`pyn` eprx<ekAxegn k&fyAkfrFm smAjy ekerhf DnAt`mk epLMvFmkfn`kxy<t=kfrFm nmZevyf. p&QAsmZpn`nv>ey` emA`heyn` m<lAenAv>ey` tmn`d an<n`d m<HPmht`sms`teyhf avyvvVeyn` sLkA tmA hA an<n`ynsFmAv bfHddmA p<HPl` ar~Tykfn` kxy<t=kfrFemZsAmAr~Ty lbAgnF.tmn`x ehAHdedeyhf ehAHdvn`nAk` emn`m tmn` an<n`vd ehAHd edeyhfeydvFm krn<lbyf.6 b<zrzn` ihtkF smAjp&tfmAn aArOSAkfrFm pht sHdhn` kr[N<10mtsfzkfrFm p&tfeOS`pkryf.EnmZ an<V&vy(Report)mt pdnmZv,prmZprAv(Tradition)mtpdnmZv,emes`kfyA tfebZ ynkFmmt pdnmZv(itfkfrAyPrologue)pfxksmZp&dAymt pdnmZv(Giving in the Scripture)tAr~kfkeh`t=mtpdnmZv(tk`keht= Logical Implicatio)nYyAy mtpdnmZv(nyeh`t=NomologicalImplication)emZ kArNy yhpt[yf kl`pnA kfrFmmt pdnmZv(aAkAr prfvftk`eknDiversification of thought)dRS`Xfymt pdnmZv (dfxZXf nfj~ODAnk`Kn`tfCoincide the Aspets)emyemes`vfy h[kfy[yf yn`n mt pdnmZv(BvYtAy Potentiatity) acAr~yvryA eg` dS`Xfymt1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dudiqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyk wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskakps;af;da fkj mdKx yka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx.pzP;s k uqid NK;s2 tu k uqid NK;s3 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfudafyda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dhjdwys;dhjd;s$ys;dh Nkaf; ….k uqid NK;s4 tu wuQ<ay mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx nka;ss k ;woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh NK;siqLdh;s5 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgqmruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx ifyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdhd;s6 tu ;x lsx uZZ[aZ[: ld,dud bfuz Ouzud l`I,djd wl`i,d jd;s$l`i,d Nkaf; idjcAcd jd wkjcAcd jd;s$ uwkjcAcd Nkaf; jsZ[aZC|+.rys;d jd ksZ[aZC|+mamiF:djd;s$ jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:d Nkaf;
  • 671pdnmZv(smeNA enA gr[Consultations of Pecptor smAjp&tfmAn aArOSA kfrFm zr~vlasmZp<r~Nv>vk`bv dk`vtf.1 yemk=x iht sHdhn` dsv[d{r[mZ kr[N<vlx vhl`enAvF tmn`x s`vADFnv sftAblA h<edk`tm s`vADFn cfn`tny mtm pdnmZv ehAHdnrk tmAxm vfnfV`cykx p[mfNfy h[kfvFm eV`&S`Xedyk`els kAlAmv[sfyn`x b<zh< kr[N< dk`vtf.2emZan<v smAjp&tfmAn nfV`cykfrFemhflA ihtdk`vnld dsv[d{r[mZ kr[N< itAzr~vl vfnfV`cyk` lbAedn kr[N< 10k`els b<zrzn`vfsfn`pfLfegn tfb>bv p[h[dflfy.emkF dsv[d{r[mZ nfS`XAvn` os`es` El`bg[nFm vfvRtenAv> mAnsfktt`vykfn` sfz ekern`nk` b[vfn` yTAr~Ty vfnfvfd d[kFemhflA E`vA sv%smZp>N% k&mevZdyk`els b<zsmy enApflfgnF.3ymZtrmkx sdAcArsmZpn`nv k&fyAkfrFemZ p&vntAvyk` ihtkr[N<os`es` El`bgt` ayvl<n`hx a[tt`,b<zsmeyn` p&BAvft vfvRtmAnsfk mxZxmkfn`y<t=vyTAr~Tyd[kFemZ p&vNtAvy hfmfvn`en` sfyHP dRS`XfmtvAdyn` sfetn` ivt`kL t[n[t`tn`x bvkAlAms>t&y mHgfn` thv<r[eker~.kAlAms>t&gt kr[N<an<v yTAr~Tyd[kFemZ vfvRtmAnsfkmxZxmx EL[MFmx kfsfzaAgmfk VAs`tRvreyk=eg` mtvAdyn` pfLfg[nFmx 4avVYenAevZ. yxt`pfrfesyfn` b<zrzn`eg` pvA ig[n`vFmZ aDAn g&AhFv bArg[nFm emZt=lfn` b[h[rb[h[r eker~.5 emZ an<v kAlAm s>t&eyhf epn`vn smAjp&tfmAn s<rOSftkfrFemZ m>LDm% hA k&emA`pAyyn`k&fyAt`mk kfrFmx yemk` ebUd`Deyk`vFm avVYenAevZ.6iht dk`vnld smAjp&tfmAn Dm%tAph1 tu ta: ;``uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl iuzmodfksk ud ;lalfya;` ud udkhfya;` ud wdldrmrsjs;laflak ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkd.rE;s hod;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhHd: bfuz Ouzud l`I,d bfuz Ouzud wkjcAcd bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+mamiaF:d bfuzOuzud iu;a;d iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;s w: ;`uzfya ld,dud WmiuzmcAc jsyfrhHd: ld,dud2 tu ;x lsx uZ[afZ[a: ld,dud bfuz uzud l`I,d jd wl`I,d jd;s$ l`I,d Nkaf; idjcAcd jd wkjcAcdjd;s$wkjcAcdjd;s$wkjcAcd Nkaf; jsZ[aZC|+.rys;djd jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:d jd;s$jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:d jd;s$jsZ{aZC|=mamiF:d Nkaf;3 tu b;s fLda ld,dud hx ;x wfjdpquzy ta: ;`uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud ld,dudmsgl iuzmodfkak ud ;lal fya;` ud khfya;` ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd udNnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkd.rE;s hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhahd: bfuz Ouzud wl`I,d bfuzOuzud idjcAcd bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+.rys;d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w:;`uzfya ld,dud mcfyhahd:d;s b;s hx ;x jq;a;x bofuz;x mgspzp jq;a;x4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq taluka;x ksiskakd fLda flaimq;a;shd isld,dud N.jka;x ta;ofjdapqx ika;s Nkaf;a tafla iuKn@dyauKd f;aimq;a;x wd.pzPka;s f;a ilZ[afZ[apjdox oSfmka;s fcdaf;ka;s mtjdox mk Lqxfika;s juzfNka;s TzmmlaLsx lfrdka;s mrsNjka;s wmfrAms Nkaf;tafla iuKn@yauKd flaimq;a;x wd.pzPka;s f;ams ilZ[afZ[ap jdox oSfmka;s fcdaf;ka;s mrjdox mk Lqfika;sjuzfNka;s Tzmlalsx lfrdka;s mrsNjka;s f;aix fkdaNkaf; wuzydlx fydaf;aj lxLd fyda;s jspslspzPd fldaiqkdu bfuzix Njka;dkx iuKn@dyauKdkx ipzpx wdy flda uqid;s w,x ys fjda ld,dud lxLs;`x w,xjspslpzPs;`x lxLkSfhap mkfjda Gdfka jspslspzPd Wmamkakd spz fha ta: l`uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl iuzmodfkak ud ;lal fya;` udkh fya;` ud wdldrmrsjs;laflak ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkda.rE;s5 tu hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhahd: bfuz Ouzud wl`I,d nfuz Ouzud idjcAcd bfuz Puzud uzjsZ[aZC|+.rys;d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh |=laldh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: l`uzfya ld,dud mcfyhahd:6 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud$f,dafnda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;ss ys;dhjd wys;dhjd;s$ ;wys;dh Nkaf; ,qoafoda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;swoskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;xwys;dh |+laLdhd;s tajx Nkaf; ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud fodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkdaWmamcAc;s ys;djd$wys;dhjd;s$wys;dh Nkaf; |=gzfgda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fodafiak wNsN~f;damrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;s woskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s iqidms Nk;s mruzms ;:;a;dhiudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x wys;dh |=laLdhd;s tajx Nkaf; ;x lsx uZ[afZ[a: ld,dud fudafyda mqrsiiaiiudofmawcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dhjd$ 3wys;dhjd;s% wys;dh Nkaf; uqMafyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi
  • 672vnAhF b<zsmyx ehA` kfsfm aAgmkx vfeV`Sft E`vAenAv> epAzsAmAnY mn<SYDm%yn` bvemZt=lfn` p[h[dflfeker~.1ehvt` E`vA sAmAnY smAjgt dfvfyt=L smAjsmZb$DtA vfDfmt`vpvt`vAegn yAmpfNfs avVYkrn m>Lfk mfnfs` ayftfvAsfkmZ phk` nfr{pnyekAx d[k`vFmk`evyf.2EnmZ,1.jFvt`vFemZ ayftfy s{m mn<SYeyk=xm epAz ayftfykf.32.tmn` sn`tked` nfdhes` B=k`tfvfHdFemZ ayftfy.(p<d`glfk ed`pL prfhrNy kfrFemZ nfdhs).43.nfrr~b<d vfvAh jFvftyk` gtkfrFemZ ayftfy.54.stYy d[ng[nFemZ ayftfy.65.ihtkF ayftfvAsfkmZ str aArOSAkrg[nFm pfNfs k&fyAkfFrFemZ ayftfy.7 yn epAz mAnv ayftfvAsfkmZ phk` aArOSAkfrFm smAjp&tfmAn aArOSAkfrSu hkafkka.efka.ld,dus>t&eyn` ig[n`evn`en`d emm epAzmAnv hfmfkmZ ehvt` ayftfvAsfkmZ ph 8aArOSAkrg[nFmpfNfs kAlAmv[sfyn`x b<zrzn` lbAzn` uped`VAt`mk vfg&hyyf. E`t=lfn` oZn{maAgmk oZn{m jAtfyk oZn{m vg%yk oZn{m mn<SYeyk=hx epAzEkHgt`vykfn` k&fyAkfrFemZv[dgt`km emZmHgfn` thv<r[kr tfebZ. E`sHdhA avVYkrn menA`m>Lfk s^kl`pyn`‘sArDm%’nAmeyn` d[k`evZ.EbHz sArDm%s^kl`pyn` t=nk` upeyA`gFkregn emm smAjp&tfmAn Dm%tAaArOSAvnbv p[h[dflfkrdFtfebZ.Em sArDm%s^kl`pt=nnmZ aelA`B,aedA`s hA aemA`h yn 9sArDm% s^kl`pt=nyf.mq.a.f,da fudafyak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskakps;af;da mdKuzms yka;s woskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidmsNK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x wys;dh |=laLdhd;s tajx Nkaf;1 tu ;x lsx uZ[afZ[a: ld,dud bfuz Ouzud l`I,djd wl`I,djd;s$ wl`I,d Nkaf; idjcAcd jd wkjCAcdjd;s$idjcAcd Nkaf; jsZ[aZC|+.rys;d jd jsZ{aZC|=mamiF:d jd;s$ jsZ{aZC|+.rys;d Nkaf; iu;a;d iudoskakdwys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S$ fkd jd l:x fyF: fyda;S;s$ iu;a;d Nkaf; iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdhixj;a;ka;s tajx fkda fyF: fyda;S;s2 tu3 tu fkj mdKx yka;s4 tu k woskakx wdosh;s5 tu k mrodrx .pzzP;s .p6 tu k uqid NK;s7 tu mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s8 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dudmqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;da….w|=gzfGdamkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;da…. wuQ<afydamkdhx ld,dud wfudafyda mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s kwoskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dhiqLdhd;s tajx Nkaf;a ;x lsx uZ[af{: ld,dud bfuz Ouzud l`I,djd wl`I,djd;s$ l`I,d Nkaf; idjcAcd jdwkjcAcd jd;s$ wkjcAcd Nkaf; jsZ[aZC|+.rys;d jd jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:d jd;s$ jsZ{aZC|+mamiF:d Nkaf; iu;a;diudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;s$fkdajd$ l:xjd fyF: fyda;S;s$iu;a;d Nkaf; iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdhixj;a;ka;s tajx fkdafyF: fyda;S;s ;S b;s fLda ld,dud hx ;x wfjdpquzy ta: ;`uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh udmsgliuzmodfkak ud ;lal fya;` ud khfya;` ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd ud wdldrmrsjs;laflak ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkd.rE;s hod ;`uzfya ld,dudw;a;kdj cdfkhahd: bfuz Ouzud l`I,d bfuz Ouzud wkjcAcd bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;diudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfy ld,dud WmiuzcAc jsyfrhahd: b;s hx ;x jq;a;x bofuz;xmgspzp jq;a;x9 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wf,dafnda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkka WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf; w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkajmdKx nka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> mruzr;a;x ys;dh iqLdhd;s tajx Nkaf; ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfodafida mqrsiaii wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkdaWmamcAc;s ys;dhjd wys;djd;s$ys;dh Nkaf; w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fodafiak wkNsN~f;dawmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx nka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dhiudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdh;s tajx Nkaf; ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfudafyda mqrsiiai
  • 673 emm sArDm% s^kl`pt=nd eemt&fy,kr[NAv,m<dftAv hA uep`OSAv yn sfv<v[d{r[mZ sArDm%s^kl`p ek`$z&ekAxegn p[nnHgfn`nAv> s^kl`p pd`Dtfyk` bv kAlAm s>t&ey`dF 1p[h[dflfeker~. kAlAm s>t&eyhf emm ig[nn`vFmZvl dk`nx l[ebn s<vfeV`SFBAvy vnAhFoZn{maAgmk s{mp<d`gleyk=xm epAzvnvfSy kr[N< emZmHgfn` dk`vAtfbFmy.2smAjp&tfmAn hAsArDm%s^kl`p atr aenYA`nYy sbHdtAvey` s`vr{py vfg&hvn<ey` atfVyvfdYAt`mk pdnmkpfhfxAsfxb[vfn` E`vA oZn{m aAgmk oZn{mjAtfyk oZn{m mn<SY vg%ykx epAzmAnvFyat`d[kFmZels ar~Td[k`evZ. EmnfsA kAlAm s>t&ymHgfn` ig[n`evn smAjp&tfmAn hA sArDm%yn`hf sbHdtAveyhfs`vr{py Ek`trA aAgmfkekAxskx epAzkrsFmAkr d[k`vFm emZ an<vy<k`tf y<k`tenAevZ.Eb[vfn`Emkr[N< epAzmAnvFy vfV`vuh Dm%tAels s[lkfy h[kfy.3E`nfsA un`vhn`es` kfsfm aAgmfkig[n`vFmk` os`es` emZeds bln`nx EpAykfyA kAlAmyn`x edsn<l[b<evZ.4kAlAms>t&eyhfp&tfeOS`pft nfS`XA10els vfg&hvn<ey` elAv atFtey` anAgtey` sh vr~tmAney` a[tfv>nAv>a[tfv tfebn`nAv> hA mt=a[tfvfyh[k`kAv> ymZtAk` aAgmfk ehA` dAr~Vnfk ig[n`vFmZ evt`dE`vAvr~gFkrNy ekAx pfLfeyL kLAv>(kfsfymZ epAzvr~gFkrN smZmtrxAvn` 10k`t=lx E`vAan`tr~gtekAx sks`krn ld)epAz vr~gFkrN pd`Dtfykf.5 oZn{m aAgmfk ig[n`vFmkx epAzvn aAkAreyn` smAjp&tfmAn aArOSAkfrFm smZmt ehAHdyhpt` vn edyk`vnbv tr~kAn>k+lv tAr~kfk nfS`XAvn` strk` mHgfn` b<zh< thv<r[ekAxdk`vtf.61.prelAv pfLfbHd,ehAHd nrk km%PlvfpAk pfLfgn`nA s<HPdRS`Xfyk` a[tfekenk=x tmAeg` emZaAt`m BAvyvt` s<ves` gtkLAy[yf emelAvVeyn` a[tfvn s[nsfl`l.1wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ ys;dh Nkaf; wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsiq mkdhxmq.a.f,da fudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;sk uqid NK;s ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdhd;s tajx Nkaf;1 tu I fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tzjx js.;dNscAfCOda jss.