183          ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග්                                  03 mrspzfPAoh ( 03 Chapter )          ld,du iQ...
184     iodpdr prAhdj hkq iudc lKavdhfuz ( yrAf,dla 1978 ) iodpdr fla;hka yd wkql~,prAhdjh.‘iodpdr’ (Moral ) hk ,;ska NdId...
185ksrAjdK,CIK         m@.`KlsrSu     jkafkahtu.ska      flfkl`       ksrAjdKh      lrd     fufyhjkq,nkafkah;j;a whqrska l...
186    3 ;udyd wkHhkaf.a jsjdyosjsh ksrAndOlj .;lsrSfuzwhs;sh ;ud yd wkqkafj; ,ndoshhq;`h wOslf,i bZ|=rkamskjSfuz yd jeros...
1871 ‘ld,dufhks f;dms ta l`ulehs yZ.skakdyqo$mqreIhd;`< WmoskakdjQ f,daNh ys;msKsi fyda wys;msKsi fyda WmoSo$’‘iajduSkS wy...
188                                                                      1Action)iodpdr Ndjs;h msg;ska oeln,d wjfndaOlr.; ...
189wkHhkaf.a OrAu foaYkd fy<dolsuska ;u;uka yqjdolajk nejska ;ukaTjqka ishZMfokduiellrk njhs1     funZ|= udkisl ugzgul isg...
190m@Z{ma;sh nsZojegqkq wjia:dj,oS tu iodpdr m@Z{ma;sh nsZojegSu hym;a fyda whym;a fohlajYfhka ld,du jeishka ms,s.kakjdo k...
191    b;srsfol iodpdr OrAuhkg m@;smCIfhys wvx.` wdpdrjsoHd;aul fodaIhkah tkuznqoaOsu;`kaf.a wmjdoh yd wkq.ukh lrkakka |=l...
192i;rl`;a Tjqkag yZ|=kajd|=kafka tawkqjhtaTiafia by; m@;sfCIml< Z{dkudrA. oyhg.e;sfkdjS iodpdr jsksYaphl fhoSfuz yelshdj ...
1933 mrodrdjka lrd fkdhEu(ldu us:Hdpdrfhka je<lSu)24 fndre fkdlSu35 by; oelafjk lreKq i;frys wkqka fkdfhojSu(fuh u;ameka m...
194aelA`By,ad`evZSy      hA    aemA`hy     yn    m>Lfk    sArDr~m     t&ft`vy   sdAcArpOSy       smHgmnAvg[lepn b[vfn` aen...
195ixl,amhka isf;a jO!kh lsrSug l@shdlrhskuz ta mqoa.,hd ;j|=rg;a mD:.ackfhl` f,ifkdi,ld1 nq|=iiqk yZ|=kd.;a wdhH! mqoa.,f...
196    ‘E` aAr~y V&Avketm eemt&Fshgtsftfn` Ek`dfsAvk` pt=rvA vAsykryf.Ees`m edevnfdfVAvd Ees`m t=n`v[nf dfVAvd Ees`m htrv[...
197bvx pt`evZ.smAj gt zk t=nFkrvFmpfNfs avVYkrn`nAv> ebA`Dfs#vcyY%Av pfNfstmattfb>        nfr~vANvebA`Dy       pvA       a...
198      emes` smAjey` evesn s{m p<d`gleyk=evtm dfVA eB`dykfn` kAl avs`TA eB`dykfn`etArv uep`OSAv pt=rvn mDYs`T adhs` a[tf...
199    asAr~Tkv> emAehAet` tmn`l[bfyy<t=mv> mAnsfk as`v[sfl`l tm dr[vn`x lbAdFmx emZnfsA EbHz edmvZpfeyA` asmt`evtf.1p&tfP...
200adAL p<d`glyA nfrt=r[ mAnsfk pFwAvkxlk`evZ.uep`OSAv p<r[z p<h<N<kfrFm t=Lfn` ihtkF aAkAreyn` smAjey` anftYtAv et`r[mZeg...
201smAjAn<eyA`jn      eyhflA    v[dgt`     vn`nAes`m     b<zsmyt=L     vfg&hekern‘eemt&fy’nm[tfsArDm% s^kl`pyd smAjA n<eyA...
202       EkFs^dr~By yxet` kAlAms>t&y t=Lfn` idfrfpt`krn< lbn dhmZ pNfv<wy p&AeyA`gfkhA hrvt`edyk`bvx tmn`eg` p&YOSypdnmZk...
2032‘idfn` prelAvk` n[t`et`nmZ,krNld ehAHd enAehAHd km%yn`eg` Pl vfpAkn[t`et`nmZ,emZaAt`meyhfm eevr n[tfv zk`n[tfv,s<ves` ...
204aAkArykfn`       vfcArp>r~vk    s^kl`p     gr[krn       nfdhs`   b<d`Dfmetk=hxm    pmNk`     bvavebA`Dkr gn`nA kAlAmeyA...
205      emZ ay<rfn` kxy<t=krn`nAv> p<d`glyA tmAeg` jFvftey`dFm s[nsFmZvg% strk` lbnbvt`emm s[nsFmZ vg%str oh<eg` kvr dRS`...
206                                1 fu;a;d Metta ( Loving-Kindness)- 2       fu;a;d ixl,amh hkq l`ulaoehs uZola meyeos,s ...
207      lreKd hk jpkh bF:s ,sx. wdldrdka; mGu jsNla;s taljpk mohls1 bkawoyia jkafkawkqluzmdj ohdj hk wrA:hhs2huzlsis |=lg...
208  uqos;dfjys   jsreoaOdrA:h   kuz   BrAIHdjhsBrIHdj   we;s   ;eke;a;dg   uqos;dj   jevshfkdyeluqos;dj jevSug kuz furudf...
209uqos;d .`Kfhka wkQk jQ fifkyils Wkajykafia,d jsiska ish YsIHhkaf.a oshqKqj oelwjxlju yo m;af,kau i;`gg m;ajQ w;r ks;rka...
210tla;rd |=rlg ixisZojkakdjQ tfukau p;`;:s OHdk wjia:dj ixfla;j;a lrkakdjQ WfmaCIdjsyrKh jevSu;`,sks                     ...
211      fuhska woyia jkafka Ndjkd lrk l@ufjzofhys ishquz fkdishquz njhs uq,skau i;r n@yau jsydrNdjkdj jvkakdjQ fhda.shd t...
212   fu;a;d kuzjk usl@Ndjh tkuz ishZM iFjhka flrys ys; MrKh jvkakdjQ fhda.djprhdoafjzIfhys wdoSkjo CIdka;sfhys wdksixio i...
213   mdol kHdhhka fol f,i wrA: oelafjkafka i;r n@yau jsyrK Ndjkd jevSu msKsi bjy,alr.kakdjQ l@ufjzohka folhsfuys jsfYaI;d...
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 3.chapter

  1. 1. 183 ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග් 03 mrspzfPAoh ( 03 Chapter ) ld,du iQ;@fhka fy,sjk fn#oaO idr OrAu : iodpdrj;a nj ( Moral Perfection / Freedom : Buddist Values disclosed by Kalama Sutta ) iodpdrh ( Moral )1 idudkHfhka wd.u ( Religion )2 ixl,amfhka neyerj fmd|=fjzishZMu ukqIH jrA.hd flfrys wdfjzKsl udkj .`KOrAu f,i w:!oelafjz.idrOrAu ( Values )3lsishuz wd.ulg wdfjzKsl fohla jk w;r iodpdrh ( Moral ) tfia fkdfjz iodpdrh jsYajShfohlss ta ksid jsYajh wLKavj ixialr Kuh fjkiajSuzj,g Ndckh fjuska .,d hkakdla fukauiodpdr ( Moral )ho jsgska jsg jsjsO ixialrKhkag Ndckh fjuska udkj YsIaGdpdrh iu.utlaj .uka .kS. wOHdmk ufkdajsoHdj ( Education Phychology )4 ;`,o iodpdrh ( Moral ) ms<snZo b;djeo.;a b.ekajSuz olakg ,efnz.5wOHdmk{hkayg uq,isgu mej;s .egZMj ls iodpdrh ( Moral )b.ekajsh yelsfohlao hk ldrKh flfiajqj;a iodpdrh ( Moral ) wOHdmk{hska jsiska jsjrKhlrkq,nk wdldrh ie,ls,a,g .ekSu fuysoS jeo.;a fjz.6 fydZonj fyda krlnj ms<snZoj mqoa.,fhl` i;` ixcdkkh iodpdrh fyj;a iodpdr jsksYaphhkqfjka wOHdmk ufkda jsoHdj ;`, yeoskafjz.7iodpdrh usksia ixy;sfha mokuhs ufkdajsoHd{hkaiy wOHdmk{hka iodpdr jO!kh ms<snZoj Wkka|= jS we;af;a iodpdr ySknj fya;`fldg f.k uy;ajQ iudc ufkdajsoHd;aul .egZM we;sjk fyhsk.8fidrlu jxpdj fndrelSu jskdYldrS nj jeks syeisrSu ksoiqka f,i oelajsh yelsh.iodpdrh ms<snZo wOHdmk jsoHdfjz jvd;au m@p,s; kHdhhkajkqfha mshdfcA iy fld,anrA.a jsiska bosrsm;a l, kHdhhka fjz.91 wOHdmk ufkdajsoHdj"ixia csf;aF|@ fudaydka"mrs iajrAKd jsfcA;`x."wOHdmk m@ldYk fomdrA;fuzka;`j"biqremdh"1996"155 msgqj2 Magic Science Religion and Other Essays,B.Malinowoski,London,Oxford Press,19483 idrOrAu wOHdmkh"ta tiand,iQrsh"jsfcAiQrsh .@J: flaJ|@h"m@shisrs m@Skagska isiaguzia"kqf.af.dv"19974 wOHdmk ufkdajsoHdj"ixia csf;aJ|@ fudaydka"mrsiajrAKd jsfcA;`x."wOHdmk m@ldYk fomdrA;fuzka;`j"biqremdh "1996"155 msgqj5 idrOrAu wOHdmkh"nka|=, w;a;kdhl"iriaj;S m@ldYk6 wOHdmk ufkda jsoHdj yd .`rejrhd"ohd frdyK w;`fldar,"fya,s ksu,d w;`fldar,"YsCId ukaosr m@ldYk"fnd/,a,"20007 Educational Psychology,Prentice Hall,New Delhi,19788 The Moral Judgement of the Child, Routledge and Kagan Paul,Piaget Jean,London,19329 The Development of Moral Values in Children,Eysenk,Brith Journal of Psychology,London,1971
  2. 2. 184 iodpdr prAhdj hkq iudc lKavdhfuz ( yrAf,dla 1978 ) iodpdr fla;hka yd wkql~,prAhdjh.‘iodpdr’ (Moral ) hk ,;ska NdIdfjz ‘fudarAia’( Mores )1 jpkh wdpdrjsOs isrs;a jsrs;a ydyd ckjsOs yZ.jk jpkfhka nsZoS wdjls idudcSh mej;`uz ( fudarAia ) oek.ekSu <uhskaf.ka wfmaCIdl< fkdyelsjqjo Tjqka kj fhdjqka jshg m;ajk jsg iudch wkqu; whqrska yeisrSsu wfmaCIdflfrA.2 i;H jYfhkau iodpdr prAhdj wNHka;rfhka we;sjkakls ndysr wdOsm;Hh wNHka;rwdOsm;Hhla njg yerSu;`,ska iodpdr prAhdj f.dvkef.a wNHka;r kshdukfhka hq;a yeisrsfukaiodpdr yeisrSu iukajs;fjz.j.lSu iy wkHhka ms<snZo ie,ls,a, iajdrA:hg jvd iudcdrA:hguq,a;ekoSfuz yeZ.Sfuka hqla;h. nq|=kajykafia fidhd.;a mru i;Hh kuz iirska tf;rjSu iZoyd .ukal< hq;` udrA.h wxYfollska hqla;jk njhs.tkuz m@{dj iy iodpdrhhs fn#oaO udrA.h;`< fuz fol fjkal, fkdyels f,iwfkHdakH jYfhka neZoSmj;Sm@{dfjka ksjka oelSu ksid flfkl` iirska ksoyia fjhs ulaksidoiirg neZoS mj;skafka fudayh ksidjk nejskstfy;a m@{dj jevSu muKla fkdiEfya m@{dj m@.`KlsrSu wjYHfhkau iodpdr m@.`KHh;a iu. tlg w;aje,a neZo hd hq;`h ulaksido ksrAjdKfhysfyj;a mrudrA: i;Hfhys iajNdjhiodpdrd;aul jk nejsks tu ksid iodpdrh m@.`KlsrSu hkq1 Coral Garden and their Magic:A Study of the Methods billing the Soil and of Agricultural Rites inthe Trobiand Island,B. Malinowoski,Amwrican Book Co,New York,19352 How to Children Learn,John Holt,Penguin Book,London,1983.
  3. 3. 185ksrAjdK,CIK m@.`KlsrSu jkafkahtu.ska flfkl` ksrAjdKh lrd fufyhjkq,nkafkah;j;a whqrska lsjfyd;a iodpdrh m@.`KlsrSfuka ksrAjdKdj fndaOuh m@;sM, ,nkafkah ‘ioa’ hk jpkh ‘wdpdr’ hk wdpdrjsoHd;aul jpkh ( Ethics )1 yd tlajSiodpdrh hkjpkh iEoS we;‘ioa’hkq hym;a hkqhs ‘ioa’yd ‘i;a’ hk joka hym;a hk wrA:fhys NdIdjHjydrh;`, fhoS ;sfnz2 ‘wdpdr’ hkak odrAYksl jYfhka udkj yeisrSuz rgdjka jrA.SlrKh lroelajSu ioyd Ndjs;d lrkq,efnzta wkqj wdpdr hkafkka udkj yeisrSuz rgdjka jrA.SlrKhfldgoelajSu ioyd Ndjs;d lrkq ,efnzta wkqj wdpdr hkafkka udkj yeisrSuz rgdjka wOHhkh lsrSuwoyia lrkq ,efnzta wkqj wdpdr hkafkka udkj yeisrSuz rgdjka wOHhkh lsrSu woyia lrkq ,efnzta wkqj ioa + wdpdr = iodpdr( Moral )hk jpkfhka woyia lrkqfha Okd;aul (fydZo hym;a)udkj yeisrSuz rgdjka wOHhkh lsrSu hkqfjka wrA:l:kh l< yelsh by; olajk ,o ksrAjpkh wkqj iodpdrh ( Moral ) tl wd.ulg tlj.!hlg tl cd;shlg tl f.da;@hlg iSudjk fohla fkdj"uqZM uy;a iudchgu f,dalhgu jsYajhgu fmd|= jsYajShOrAu;djhls‘iodpdrhg’ idfmaCIlj idr OrAu (Values )j,g iSudwe;tkuz fn#oaO idr OrAulf;da,sl idrOrAu yska|= idr OrAu bia,duz idr OrAu jYfhka wd.uz jYfhka cd;s jYfhka j.!lriSud lr y|=kajkq ,nk w;r ‘iodpdrh ( Moral )’jkdyS wiSus;(iSud rys;) fmd|= OrAu;dj hlsfuzwkqj iodpdrhg wd.uz fNao jrAKfNao l`, fNao ke; iodpdrh jsjD; udkisl ugzgu ;`,ska nsysjkw;sYhskau mqZM,a OrAu;djhls3 f,dalfha mshjsiajNdjh‘iodpdrh’(Moral) f,io yZ|=kajkq ,nkafka fuz ksidh wd.u l`ulajqj;acd;sh l`,f.da;@h l`ulajqj;a ukqIH iudch;`< cSj;ajk mqoa.,fhl` jsiska wfkla idudcslhkaf.aiudcsl jgskdluz yd neZoSuzflfrys wfkHdakHf.#rjfhka ms,smeoshhq;` uQ<sl iodpdr kS;s mylamxpYS, m@;smodj kdufhka nq|=iufha idlpzPdjg nZ|=kalrhs4tajdkuz 1 iudcfha fjfik usksia ;srsika iEu wfhl`u ;u cSjs;h mj;ajdf.khdug leu;sh tnejskawkHhkai;` cSj;ajSfuzwhs;shg uu f.#rjlrus5 thg ydksjk mrsos l@shdfkdlrushs m<uq iodpdrrS;sh wdrCIdl<hq;`h 2 wkHhkai;` foam< Tjqkajsiska mrsyrKhlsrSfuz whs;sh uqos;djfhka bjishhq;`h BrAIHdmrjYfkdjsh hq;`hfu;a is;ska lreKdfjka yd WfmaCIdfjkahq;`j wkqka i;` foam< flfrys ;Kaydjyeroeush hq;`h hk fojk iodpdrrS;sh wdrCId l<hq;`h61 wdpdr jsoHdj"mS vS fmauisrs" vnz,sjz fla ekalskd"jspdrd;aul yeZoskajSula iys; mrsjrA;kh"tiaf.dvf.aiy ifydaorfhda"fld<U"19982 iodpdr orAYkh Ouzumo weiqfrka"wfnzr;ak iurfldak" iajia;s fmd;a m@ldYlfhda"cd we," 20023 The Development of Moral Values in Children,Eysent,Brith Journal of Psychology,London,1971.4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgqwmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx nka;sk woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;xys;dh iqLdh;s5 tu fkj mdKx yka;s6 tu k woskakx wdosh;s