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda jm;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id…fm …lrekd iy.f;ak fpz;id…uqos;d iy.f;akfpz;id…..WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix trsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`F:sx b;sWoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;akwmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk trsFjd jsyr;s2 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud bfuz Ouzud l`I,djd wl`I,djd;s$ l`I,d Nkaf; idjcAcdjd wwkjcAcdjd;s$wkjcAcd Nkaf; jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:d Nkaf;3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq iu;a;d iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdhixj;a;ka;s$ fkdajd$ l:x jd fyF: fyda;S;s$ iu;a;d iudoskakd ys;dh jd iqLdh ixj;a;ka;s tajx fkdafyF: fyda;S;s4 tu b;s fLda ld,dud hx ;x wfjdpquzy ta: ;`uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjz ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl rdhiuzmodfkak ud ;lal fya;` ud khfya;` ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak ud gzGzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd udNnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkda .rE;s hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhahd: bfuz Ouzud wl`I,d bfuzOuzud wl`I,d bfuz Ouzud jdjcAcd bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+.rys;d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdhixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfya ld,dud mcfyhahd:d;s b;s hx ;x jq;a;x bofuz;x mgspzp jq;a;x5 tu ta: ;`uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl iuzmodfkak ud ;lal fya;` udkhfya;` ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLk;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkd.rE;s hod;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhahd: bfuz Ouzud l`I,d nfuz Ouzud wkjcAcd bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+mmiF:dbfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfya ld,dud WmiuzmcAc jsyfrhahd:6 tu I fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjfla tajx wfjzr ps;a;f;da tajx wnHdcAc ps;af;da tajx wixls,agzG ps;af;datajx jsiqoaO ps;af;da ;iai osgzfGj Ouzfuz p;a;dfrda wiaidid wOs.;d fydka;s
  • 6742.smAjp&tfmAn kwkfrFemn` hA ayhpt` sArDm% s^kl`pyn`hf pfhfxFemn` Ixan<k+l p&tfPlyl[ebZyn pfLfg[nFm:dRS`Xfy a[tf t[n[t`tAx tmA EbHzedyk` enAkLb[vfn` tmn`x ekes`ayhpt` p&tfPl l[ebn`en`d[yf emelAvvVeyn` a[tfvn s[nsfl`l.23.smAjp&tfmAn kwkfrFemn` hA ayhpt` sArDr~m s^kl`pyn`hf pfhfxFemn` Ix an<k+l p&tfPlyl[ebZ yn pfLfg[nFm:dRS`Xfy a[tf t[n[t`tAhx tmA EbHzedyk` enAkL b[vfn` tmn`x ekes`ayhpt` p&tfPl l[ebn`en`d[yf emelAv vVeyn` a[tfvn s[nsfl`l.34.smAj p&tfmAn kwkfrFemn` hA ayhpt` sArDm%s^kl`pyn`hf pfhfxFemn` Ix an<k+l p&tfPlyk`kfsft` enAl[ebZyn pflfg[nFm:dRS`Xfy(eBUtfkvAdF ucZeC~dvAdF hA nAs`tfvAdF)a[tf t[n[t`tAhxtmn` EbHz edyk` enAkLehyfn` klfn` enAkLt` enAl[ebn vfpAky tmAx ekes`vt`enAl[ebnbv dn`nAehyfn` tmn`x ekes` ayhpt` p&tfPl l[ebn`en`d[yf emelAv vVeyn`a[tfvn s[nsfl`l.4 emZ ay<rfn` dAr~Vnfk s`Trstrkfn` y<t=v b<zrzn` s<r[kFemZv[dgt`km kAlAm v[sfyn`hxepn`vA edtf.smAjp&tfmAn s<r[kFemZ v[dgt`m ek`$z&y lOSNy vn<ey` sArDm% s^kl`pt&ft`vy5 hA eemt&fy kr[NAv m<dftAv hA uep`OSAv yn strb&h`m vfhrN nm[tf sArDm%s^kl`p str6 vD%nykfrFemZ v[dgt`km kAlAm v[sfyn`x phdAedn< l[b<evZ. emZmHgfn` p[h[dflfekern<ey` iht dk`vnld k=Vlm>l t&ft`vyt` strb&h`mvfhrNt` jAtfaAgmZ eB`dykfn`etArv s{m mn<SYyA vfSeyhfm epAzDm%tAvyk`vn bvyf.7ehvt` smAjp&tfmAns<!kFemhflA atfVyfn`m upeyA`gftAmy pdnmk` t=lE`vA k&fyAt`mkvn bvyf.emZnfsA kAlAms>t&gt p&tfmAn hA sArDm% vnAhf jAtfaAgmZeB`dykfn` etArv sfyHPm mn<SYvg%yA vfSeyhfk&fyAt`mkkL y<t=v> sd`Dm% sd`cArft& pd`Dtfyk` bvepen`.8emy vwAt` ehAHdfn` p&kxvn`en` emZvA1 tu ifpz fLda mk wF:s mrf,daflda wF:s iqlg |=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda Gdkuyx ldhiaifNaod GdkuyxmruzurKd iq.;sx i.a.x f,dalx WmamcAcsiaiduS;s whuiai mGfuda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s2 tu ifpz fLda mk kF:s mfrda f,daflda wF:s iqlg |=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda Gdkuyx ldhizifNaodmruzurKd iq.;sx i.a.x f,dalx WmamcAcsiaiduS;s whuiai mGfuda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s3 tu ifpz fLda mk lfrdaf;da lrshH;s mdmx k fLda mkdyx lizips mdmx fpzf;us lfrdka;x fLda mk uxmdmx luzux l`f;da |=laLx Mqisiai;S;s whuiai ;;sfhda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s4 tu ifpz fLda mk lfrdaf;da k lrshH;s mdmx bosyx WNfhfkaj jsiqoaO w;a;dkx iukqmiaiduS; whuiaip;`;af:da wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s5 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wf,dafndamqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$ ys;dh Nkaf; …. ;x lsx uZ[afZ[a: Nkald,dud wfodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dhjd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf; …. ;xlsx uZ[afZ[a: ld,dud wfudafyda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dhjd$wys;dhjd;s$ys;dhNkaf;6 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkdam;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id ….fm… lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id ….uqos;diy.f;akfpz;id…..WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id ….talx osix trsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`F:s;xb;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jwmqf,akuy.a.f;ak wmmudfkak wfjzfrAk wnHdcfCOk trsFjd jsyr;s7 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidflda tajx wfjzr ps;af;da tajx wnHd,cACOps;af;da tajx wixls,sgzGps;af;da tajxjsiqoaO ps;af;da tajx wixlss,sgzGps;af;da tajx jsiqoaO ps;af;da ;iai osgzfGj Ouzfuz bfuz p;z;dfrda wiaidid wixlwOs.;d fydka;S;s8 tu ;x lsx uZ[a{: ld,dud wf,dafNda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dhjd wys;djd;s$ys;dh Nkaf; w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKxyka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;akdh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;xys;dh iqLdhd;s tajx Nkaf; ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;sys;dhjd wys;dhd;s$ys;dh Nkaf; w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fodafiak wjNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak dhd;sps;af;da fkzj mdKx yka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s NK;s
  • 675k&fyAt`mkkfrFmpfNfs kfsfz aAgmfk dr~VnvAdyk` vhl`kr enAgty<t=bv pvsA EbHzdr~VnvAd 10k` p&tfeOS`p kr dk`vA a[t`et`.emm dr~VnvAd 10t=lfn` elAv EdAsfx anAgtydk`vA a[tfvfyh[kf s{m aAgmfk dr~Vnyk`m smZpfN`wnykr dk`vAa[t.smhr[ emm aAgmfkdRS`XfvA 10x b<zsmy a[t=lt`kL enAh[kfbv kfytf.1nm<t` seh`t=v kr[N< shftvvfg&hkrnkl`hf b<zsmeyhf d[k`evn kr[N<d apOSpAtFv E`vAd vfcAr p>v%kvaDYynykLehAt` b<zsmy ihtkF aAgmfk dRS`Xf10x a[t=lt`kLt` kAlAm s>t&eyn` vfg&hvnsmZmt p&tfPlyx p[mfNFmx in`bADAvk` enAvnbv d[kgt h[kfy.b<zsmy aAgmk` vVeyn`EhfEn kr[N< dRS`Xfmy vVeyn` g&hNykrg[nFm p&tfeOS`pkLt` b<zsmyx in`hAnfyk`enAvn`en` hA b<zsmy in`vwAt` b[blFmx hA kFr~tfyx pt`vFmx Eym eh`t=vk` vn`en` sfyHPaAkArey` dFS`XFn` p&hAnyxmHgkfyAdFm b<zsmey` d[k`evn vfvfDAkAr ig[n`vFmZ mHgfn` sfzekernb[vfnf.2dRS`Xf p&hANyx mAg%y kfyAdFm b<zsmey` vfg&hvn ig[n`vFmZt=lfn` sfzvn Ekm kAr~yyvn ehyfnf.3 wd.usl ixl,amhkays wka;rA.; m@;sudk ms<snZoj idlpzPdflfrkqfha iuh iudcjsoHdj(Sociology of Religion) uZ.sks.iuh iudc jsoHdj uZ.ska idlpzPdflfrkakdjQ iudcm@;sudkhka yeZoskafjkafka iuh iudc m@;sudk( Social Norms of Religion) kusks.ld,du iQ;@fhkabosrsm;a lrkakdjQ ishZMu iuh iudc m@;sudk hkays iajNdjh tajd lsis|= pska;k wOsldrhlskaf;drjSuhs.fuhg iu.duSj ngysr l@shd;aul jkakdjQ wd.u mokuz lr.;a iuh iudc m@;sudkhkauqZMukskau mdfya mokuzj we;af;a wOsldruh pska;kh u;h.fuzksid tajdfhys iajrEmh uqZMukskauw;drAlsl rZM oroZvq iajrEmhla f.k we;.kuq;a ld,du iQ;@h uZ.ska bosrsm;a flfrk fn#oaO iuhiudc m@;sudkhkays iajrEmh fuhg yd;amiskau jsreoaOh.ld,du iQ;@fhka bosrsm;a flfrkakdjQiuh iudc m@;sudkh;a lsis|= wOsldruh pska;khl n,mEug yiqfkdjQ ;u iajhx md,kh hgf;ysmj;akd jQ foafjhs.fuzksid fuu m@;sudk uqZMukskau w;sYh kuHYS,S iajrEmhla .kakd w;rfnfyjska ;drAlsl jsoHd;aul iajrEmhla m@lg lrhs. jsfYaIfhka ld,du iQ;@fhys oelafjk m@;sfCIams; oijsO wOsldruh pska;kh .;fyd;a thskamejfikafka lsis|= wd.usl wdOsm;Hhlg hg;ajS ;ukaf.a pska;k ksoyi mdjdosh hq;`ke;snjls.ishZM kssrAudKjdoS wd.uz W;aiy orkqfha yels;dla ;ukaf.a Y@djlhd pska;kuhjs,x.`jlg fldgqlr ;enSugh.tuZ.ska Tjqka YdCId;a lrkakg ;e;a lrkqfha wd.fuyshx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdhd;s tjx Nkaf;a ;x lsx uZ[afZ[a: ld,dud wfudafyda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x wfudaWmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;djd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;a wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,dafudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkzj mdKx yka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqidNk;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdhd;s tajx Nkaf; fyda1 tu b;s fLda ld,dud hx ;x wfjdapquzy ta: ;`uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh udmsgliuzmodfkak ud ;lalfya;` ud khfya;` ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd udNnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkda .rE;s hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhahd: bfuz Ouzud l`I,d bfuz fkdaOuzud wkjcacd bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w:;`uzfya ld,dud WmiuzcAc jsyfrhahd:d;s b;s hx ;x jq;a;x bofuz;x mgspzp jq;a;x2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjfldatajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzcdfkda m;siaif;da fu;a;iy.f;akfpz;id…fm…lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id…uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id …WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id talxosix trsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a; ;dh inzndjka;x f,dalxWfmalaLs iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk trsFjd jsyr;s3 tu
  • 676wka;rA.;hkays wjspdrd;aul yd wjsoHd;aul iajrEmhhs.tla wjia:djloS nuqKkaf.a wd.usl.~Vjdoh ms<snZoj nq|=r|=ka mejiqfjz tnZ|= .~Vjdohla wejeis jkqfha ryia /l.ekSfuz wjYH;djhwe;s fldgzGdYhka folla jk nuqKkag;a ia;@Skag;a muKla njhs.ta ;ukag hula iZ.jd.ekSugwjYH;djh fuz fomCIhgu tlfia we;s nejsk.nq|=iufha tnZ|= wjYH;djhla fkdue;s ksid snq|=iuhg .~Vjdohla fldfy;au jqjukd fkdfjz.nq|=iuh b;d jsoHkQl~, mokula u; iliajQjsoHdkQl~, js.@yhka iys; jsoHdkQl~, wd.uls fu;ek jsoHdj hk jpkh mdjspzps lf<a ngysr Y`oaOjsoHd( Western Pure Sciences) hk wrA:fhka fkdfjz jsoHdkQl~, pska;khlska fyj;a ksis whqrskajspdrmQrAjlj ifya;`lj Ydia;@Sh jYfhka wOHhkh l<yels jgdmsgdjlska iukajs; njhs.ngysriuh ixl,amhka Nla;sf.dapr jkjd muKs.tajd nqoaOsf.dapro m@Z{df.dapro fkdfjz ngysr Y`oaOjsoHdjka nqoaOs f.dapr jkjd usila m@Z{df.dapr fkdfjz.Y@S ioaOrAuh nqoaOs f.dapr fjz tfukau m@Z{df.dapro fjz fuz ksidh nq|=oyu jsoHdkQl~, mokula we;s oyula nj mejiqfjz. idrOu! prAhduh jYfhka m@ldY jkafka YS,m@;smodj;`,sks wm fuf;la jsuid ne,Q ixl,amhkaysm@cdkk wdfjzok fCIa;@hka idrOu!hkays mZ[aZ[d iy Wmfhda.s;d ,CIK iy iodpdrh hkmshjrmqoa., wNHka;r fhys is|=jk l@shdj,Skah.ta yeu prAhdjg mrsjrA;kh jS m@ldYhg m;ajkwjia:dj YS, m@;smodjhs.idudkH jHjydrh ;`, jskh kuska Ndjs;hg .efkkqfhao fulS YS,m@;smodjuh YS, m@;smodj;`, wka;rA.; prAhduh m@ia;`;hka jskfhys wka;rA.; jS we;.m@;sudkke;fyd;a Ouzu;d jYfhka idlpzPdjg .efkkqfhao fuu YS, m@;smodjg wh;a prAhduhm@ia;`;hhs. idrOu! ixl,amhka udkjhd;`< cks; lrjSfuys wjidk m@;sM,h ke;fyd;a M,h YS,m@;smodjhs. ke;fyd;a m@;sudkhs.ta ksid idrOu! ixl,amhka udkjhd;`<g m@jsYaG lrjSfuysidrA:l widrA: Ndjh ueksh hq;`jkafka YS,h ke;fyd;a m@;sudk mdol lrf.khs.jsjsO wd.uzms<s.kakd idudkH ck;dj ta wd.usl l@shdj,Ska uZ.ska Tjqka;`< ia:dms; lrkf,i tlS wd.uslixorANhka fj;g wdhdpkd lrkq ,nkafka ;u;ukaj nerskuz ;ukaf.a orejka fyda YS, iuzmkakiudc m@;sudk wdrCIdlrk ukqIHhka lrfok f,ihs.iudcfhys .`KOu! msrsfyk jsg idrOu!ixl,amhka is;ai;kays jO!kh lrjd tlS msrsfyk udkj .;s.`K h:d;;ajhg m;alr,Su msKsim@;slrAuhla fidhkafka idrOu! ixl,amhka udkjhkaf.a is;a;`<g ldjoaokakdjQ jsjsO wd.uslYdia;Djre udrA.fhks. fydZou YS,m@;smodj fmkakquz lrkafka flfkl`;`< jefvk iajhx md,kfhkshs fyda,a,Sfvz(1961)lshhs. iajhx YsCIKh iuZ. iajhx md,kh yd iajhx fufyhjSu tlaj hk wNHka;rl@shdj,Ska fjz.we.aksjz(1964) YS,m@;smodj m@;scdkk oDIags fldaKhlska n,hs.weh mjik mrsosYS,m@;smodj jkdyS mqoa., wNHka;rfhys md,k moaO;shl Wiia jO!kfhys M,h jYfhkq;amy<jk ;udf.a iqNisoaOshg yd m@.;shg fya;`jkakdjQo iudc ms,s.ekSu;`,ska ;udg wdrCIdji<id fokakdjQo prAhd rgdjls.