  4. 4. 186 3 ;udyd wkHhkaf.a jsjdyosjsh ksrAndOlj .;lsrSfuzwhs;sh ;ud yd wkqkafj; ,ndoshhq;`h wOslf,i bZ|=rkamskjSfuz yd jerosf,i ldhsl ix;rAmKh,enSfuz ;kaydj yeroeush hq;`hhkf;jkiodpdrrS;sh wdrCIdl<hq;`h1 4 i;H oek.ekSug wkHhkag we;swhs;shg ndOdfkdl<hq;`hjpkfhka wkqka nsZojSu wkqka nsZojSu;ojpk Ndjs;fhka ys;a rsojSu ysiajpk Ndjs;fhka wkqkaf.a jgskdld,h ld oeuSu fkdl<hq;`hwe;a; we;siegsfhka mjid jpkfhys m@shukdmnj mj;ajd.ekSuhk i;rjk iodpdr rS;shwdrCIdl<hq;`h2 5 isysuq<djSfuka hq;`j yd tfia isysuq<djS lrklshkfohska wkqka mSvdjg m;alsrSfukaa je<lshhq;`hmshjs isysfhka lghq;`lsrSfuz wkHhkaf.a idudcSh ksoyig ndOdfkdl< hq;`hhk miajkiodpdrrS;sh wdrCId l< hq;`h3 ld,du iQ;@fhys jsia;r lrkqfhao by; mxoYS, m@;smodfjz oelafjk iodpdrOrAu wdrCIdlsrSugwjYH lrk udkisl l`i,;d jrAOkhlr.kakd whqre ld,du jeishkag foiQ wjia:djls th fufiaoelafjztkuz 4 “ld,dufhks f,daNfhka hqla;jQ fuz mqreImqoa.,f;fuz jkdyS f,daNhjsiska uvkd ,oafoa yd;amiskajskdY lrk,o is;a we;af;a i;`kao urhs fidrluzo lrhsmrodrdjka lrdohhsfndreo lshhshful`g oSrA>ld,hla wys; msKsifjzo |=la msKsifjzo wkHhdo tanejz msksi iudoka fjzo” “iajduSks tfiah” 5 ld,du iQ;@fhys jsia;rlrkqfha nq|=r|=kajsiska jsYajSh iodpdrOu!f,i W.kajk,o mxpYS,m@;smodj ;`< wka;rA.; m@Odk iodpdr uQ<OrAu miunejz fuz wkqj fmfkatmuKla fkdj by;lSm@Odk jeros miska je<lSuu m@Odk iodpdruQ<Ou! milanj meyeos,slroS we;6 l,du iQ;@fhaoS by;lS m@Odk iodpdr jerosmi we;sjSug ;`vqfok fya;`ms<snZojo oSrA>f,iidlpzPdjg nZ|=kalrwe;fuz hgf;a nq|=r|=ka ld,dujeishkayg meyeos,slrfokqfha m@dK>d;hgwo;a;dodkhg lduus:Hd pdrhg uqidjdohg yd isysuq,djg n,mdk huzjeros mila ukqIHhka w;skais|=fjzo thg fya;`N~;jk ufkda jsoHd;aullreKq ;`kla we;snjhtkuz1 tu k mrodrx .pzP;s2 tu k uqid NK;s NK;s3 tu mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdjcdfkhHd: bfuz Ouzud wl`i,d bfuz Ouzud idjcAcd bfuz Ouzud idjcAcd jsZ[aZC|=.rys;d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;diudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfya ixj;a5 tu ,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da f,dafNak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;s woskakuzmswdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x wys;dh|=laLdhd;s6 tu ;x lsx uZ[afZ[: ld,dud wf,dafNda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmmcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd ld,dud;s$ys;dh Nkaf;
  5. 5. 1871 ‘ld,dufhks f;dms ta l`ulehs yZ.skakdyqo$mqreIhd;`< WmoskakdjQ f,daNh ys;msKsi fyda wys;msKsi fyda WmoSo$’‘iajduSkS wys;msKsih’12 ‘l,dufhks f;dms ta l`ulaoehs yZ.skakdyqo$mqreIhd;`< WmoskakdjQ oafjzIh ys; msKsi fyda wys;msKsi fyda WmoSo$‘iajduSks wys;msKsih’23‘l,dufhks f;dms ta l`ulaoehs yZ.skakdyqo$mqreIhd;`< WmoskakdjQ fudayh ys;msKsi fyda wys;msKsi fyda Wmoskafkao$‘iajduSks wys;msKsih’3 fuz wkqj mxpYS, m@;smodjg wh;a uQ<sl iodpdrh mqoa.,fhl` w;ska lvjkafka mqoa.,hd;`<we;sjk udkisl |=rAj,;d ;`klajk f,daNh oafjzIh yd fudayh ksidnj olajd ;sfnzfuys f,daNhhkq wdYdlsrSuhsoafjzYh hkq ;ry .;shhsfudayh hkq wruqfKys uq<djSuhsfuu udkisl |=rAj,;dksid ukqIHhd w;ska uQ<sl iodpdr m@Z{ma;shjk mxpYS, m@;smodj lvjknj jsia;riys;jld,duiQ;@fhys bosrsm;a flfrA4 wOHdmk jsoHdfjz (Education Science)5 ksrAjpkh flfrkafka idrOrAu jkdyS ixl,amuhjQjla (Conceptual) nj;a th jHjydrslj Ndjs;fhaoS iodpdrhnjg mrsjrA;kh l<yels yd tfial<hq;`njh;j|=rg;a meyeos,slrkafkakuz idrOrAu(Values)jkdyS Y`oaO ixl,amuh (PureConceptual)6 fohlajk w;r th w;sYh ishquzh.eUqrehiodpdrh jkdyS m@dfhda.slj yeisrSuzrgdyd noaOjQjlajk nejska jHjydrsl phH!dmoaO;shla (Applied Ethics)jk njhs7 fuz wkqj idrOrAub;d ishquz fohlajk w;r th ufkdauQ<slj ps;a; ffp;isl OrAu flaJ|@lrf.k nsysfjz iodpdrOrAu udkjhd iudcmoaO;shl yeisrSu lrKfldgf.k ta iudc moaO;s h;`< m@dfhda.slj nsysjkfmd|= iudciuzuq;Skah fuhska meyeos,sjkqfha idrOrAu(Values)iodpdrhg (Moral) jvd ishquzjk njhs8idrOrAuu;`msgskan,d wrA:oelajsh fkdyelsh ufkdauQ<slnejsks(Conceptualization)9 iodpdr h jkdyS lhjpk Ndjs;fhka m@lgj fmfkkakla jknejska usksiayeisrSuz rgd wOHhkfhka (Ideo-Behaviour1 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud f,dafNda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$ wys;dh Nkaf;2 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud fodafida iqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$wys;dh Nkaf;3 tu msgq ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfudafyda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq ,qoafOda …|=gzfGda…uq<afyda….mkdhx fOdald,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da f,dafNk…foafiak…fudafyak….wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;swoskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hz I fyda;s oS> r;a;x wys;dh|=laLhd;s5 Introduction to Educational Psychology Methuen,E. Stone ,London,1982.6 Educational Psychology,L. S. Vigotsky,st.Lucy Press,Florida,1999.7 Human Teaching for Human Learning Viking,Brown George,New York,1971.8 How to Children Learn,John Holt,Penguin Book,London,1983.9 wOHdmk ufkdajsoHdj yd .`rejrhd"ohd frdayK w;`fldar"fya,s ksu,d w;`fldar,"YsCId ukaosr m@ldYk"fnd/,a," 2000