  • 677 udkjhska iajhx YsCIKh uZ.ska idrOu! ixl,am jO!kh lr.akd wdldrh fkdauka fcA nq,a(1979)jsiska olajd we;.th jkdyS oSrA> jrAOkhlska my< jkakls fkdauka fcA nq,a udkjfhl` iajhxYsCIK l@shdj,sh uZ.ska ixjrAOkh jk wjOs fufia olajhs.1 k YsCIKh ( Anomy)2 ndysr YsCIKh ( Heteronmy )3 iudc YsCIKh ( Socionomy)4 iajhx YsCIKh ( Autonomy ) fuu lreKq fya;`fjka jvd;a wrA:j;a YS,m@;smodj jkafka l`ulao$th udkjhka;`< idrOu!ixl,am ixjO!kh lsrSu msKsi Wmfhda.S jkafka flfiao$iudch moaO;shla;`< udkjhska YS,iuzmkakjSug idrOu! b.ekajSuzj,g flfia Wmldr jsh yelso$hkak ms<snZoj iEu idrOu!YsCIfhl`gu ukd oekqula o tfiau Vg wod<jk wdl,am l`Y,;d ufkdp,l l@shj,Ska ixjO!khlrjkafka flfiao hkak ms<snZoj ukd wjfndaOhla o ;snsh hq;`h.idudkH iudc.; idrOu!hkaysufkdpd,l wjia:dj m@lg lrkafka mxpYS, m@;smodfjks. ld,du i@;@fhys fuu mxpYS, m@;smodjidrOu! l@shdj,sfhys wrUqu yd wjidk ksIaGdj hk wxYfolu uQrA;su;a lrkakla f,iska fmkajdoS;sfnkqfha fuz ksidh.fuz mrspzfPAofhka ta ms<snZoj idlpzPd flrS we;af;a ta ksidh.mxpYS, YsCIKhhkafkys wrA: folla we;snj ld,du iQ;@h wkqj fmfka.tajd kuz1 iajhx YsCIKh.2 ksjeros l@shdj. fuu folgu uQ,dY@ jkafka wNHka;r ms<sfj<hs.( Inner Order ) fuh mxpYS, m@;smodfjyswfmaCIs; ksIaGdj f,i wrA:l:kh l<yel.mxpYS, m@;smodfjys tkakdjQ YsCIdmo mfiysjsoHd;aul l@shdj,sh meyeos,s lroSu ld,du iQ;@fhys jsia;r flfrkakdjQ b.ekajSuz ;`,ska is|=jSwe;.th my; oelafjk wdldrhg jsuid ne,sh yelsh.mxpYS, m@;smodfjys iEu YsCIdmohlaufldgia foll ia:rhla hgf;a idlpzPdjg Ndckh fjz.tkuz1fjzruKS-jsr;sh ke;fyd;a je<lSu.2 iudoshdus-tu jro is|=lsrSug n,mdkakdjQ ishZMu lreKqj,ska je<lSu yd Bg m@;smCI Ou!;djO!kh. lsrSu-fuz hgf;a isjz nU jsyrKhkays jsia;r flfrkakdjQ l`Y, ixl,amhka l@shd;aullsrSu wh;afjz nq|=iufhys js.@yjk mxpYS, m@;smodj hgf;a je<lsh hq;`jQ tfukau wdrCIdlr .;hq;`jQ uQ<slukqIH idrOu! f,I ie<flkakdjQ iudc m@;sudk myla ms<snZoj olajd ;sfnz tajd kuz1 mdKd;smd;d fjzruKS islaLdmox iudoshdus-mrmK keiSfuka je<lSu yd wkHcSjs; iqrCIs;lsrSu2 woskakdodkd fjzruKS islaLdmox iudoshdus- wkHfoam< mrsyrKfhka je<lSu yd wkHfoam<iqrCIs; lsrSu3 ldfuziq uspzPdpdrd fjzruKS islaLdmox iudoshdus – us:Hdldu fiajkfhka je<lSu yd mjq,aixia:dj iqrCIs; lsrSu msKsi lghq;` lsrSu
  • 6784 uqidjdod fjzruKS islaLdmox iudoshdus – fndrelSfuka je<lSu yd jpkh Ndjs;fhaoS I;H uD|=m@sh jpk Ndjs;hg .ekSu5 iqrdfuzrh upcAPmud ogzGdkx fjzruKS islaLdmox iudoshdus – mshjs isysfhka lghq;`fkdlsrSfukao by; olajk,o jeros is|=lsrSug Wojzjk udkisl fm<UjSuz j,skao w;ausoSu ydisysfhka yd kqjKska hq;`j lghq;` lsrSfukao by; olajk ,o jeros j,ska w;ausoS hymf;ysksr;jSug wjYH lrkakdjQ udkisl fm<UjSuz j,ska wkHhka osrsu;a lrjSfukao hqla;jSu1 m@dK>d;h – m@dK>d;h kuzz iFjfhl`f.a osjs f;drlsrSuhs Wmkaf,dalfha yegshg cSjsf;aJ|@sh meje;ajSug iq|=iqld,h mj;ajkakg bv fkdoS huzlsis Wml@udoshlska w;r;`roS cSjsf;aJ|@sh jkid oeuSu m@dK>d;hhsm@dK>d; wl`Y,h is|=jSug wx. mila iuzmQrAK jshhq;`h tkuz1 m@dKsfhl`jSuh2 m@dKsfhl` hk yeZ.Suh3 jOl fpz;kdjh4 urkq msKsi Wml@u lsrSuh5 thska urKhg m;ajSuh hkq ta wx. mihs ldh oajdr jdla oajdr hk folska tla oajdrhlska fuz wx. mi iuzmQrAK jSfuka if;l`f.a osjsf;drjQ jsg Tyqg m@dK>d; wl`Y,h is|=jkafkah fuz wx. mi iuzmQrAK fkdjS flfkl` uq,ajSfukaiFjfhl`f.a cSjs;h keiqk;a Tyqg m@dK>d; wl`Y,h is|=fkdfjz hk tkjsg fkdoek mhg mE.sfndfyda mdKSyq urKhg m;afj;s l`Uqre fldgkjsg f.djshdf.a Woe,a,g wiqjS fnfyda m@dKSyqkefi;s myka oe,ajQl, m<.egs wdoS l`vd m@dKSyq thg jegS uefr;s tfy;a lsisjl`yg;a tal@shdjkaf.ka m@dK>d; wl`Y< lu!h is|=fkdfjz jOl fpz;kdj fkdfh|=k nejsks ;uka huzlsis iFjfhl`f.a osjs f;drlrk msKsi ;shqKq ie;lska myr|=kajsg thska ;ukan,dfmdfrd;a;` jk i;d fkdj ta wi, isgs fjk;a if;l`yg ta ie;a myrjeoS thska b,lal.;iFjhd fkdj fjk;a wfhl` urKhg m;ajqkfyd;a ie;a myr |=ka ;eke;a;dg m@dK>d; is|=fkdfjzzta ;uka myr|=ka i;dg usi urKhg m;ajQ I;df.a osjs f;dr lsrSfuz fpz;kdjla myr|=ka;eke;a;dg fkdue;s ksidh tfiau if;l` urkq msKsi ie;amyr t,a,l< jsg thska tlS iFjhd fkduf<a kuz ie;amyrT,a, l< ;eke;a;dg m@dK>d;h is|=fkdfjhs tfy;a tys jsYd, fjkila ;sfnz ie;a myr ksid;`jd, ,enQ I;d wjqre|= lSmhla f.jS fyda tu ie;a myr ksid ,;a ;`jd, fya;`fjka u urKhgm;afjzkuz ie;amyr t,a,l< whg tlS ie;a myr t,a,l< js.iu iFjhdf.a cSjsf;aJ|@sh f;drjSugm@:ufhkau m@dK>d; wl`Y, lu!h isoaO fjkq we; ffjoHjrfhl` frda.sfhl`g ie;alula lrkjsgTyq thska urKhg m;afjhs fjhs ffjoHjrhd frda.shd iqjlr .ekSfuz woyiska usi urKfpz;kdjlska ie;alu fkdl<ksid Tyqg m@dK>d; wl`Y,h is|=fkdfjhs
  • 679 jskh msglhg wh;a mdrdcsld md<sfhys ukqiai js.@yfhaoS mdrdcsldmd,sfhysoS ukqiai js.a.ymdrdcsld wejf;ys NsCIqkula mrscshg m;ajk fkdjk whqre m@dK>d; wl`Y,h jk fkdjk whqreuekjska olajd ;sfnz oskla tla;rd NsCIqkula msKavmd;h msKsi f.orlg jevsfhah wiqkl froaolska jid ksoslrk,o orefjl` u; ta NsCIqku ysZo .;s thska l`vd orejd urKhg m;ajsh fuz ldrKh .ek ielWmojd ta NsCIq ku nq|=rcdKkajykafiag oekajSh nq|=yq lreKq mrSCIdfldg thska tu NsCIq kumrscs wej;g fkdmeusKsnj jod<y mrscs wej;la fkdjQnj jodf<a jOl fpz;kdjla ta NsCIq kugke;s ksidh thska m@dK>d; wl`Y, lu!h o is|= fkdjSh m@dK>d; lu!h is|=jkdldr ie,ls,a,g .ekSfuzoS jsjsOdlrfhka tajd is|=jsh yelsnj fmkS hhsfuu m@dK>d; lu!h is|=jk jsjsO wdldrhka m@dK>d; lu!fha m@fhda. f,I yeZoskafjz tnZ|=m@fhda.hka ihla Ou!fhys olajd ;sfnz tkuz1 idyF:slh2 ksiai.a.slh3 wdK;a;slh4 :djrh5 jscAcduh6 boaOsuh hkqfjka m@dK>d;h iuznJO m@fhda. ih olajd we;1 idyF:sl- w;amdj,ska .id fyda lh ms<snZoj fyda ie;a uq.`re wdoshlska .id fyda ish;skauhful`f.a osjs f;dr lrkafkl` yg idyF:sl m@fhda.h hgf;a m@dK>d; lu!h is|=fjz2 ksiai.a.sl - |=r isgsk wfhl` urkq msKsi lhska fyda lh ms<snZo hulska fyda .,a uq.`re wjs wdhqOjsis lsrSuz jYfhka fyda hful`f.a osjs f;drlrkafkl` yg ksiai.a.sl m@fhda.h hgf;a m@dK>d;lu!h is|=fjz3 wdK;a;sl – ish;ska fkdurd wij,ayq urjhs kshu lsrSu wdK;a;sl m@fhda.h kuzfjz fuys,djF:q,ld,, Tldi, wdhqO, brshdm:, lsrshd jsfiai hk fuz lreKq iho weKjSu iuznFOfhka o;hq;`h4 :djr – ud.!j, fndrej,j,a leKSu ks;r mrsfNda. lrk weZoka wdosfhys wekSug yelsjk f,IbZoslgq wdosh ;enSu <sx fmdl`Kq wdosfhys jsI nyd,Su hkdosh :djr m@fhda. kuz fjhs th;a Woaosiwkqoaosi jYfhkaoajsjsO fjhs5 jscAcduh – huz flfkl`ka urkq msKsi uka;@ jscAcd wdosh lsrsu jscAcdh m@fhda. kuz fjhs6 boaOsuh – W;am;a;sfhkau wkqka uerSug iu;a lu! jsmdl iDoaOs ,nd we;sfhla ijlSh iDoaOsn,fhka fkdfhla jsldr lsrSfuka wkqkaf.a osjs f;dr flfrAo$ th iDoaOsuh m@fhda.h kuz fjhs
  • 680 iFjhka jsiska lrkq ,nk m@dK>d; wl`Y, lu! ish,a,lau tl yd iudk fkdfjz tajd tlsfklgfjkia fj;s fuu fjkia lu fya;`fjka tajdfhys w,am idjoH yd uyd idjoH fNaoh olakg ,efnzw,am idjoH uyd idjoH fNaoh ,efnkafka urkq ,nk iFkhkaf.a .`Kd.`Khkaf.a yegshg yduerSug lrkq ,nk Wml@uhkaf.a yegshg;ah .`K ySkhkao .`K jsrys;hkao ;srsika.; m@dKSkaw;`frka l`vd m@dKSka keiSfuka w,am idjoH m@dK>d; wl`Y, lu!h is|=fjhs .`Kj;`kao uyd YrSrwe;shkao uerSfuka uydidjoH m@dK>d; wl`Y, lu!h is|=fjhs w,amidjoH uydidjoH fNaofha usksia ;srsika I;`kaf.a jYfhka jsYd, fjkila ;sfnz uqfjl`f.aosjs f;dr lsrSug jvd jsYd, Wml@uhla wef;l`f.a osjs f;dr lsrSug .;hq;` fjhs thska we;suerSfuka uyd idjoH m@dK>d; wl`Y, lu!h is|=fjhs tfy;a we;d jsYd, jqjo Tyqg jvd uqjd.`Kfhka jevskuz uqjdf.a osjs keiSfuka uyd idjoH wl`Y,h is|=fjhs ;jo urkq ,nk iFjhd l`vd jqj;a uy;a jqj;a m@dKh f;drlsrSug .kakd Wml@uh iujqj;ajOl fpz;kdjkaf.a fjkila ;sfnz uyd m@dKsfhl` keiSfuysoS we;sjk fl@dO(jOl) fpa;kdjuy;ajk ksid tu lu!h uyd idjoH fjhs jOl fpz;kdj wvqjQ jsg th w,amidjoH fjhs fuzoelsjQfha ;srsika I;`ka ms<snZo w,amidjoH uydidjoH fNaohhs ukqIHhka w;r .`KySkhka uerSu w,am idjoH fjhs .`Kj;`ka uerSu uydidjoH fjhs m@fhda.uy;ajh yd fpz;kd uy;ajh hk lreKq wkqjo m@dK>d; lu!h w,am idjoH yd uyd idjoH fjhsYrSr Yla;sfhka |=j!, .`KySkfhl`f.a osjs f;drlsrSug .kakd Wml@uh n,j;a jk ksid jOlfpz;kdjo n,j;a fjhs tnejska tu lu!h uyd idjoH fjhs iudk .`Kj;`kaf.a osjs f;drlsrSfuysoSw,am idjoH yd uyd idjoH fNaoh is|=jkafka Wml@uhkaf.a m@n, |=j!,luz wkqj yd t msKsi .kakdn,j;a wdhdifhaoS we;sjk jOl fpz;kd;a wkqj fjz m@fhda. uy;ajh fyda jia;` uy;ajh fydafkdue;sjQ jsg urKhg m;ajk whf.a .`K uy;ajh wkqj lu!h uydidjoH fjz .`K ySkFjh wkqjlu!h w,am idjoH fjz m@;siJOs jsZ{dkh iuZ. my<jk usksia if;l` ms<snZo ishquz l,,a rEmhkeiSuo m@dK>d; wl`Y, lu!hls iFjhka jsiska lrkq ,nk m@dK>d; wl`Y, lu!fhka ,efnk jsmdl m@;siJOs jsmdl yd m@jD;a;sjsmdl jYfhka oajsjsO fjz krl ;srsika fm@a; hk wmdhkays Wmod,Su m@dK>d; lu!hdf.a m@;siJOsjsmdl kus tu lu!fhka Wmka iFjhd yg ta ta cSjs;j,oS fkdfhla frda.jHikdoS jsm;a;Ska we;slr,Su m@jD;a;s jsmdl kus m@dK>d; lu!h l< ;eke;a;d fjk;a l`Y,hlska usksia f,dj Wmka jsgotys wvqmdvq we;sfjhs2 wo;a;dodkh – jia;` ysushd jsiska lhska fyda jpkfhka fyda kq|=ka jia;`jla fidr is;ska fyda ysushd /jgSfukafyda nsh .ekajSfuka fyda n,yd;aldrfhka fyda th meyer .ekSfuka wo;a;dodk lu!h is|=fjhswo;a;dodk lu!h iuZmQrAK jSug wx. myla wjYH fjhs tkuz1 wkai;` jia;`jla jSuh2 wkqka wh;anj oek .ekSuh
  • 6813 fidr is;h4 ;snQ ;ekska mhlsrSuh5 th fidrd .ekSuh hkq ta wx. myhs wo;a;dok lu!h is|=l< yels wdldr jsismyla jskfhys iZoyka fjhs tu wdldr jsismy m@OdkldrKd mylg f.dkqlr oelajsh yelsh tkuz1 kkdkdNKav mZ[aplh2 tlNKav mZ[aplh3 idyF:sl mZ[aplh4 mqnznmfhda. mZ[aplh5 f:hHydr mZ[aplh fuz tl tlla mdid ;j;a wkq fldgia my ne.ska jrA.jk ksid wo;a;dodklu!h l<yels wdldr jsismy iEfohs1 kdkdNKav mZ[aplh – fuho ;j;a wkq fldgia mylg jrA.fjz tkuz1 wdosfhhH – fuhska woyia jkafka furud wh;a wdrdudos jia;`j kvqlshd ;udg wh;a lr.ekSuhsfuys,d ysushdf.a jia;`j ms,snZo wdYdj iuZmQrAKfhka w;ayerSfuka wo;a;dodkh is|=fjz2 yfrhH – wkqka wh;a jia;`jla fyda NdKavhla f.k hoaoS fidr is;ska meyer .ekSuhs3 wjyfrhH – wkqka ;ud <. ;snQ jia;`jla fkdoS meyer .ekSuhs fuys,d ysushdf.a n,dfmdfrd;a;`jwjika jQ jsg wo;a;dodkh is|=fjz4 brshdm: jsfldfmhH – NdKav f.khk wh iuZ. th .kq leu;sj brshjz fjkialsrSuhs m<uq.uka lruska isgs uZ.ska wka uZ.lg hkq msKsi m<uq mshjr blaujd fojk mshjr keZ.` l,ayswo;a;dodkh is|=fjhs5 GdkdpdfjhH – wkqka I;` jia;`jla fidr is;ska ;snQ ;ekska meyer .ekSuhs fuz kdkdNKavmZ[plh ijsZ[aZ[dKl wjsZ[aZ[dKl jYfhka oajsjsO fjz2 tlNKav mZ[aplh – by; olajk ,o wdldrhg ijsZ[aZ[dKl jia;~ka fidr is;ska .ekSutlNKav mZ[aplh kuz fjz1 wdosfhhH – furud wh;a ia;@S mqreIhka fyda iFjhka kvq lshd ;udg wh;a lr.ekSuhs fuys,dysushdf.a ji;`j ms<snZo wdidj iuZmQrAKfhka w;ayerSfuka wo;a;dodkh is|=fjz2 yfrhH – wkqkag wh;a ia;@S mqreIhka fyda iFjfhla f.k hoaoS fidr is;ska meyer .ekSuhs3 wjyfrhH – wkqka ;ud <Z. wdrCIdj msKsi k;rl< ia;@S mqreIhka fyda iFjhka fkdoS meyer.ekSuhs fuys,d ysushdf.a n,dfmdfrd;a;`j wjika jQ jsg wo;a;dodkh is|=fjz