  6. 6. 188 1Action)iodpdr Ndjs;h msg;ska oeln,d wjfndaOlr.; yelsh fuz wkqj idrOrAu ydiodpdrh w;r we;s iuznJO;djhjkqfha ufkdauQ<slj nsysjk idrOrAu ixl,am (ConceptualistViews)uZ.ska iodpdrh hkqfjka yeZoskafjk udkj prAhd rgdjkaa md,khflfrhs2idrOrAu uZ.skaiodpdrh l@shd;aul flfrAfuz wkqj uki idrOrAu mCIfhys;a isrer iodpdrh hgf;a;a l@shd;auljkq fmfka3 ld,du iQ;@fhys nq|=r|=kajsiska iodpdrd;aul m@Z{ma;s lvjSula wrA:olajk m@dK>d;h fidrlumrodrdjkalrdhdu fndrelSu yd isysuq,dj hk lreKq mxpYS, m@;smodj uZ.skao iodpdrd;aulm@Z{ma;s lvjSulaf,i oelafjzjevs|=rg;a ld,du iQ;@fha oelafjkafka fuu iodpdrd;aul m@Z{ma;s lvjSug usksidf.a jeros udkisl ixl,am;`kla fyj;a idrOrAu ixl,am;`klf.a lvjSula fya;`jknjhstkuz f,daNh oafjzIh yd fudayh hkufkdauQ< ixl,am;`khs fuzjdkrlfyj;a whym;a fuzjdkrl fyj;a whym;a mCIhg (lKay Ouzu) wh;a ufkdauQ< ixl,amhkah fuzjdfha jsreoaO mCIh fyj;a (Y`la, Ouzu)f,i oelafjk ufkdauQ< ixl,am;`k jkqfha wf,daN ydwfudayhk;`khs4fuu ufkdauQ< ixl,amhkaf.a Y`la,mCIh fyj;a iq|= mCIh uZ.ska wjOdrKhflfrkqfha tajd idrOrAu ixl,am .Kfhys,d l@shd;auljknjhsfn#oaO idrOrAu jkqfhao fuuwf,daN wfodai yd wfuday hk;`khsfuysoS jsfYaIfhka jeo.;ajkqfhaa fuu idrOrAu ixl,am;`kfn#oaO wfn#oaO fNaohlskaf;drj iEu ukqIHfhl`f.au is;a;`< cks;jSfuz iuzNdjs;djla mj;sknjhs fn#oaO idrOrAu hkqfjkawoyialrkafka ienjskau fn#oaO wfn#oaO fNaohlska f;drj iEuflfkl`f.au is;aysyg.kq,nk Okd;aul ufkdauQ< ixl,am;`klanj fuz wkqj meyeos,sfjz ld,duiQ;@fhys jsia;rjk js.@yhg wkqj ukqIHhd w;ska is|=jk iodpdr m@Z{ma;s lvjSu is|=jkqfha by;l@shdFuljk idrOrAu ixl,am hkaf.a lvjSu fyj;a ufkdauQ< ixl,amhkaf.a lKay mCIh (lZMme;a; krl whym;a mCIh) ksidnj fuz wkqj meyeos,shfuz ;Fjh fn#oaO wfn#oaO fNaohlskaf;drj ishZM iFjhd jsIfhys fmd|= ldrKhla nj meyeos,sjsh hq;`h fuysoS u;l;nd .;hq;` wfkla jeo.;a ldrKh jkqfha ld,du jeishka jkdyS fn#oaOhka msrsilafkdjQ njhs.nq|=r|=ka fuu ld,du iQ;@foaYkdj lrkafka fndfyda wd.usl Ydia;Djreka ixLHdjlf.aoyuzmKsjqv Y@jKhlr m<mqre|= tfiau tajd lsisjla wOdk.@dySj fkdms<s.;a b;du by< ugzgfuzjspdrnqoaOshlska fynshdjQ msrsilghTjqka uq<oSu nq|=r|=kaf.ka jsuiqfjz fuz wkaouska jsjsO Ydia;Djre1 buEkqfj,a ldkagzf.a {dk jsNd.h fn#oaO pska;kh weiqrska flfrk wOHhkhla"lms, wNhjxY md,s ydfn#oaaO wOHhk mYapd;a WmdOs wdh;kh"le<Ksh jsYajjsoHd,h"19972 iodpdr orAYkh Ouzumoh weiqfrka" wfnzr;ak iurfldak"a iajia;s fmd;a m@ldYlfhd"a cd we," 20023 tu4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wf,dafNdamqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda wmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$ys;dh Nkaf; ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfudafyda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dhjd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;
  7. 7. 189wkHhkaf.a OrAu foaYkd fy<dolsuska ;u;uka yqjdolajk nejska ;ukaTjqka ishZMfokduiellrk njhs1 funZ|= udkisl ugzgul isgshdjQ ld,dujrekag nq|=r|=ka OrAufoaYkdj mgka.;af;ao Tjqkaf.aia:djrh ksjerosnj mjiuskstfiau lsisuwkaoulska ndysr;Fjhla wOsldruh;kays,d i;Hh.fjzYkh fkdl<hq;` nj;a i;H .fjzIKfhaoS i;Hho keoao hkqfjka jsuiSu iZoyd mdollr .;hq;af;a wod<lreKu muKla nj;a wod< lreK yer ndysrhula Bg iuznJOlr .ekSu;`<ska jsjD;udkislFjh fkd,efnk nj;a ta whqrska jsjD; ukiska f;drj flfkl`g i;H ksiswhqrska oekyZ|=kd.ekSug fkd,efnknj;a nq|=r|=ka ld,du jeishkag myod|=ks2 fuz hgf;a nq|=yq mshjfrka mshjr ld,du jeishkag lreKq olajuska uQ<sl jYfhka iodpdrm@Z{ma;sh meyeos,slrk wjia:djg meusfK;s uQ<slj Wkajykafia fuysoS f,dalfha iodpdr m@Z{ma;shfyj;a fn#oaO wfn#oaO fNaohlskaf;drj fuf,dj ukqIHfhl` jYfhka jdikdjka; cSjs;hla.;lsrSug flfkl`gwjYH lrk uQ<sl idudcsl wjYH;d myla meyeos,lroS ;sfnztu uQ<sl sidudcsl wjYH;djhkuz uQ<sl iodpdr m@Z{ma;sh fyj;a iodpdr uQ<OrAu mihs(5) fyj;a mxpYS,m@;smodfjz oelafjk jeros yeisrSuz mfika fjkajSuhs3 iodpdr m@Z{ma;sh w:!j;ajkafka fuu mxpYS,m@;smodj uZ.ska nejska wd.uz fNaohlska f;drj iEuudkj fhl`ygu ksrrAnqo iudcsl cSjs;hla .;lsrSu iZoyd by; mxpYS,m@;smodfjka oelajqkqiodpdrm@Z{ma;sh wdrCIdlsrSu w;HjYHfjhsmxp YS, m@;smodj;`< oelafjk uQ<sl iodpdrOu! myl@sia;shdkqjkaf.a oimKf; yso wka;.!;jSu;`<ska fmkShkafkao wd.uzfNaohlskaf;drj udkjiudcphH!drgdj ksrrAnqoj mj;ajdf.k hEu msKsi wjYHlrk uQ<sliodpdrm@Z{ma;shla f,i mxp YS,m@;smodj ms<s.ekSug ,laj ;snQ njh4 fuu jeros yeisrSuz yg.ekSug fya;`jf,i nq|=r|=ka uS<Z.g ld,du jeishkag olajkqfha ukqIHps;a; ika;dkfha nsysjk ixl,amuhjQ uQ<sl idrOrAu ixl,am;`kla lvjSuksid ukqIHhd w;skafunZ|= iodpdr m@Z{ma;s lvjSu is|=jk njhs5tu uQ<sl idrOrAu ;`k wf,daN woafjzI yd wfudaykuztu idrOrAu ;`fkys lvjSu f,dN oafjzI yd fuday hkqfjka olajhs6B<Z.g nq|=r|=ka jsiska ld,duhkald,duhka f.ka jsuikq ,nkafka fuz whqrska idrOrAu ixl,am lvjSu fya;`fldgf.k uQ<sl iodpdr1 tu ika;s Nkaf; tafla iuK n@dyauKd flai mq;a;x wd.pzPka;s f;a ilZ[afZ[j jdox oSfmka;s fcdaf;ka;smrjdox mk Lqfika;s juzfNka;s TzmmlaLsx lfrdka;s mrsNjka;s wmfrAmsNkaf; tafla iuK n@dyauKdflaimq;a;x wd.pzPka;s f;ams ilZ[afZ[j jdox oSfmka;s fcdaf;ka;s mrjdox mk Lqxfikaa;s juzfNka;s fikTzmmlaLsx lfrdka;s mrsNjka;s f;aix fkdaNkaf; wuzydlx fydaf;aj lxLdfyda;s jspslspzPd fldaiq kdu bfuzixNjka;dkx iuK n@dyauKdkx ipzpx wdy flda uqid;s2 tu ta: ;`uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl iuzmodfkak ud ;lal fyaa;` ud fykh fya;` ud wldrmrsjs;laflk ud osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkda .rE;s3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgqmrshdhskak ps;af;da mdKuzms yka;swoskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x ;:;awys;dh |=laLdh;s4 tu5 tu ,qoafOda…|=gzfGda…uq<afyda…mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da f,dafNak..fodafiak…fudafyak wNsN~f;damrshdoskak ps;af;da mdKuzms nka;s woskakuzms wdosh;s mrodruzms .pzP;s uqidms NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dhiudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x wys;dh |=laLdhd;s6 tu ,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak wNsN~f;d..|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,dafodafiak wNsN~f;da…uq<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafyak wNsN~f;da mrshdoskak ps;af;da
  8. 8. 190m@Z{ma;sh nsZojegqkq wjia:dj,oS tu iodpdr m@Z{ma;sh nsZojegSu hym;a fyda whym;a fohlajYfhka ld,du jeishka ms,s.kakjdo keoaohk ldrKhhs1ta ms<s.ekSu Wv nq|=r|=ka olajkuQ<slidrOrAu ixl,am ms<snZo b.ekajSuzj, yd iodpdrm@Z{ma;sh iuznJO b.ekajSuzj, i;H fydawi;H;djh ;yjqrejknj nq|=yq lreKqiys;j ld,du jeishkag fmkajd|=kay fuysoS ld,du jeishkagu m@;HCIjYfhka nq|=r|=kajsiska by; iZoykalrk js.@yh i;Hnejzjgyd.ekSug Wmldrjk kHdh jYfhka Ndjs;dl<yels lreKqlSmhlaflfrA ld,du jeishkaf.awjOdkh fhduqlrjhstkuz1‘ld,dufhks ta l`ula is;kakdyqo$fuz Ou!fhda l`i,a fyda fjzo wl`i,a fyda fjzoao$’‘iajduSkS wl`i,ah’22‘jro fj;ao ksjro fj;ao$’ ‘iajduSkS jro fj;a’33‘kqjKe;a;kajsiska .rANdlrkq,oaodyq fjoao$kqjKe;a;kajsiska m@YxidlrK,oaodyq fj;ao$’‘iajduSkS .rANd lrK ,oaodyqfj;a’44‘iuzmQrAK lrk,oaodyq iudokajk ,oaodyq wys;msKsi |=lmsKsi mj;soao fkdfj;ao$‘iajduSkSwys;msKsi |=lmsKsi mj;afkah’5 nq|=r|=ka fuz weiqrska ld,du iQ;@fhys iodpdrm@Z{ma;sh nsZoShdfukajk iudcuh whym; jsOsl@ui;rlska ld,du jeishkayg ta;a;` .kajkq,efnztkuz th wl`i,a nj jeros iy.;nj m@Z{djka;hkaf.a .rANdjg md;@jSu yd wkq.ukh lrkakkag wys;lrjkaklanjhs6 fuhska folla idrOrAuj,g jsreoaO mCIfhys,d wka;.!;fjz tkuz wl`i,anjhs fuys wl`i,h hkjpkfhka woyialrk ,oafoa th l`i,;dj msKsi fkdjkakla njhsl`i,;djhkuz is; ksjSfuzl`i,;djhhsfyj;a wl`i,h kuz is; pxp,lrjkakla njhs wfkla lKaymdCIsl Ou!h jkafka‘jroldrSnjhs’fuyss jrohkqfjka oelafjkqfha ixl,amuh mCIfhka whym;a udkisl ugzguhsfuulKaymdCIsl OrAufol ixl,amuh jYfhka idrOrAu ixl,amhkg jsreoaO mCIhg tkuz idr OrAuiqla,(iq|=)ixl,amhlakuz by;lS OrAufol lKay(lZM)ixl,amhkg wka;rA.; fjz1 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud$fmdafNda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dhjd;s$wys;dh Nkaf;a ;x lsx uZ[afZ[: ld,dud fodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dhjd wys;dh jd;s$wys;dh Nkaf; ;x lsx uZ[fZ[: ld,dud fudafda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda wcAWmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$wys;dh Nkaf;2 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud bfuz Ouzud l`i,d jd wl`i,d jd ;s$wl`i,d Nkaf;3 tu idjcAcd jd wkjcAcd jd;s$idjcAcd Nkaf;4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgqjsZ[aZC|+ .rys;d jd jsZ[aZ|+mamiF:d C|+jd;s$jsZ[aZ|+.rys;d Nkaf;5 tu iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S$fkda jd l:x jd fyF: fyda;S;s$iu;a;d Nkaf;iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;s tajx fkda fyF: fyda;S;s6 tu hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhHd: bfuz Ouzud wl`i,d bfuz Ouzud idjcAcd bfuz OuzudjsZ[aZC|+.rys;d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfya ld,dudmcfyhahdd:d;s b;s hx ;x jq;a;x bod fuz;x mgspzp jq;a;x
  9. 9. 191 b;srsfol iodpdr OrAuhkg m@;smCIfhys wvx.` wdpdrjsoHd;aul fodaIhkah tkuznqoaOsu;`kaf.a wmjdoh yd wkq.ukh lrkakka |=lg muqKqjknjhs m@dfhda.sl jHjydrfhkam@;sfCImjk OrAu folla fyhska fuu OrAufol iodpdrOrAuhkg m@;smCIj fhfoknejz meyeos,sh1 B<Z.g nq|=r|=ka ld,du jeishkaf.a m@;scdkd;aul m@ia;`;hlska lreKqjsui;suq,oS m@;sfYaOkd;aulfyj;a jeros ms<snZoj jsuiqfjz huzlsis jrola ksjeroslsrSug tlS jro ksjerosnj oek.ekSu;a tujro we;sjSug ;`vq|=ka fya;`j;a ksjerosj oek.ekSu jro nsysjSug ;`vq|=kafya;` uZ.yrjd jro ksjeroslsrSug wjldYi,ikakla fyhskst;ekoS kej;;a ld,du jeishka lsishuz t,an.ekSulska pska;kuhoDIaGsiy.;njlg m;ajSu je<lSu iZoyd;a Tjqyq jsjD; ukilska ;enSu iZoyd;a m@;sfCIams; oijsOksfYaOd;aul Z{dkudrA.sl ksIaGdjka isysm;alrkq,nhs(fuu oijsO ksfYaOkd;aul Z{dkudrA.slksIaGdjka isysm;alrkq,nhs(fuu oi jsOksfYaOkd;aul Z{dkudrA.sl ksIaGdjka ms<snZo jsia;r 4yd5hk mrspzfPAoj,oS jsia;r flrS we;) ld,du jeishka iodpdrh iZoyd fm<fTkqfha tkuz uQ<sl jYfhka iodpdrh ke;sjk jeros oektajd bj;a lsrSu;`,ska iodpdrd;aul yeisrSulg meusKshyelsnejz meyeos,sju jgydf.khs tmuKlaofkdj tajdg ;Hd.f,i tkuz iodpdrd;aul yeisrSu iZoyd iudcfhka ,efnk m@;scdkd;aulia:uzNkhka ms<snZojo ld,dufhda lreKq wjfndaOlr.ks;stkuz l`i,nj fydZonj m@ixYdjwkq.ukhlsrSfuka hym; ie,iSu hk lreKq i;rhs fulS uQ<sl lrekqi;rg meusKs ld,duhkag wkqY@jKh mokuz lrf.k mdruzmrsl jsYajdihmokuz lrf.k fmd;mf;ys tklreKq mokuzlrf.k mQrAjfhys lshd;sfnkfoa mokuzlrf.k;rAlh mokuz lrf.k kHdh mokuzlrf.k ixl,amh mokuzlrf.k oDIaGsh mokuzlrf.ku;`msgska fmfkk fydZonj mokuzlrf.k yd .`rejrhdf.a oek W.;aluz mokuzlrf.k hklreKq oyh mokuzlrf.k ;j|=rg;a oDIaGs.;slfhl`jSfuz jqjukdjla we;sfkdfjz2fuu oijsOlreKq udkisl wdjD;nj we;slrk lreKqh udkisl jy,anj we;slrk lreKqh wkqudkh mokuzlr.;a lreKqh kuq;a nq|=r|=ka ld,du iQ;@fhka fmkajd|=ka m@udKh tkuz iodpdrj;anj ;SrKh ldrSfuz ksrAKdhl i;r jk l`i,;djh fydZonj m@ixYdj ys;iqj,enSu hklreKq i;r m@;HCIh m@udKh lr.;a jspdrmQrAjl mokula Tiafia ;ukajsiskau o;afoa wkqj ;udu ,nd.;a ks.uk fjhs3 hk tkuZ.la fkdue;sj wjspdrfha w;ruxj isgs ld,du jeishkag ksis wdldrfhka jspdrmQrAjlj iodpdrOrAufoi ne,Sug;a ksis iodpdr m@Z{ma;shla f.dvkZ.d.ekSu iZoyd wjYHflfrk ksrAKdhl l@u1 tu jsZ{aZC|+.rys;d jd jsZ[aZC|+mamiaF:djd;s$jsZ[aZC|+.rys;d Nkaf;2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq ta: ;`uzfyald,dud ud wkqiaifjzk udmruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl iuzmodfkak ud ;lalfya;` ud khfya;` ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak ud osgzGskscACOdklaLka;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkda .rE;s3 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud bfuz Ouzud l`i,d jd w;`i,d jd;s$ l`i,d Nkaf; idjcAcd jd wkjcAcdjd;s$wkjcAcd Nkaf; jsZ[aZC|+.rys;d jd jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:d jd;s$jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:d Nkaf; iu;a;d iudoskakdys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;s$fkda jd$l:x jd fyF: fyda;S;s$iu;a;d Nkaf; iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdhixj;a;ka;s tajx fkda fyF: fyda;S;s