  • 6824 brshdm: jsfldfmhH – ia;@S mqreIhka fyda iFjhka legsj hk wh iuZ. tlg .uka lruskauTjqka I;` ia;@S mqreIhka fyda iFjhka ;udi;` lr.ekSfuz wNs,dYfhka hq;`j brshjz fjkialr.ekSuhs m<uq .uka lruska isgs u.ska wka uZ.lg hkq msKsi m<uq mshjr blaujd fojk mshjrkeZ.` l,ays wo;a;dodkh is|=fjz5 GdkdpdfjhH – wkqka i;` ia;@S mqreIhka fyda iFjhka fidr is;ska Tjqka isgs ;ekska leue;af;kafyda wlue;af;ka meyerf.k hduhs3 idyF:sl mZ[aplh – fuho ;j;a wkq fldgia myla hgf;a idlpzPdjg ,la flfrhs tkuz1 idyF:sl – wkqka I;` jia;`j fyda foafmd< ish;skau fidr is;ska .ekSuhs2 wdKF:sl – wkqka,jd fidrluz lrjSug lghq;` ms,sfh< lsrSuhs3 ksiai.a.sl – NdKavj,g n|= wolrk ia:dkh we;`<; isg NdKav t;ekska msg;g jSis fldg miqjmeusK fidrluz lrf.k hduhs msgrgska meusfKkakdjQ NdKavj,g ;Sre .dia;` jxpdfldg fydrryfia tlS NdKav frA.`fjys weiska usoS msg;g f.k hduo wh;a jkqfha fuu j.!hghs4 wF:idOl – wiqj,a whf.a jia;`j bv ,enqkq jsgl f.dia fidrd f.k tkf,I wK lsrSuhs wK,enQ ;eke;a;d wjqre|= .Kkla f.jS fyda th meyer .kafka kuz wK l<yqg tjsgu wo;a;dodklu!h is|=fjhs wkHhdg .;a flfkysu wo;a;dodkh is|=fjhs5 Oqr kslafLzm – wka I;` jia;`jla jia;` ysushd rjgd Tyqf.a jia;`j ms<snZo ;snqKq wdidj ke;slrjd fidr is;ska meyer .ekSuhs4 mqnznmfhda. mZ[aplh – fuho ;j;a wkq fldgia mylg jrA. flfrhs tkuz1 mqnznmfhda. – wkai;` jia;`jla fidr is;ska meyer .ekSu msKsi lrkq ,nk m<uq m@fhda.hhshul`g wkai;` jia;`j fidrluz lsrsug wK lsrSu;a wK ,enQjyq th meyer .ekSu;a hk jev follabka is|=fjz wK ,enQ ;eke;a;d fkdjrojdu th .kS kuz wdKdmlhdg (weKjQjdyg) kshu l<flfkysu mQj! m@fhda. jYfhka wo;a;dodk lu!h is|= fjhs2 iym@fhda. – wkqka i;` jia;`j ;ukag wh;alr .ekSu msKsi lrk m@fhda.hhs thska wjikam@fhda.fhka wo;a;dodk lu!h is|=fjz3 ixjsodydr – wkai;` jia;`j lsysm fofkl`ka tlajS f.dia fidr is;ska meyer .ekSuhs tlaj.shjqka w;`frka tll` kuq;a jia;`j meyer .;a l,ays ishZM fokdgu wo;a;dodk lu!h is|=fjhs4 ixfla; luzu – fmrjre miajre jYfhka ld, kshuhla fldg fidrluz lrjSuhs ta kshul<i<l`Kq fkdjrojd wkai;` jia;`j fidr is;ska .;a flfkysu wKl< whyg wo;a;dodk lu!his|=fjhs .;a;yqg .;a flfkysu wo;a;dodkh fjhs
  • 6835 ksus;a; luzu – wkai;` jia;`j neu yels<Sudos ixZ{djla fldg fidrluz lrjSuhs ksus;a;g fmrmiq fkdjS th meyer .kS kuz ksus;s lSjyqg tflfkys;a .;a;yqg .;a flfkys;a wo;a;dodk lu!his|=fjhs5 f:hHdjydr mZ[aplh – fuho ;j;a wkq fldgia myla jgf;a idlpzPdjg ,la flfrhs tkuz1 f:hHdjydr – wkai;` jia;`j ;`,d l~gdosfhka jZ[apd fldg fyda fndre lyjKq udre fldg fyda.ekSu2 mihajydr – .@du >d;lhka fuka wkai;` jia;`j n,y;aldr luska .ekSu yd whn|= wOslj.ekSu;ah3 mrslmamjydr – wkai;` jia;`jla ;uka .kakd jsg uy;a nZ|=kaj,ska ueK .ekSu yd jsl`Kk jsgl`vd nZ|=ka j,ska ueK jslskSuhs l~g fjf<Z|=kayg NdKav fydrg ueKSfuzoS yd uqo,a jZ[apd lsrSfuzoS;afuhska wo;a;dodk lu!h is|=fjhs4 mgspzPkakdjydr – wkqkag wh;a uq|= wdoS jia;`jla oel fld< wdoshlska jid ;nd miqj fidr is;skaiZ.jd .ekSuhs5 l`idjydr – l`im;a ,d huzlsis jia;`jla fnok l,ays wkqkaf.a fldgi fidrd .kq rsisfhkawkqkaf.a lqim; ;udf.a fldgig oud .ekSuhs wkqkag wh;a jgskdluska wvq jia;`jla fidr is;ska .ekSfuka w,amidjoH wo;a;dodk wl`Y,his|=fjhs wkqka i;` jgskdluska jevs jia;`jla fidr is;ska .ekSfuka uyd idjoH wl`Y, lu!h is|=fjhsfuysoSo m@dK>d; lu!fha fuka .`K uy;ajh m@fhda. uy;ajh jia;` uy;ajh fpz;kd uy;ajhwkqj w,amidjoH uyd idjoH fNaoh is|=fjhs jgskdluska wvq jia;`jla jqj;a th whs;s ysushd .`KdOslfhla kuz Tyqf.a jia;`j fidrd .ekSfukauyd idjoH wl`Y,h is|=fjhs .`KySkfhl` jia;`jla fidr is;ska .ekSu w,amidjoHo .`KdOslfhl`i;` jia;`jla fidr is;ska meyer .ekSu uyd idjoHo fjhs .`Kfhka iudk fofofkl`f.a NdKav fidrd .ekSfuzoS tu NdKavj, f,dl` l`vd fNaoh wkqjw,amidjoH uydidjoH fNaoh fjhs .`K uy;ajh wkqjo uydidjoH fjhs |=YaYS,fhl`f.a fohlgjvd mkais,a rlskd ;eke;a;df.a jia;`jo .ekSu uydidjoHhs .sysfhl`f.a fyda fohlg jvd mkais,arlskd ;eke;a;df.a jia;`jo thg jvd by< YS,hla rlskakdf.a jia;`jo .ekSu uydidjoHhs.wywfhl`f.a fohlg jvd idufKarfhl` I;` fohla .ekSuo idufKarfhl` i;` fohlg jvdWmiuzmkak NsCIqkula I;` fohla .ekSuo Wmimka uyfKl` I;` fohg jvd iZ. i;` fohla.ekSuo uy;a jro fjhs fuz wkqj fuys w,am idjoH uyd idjoH fNaoh o;hq;`hs
  • 684 wkqka i;` foh fidr is;ska meyer.;a wh fuf,djoSu f,dalhdf.a fkdfhla kskaod wmydi jOysxid wdosh ,n;s kS;shg yiqj fkdfhla oZvqjuzz jsZos;s urKska u;` krl ;srsika fm@a; wmdhhkaysbmso wkka; |=la jsZos;s wmdfhka usZoS usksi;a nj ,enQ jsgo fkdfhla wvqmdvqj,ska hqla; os<sZ|= wirKcSjs; ,n;s cSj;a jSug jsYd, W;aiyhla .ks;s3 lduus:Hdpdrh – f,daoyug jsreoaOjk f,i huzlsis mqreIfhl` fyda ia;@shl fyda ldufhys jrojd yeisrSuhsfjk;a ysusfhl` I;` fyda ujzmsh ifydaordoS huz flfkl`ka jsiska fyda rlskq ,nk ia;@shl ishleue;af;kau fyda n,fhka fyda ldufhys jrojd yeisrSu fya;`fldg f.k mqreIhkg lduus:Hdpdr wl`Y,h is|=fjhs ;uka rlskq ,nk kshus; ysushd isgsoaoS fjk;a mqreIhka iuZ.wkdpdrfhys yeisrSfuka ia;@Skag ldu us:Hdpdr wl`Y,h is|=fjhs ldu us:Hpdr wl`Y,h is|= jSuglreKq i;rla iuzmQrAK jsh hq;`h tkuz1 fkdhdhq;` ia;@shl fyd mqreIfhl` jSuh2 fiajk is;h3 ta msKsi W;aiy lsrSu kuz jQ u.ska u. ms<smeoSuh4 fiajkh bjiSuh hkq ta wx. i;rhs fuz wx. i;r iuzmQrAK jSfuka ldu us:Hdpdrh is|=fjhs mqreIhkag w.ukSh ia:dkhka yegshgud;`rlaLs;d ms;` rlaLs;d wdos jYfhka jsia;r jk ia;@Syq fj;s ldu us:Hdpdrfhys w,amidjoHuydidjoH fNaoh flfiao h;a YS,doS .`K jsrys;jQjka flfrys kuz w,amidjoH fjhs .`Kiuzmkakhka flfrys kuz uyd idjoH fjhs fofokdf.au tlfia leue;a; we;s l,ays;a m@fhda.uy;ajh wvq l,ays;a w,am idjoH fjhs YS,doS .`K jsrys; jqj;a n,fhka fyda ;rAckdosfhlska fydawOsl W;aidyhlska fyda ldu us;Hdpdrfhys yeisfrA kuz uydidjoH fjhs wkdpdrYS,sj ldu fiajkfhys fh|=Kq wh fuf,djoSu f,dalhdf.a fkdfhla kskaod wmydi ,n;swkqkaf.a ;dvk mSvkj,g kS;sfha /yekg wiqjS wm@udK |=lg m;afj;s ,sx.dY@s; frda.hkagf.d|=refj;s fujeks we;euz ,sx.dY@; frda.hkag ;ju ksYaps; ffjoH m@;sldr mjd fidhdf.kfkdue;a;djQ udrdka;sl frda. fjhs fujeks frda. fya;`fjka ryfia fndfyda ms<sl`,a iy.;jQ whqrska;Sj@ lgql |=la fjzokd jsZo wjidkfha wld,fha fndfyda fjzokdldrS fidapkSh urKhkag uqyqK fo;surKska u;` krlfhys yd ;srsika wmdfhys bmso wkka; |=lg f.d|=re fj;s usksi;anj ,enQ jsgoish .Kka wd;auNdjhkays mjd ia;@Syq fyda oajs,sx.sl kmqxildosyq fyda fj;s ldufhys jrojd yeisrSu ksid mqreIfhda ia;@Syq fj;s ia;@Syq kmqxilhka fj;s wju ;ruska ia;@Swd;au Ndjfhka fyda fkdusfo;s kmqxilfhda tlS wd;auNdjfhka fkdusfo;s iajNdjfhkau mqreIhkagjvd ia;@skaf.a ldudYdjka W;aikak ;;ajfhys mj;shs ia;@Skag;a jvd kmqxilhkaf.a ldudYdjkawOsl;rh fuu kmqxlhkaf.ao ldudYdfjys wOsl;r Ndjh wkqj fuhg;a jvd my< ugzguzj, jQmKavl Wnf;danHxckl wdoS ;j;a ukqIH yd ;srsika cSjS jrA. ms<snZoj jskh msglfhys idlpzPdflfrA fujekakka jrA;udk iudcfhys l`ukdldrfhka yeZosk.kafkao hk .egZMj u;`fjzwe;euzfokd ;ukag i;`rewhg neKjeoSu iZoydo oafjzI iy.; whqrska Tjqkag ks.re lsrSu iZoydofujeks mohkaf.ka we;euzfokd yZ|=kajk nj fmfk;;a th fujeks wh yZ|=.ekSu iZoyd idrA:l
  • 685l@ufjzohla hehs is;sh fkdyelafla tys lsis|= jsoHd;aul pska;khla .enzfkdjk fyhsks iuyrjsglsis|= ndysr jsfYaI ksus;a;la rys;ju tnkaokaf.a yeiSrSuz rgdjka lrK fldgf.k yZ|=kd.;yelsfjz wOsl ldudYdfjka hqla;nj yd ta iZoyd TzkEu iudc iuzu; fkdjk l@uNdjs;hg f.k ishldudYdjka ;Dma;su;a lr.ekSug m@h;ak orkakdjQ ukqIHfhda tlaflda fujeks mqoa.,hkahke;fyd;a tu mqoa.,Ndjhg meusKSu iZoydjk l@shdud.! .kakka f,i wkqudkl< yel WNf;dnHxcklhka jkdys ia;@S iqreI ksus;s folu we;sj ta fya;`fjkau lsisfia;a ;u cSjs; ld,h;`,oSimqrd.; fkdyels b;du W;aikak .;jQ ldudYdfjka ksrka;rfhka msvd jsZoskakdjQ w;sYhska |=laLs;brKula .; lrkakka nj oelafjz fudjqka ishZM fokdu idudkH iajNdjh fyj;a m@lD;sh blaujdjslD;shg m;ajQ fyhska uyckhd wm@sh lrk jsrEmS wiajdNdjsl YrSr we;a;dyq fj;s idudkHfhkaiudcfha |=Yaprs;j;aNdjh |+Is; yd jsmrS; iajNdjh jO!kh jk wjia:dj,oS thg idfmaCIljfujeks my;a ckauhla we;a;ka ixLHd;aulj jevsjk fyhska iudc |+Is; Ndjh uek .kakd usKqulaf,io th Ndjs;d l< yelsh4 uqidjdoh – wikakka uq,d lrjkq msKsi wi;H jQjla I;Hhla f,iska mrkg mejiSu uqidjdo kuzfjhs fyajkdys wi;H m@jD;a;shla i;H f,iska olajkq leue;s whf.a ldh jdla m@fha. My< lrkakdjQfpz;kdjhs isoaOjQ I;H fohla isoaO fkdjqKq wi;Hhla f,iska wfkfll`yg m@ldY lsrSfuzoS we;sjkfpz;kdjo uqidjdo kuz fjz jd.a oajdrfhka fukau ldh oajdrfhkao uqidjdo wl`Y,h is|=fjhsuqidjdo wl`Y, is|=jSug wx. i;rla wjYHh fjhs tkuz1 wi;Hhla jSuh2 wkHhka rjgk is;h3 lhska fyda jokska fyda fndrej yeZ.jSfuz W;aiyh4 wikakd woyi f;reuz .ekSuh hk ta wx. i;rhs fuz lrekq i;r iuzmQrAK jSfuka uqidjdo wl`I,h is|=jk nejz o;hq;`h jskfhys iZoykajkyegshg Wmimka uyfKla W;`re usksiaouz weZ.jSug fndrelshd kuz mrscs fjz wuQ,sl mdrdcsldfjkafpdaokd lrkakyqg ix>dosfiai fjz ix>dosfiaifhka fpdaokd lrkakyqg mps;sfjz wdpdr jsm;a;sfhkawkqoaOxikh lrkakyqg |=l`<d weje;afjz ‘fhd f; jsydfr ji;s’ hkdoska wkq whqrlska W;`re usksiaoyuz wdfrdapkh iZoyd fndre lshkakyqg ;`,is fjz idudkHfhka idudkHfhka oek oek fndrelshkakyqg mps;s weje;a fjz wkqka,jd hfula fndre lshjd kuz tysoS weKjqjyqg;a fndrej lSjyqg;afofokdgu uqidjdo lu!h is|=fjhs5 iqrdfuzrh mdkh – uohg;a m@udohg;a fya;`jQ ryfur mdkh lsrSu iqrdmdk wl`Y,h kuzfjz iqrdmdkhldhoajdrfhka is|=fjk wl`Y, lu!hls th oY wl`Y, jsNd.fhaoS ldu us:Hdpdrhg w;`<;a fjhsfjku lu! m:hla jYfhka fkd.kakd ,oafoa ldu us:Hdpdr wl`Y, lu! m:hg Wmldr;ajfhkawe;`<;jk ksidh iqrdmdk ud;@h lu!hls th uohg yd m@udohg lreKqjSfuka iFjhd fkdfhla