  10. 10. 192i;rl`;a Tjqkag yZ|=kajd|=kafka tawkqjhtaTiafia by; m@;sfCIml< Z{dkudrA. oyhg.e;sfkdjS iodpdr jsksYaphl fhoSfuz yelshdj fuz uZ.ska ld,du jeishkag ,enqks1 fuz uZ.ska idrOrAu yd iodpdr m@Z{ma;sh w;r oelafjk inZo;djho ld,dujeishkag m@;HCIlrjSug nq|=r|=kag yelsjshtkuz whym;a widrOrAu(lKayOu!);`<ska whym;a iodpdr m@Z{ma;Skansysjknj fuz hgf;a ld,du jeisfhda jsjD; ukiska jspdrmQrAjl f,i wjfndaOlr.ks;stfiau tlSuQ<OrAu mjd lsishuz ndysr fohla oDIaGsuh jYfhka wdOdrlrf.k tys wOsldrshg ps;a;Yla;shhgm;alrf.k jy,aukiska okakdjQ fohka fkdj jsjD; ukiska ;udu m@;HCIfldg nei.kakdi;Huh ks.ukhla nj;a ld,du jeisfhda f;areuz.ks;s2 fojkqj nq|=r|=ka ufkdauQ<sl idrOrAu;`kla fya;`fjka iodpdrm@Z{ma;sh l@shd;auljk njolaj;stu ufkdauQ<sl idrOrAu;`k jkdyS wf,daN wfodai yd wfuday nj ld,dufhda wjfndaOlr .ks;s1‘ld,dufhks ta l`ulehs is;kakdyqo$mqreIhd;`< WmoskakdjQ wf,daNh ys;msKsi fyda wys; msKsiWmoskafkao$’‘iajduSkS ys;msKsi fjz’32‘ld,dufhks ta l`ulehs is;kakdyqo$mqreIhd;`< WmoskakdjQ woafjzYh ys;msKsi fyda wys; msKsiWmoskafkao$’‘iajsuSkS ys; msKsi fjz’43‘ld,dufhks ta l`ulehs is;kakdyqo$mqreIhd;`< WmoskakdjQ wfudayh ys;msKsi fyda wys; msKsiWmoskafkao$’‘iajduSkS wys; msKsih’5 by; oelajQ idrOrAu ixl,am;`k tkuz wf,daN woafjzY yd wfudayhk;`kuZ.ska iudc hym;ie,fikafka ta;`<ska uQ<sl iodpdr m@Z{ma;sh wdrCIdjSu fya;`fldg f.knj ld,du jeisfhdam@;HCIfhka wjfndaOlr .ks;s6by; olajk,o idrOrAu ixl,am;`k uZ.ska wdrCIdjk uQ<sliodpdr m@Z{ma;sh f,i ld,du jeisfhda m@;HCIlr.;afka my; iZoyka lreKqhtkuz1 i;`ka fkduerSu72 fidrluz fkdlsrSu11 tu b;s fLda ld,dud hx ;x wfjdapquzy ta: ;`uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh udmsgl iuzmodfkak ud ;lalfya;` ud khfya;` ud wdldrmrsjs;laflak ud ozgzGs kscACOdklaLka;shd udNnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkda .rE;s hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhHd: bfuz Ouzud l`I,d bfuz Ouzud iufKdawkjcAcd bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+mamiF:d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfyald,dud WmiuzmcAc jsyfrhahd;s b;s hx ;x jq;a;x bofuz;x mgspzp jq;a;x2 tu hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj cfkhHd: bfuz Ouzud wl`i,d bfuz Ouzud idjcAcd bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+ hod.rys;d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfya ld,dud mcfyhahd:3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wf,dafNdamqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd ;s$ ys;dh Nkaf;4 tu;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;5 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfudafyda mqqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh mjd;s$ ys;dh Nkaf;6 tu w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da f,dafNak….w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fodafiak…wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsimq.a.f,da fudafyak wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkj mdKx yka;s kwoskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;;x ys;dhiqLdh;s7 tu fkj mdKx yka;s
  11. 11. 1933 mrodrdjka lrd fkdhEu(ldu us:Hdpdrfhka je<lSu)24 fndre fkdlSu35 by; oelafjk lreKq i;frys wkqka fkdfhojSu(fuh u;ameka mdkfhka je<lSu hA smAnvnkr[Nk` bvepen`.4Eyx eh`t=vn<ey` enAm<LAsfhfeyn`y<t= oZn{m aeyk= atfn` iht sHdhn`kr[N< strix< vFm hA ehtm E`kr[N< mHgfn` ihtfn` d[k`evn kr[N< str pfLfp[dFemhflAp&tfjAnAt`mk ups`TmZBnyk` l[ebn b[vfnf.) b[l>b[l`mx ihtd[v> kr[N<ps p^cVFl p&tfpdAv hA smAnb[vZ epen`.ps`evnf a^gyxd[k`evn anYyn` sdAcAreyhf eyAdvns`vBAvy v>klF mt`p[n` pAneyn` v[LkFemZ VfOSApdyhA smAny. mk` nfsAd yt` mt`p[n`pAny mHgfn` an<n` sdAcAr p&Qp`tfeyn` a{t` krvFmxepLMFmk` l[ebn`nAk`emn` mt`p[n` pAneyn` v[LkFmt=lfn` ehAHd yhpt` sfhfn<vNk` l[bFmxt`E` yhpt` sfhfn<vNk` l[bFmxt`,E` yhpt` sfhfn<vN BAvftyx g[nFmmt=lfn` ekenk= m>lfksdAcArp&Qp`tfy(p&ANGAteyn` v[LkFm, esArkmZ enAkfrFm,prdArAvn`krA enAy{m,ebAr[ fkdenAkFm) aArOSAkfrFmx eyAm<vFmx DnAt`mk (p&tfjAnAt`mk) ups`TmZBnyk` l[ebnb[vfnf.mt`p[n`pAny v[rdfkfrFmx an<n` epLMvFmkf.mt`p[n` pAneyn` v[LkFm sdAcArvt`vFmx 5an<n`epLMvFmkf.emZnfsA‘mt`p[n`’p&tfeV`DnAt`mk epLMvFmk`bv s[lkfy h[kfy. E` smHgm sArDr~m smZb$Deyn` epAzevZ sAmAnYeyn` krn nfr~vcnyvn idrOrAu jkdySwd.uz an<v jAtfan<v rxvl`an<v vg%ekern mAnvs^kl`p pd`Dtfyk` ynkArNy b<zdhemZvfg&hekern ebUd`D sArDr~m smZb$Deyn` tv zrxt` Ees`m vl^g=vnvAd ynkArNy mt=evyf.6mk`nfsAd yt` sArDr~m pfLfbHdv elA`kyAvfsfn` s{maAgmkm epAzevZ ar~TkTnykL h[kfsArDr~m ekAxsk` n[t[yf upkl`pnykr sArDr~mg[n ihtkF nfr~vcny idfrfpn`krtfbFmyf.7emes`kFm vl^g=vn`en`` E` E` aAgmxepAz sArDr~m smAj sdAcArp&Qp`tfy smHgsmZb$DtAvyk` enAm[t`et`nmZ pmNf.emZ an<v hfn`zn`eg` hf$z sArDr~myk` els s[lekns[mfyA mL kAn`tAv s[mfyAeg` d[evn cftkyxp[nFm ehA` blhAt`kAreyn` a[yv cftkyxdmA gfnfbt` krvFm‘stf p>jAv’vnAhF sdAcArAt`mk pOSeyn` sdAcAr vferA`DF k&fyAvkf.emZmHgfn` mn<SY GAtnyx ehA` GAtnyx an<bldFm sfzvn b[vfnf. smAj smZm<tf sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy` pLm<evnf a^gyvn p&ANGAteyn` v[LkFm emZ mHgfn` kwkrn< l[ebZ.8E` nfsA stfp>jAvn[m[tf hf$z sArDr~my smAj sdAcAry smHg enAg[lepn b[vfn` Ey sArDr~myk` elsp&tfk`eS`p evZ. emZ an<v anfvAr~eyn`m ymZkfsf aAgmk ehA` jAtfyk d[k`evn sArDr~myk` sdAcAry smHgsmZb$DenAevZd enAp{eh`d Em sArDr~my tvzrxt` sAr Dr~myk` els enAs[lek`.nm<t` b<zmeyhf d[k`evn ihtfn` vfs`trkrnld kAlAms>t&eyn` ehLfvn ebUd`DsArDr~m els s[lekn1 tu k woskakx wdosh;s2 tu k mrodrx .pzP;s3 tu k uqid NK;s4 tu mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s5 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgqmruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;=iqrdfuzrh supzPmudogzGdkd fjzruKS islaLdmox iudoshdus6 usksia cSjs;h iy .egZM fla Y@S OuzudkJo ysus fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh foysj, 19977 iodpdr orAYkh Ouzumoh weiqfrka wfnzr;ak iurfldaka iajia;s fmd;a m@ldYlfhda cd we, 20028 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgqfkj mdKuzms yka;s
  12. 12. 194aelA`By,ad`evZSy hA aemA`hy yn m>Lfk sArDr~m t&ft`vy sdAcArpOSy smHgmnAvg[lepn b[vfn` aenYA`nY vVeyn`,eh`t=PlvVeyn` mnAvs[sHdFmx pt`vnb[vfn` ebUd`DsArDr~m s^kl`p t&ft`vy vnAhF aAgmkx sFmAenAv> vfV`vFy Dr~mtAvn`t=nk` bvehLfevZ.1oZn{m aAgmk oZn{m jAtfyk p<d`gleyk= vfsfn` ihtkF sArDr~m s^kl`pt=n kwkfrFmeh`t=evn` sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy bfHdv[xFmt`,sArDr~mt=n aArOSAkfrFm eh`t=evn` sdAcAr p&Qp`tfyaArOSAvn bvt`, jAtf aAgmZeB`dykfn` etArv p&tYOSkr gnF.2emZ eh`t=evn` ebUd`D sArDr~msArDr~m tvzrxt` ebUd`D ehA` aebUd`D ehA` yn<evn` Ekm aAgmkx sFmAkrekAx<krd[k`vFm an<vN kr[Nk`bvt` Eehyfn` kAlAm s>t&ey` ig[n`evn ihtkF sArDr~mt&ft`vy epAz vfV`vFy sArDr~m t&ft`vyk`bvt` emZ an<v p[h[dflfevZ.3 kAlAm s>t&ey`dF b<zrzn` vfsfn` dk`vA a[t`et` emZ ay<rfn` m>Lfk sArDr~m s^kl`pt=nv>aelA`By, ad`evZSy hA aemA`hy yn s^kl`pt=n tmA ekerhf pfhfx<vAgt~ oZn{m p<d`gleyk=ebUd`D evZvA aebUd`Deyk=evZvA kfsfz jAtf aAgmZ eB`dykfn` etArv k&fyAt`mkpOSeyhflAan<gmnykrn p<d~glyA ‘aAyY%V&Avk’nAmeyn` h[Hdfn`evn bvyf.4Ey emes` d[k`evZ. ‘ld,dufhks fufia myl< f,daNwe;s myl< oafjzI we;s m<LAenAv> yhpt` n<vN a[t`tAv>,sfhfeyn` y<k`tv> E`‘aAyY%V&Avk’etm eemt&Fshgt sftfn` Ek`dfsAvk` pt=rvA vAsykryf.’5 nqzs<nt=L aAyY%V&Avk nAmeyn` h[Hdfn`evn<ey` ss<n`mHgx b[sgt`tAv>d nq|=iiqkhkq l`ulaoehsyZ|=kd .;a;djQ mqoa.,hdh fidajdkaud.!,dNS mqoa.,hdf.aisg wkd.duSM,,dNS mqoa.,hd olajdi;ajeoEreuz mqoa., fhdau fuu wdrAhY@djlkdufhka yeZoskafjz6 ix>r;akh;`< fulS wgjeoEreuzmqoa.,hd wka;rA.; nejska wIaGdrAh (wIaG+wdrAh=wIaGdrAh)mqoa., uydix>r;akh jYfhkajHjydrjkQfhao tnejskskuq;a ld,duiQ;@h NsCIQkajykafia,d Wfoidl< foaYkdjla fkdj .sysmsrsila Wfoid (ld,du kuz ks.ufha jsiQ .uzjeishka) foiQ oyuls7tu ksid fuu m@ldYh idudkHfhka is;kjdg jvd uZola nerEreuz yd j.lSuz iy.; m@ldYhla nj fmfka fuz ksid fuhska fmfkkafka huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` by;lS iudc iodpdrm@Z{ma;sh tkuz i;`ka fkduerSu fidrluz fkdlsrSu mrodr fiajkh fkdlsrSu wkqka ta Wfoid fm<UjSuzfkdlsrSu hk lreKqmi wdrCId lsrSug fya;`jk uQ<sl idrOrAu ixl,amhka;`k tkuz wf,daNh woafjzIh yd wfudayhhk1 tu w,qoafOda…w|=gzfGda…..wuQ<afyda…mkdhx ld,dud wf,dafNda….Wfodafida … wfudafyda… mqrsiiaiwcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;2 tu w,qoafOda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da f,dafNak wkNsN~f;da…w|=gzfGda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,dafodafiak wkNsN~f;da..wuQ<afyda mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da fudafya; wkNsN~f;da wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkajmdKx yka;s k wosskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> wor;a;dh ys;dh iqLdh;s3 tu wf,dafNda …wfodafida…wfudafyda4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgqi fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOd js.;nHdmdfoda wiuamQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da….5 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOd js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkdam;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;sWoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmlaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;akwmamudfKak wfpzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s6 oS ks 1"iduZ[Z[M, iq;a;"nq c uq144 msgqj7 tu wNslalka;x Nkaf;…fm…taf;a uhx Nkaf; N.jka;x irKx .pzPdu Ouzuxp NslaLq ix>xp Wmdiflafkda Nkaf; N.jd OdfrA;` wcAc;.af.a mdKqqfmaf;a irKx .f;a;s
  13. 13. 195ixl,amhka isf;a jO!kh lsrSug l@shdlrhskuz ta mqoa.,hd ;j|=rg;a mD:.ackfhl` f,ifkdi,ld1 nq|=iiqk yZ|=kd.;a wdhH! mqoa.,fhl`f.a ;Fjfhka yZ|=kajdwe;snjhs.kAlAms>t&ey` m<lfn`mp&tfk`eS`p krnld dsvfDp&tfeV`DnAt`mk nfS`XAvn` aADArkr enAegn E`vAx yxenAvFs`vADFn p<d`gl eyk=els cfn`tn nfdhs gr[krmfn` kxy<t=krn kvrtrAtfrmk kvraAgmkk=mn p<d`gley k=xv<vd(avmtrmfn` gfhfp[vfdf eB`dyvt` enAsLkA) sArDr~m hA sdAcArDm%aArOSA kfrFmt=Lfn` aAyY%p<d`gleyk=eg` mAnsfk mxZxmx avtFr~N vfyh[kfbv epn`vAdF tfebZ.2 Ees`m g=NDr~m v[wFemZ k&mAn>k+l rxAvk`d kAlAm s>t&ey`dF vfg&hyx pAt&evZ.3m<lfn`msdAcAr p&Qp`tfy aArOSAkL y<t=evZ.4Ey kv<r[n` ehA` aAgmfk VAs`tRvreyk= kfyn vcnyvfV`vAsekAx tm cfn`tn nfdhs pAvAdFemn` sfzkrn`nk` enAv vfcArp>r~vk aAkl`peyn`nfdhs` sftkfn` sfzkrn edykf.sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy aArOSAkfrFemZdF ky vcn ynedkmaArOSAevZ. I LHgx d[m<N< p<d`glyA sArDr~m vD%ny pfNfs k&fyAkL y<t=y.5sArDr~m s^kl`p vnAhFmenA` m>Lfky.6E` nfsA sArDr~m vD%ny pfNfs k&fyAkrn`nAeg` mns pfrfsfzevZ.pvft&evZ.t[n`pt`evZ.mv[nf p[h[dflf mAnsfk ps<tlykfn`y<t= p<d`glyA smAjyx d`evZS krn`enk= enAevZ.eemt&Fkrn`enkf.eemt&Fyn nmfn` b<zsmey` d[k`evn`en` mft&t`v s^kl`pyyf.7 m>Lfk sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy E` p<d`glyAatfn` aArOSAvn<ey` oh< m<HPmht` smAjyxm eemt&Fkrn`nAv> p<d`gleyk`vFm nfsyf.