  • 686mdm l@shdjka lsrSug fm<fUhs tjsg ta yd fh|=Kq iqrdmdk wl`Y,h wm@udK ld,hla ksrfhysbmoSug iuF:! wl`Y, lu!hlao fjhs iqrd jrA. myla ms<snZoj OrAufhys iZoyka fjz tkuz1 msgzG iqrd – iy,a msgs jeks msgsj,ska iliafldg fmrd.kq ,nk uoHhhs2 mQj iqrd – lejs,sj,ska iliafldg fmrd.kq ,nk uoHhhs3 Tok iqrd – n;aj,ska iliafldg fmrd .kq,nk uoHhhs4 lsKaK iqrd mlaLs;a; iqrd – OdkH wxl`rdoS nSc ixfhda.fldg fmrd,kq ,nk uoHhhs5 iuzndr ixhqla; iqrd – wn wdos fkdfhla |@jHhka ixfhda.fldg fmrd.kq ,nk uoHhhs furh hk kuska yeZoskafjkafka huz huz |@jHhka m,a fldg ;kd .kq ,nk YrAlrduhixfhda.hkah fuzjdo mia jeoEreuz fjz tkuz1 mqmaMdij – uS ;,a fmd,a wdoS u,a rih f.k m,afldg ;kd .kq,nk uoHhhs2 .`<dij – fldia wdos M, rih m,a fldg ;kd.kq ,nk uoHhhs3 uOzjdij – isos rih m,a fldg ;kd .kq ,nk uoHhhs4 iuzNdr ixhqla;dij – wrM fk,a,s wdos fkdfhla |@jH rih usY@ fldg m,afldg ;kd.kq ,nkuoHhhs fuys iZoyka l< fojrA.hg wh;a uoHhla hfula mdkh flfrA kuz Tyqg iqrdmdk wl`Y, lu!his|=fjhs iqrd mdk wl`Y,h wx. I;rla iuzmQrAK jSfuka is|=fjhs tkuz1 iqrdjla jSu2 fndkq leu;s is; t<U isgSu3 nSug .kakd W;aiyh4 nS l,ays .,ns,fhka hgg msjsiSu hkq ta wx. I;rhs fuz wx. i;r iuzmQrAK jSfuka iqrdmdk wl`Y, lu!h is|=fjhs fuz iqrdmdk wl`Y, lu!huydidjoHu fjhs fiiq ishZM jeros iZoys th ukd wkqn,hla jk fyhsks tksidu iqrdmdk wl`Y,hwys;lr mCIfhka fm<UjSfuz kHdhhla yegshg l@shd;aul fjhs by; iZoyka l<djQ fiiq jerosI;r lsrSu iZoydu tuZ.ska wys;lr fm<UjSula we;s lrjk nejsks ld,du iQ;@fhys fulS iqrdmdkYsCIdmoh fjkqjg iZoyka jkqfha by; iZoyka jeros i;r iZoyd hfula ;j flfkl`j fm<UjSuhk lreKhs tnejska jHxckdrA: jYfhka iqrdmdkh oelajQfha iqrdmdkh by; oelajqkq jerosI;frys flfkl` ksu.ak lrjSug fydZou udkisl fm<UjSu we;slrk fya;`j jYfhka i<ldf.kjsh hq;`h mrudrA: jYfhka .;al< miafjks YsCIdmofhka wrA:j;a jkafka mxpYS, m@;smodfjysfkdl< hq;` hehs iZoyka jk fiiq jeros I;r flfkl` w;ska is|=jSu iZoyd ldhsl yd udkislfm<UjSu we;s lrjkakdjQ fohska je<lSu hk ldrKhhs iqrd mdkh l< ;eke;a;d fuf,djoSu fkdfhl`;a f,v frda.j,g f.d|=re fjhs jia;` jskdYhgm;afjhs fld,dy, wmlSrA;shg js,snsh myjSug yd kqjK |=n, jSug fya;`fjhs urkska u;`krlfhys bmso wfkal jI! Fldags iyi@fhys meiS thska usoS usksia mshla ,;a l,ayso Wu;`jQfjla fjhs
  • 687.`K ySkfhla fjhs .`k ySkfhlau fjhs ,ecAcd rys;fhla fjhs os,skafola fjhs yeu l,aysu Z{d;sjHikdos wkka; |=lg m;afjhs jsrEm foayfhka hqla; fjhs u;amefkys .scqjQ iFjhd mkaish cd;shlWu;`j WmoS hhs fmd;am;ays iZoykajS ;sfnz mxpYS, m@;smodj .eUqrska jsurAYkh l<fyd;a tys iZoykajkakjQ tl tl YsCIdmohla mdiduQ<sl jsruKh yd tlS jsruKhg WmldrSjk wfkl`;a Ou! hk ia:r follska iZoykaj we;snjfmfkkq we; tkuz1 jsruKh – fuu lreK ms<snZoj idlpzPd l<fyd;a uska woyia lrkafka uQ<sl idrOu! myms<snZoj huzlsis t<Uqula we;s lr .ekSuhs jsfYaI jYfhka nq|=iufhys ia:srj iiqka uZ.g ms<smka;eke;af;l` jsiska fkdlv fldg wdrCIdlrkakdjQ mshjs iajNdjfhkau Tyq w;ska is|= fkdjkakdjQjeros mila f,i fuu mxpYS, m@;smodfjys jsia;r flfrkakdjQ lreKq my olajd ;sfnz12 tys wkHhka iudoka lrjSu – fuu fldgi jkdyS YsCIdmofhys fojk wjia:djhs uQ<sl jYfhkam@:u wjia:dfjysoS ;u ;ud ;ksj m@;sudk iqrCIs; l<o fuu wjia:dfjysoS tu jev ms,sfj<giudcfhys fiiq idudcslhskao iuznJO lr.kakd wjia:dj ksrEmkh fjhs uq,a wjia:dfjys l@usljsldYhla fuz uZ.ska ksrEms;h tfukau m@;sudkhkaf.a iudcuh Ndjs;dj uQrA;su;a lrjkakjQiajNdjh f,igo wrA:l:kh l<yelsh mx[YS, m@;smodj ;j;a wdldrhlska jsYaf,aIKh lroelajsh yelsh tkuz ta tl tlYsCIdmohla mdid tu YsCImofhys mqoa.,uh yd iudcuh Ndjs;dj f.k yer oelajSu uZ.sks fuuwrA: oelajSug wkqj mqoa.,sl yd iudcuh m@;sudkhka f,i mxpYS, m@;smodfjys tla tlaYsCIdmohla mdid ia:r ;`kla hgf;a js.@yhg nZ|=ka flfrA tkuz1 mrmK fkdkeiSu – fuu m@;sudkh ;j;a ia:r ;`kla hgf;a jsYaf,aIKhg nZ|=ka lrkq ,nhs 1 csjsf;aF|@sh jskdY fkdlsrSu 2 csjsf;aJ|@sh jskdY jSu iZoyd ;sfnkakdjQ bvm@ia;d ke;slsrsu yd wju lsrSu 3 wkqka jsIfhys isjz nU jsyrKhkays wF:! oelafjk ffu;@S lrekd uqos;d yd WfmaCId hk idrOu! ixl,amhka jO!kh lsrSu oijsO jQ pska;kuh wOsldrhka j,ska f;drjQ ps;a; ixl,am jO!kh lsrSu;`,ska mrmK keiSfukaje<lSug yelsnj ld,du iQ;@h wkqj fmkajdosh yelsh wkqY@jh (Report)2 uZ.ska ,nd.kakd mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZo oekqu ;yjqrejSug kuz ;ukao th Ndjs;hg f.k jsuidn,d tu oekqu ;ukaf.a njg tkuz ;od;auShlKhlgNdckhlr.; hq;`h tfia fkdjkakdjQ mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka fyj;a weiSuz1 w ks 11"m;a;luzu iq;a;"nq c uq 124 msgqj l;udp .ym;s iS, iuzmod$ bO .ym;s wrshidjfld .ym;smdKdmd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s uqidjdodmgsjsrf;d fyd;s iqrdfuzrh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod2 tu ud wkqiaifjzk
  • 688wkqY@jh ud;@fldgf.k muKla tys ksjerosNdjh ukskq,nkafkkuz th ksjeros mrmK keiSfukaje<lSfuz l@shdj,shla fkdjk nj nq|=iuh mjihs tfukau mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS mdruzmrslNdjh(mruzmrdh Tradition)1mokuzlrf.k tu mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjerosfkdfjz n@dyauKhkaf.a fjzoh iuznJOfhkao Tjqka yqjd olajkafka tu mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuzjsOsl@uhka mdruzmrsljk nejska tajs ksrjoHjk njhs mrmqfrys meusKsh;a tu mrmK keiSfukaje<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka mokuz jS we;af;a i;H milalsrSug jvd ;u;ukaf.a wd.usl wrA:oelajSuz yqjdoelajSug jk nejska tajd ksjeros mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka fkdfjz tfukau mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS fufia fmrlshd ;sfnzhkak(b;slsrdh Prologue ;Presuppose)2 mokuzlr f.k tu mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlgt<USu ksjeros fkdfjz fmrlshd ;snqkqnj hkak mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sh ;`,fm#rdKslFjh yd ineZ|=kq fohla jkjd usi tu mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d usKquz oKavla lr .ekSu idjoHnj nq|=iuh olajhs 3 tfukau mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS msgl iuzmodh(Given in the Scripture)mokuzlrf.k tu mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjerosfkdfjz f,aLk.;nj hkak wd.usl woyia ixrCIKfhys,d bjy,ajk l@ufjzohla usi tu mrmKkeiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquz oKavla lr.ekSu nq|=iuhwkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau Y@jK l@shdj,sfhysoS ;rAlkh(Logical Implication)4 mokuzlrf.k tu wikq,nk fohksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hh ;drAlslnj hkak hula ta;a;` .ekajSfuz ls@hdj,sfhysoS BgwdOdr WmldrSjk woyia yd Y@jKhka bosrsm;a lsrSfuz jsOsl@uhla jkjd yefrkakg tlS woyia ydY@jKhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquz oZvqjla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS kHdhdkQidrSjSu(Nomalogical)5 mokuzlrf.k tu mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeros hehs ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.HhkHdkQidrSjSu hkak hula fuz whqrska mrmK keiSfuka je<lSu l< hq;`hehs ks.ukhla ,ndoS ;snqKql@shdoduhlgu wkq.;j tu mrmK keiSfuka je<lSu is|=lrkjd yefrkakg jspdrmQrAjl jSfuyslsis|= bvlvla ta ;`,ska fkdiemfha tfukau taksid th mdol fldgf.k tlS mrmK keiSfukaje<lSfuz jsOsl@uhkays ksjerosnj ;yjqre lsrSfuys,d th tlu usKquz oKavla lr.ekSu nq|=iuhwkqu; fkdlrhs1 tu ud mruzmrdh2 tu ud b;slsrdh3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud msgl iuzmodfkak4 tu ud ;lal fya;`5 tu ud kh fya;`
  • 689 tfukau mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS huz fohla jkafka fuz whqrska hehs(wdldrmrsjs;rAlh Diversification of Thought)1 ;ukaf.a mQj!ixl,amkhka mdol fldgf.k tu mrmKkeiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohsidys;HOrhka l,dlrejka ;u ksu!dK jia;`nSc iZoyd fnfyjska fuu mQj!ixl,amkd Ndjs;dlr;stksid mQj!ixl,amhkhka lsishuz ksu!dKd;aul lghq;a;lg yerekqfldg mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuzjsOsl@uhka jeks jsoHd;aul js.@yhkag t<Ushhq;` wjia:dj,oS Ndjs;dlsrSu wfhda.Hh tfukau mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS jsh yelsnj fyj;a iuzNdjs;dj(NjH;djPotentity)2 mdollrf.k tu mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlgt<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs iuzNdjs;dj jkdyS lsishuz wkqudkhls tlS wkqudkhgmdollr.kafka tu lreKg iudk fjk;a mQj!w;aoelSuzh jsh yelsnj fyda fkdjshyels nj ;SrKhflfrkafka wjsksYaps; ;;ajhla mokuzlrf.k ksid fuz uZ.ska h:drA:jdoS wjfndaOhlalrd .ukal<fkdyelsnj nq|=iuh mjihs ksYaps;jQ mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka;`, wjsksYaps;iajNdjhla ;snsh fkdyelsnejska nq|=iuh fuu ;;ajh h:drA:jdoS mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuzjsOsl@uhkag ndOdldrSjkakla f,i fmkajdoS we; tfukau mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS lshkq,nkakd fyj;a .`rejrhdf.a jpkhu;u t<US (iufKd fkd .re Cousultations of Preceptor)3 lsis|= pspdrmQj!l wdl,amhlska f;drjks.ukj,g t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs .`rejrhdf.a jpkhg ieuod ieufoku.rel< hq;`h tams<snZoj lsis|= lsis|= jsjdohla ;snsh fkdyel kuq;a fuys wvqmdvqj jkafka.`rejrhdf.a jpkh YsIHhd fld;ruz wjfndaOfhka hq;`j ms<smoskjdo hk ldrkhhs jspdrmQj!lNdjfha jeo.;alu biau;`jkafka fukak fuz ia:dkfhaoShs we;euzjsg mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuzl@shdj,sfhysoS fjfyi wu;ljSuz jeks fya;`ksid .`rejrhdg huzhuz w;miqjSuz we;sjsh yelsh tjsguekjska ijka fok YsIHhdf.a hq;`lujkafka ffu;@Siy.;j yd f.#rjmQrAjlj .`rejrhdg tuia:dk fmkajdoSuhs uyd j.a.md,sfha j;a;laLJOlfhoS wdpdrAh WmdOHdh yd ioaOsjsydrsl j;aj,oSnq|=r|=ka fuz lreKq uekjska jsia;rlr oS ;sfnz tfukau mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS by; olajd we;s lreKq kjfh(9)ka ukiwdjrKhlr.ksuska oDIaGs.;sl j(osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;s Cousultations of Preceptor)4 tuwikq,nk foa ms<snZo ks.ukj,g meusKSu nq|=iuh fhda.Hhehs wkqu; fkdlrhs oDIaGSka .@KhlsrSuhkq udkisl jsjD;Ndjh rys; ;;ajhls nqoaOs jO!kh msksi th Wmldrj;a fkdfjz nqoaOs jO!khis|=jkqfha jsjD;udkis; miq;,hla;`,oSh.nq|=kajykafiaf.a Ou! foaYkd uZ.ska mrmK keiSfukaje<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka wkq.ukhlr fndfydafofkl` Ou!djfndaOh ,nd ud.!M, mila lr.kq ,enQfhaWkajykafiaf.a mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka Y@jKh l< wh;`< lsis|= wdldrfha oDIagshlawe;sjSug lsis|= bvla fkd;nd mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sh werUSug fmr Tjqka;`, ;snQ1 tu ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak2 tu ud NnznrEm;dh3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud iufKda fkda .rE;s4 tu ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd
  • 690oDIaGSkao myj hk wdldrfhkaa ;u mrmK keiSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka Tjqkag Y@jKh jkakgie,eiajQ nejsks2 wkai;` foa fkd.ekSu – fuu m@;sudkh ;j;a ia:r ;`kla hgf;a jsYaf,aIKhg nZ|=ka lrkq ,nhs 1 wkHhkaf.a foam< whs;sh ;uka W|=qrd fkd.ekSu 2 wkHhkaf.a foam< whs;sh ms<s.ekSu yd tys iqrCIs; Ndjh msKsi lghq;`lsrSu 3 wkqka jsIfhys isjz nU jsyrKhkays wF:! oelafjk ffu;@S lreKd uqos;d yd WfmaCId hkidrOu! ixl,amhka jO!kh lsrSu oijsO jQ pska;kuh wOsldrhka j,ska f;drjQ ps;a; ixl,amhka jevSu ;`,ska wkai;` foa .ekSfukaje<lSug yelsnj ld,du iQ;@h wkqj fmkajd fokq ,efnz wkqY@jh (Report)1 uZ.ska ,nd.kakd wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZooekqu ;yjqre jSug kuz ;ukao th Ndjs;hg f.k jsuidn,d tu oekqu ;ukaf.a njg tkuz;od;auShlKhlg Ndckhlr.; hq;`h tfia fkdjkakdjQ wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka fyj;a weiSuz wkqY@jh ud;@fldgf.k muKla tys ksjerosNdjh ukskq,nkafkkuz th ksjeroswkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka l@shdj,shla fkdjk nj nq|=iuh mjihs tfukau wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS mdruzmrslNdjh(mruzmrdh Tradition)2mokuzlrf.k tu wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjerosfkdfjz n@dyauKhkaf.a fjzoh iuznJOfhkao Tjqka yqjd olajkafka tu weiSuz mdruzmrsljk nejskatajs ksrjoHjk njhs mrmqfrys meusKsh;a tu Y@jKhka mokuz jS we;af;a i;H milalsrSug jvd;u;ukaf.a wd.usl wrA:oelajSuz yqjd oelajSug jk nejska tajd ksjeros Y@jKhka fkdfjz tfukau wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS fufia fmrlshd ;sfnzhkak(b;slsrdh Prologue; Presuppose)3 mokuzlr f.k tu wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlgt<USu ksjeros fkdfjz fmrlshd ;snqkqnj hkak wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sh ;`,fm#rdKslFjh yd ineZ|=kq fohla jkjd usi tu wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d usKquz oKavla lr .ekSu idjoHnj nq|=iuh olajhs tfukau wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS msgl iuzmodh(Given in the cripture)4 Smokuzlrf.k tu wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjerosfkdfjz f,aLk.;nj hkak wd.usl woyia ixrCIKfhys,d bjy,ajk l@ufjzohla usi tu wkai;`foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquz oKavla lr.ekSunq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs1 tu ud wkqiaifjzk2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud mruzmrdh3 tu ud b;slsrdh4 tu ud msgl iuzmodfkak
  • 691 tfukau wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS ;rAlkh(Logical Implication)1mokuzlrf.k tu wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USuwfhda.Hh ;drAlslnj hkak hula ta;a;` .ekajSfuz ls@hdj,sfhysoS Bg wdOdr WmldrSjk woyia ydY@jKhka bosrsm;a lsrSfuz jsOsl@uhla jkjd yefrkakg tlS woyia yd wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuzjsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquz oZvqjla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS kHdhdkQidrSjSu(Nomalogical)2 mokuzlrf.k tu wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz ksjeros hehs ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hh kHdkQidrSjSuhkak hula fuz whqrska wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSu l< hq;`hehs ks.ukhla ,ndoS ;snqKql@shdoduhlgu wkq.;j tu wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSu is|=lrkjd yefrkakg jspdrmQrAjl jSfuyslsis|= bvlvla ta ;`,ska fkdiemfha tfukau taksid th mdol fldgf.k tlS wkai;` foa .ekSfukaje<lSfuz jsOsl@uhkays ksjerosnj ;yjqre lsrSfuys,d th tlu usKquz oKavla lr.ekSu nq|=iuhwkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS huz fohla jkafka fuz whqrska hehs(wdldrmrsjs;rAlh Diversification of Thought)3 ;ukaf.a mQj!ixl,amkhka mdol fldgf.k tuwikq,nk foh ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs idys;HOrhkal,dlrejka ;u ksu!dK jia;`nSc iZoyd fnfyjska fuu mQj!ixl,amkd Ndjs;dlr;s tksidmQj!ixl,amhkhka lsishuz ksu!dKd;aul lghq;a;lg yerekqfldg wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuzjsOsl@uhka jsoHd;aul js.@yhkag t<Ushhq;` wjia:dj,oS Ndjs;dlsrSu wfhda.Hh tfukau wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS jsh yelsnj fyj;a iuzNdjs;dj(NjH;djPotentity)4 mdollrf.k tu wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlgt<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs iuzNdjs;dj jkdyS lsishuz wkqudkhls tlS wkqudkhgmdollr.kafka tu lreKg iudk fjk;a mQj!w;aoelSuzh jsh ye;snj fyda fkdjshyels nj ;SrKhflfrkafka wjsksYaps; ;;ajhla mokuzlrf.k ksid fuz uZ.ska h:drA:jdoS wjfndaOhlalrd .ukal<fkdyelsnj nq|=iuh mjihs ksYaps;jQ wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka;`, wjsksYaps;iajNdjhla ;snsh fkdyelsnejska nq|=iuh fuu ;;ajh h:drA:jdoS wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuzjsOsl@uhkag ndOdldrSjkakla f,i fmkajdoS we; tfukau wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS lshkq,nkakd fyj;a .`rejrhdf.a jpkhu;u t<US (iufKd fkd .re Cousultations of Preceptor)5 lsis|= pspdrmQj!l wdl,amhlska f;drjks.ukj,g t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs .`rejrhdf.a jpkhg ieuod ieufoku.rel< hq;`h tams<snZoj lsis|= lsis|= jsjdohla ;snsh fkdyel kuq;a fuys wvqmdvqj jkafka.`rejrhdf.a jpkh YsIHhd fld;ruz wjfndaOfhka hq;`j ms<smoskjdo hk ldrkhhs jspdrmQj!l1 tu ud ;lal fya;`2 tu ud kh fya;`3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak4 tu ud NnznrEm;dh5 tu ud iufKda fkda .rE;s
  • 692Ndjfha jeo.;alu biau;`jkafka fukak fuz ia:dkfhaoShs we;euzjsg wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuzl@shdj,sfhysoS fjfyi wu;ljSuz jeks fya;`ksid .`rejrhdg huzhuz w;miqjSuz we;sjsh yelsh tjsguekjska ijka fok YsIHhdf.a hq;`lujkafka ffu;@Siy.;j yd f.#rjmQrAjlj .`rejrhdg tuia:dk fmkajdoSuhs uyd j.a.md,sfha j;a;laLJOlfhoS wdpdrAh WmdOHdh yd ioaOsjsydrsl j;aj,oSnq|=r|=ka fuz lreKq uekjska jsia;rlr oS ;sfnz tfukau wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS by; olajd we;s lreKq kjfh(9)ka ukiwdjrKhlr.ksuska oDIaGs.;slj(osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;s Cousultations of Preceptor)1 tuwikq,nk foa ms<snZo ks.ukj,g meusKSu nq|=iuh fhda.Hhehs wkqu; fkdlrhs oDIaGSka .@KhlsrSuhkq udkisl jsjD;Ndjh rys; ;;ajhls nqoaOs jO!kh msksi th Wmldrj;a fkdfjz nqoaOs jO!khis|=jkqfha jsjD;udkis; miq;,hla;`,oSh nq|=kajykafiaf.a Ou! foaYkd uZ.ska wkai;` foa .ekSfukaje<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka wkq.ukhlr fndfydafofkl` Ou!djfndaOh ,nd ud.!M, mila lr.kq ,enQfhaWkajykafiaf.a wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka Y@jKh l< wh;`< lsis|= wdldrfhaoDIagshla we;sjSug lsis|= bvla fkd;nd wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sh werUSug fmrTjqka;`, ;snQ oDIaGSkao myj hk wdldrfhkaa ;u wkai;` foa .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhkaTjqkag Y@jKh jkakg ie,eiajQ nejsksld,duiQ;@fhys olajk,o oijsO jQ pska;k wOsldrhkaf.ka f;drjSu ;ukaf.a oelau ksjeroslr.ekSug fya;`fjzfuz hgf;a oDIaGskaf.ka uki msrsis|=lr.ekSu iZoyd lsis|=fohla ;oska.@yKhlr.ekSfuka je<lshhq;`nj meyeos,sflfrA3 ldufhys jrojd fkdyeisrSu – fuu m@;sudkh ;j;a ia:r ;``kla hgf;a jsYaf,aIKhg nZ|=ka lrkq,nhs 1 ldu fiajkh iZoyd wh:d ls@hdud.! Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSu 2 ksrAndOs; mjq,a cSjs;hla .;lsrsfuz bv m@ia;dj wkHhka jsIfhys iqrCIs; lsrSu 3 wkqka jsIfhys isjz nU jsyrKhkays wF:! oelafjk ffu;@S lreKd uqos;d yd WfmaCId hkidrOu! ixl,amhka jO!kh lsrSu oijsO jQ pska;kuh wOsldrhka j,ska f;drjQ ps;a; ixl,amhka jO!kh lsrSu uZ.ska us:Hd ldufiajkfhka |=rejSug yelshdj ,efnknj ld,du iQ;@h wkqj fmkajd osh yelsh wkqY@jh (Report)2 uZ.ska ,nd.kakd us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZooekqu ;yjqre jSug kuz ;ukao th Ndjs;hg f.k jsuidn,d tu oekqu ;ukaf.a njg tkuz;od;auShlKhlg Ndckhlr.; hq;`h tfia fkdjkakdjQ us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuzjsOsl@uhka fyj;a weiSuz wkqY@jh ud;@fldgf.k muKla tys ksjerosNdjh ukskq,nkafkkuz thksjeros us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz l@shdj,shla fkdjk nj nq|=iuh mjihs1 tu ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud wkqiaifjzk
  • 693 tfukau us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS mdruzmrslNdjh(mruzmrdh Tradition)1mokuzlrf.k tu us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjerosfkdfjz n@dyauKhkaf.a fjzoh iuznJOfhkao Tjqka yqjd olajkafka tu us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka|=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka mdruzmrsljk nejska tajd ksrjoHjk njhs mrmqfrys meusKsh;a tu Y@jKhkamokuz jS we;af;a i;H milalsrSug jvd ;u;ukaf.a wd.usl wrA:oelajSuz yqjd oelajSug jk nejskatajd ksjeros us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka fkdfjz tfukau us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS fufia fmrlshd ;sfnzhkak(b;slsrdhPrologue ; Presuppose)2 mokuzlr f.k tu us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjz fmrlshd ;snqkqnj hkak us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka|=rejSfuz l@shdj,sh ;`, fm#rdKslFjh yd ineZ|=kq fohla jkjd usi tu us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka|=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d usKquz oKavla lr .ekSu idjoHnj nq|=iuholajhs tfukau us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS msgl iuzmodh(Given in the Scripture)3mokuzlrf.k tu wikq,nkfoh ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjzf,aLk.;nj hkakwd.usl woyia ixrCIKfhys,d bjy,ajk l@ufjzohla usi tu us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuzjsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquz oKavla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka l@shdj,sfhysoS ;rAlkh(LogicalImplication)4 mokuzlrf.k tu us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlgt<USu wfhda.Hh ;drAlslnj hkak hula ta;a;` .ekajSfuz ls@hdj,sfhysoS Bg wdOdr WmldrSjkwoyia yd us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka bosrsm;a lsrSfuz jsOsl@uhla jkjd yefrkakgtlS woyia yd us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquzoZvqjla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS kHdhdkQidrSjSu(Nomalogical)5 mokuzlrf.k tu us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeros hehs ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.HhkHdkQidrSjSu hkak hula fuz whqrska us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz l< hq;`hehs ks.ukhla ,ndoS;snqKq l@shdoduhlgu wkq.;j tu us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSu is|=lrkjd yefrkakgjspdrmQrAjl jSfuys lsis|= bvlvla ta ;`,ska fkdiemfha tfukau taksid th mdol fldgf.k tlSus:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhkays ksjerosnj ;yjqre lsrSfuys,d th tlu usKquz oKavlalr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs1 tu ud mruzmrdh2 tu ud b;slsrdh b;s3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud msgl iuzmodfkak4 tu ud ;lal fya;`5 tu ud kh fya;`
  • 694 tfukau us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS huz fohla jkafka fuz whqrska hehs(wdldrmrsjs;rAlh Diversification of Thought)1 ;ukaf.a mQj!ixl,amkhka mdol fldgf.k tuwikq,nk foh ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs idys;HOrhkal,dlrejka ;u ksu!dK jia;`nSc iZoyd fnfyjska fuu mQj!ixl,amkd Ndjs;dlr;s tksidmQj!ixl,amhkhka lsishuz ksu!dKd;aul lghq;a;lg yerekqfldg us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuzjsOsl@uhka jsoHd;aul js.@yhkag t<Ushhq;` wjia:dj,oS Ndjs;dlsrSu wfhda.Hh tfukau us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS jsh yelsnj fyj;a iuzNdjs;dj(NjH;djPotentity)2 mdollrf.k tu us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZoj ksjeros;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs iuzNdjs;dj jkdyS lsishuz wkqudkhls tlSwkqudkhg mdollr.kafka tu lreKg iudk fjk;a mQj!w;aoelSuzh jsh yelsnj fyda fkdjshyelsnj ;SrKh flfrkafka wjsksYaps; ;;ajhla mokuzlrf.k ksid fuz uZ.ska h:drA:jdoSwjfndaOhlalrd .ukal< fkdyelsnj nq|=iuh mjihs ksYaps;jQ us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuzjsOsl@uhka;`, wjsksYaps; iajNdjhla ;snsh fkdyelsnejska nq|=iuh fuu ;;ajh h:drA:jdoS us:Hdldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhkag ndOdldrSjkakla f,i fmkajdoS we; tfukau us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS lshkq,nkakd fyj;a .`rejrhdf.a jpkhu;u t<US (iufKd fkd .re Cousultations of Preceptor)3 lsis|= pspdrmQj!l wdl,amhlska f;drjks.ukj,g t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs .`rejrhdf.a jpkhg ieuod ieufoku.rel< hq;`h tams<snZoj lsis|= lsis|= jsjdohla ;snsh fkdyel kuq;a fuys wvqmdvqj jkafka.`rejrhdf.a jpkh YsIHhd fld;ruz wjfndaOfhka hq;`j ms<smoskjdo hk ldrkhhs jspdrmQj!lNdjfha jeo.;alu biau;`jkafka fukak fuz ia:dkfhaoShswe;euzjsg us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejkwdldrh b.ekajSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS fjfyi wu;ljSuz jeks fya;`ksid .`rejrhdg huzhuz w;miqjSuzwe;sjsh yelsh tjsg uekjska ijka fok YsIHhdf.a hq;`lujkafka ffu;@Siy.;j yd f.#rjmQrAjlj .`rejrhdg tu ia:dk fmkajdoSuhs uyd j.a.md,sfha j;a;laLJOlfhoS wdpdrAh WmdOHdhyd ioaOsjsydrsl j;aj,oS nq|=r|=ka fuz lreKq uekjska jsia;rlr oS ;sfnz tfukau us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS by; olajd we;s lreKq kjfh(9)ka ukiwdjrKhlr.ksuska oDIaGs.;slj(osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;s Cousultations of Preceptor)4 tu us:Hdldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZo ks.ukj,g meusKSu nq|=iuh fhda.Hhehs wkqu;fkdlrhs oDIaGSka .@KhlsrSu hkq udkisl jsjD;Ndjh rys; ;;ajhls nqoaOs jO!kh msksi thWmldrj;a fkdfjz nqoaOs jO!kh is|=jkqfha jsjD;udkis; miq;,hla;`,oSh nq|=kajykafiaf.a Ou!foaYkd uZ.ska us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka wkq.ukhlr fndfydafofkl` Ou!djfndaOh,nd ud.!M, mila lr.kq ,enQfha Wkajykafiaf.a us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka1 tu ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak2 tu ud NnznrEm;dh3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud iufKda fkda .rE;s iufKda4 tu ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd
  • 695 Y@jKh l< wh;`< lsis|= wdldrfha oDIagshla we;sjSug lsis|= bvla fkd;nd us:Hd ldu fiajkfhka|=rejSfuz l@shdj,sh werUSug fmr Tjqka;`, ;snQ oDIaGSkao myj hk wdldrfhkaa ;u us:Hd ldufiajkfhka |=rejSfuz jsOsl@uhka Tjqkag Y@jKh jkakg ie,eiajQ nejsks4 wi;H jpkfhka je<lSu – fuu m@;sudkh ;j;a ia:r ;`kla hgf;a jsYaf,aIKhg nZ|=ka lrkq,nhs 1 wi;H joka Ndjs;fhka je<lSu 2 i;H oek.ekSfuz wkqkaf.a whs;dhg .re lsrSu yd wF:!j;a ikaksfjzok l@shdj,shl ksr; jSu 3 wkqka jsIfhys izjz nU jsyrKhkays wF:! oelafjk ffu;@S lreKd uqos;d yd WfmaCId hkidrOu! ixl,amhka jO!kh lsrSu oijsO jQ pska;kuh wOsldrhka j,ska f;drjQ ps;a; ixl,am Ndjs;dlsrSu uZ.ska wi;H jpkfhkaje<lSug yelsnj ld,du iQ;@h fmkajdosh yelsh wkqY@jh (Report)1 uZ.ska ,nd.kakd wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZo oekqu ;yjqrejSug kuz ;ukao th Ndjs;hg f.k jsuidn,d tu oekqu ;ukaf.a njg tkuz ;od;auShlKhlgNdckhlr.; hq;`h tfia fkdjkakdjQ wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka fyj;a weiSuz wkqY@jhud;@fldgf.k muKla tys ksjerosNdjh ukskq,nkafkkuz th ksjeros wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuzl@shdj,shla fkdjk nj nq|=iuh mjihs tfukau wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS mdruzmrslNdjh(mruzmrdh Tradition)2mokuzlrf.k tu wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjerosfkdfjz n@dyauKhkaf.a fjzoh iuznJOfhkao Tjqka yqjd olajkafka tu weiSuz mdruzmrsljk nejskatajs ksrjoHjk njhs mrmqfrys meusKsh;a tu Y@jKhka mokuz jS we;af;a i;H milalsrSug jvd;u;ukaf.a wd.usl wrA:oelajSuz yqjd oelajSug jk nejska tajd ksjeros Y@jKhka fkdfjz tfukau wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS fufia fmrlshd ;sfnzhkak(b;slsrdh Prologue ;Presuppose)3 mokuzlr f.k tu wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlgt<USu ksjeros fkdfjz fmrlshd ;snqkqnj hkak wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sh ;`,fm#rdKslFjh yd ineZ|=kq fohla jkjd usi tu wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj;yjqrelsrSfuys,d usKquz oKavla lr .ekSu idjoHnj nq|=iuh olajhs tfukau wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS msgl iuzmodh(Given in the Scripture)4mokuzlrf.k tu wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhkaksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjz f,aLk.;nj hkak wd.usl woyia ixrCIKfhys,d1 tu ud wkqiaifjzk2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud mruzmrdh3 tu ud b;slsrdh4 tu ud msgl iuzmodfkak
  • 696bjy,ajk l@ufjzohla usi tu wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,dth usKquz oKavla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS ;rAlkh(Logical Implication)1 mokuzlrf.k tu wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hh;drAlslnjhkak hula ta;a;` .ekajSfuz ls@hdj,sfhysoS Bg wdOdr WmldrSjk woyia yd wi;H jpkfhkaje<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka bosrsm;a lsrSfuz jsOsl@uhla jkjd yefrkakg tlS woyia yd wi;H jpkfhkaje<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquz oZvqjla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu;fkdlrhs tfukau wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS kHdhdkQidrSjSu(Nomalogical)2 mokuz lrf.ktu wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeros hehs ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hh kHdkQidrSjSuhkak hula fuz whqrska wi;H jpkfhka je<lSu l< hq;`hehs ks.ukhla ,ndoS ;snqKq l@shdoduhlgu wkq.;j tu Y@jKh is|=lrkjd yefrkakg jspdrmQrAjl jSfuys lsis|= bvlvla ta ;`,skafkdiemfha tfukau taksid th mdol fldgf.k tlS wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhkaysksjerosnj ;yjqre lsrSfuys,d th tlu usKquz oKavla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS huz fohla jkafka fuz whqrska hehs(wdldrmrsjs;rAlh Diversification of Thought)3 ;ukaf.a mQj!ixl,amkhka mdol fldgf.k tu wi;Hjpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohsidys;HOrhka l,dlrejka ;u ksu!dK jia;`nSc iZoyd fnfyjska fuu mQj!ixl,amkd Ndjs;dlr;stksid mQj!ixl,amhkhka lsishuz ksu!dKd;aul lghq;a;lg yerekqfldg wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuzjsOsl@uhka jsoHd;aul js.@yhkag t<Ushhq;` wjia:dj,oS Ndjs;dlsrSu wfhda.Hh tfukau wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS jsh yelsnj fyj;a iuzNdjs;dj(NjH;djPotentity)4 mdollrf.k tu wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlgt<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs iuzNdjs;dj jkdyS lsishuz wkqudkhls tlS wkqudkhgmdollr.kafka tu lreKg iudk fjk;a mQj!w;aoelSuzh jsh yelsnj fyda fkdjshyels nj ;SrKhflfrkafka wjsksYaps; ;;ajhla mokuzlrf.k ksid fuz uZ.ska h:drA:jdoS wjfndaOhlalrd .ukal<fkdyelsnj nq|=iuh mjihs ksYaps;jQ wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka;`, wjsksYaps;iajNdjhla ;snsh fkdyelsnejska nq|=iuh fuu ;;ajh h:drA:jdoS wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuzjsOsl@uhkag ndOdldrSjkakla f,i fmkajdoS we; tfukau wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS lshkq,nkakd fyj;a .`rejrhdf.a jpkhu;u t<US (iufKd fkd .re Cousultations of Preceptor)5 lsis|= pspdrmQj!l wdl,amhlska f;drj1 tu ud ;lal fya;`2 tu ud kh fya;`3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak4 tu ud NnznrEm;dh5 tu ud iufKda fkda .rE;s
  • 697ks.ukj,g t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs .`rejrhdf.a jpkhg ieuod ieufoku.rel< hq;`h tams<snZoj lsis|= lsis|= jsjdohla ;snsh fkdyel kuq;a fuys wvqmdvqj jkafka.`rejrhdf.a jpkh YsIHhd fld;ruz wjfndaOfhka hq;`j ms<smoskjdo hk ldrkhhs jspdrmQj!lNdjfha jeo.;alu biau;`jkafka fukak fuz ia:dkfhaoShs we;euzjsg wi;H jpkfhka je<lSub.ekajSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS fjfyi wu;ljSuz jeks fya;`ksid .`rejrhdg huzhuz w;miqjSuz we;sjshyelsh tjsg uekjska ijka fok YsIHhdf.a hq;`lujkafka ffu;@Siy.;j yd f.#rjmQrAjlj.`rejrhdg tu ia:dk fmkajdoSuhs uyd j.a.md,sfha j;a;laLJOlfhoS wdpdrAh WmdOHdh ydioaOsjsydrsl j;aj,oS nq|=r|=ka fuz lreKq uekjska jsia;rlr oS ;sfnz tfukau wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS by; olajd we;s lreKq kjfh(9)ka ukiwdjrKhlr.ksuska oDIaGs.;sl j(osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;s Cousultations of Preceptor)1 tu wi;Hjpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZo ks.ukj,g meusKSu nq|=iuh fhda.Hhehs wkqu; fkdlrhsoDIaGSka .@KhlsrSu hkq udkisl jsjD;Ndjh rys; ;;ajhls nqoaOs jO!kh msksi th Wmldrj;afkdfjz nqoaOs jO!kh is|=jkqfha jsjD;udkis; miq;,hla;`,oSh nq|=kajykafiaf.a Ou! foaYkd uZ.skawi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka wkq.ukhlr fndfydafofkl` Ou!djfndaOh ,nd ud.!M, milalr.kq ,enQfha Wkajykafiaf.a wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka Y@jKh l< wh;`< lsis|=wdldrfha oDIagshla we;sjSug lsis|= bvla fkd;nd wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sh werUSug fmrTjqka;`, ;snQ oDIaGSkao myj hk wdldrfhkaa ;u wi;H jpkfhka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka TjqkagY@jKh jkakg ie,eiajQ nejsks5 wkHhka by; olajk ,o jeros i;frys yd whym;a fofhys fm<UjSfuka je<lSSu – fuum@;sudkh ;j;a ia;r ;`kla hgf;a jsYaf,aIKhg nZ|=ka lrkq ,nhs 1 ;udg yd iudchg ydkslr oeh wkHhka ,jd lrjSug n,mEuz lsrSfuka je<lSu 2 ;udg yd iudchg ys;lr oeh wkHhka ,jd lrjSu iZoyd Okd;aul W;af;ackhka iemhSu 3 wkqka jsIfhys isjz nU jsyrKhka wF:! oelafjk ffu;@S lreKd uqos;d yd WfmaCId hk idrOu!ixl,amhka jO!kh lsrSu by; olajk ,o lreKq uZ.ska fmkakquz lrkafka ld,du iQ;@fhka js.@y flfrkafka fn#oaOmxpYS, m@;smodfjys moku njhs idudkHfhka mxpYS, m@;smodj iudc m@;sudkhla jYfhkawdrCIdlr .;hq;` fohlanejz wjOdrKh lr ;snqK;a ta l`uk lreKla ksidoehs ld,du iQ;@fhafuka js.@yhg nZ|=kalr ke; ld,du iQ;@fhys js.@ylr we;s .eUqre ufkda jsoHd;aul moku foine,Q l< jegyS hkqfha iuzmQrAK mxpYS, m@;smodju f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a I;r n@yau jsyrK mdollrf.k njhs fyj;a tla tla mqoa.,hdg ;ud flfrys;a iuia; iudch flfrys;a we;s jkakdjQ us;@YS,swdl,amh ohdjka;Ndjh wkHiemf;ys i;`gg m;ajSu yd uOHia:;djh hk ufkdajsoHdkQl~, ia:ri;rla Tiafia mxp YS, m@;smodj kuska yeZoskafjk m@;sudk moaO;sh f.dvkeZ.S we;s njhs fuuufkdajsoHdkQl~, jsjrKh me;slv folla Tiafia ;u pska;k osYdk;sh fufyhjk nj fmfka tkuz1 tu ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd
  • 698mqoa., me;slv yd iudc me;slv hk fowxYhhs flfkl`f.a idrA:lFjh rZod mj;skafka fuufoxYfhysu idrA:lFjh u;nj ld,du iQ;@fhka fmkajd oS ;sfnz oijsO jQ pska;kuh wOsldrhka j,ska f;drjQ ps;a; ixl,amhka jO!kh lsrSu ;`,ska fm<UjSuz kHdhwhym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSug yelsnj ld,du iQ;@h wkqj meyeos,sfjz wkqY@jh (Report)1 uZ.ska ,nd.kakd fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfukaje<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZo oekqu ;yjqre jSug kuz ;ukao th Ndjs;hg f.k jsuidn,d tu oekqu;ukaf.a njg tkuz ;od;auShlrKhlg Ndckhlr.; hq;`h tfia fkdjkakdjQ fm<UjSuz kHdhwhym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka fyj;a weiSuz wkqY@jh ud;@fldgf.kmuKla tys ksjerosNdjh ukskq,nkafkkuz th ksjeros fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhkaNdjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,shla fkdjk nj nq|=iuh mjihs tfukau fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoSmdruzmrslNdjh(mruzmrdh Tradition)2 mokuzlrf.k tu fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhkaNdjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjzn@dyauKhkaf.a fjzoh iuznJOfhkao Tjqka yqjd olajkafka tu mdruzmrsljk nejska tajs ksrjoHjknjhs mrmqfrys meusKsh;a tu Y@jKhka mokuz jS we;af;a i;H milalsrSug jvd ;u;ukaf.awd.usl wrA:oelajSuz yqjd oelajSug jk nejska tajd ksjeros Y@jKhka fkdfjz tfukau fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS fufiafmrlshd ;sfnzhkak(b;slsrdh Prologue ; Presuppose)3 mokuzlr f.k tu fm<UjSuz kHdhwhym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjerosfkdfjz fmrlshd ;snqkqnj hkak fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sh ;`, fm#rdKslFjh yd ineZ|=kq fohla jkjd usi tu fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;awdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d usKquz oKavlalr .ekSu idjoHnj nq|=iuh olajhs tfukau fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS msgliuzmodh(Given in the Scripture) 4mokuzlrf.k tu fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhkaNdjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjzf,aLk.;njhkak wd.usl woyia ixrCIKfhys,d bjy,ajk l@ufjzohla usi tu fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;awdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquzoKavla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud wkqiaifjzk2 tu ud mruzmrdh3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud b;slsrdh4 tu ud msgl iuzmodfkak
  • 699 tfukau fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS;rAlkh(Logical Implication)1 mokuzlrf.k tu fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg.ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hh ;drAlslnj hkak hulata;a;` .ekajSfuz ls@hdj,sfhysoS Bg wdOdr WmldrSjk woyia yd fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhkaNdjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka bosrsm;a lsrSfuz jsOsl@uhla jkjd yefrkakg tlS woyia ydfm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquz oZvqjla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoSkHdhdkQidrSjSu(Nomalogical)2 mokuz lrf.k tu fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg.ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ksjeros hehs ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hh kHdkQidrSjSu hkak hulafuz whqrska fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSu l< hq;`hehs ks.ukhla,ndoS ;snqKq l@shdoduhlgu wkq.;j tu fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfukaje<lSu is|=lrkjd yefrkakg jspdrmQrAjl jSfuys lsis|= bvlvla ta ;`,ska fkdiemfha tfukautaksid th mdol fldgf.k tlS fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuzjsOsl@uhkays ksjerosnj ;yjqre lsrSfuys,d th tlu usKquz oKavla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu;fkdlrhs tfukau fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS huzfohla jkafka fuz whqrska hehs(wdldr mrsjs;rAlh Diversification of Thought)3 ;ukaf.a mQj!ixl,amkhka mdol fldgf.k tu fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfukaje<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohsidys;HOrhka l,dlrejka ;u ksu!dK jia;`nSc iZoyd fnfyjska fuu mQj!ixl,amkd Ndjs;dlr;stksid mQj!ixl,amhkhka lsishuz ksu!dKd;aul lghq;a;lg yerekqfldg fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;awdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka jeks jsoHd;aul js.@yhkag t<Ushhq;`wjia:dj,oS Ndjs;dlsrSu wfhda.Hh tfukau fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS jshyelsnj fyj;a iuzNdjs;dj(NjH;dj Potentity)4 mdollrf.k tu fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;awdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hnjnq|=iuh fmkajdfohs iuzNdjs;dj jkdyS lsishuz wkqudkhls tlS wkqudkhg mdollr.kafka tulreKg iudk fjk;a mQj!w;aoelSuzh jsh yelsnj fyda fkdjshyels nj ;SrKh flfrkafkawjsksYaps; ;;ajhla mokuzlrf.k ksid fuz uZ.ska h:drA:jdoS wjfndaOhlalrd .ukal< fkdyelsnj nq|=iuh mjihs ksYaps;jQ Y@jKhka;`, wjsksYaps; iajNdjhla ;snsh fkdyelsnejska nq|=iuhfuu ;;ajh h:drA:jdoS fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhkag ndOdldrSjkakla f,i fmkajdoS we;1 tu ud ;lal fya;`2 tu ud kh fya;`3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h" uydj.a.h"ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 377-343 msgq ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak4 tu ud NnznrEm;dh
  • 700 tfukau fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lS l@shdj,sfhysoS lshkq,nkakd fyj;a .`rejrhdf.a jpkh u;u t<US (iufKd fkd .re Cousultations of Preceptor)1lsis|= pspdrmQj!l wdl,amhlska f;drj ks.ukj,g t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs.`rejrhdf.a jpkhg ieuod ieufoku .rel< hq;`h tams<snZoj lsis|= lsis|= jsjdohla ;snsh fkdyel kuq;a fuys wvqmdvqj jkafka .`rejrhdf.a jpkh YsIHhd fld;ruz wjfndaOfhka hq;`jms<smoskjdo hk ldrkhhs jspdrmQj!lNdjfha jeo.;alu biau;`jkafka fukak fuz ia:dkfhaoShswe;euzjsg fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS fjfyiwu;ljSuz jeks fya;`ksid .`rejrhdg huzhuz w;miqjSuz we;sjsh yelsh tjsg uekjska ijka fokYsIHhdf.a hq;`lujkafka ffu;@Siy.;j yd f.#rjmQrAjlj .`rejrhdg tu ia:dk fmkajdoSuhsuyd j.a.md,sfha j;a;laLJOlfhoS wdpdrAh WmdOHdh yd ioaOsjsydrsl j;aj,oS nq|=r|=ka fuz lreKquekjska jsia;rlr oS ;sfnz tfukau fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz fm<UjSuz kHdhwhym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfu l@shdj,sfhysoS by; olajd we;s lreKq kjfh(9)kauki wdjrKhlr.ksuska oDIaGs.;slj(osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;s Cousultations of Preceptor)2 tufm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZo ks.ukj,gmeusKSu nq|=iuh fhda.Hhehs wkqu; fkdlrhs oDIaGSka .@KhlsrSu hkq udkisl jsjD;Ndjh rys;;;ajhls nqoaOs jO!kh msksi th Wmldrj;a fkdfjz nqoaOs jO!kh is|=jkqfha jsjD;udkis;miq;,hla;`,oSh nq|=kajykafiaf.a Ou! foaYkd uZ.ska fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg.ekSfuka je<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka wkq.ukhlr fndfydafofkl` Ou!djfndaOh ,nd ud.!M, mila lr.kq,enQfha Wkajykafiaf.a fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuzjsOsl@uhka Y@jKh l< wh;`< lsis|= wdldrfha oDIagshla we;sjSug lsis|= bvla fkd;nd fm<UjSuzkHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfuka je<lSfuz l@shdj,sh werUSug fmr Tjqka;`, ;snQoDIaGSkao myj hk wdldrfhkaa ;u fm<UjSuz kHdh whym;a wdldrfhka Ndjs;hg .ekSfukaje<lSfuz jsOsl@uhka Tjqkag Y@jKh jkakg ie,eiajQ nejsks jsfYaIfhkau mqoa., fm#reI jO!k l@shdj,sh flfrys fukau mqoa.,hd iudch flfrys .kqfokqlrkq wdldrh flfryso ld,du iQ;@h wjOdrkh fhduqlr ;sfnkq oelsh yelsh tu ksid idrA:lidrOu! l@shdj,shla nsysjSu Wfoid mqoa., yd iudc hk fowxYfhkau tlfiau iyfhda.hla wjYHnj;a ta msKsi iudch ukdj mqoa.,hdg neZoS mej;sh hq;` nj;a ta neZoSu wF:!j;a jkafka iudcm@;sudk moaO;sh fkdlvfldg iqrCIs; lsrSu mqoa.,hd w;ska bgqjkafka kuz muKla nj;a ld,duiQ;@.; b.ekajSuz ;`,ska fy,s fjz1 tu ud iufKda fkda .rE;s2 tu ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd
  • 701