(ketA`lfk Dr~mey`‘ep&`m’ynvden` ar[td eemt&Fyn ar~Teyn`mebAehA`tn`hf vYvhArkrn< l[ebZ.)8oh<eg` eemt&fy sFmAshft Ekk`enAevZ.oh< smAjey` s{mdfsAvkm evesn s{m trAtfrmkm elAk=k=wA s{m s#vyAvfSeyhfm mht` eemt&Fshgtsftkfn` y<t=v vAsykryf.EbHz aAr~y p<d`glyA b<zrzn` vfsfn` kAlAm s>t&eyhf hHzn`vAa[t`et`emZay<rfnf.91 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx wfjzr ps;af;da tajx wnHdmcACO ps;af;da tajx wixls,sgzG ps;af;datajx jsiqoaOps;af;da ;iai osgzfGj Ouzfuz p;a;dfrda tajx jsiqoaO ps;af;da ;iai tsgzfGj Ouzfuz p;a;dfda wiaidid GjwOs.;d fydka;s2 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda ns.;nHdmdfoda wiuzmQ<afyda iumcdfkdam;siaif;da…3 tu …wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms;:;a:dh iudofmaa;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdh;s iudofm4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq ta: ;`uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzk udmruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl iuzmodfkzk ud ;lalfya;` ud khfya;` ud wdldrmrsjs;laflak udosgzGskscACOdklaLka;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkda .rE;s hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;a;kdj vfkhHd: udbfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|=mamiF:d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd ys;dh iqLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfya ld,dudWmiuzmcAc jsyfrhHd:5 iodpdr orAYkh Ouzumoh weiqfrka" wfnzr;ak iurfldak"a iaji;s fmd;am@ldYlfhda"cd we,"20026 wdpdr jsoHdj"mS vS fm@auisrs"vnz,sjz fla @ekalskd"jspdrd;aul yeZoskajSula iys; mrsjrA;kh"tia f.dvf.aiy ifydaorfhda" fld<U" 19987 w ks 11" ;;sh mq.a., iq;a;" nq c uq 246-248 msgqj8 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h uydj.a. ld,duiq;a; nq c uq 337--343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOd js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da….9 tufu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLdiy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak djkawmamudfkak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s
  14. 14. 196 ‘E` aAr~y V&Avketm eemt&Fshgtsftfn` Ek`dfsAvk` pt=rvA vAsykryf.Ees`m edevnfdfVAvd Ees`m t=n`v[nf dfVAvd Ees`m htrv[nf dfVAvd emes` uwd yxd srsd s{mtn`hf hFnmDYmAdF sfyl`la[tf b[vfn` sfyHP s#vyn` a[t`tAv> elA`ky mht`v> mht`bvx gfyAv> aeevrFv>vYApAdrhftv> eemt&Fshgt sftfn` m;`rjd jdih lrhs’1 EpmNk` enAv emZ aAyY%V&AvkyA an<n`eg`zkd[k uN<vn mRzsftk`a[t`etkf.Ees` ehyfn`smAj sdAcArDm% aArOSAkrn EbHzt[n[t`tA an<n`eker~ an<kmZpA krn atfVyfn`kAr[Nfkv>evkf.oh<eg` sfethf smAjey` evesn sfyHP ednAvfSeyhf a[tfvn kAr[NfkBAvysFmAshft Ekk`enAevZ.asFmft v>vkf.oh< smAjey` s{m dfVAvkm evesn s{mtrAtfrmkmelAk=k=wA s{mst`vyA vfSeyhfm itAm p<HPl` ay<rfn` kAr[Nfk sftkfn`y<t=v eves`.EbHz aAyY%p<d`glyAeg` s`vr{py kAlAm s>t&yeyhf vfs`tr vn<ey` pht d[k`evn ay<rfnf. ‘E` aAyY%V&Avk etm kr[Nashgt sftfn` Ek`dfsAvk` pt=r[vA vAsykryf.Ees`m edevnfdfVAvd, Ees`m t=n`v[nf dfVAvd,Ees`m htrv[nf dfVAvd,emes` uwd,yxd,s{mtn`hf hFnmDYmAdF sfyl`l a[tf b[vfn`,sfyHP st`vyn` a[t`tAv> elA`ky mht`v> mht`bvx gfyAv>, aeevrFv>vYApAd rhftv>,kr[NA shgt sftfn` pt=r[vA vAsykryf.’2 smAjey` ebAehA`edenk` vfvfD ay<rfn` smRd`Dfmt` jFvft gtkrtf.yhpt`v> aAyY%V&AvkyAan<n`eg` ysis<r[ hA smRd`Dfy d[k tmn`d st=xx pt`evZ.3E` s[p smZpt` tmAx l[b<nAk`emn`m st=xx pt`evZ. an<n`eg` s[psmZpt` tvzrxt`,v[wf dfy<N<evZvA yyf ptmfn` vw vwAt`sfethf st=x lbyf.emm mht`v> st=x‘m<dftAv’nmZevZ.4anYyn`eg` is<r pfLfbHd tRp`tfmt`BAvyehvt` m<dftAv m<HPmht` smAjey` evesn s{m p<d`gleyk= evtm Ekes` vYAp`tkrvn m>LfksdAcAr p&Qp`tfy aArOSAkrn aAyY%p<d`glyA pfLfbHdv kAlAm s>t&eyhf d[k`evn vfg&hy phtsHdhn` prfdfy. ‘E` aAyY%V&Avketm m<dftA shgtsftfn` Ek`dfsAvk`pt=r[vA vAsykryf.Ees`m edevnf dfVAvd,Ees`m t=n`v[nf dfVAvd,Ees`m htrv[nf dfVAvd,emes` uwd,yxd srsd,s{mtn`hf hFn mDYmAdFsfyl`l a[tf b[vfn` sfyHP st`vyn` a[t`tAv> elA`ky mht`v> mht`bvx gfyAv>,aeevrFv> vYApAdrhftv> m<dftA shgt sftfn` pt=rvA vAsykryf.’5 smAjey` evesn sfyHPednAevt mft=r[bv p[tfrvFmt=lfn` sfyHPednAevt smAnAt`mtAvypt=r[vA lyf.s{mednAevtm kAr[NfkvFm mHgfn` an<n`eg`zk hHznn dyAprvV p<d`gleyk=1 tu2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOda js.;NHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix cdfkdaMrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;: p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOuf;da ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;dh inzndjka;xf,dalx WfmalaLd iy.f;ak f,dalx WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfkak wfjzfrAkwnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s3 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da………4 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da uqos;diy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx hxinznOs inzn;a;dh inzndjk;x f,dalx WfmalaLdiy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKakwfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s5 tu
  15. 15. 197bvx pt`evZ.smAj gt zk t=nFkrvFmpfNfs avVYkrn`nAv> ebA`Dfs#vcyY%Av pfNfstmattfb> nfr~vANvebA`Dy pvA aHPym l> eklpfwk`es` ath[r ssr pfvfesn`en` 1elA`ks#vyApfNfs mhAkr[NAevnf. embHz ut=mZ adhs` a[tf mhA kr[NAevn` y<t` st`vghftv[wk[mtf ebA`st` vr[ jnftkrvn`en` kAr[NfkBAvey` mhfmeynf.2p&QasmZpt`tfyv[wFmxepr ebA`st`vr[ mnAv p&g=NklAv> g=Nyk`els kr[NAv d[k` evn`en`Eb[vfnf.sArDr~myn` atr ekenk= V&Avk tt`vey` sfx ebA`Dfs#vt#vyx n^vALFmx upkArvnkr[NAv Ehf uprfm nfS`XAevZdF mhA kr[NAv nAmeyn`d mhA kr[NA smApt`tfQANyvVeyn`d h[Hdfn`evZ.3 an<n`eg` s[psmZpt` ekerhf a[tfvn cft`tp&emA`dy ehvt` m<dftAveh`t=evn` an<n`eg` s[psmZpt`vl hAnfyx eh`t=vn ir~SYAv ivt`vFm smAj p&Qp`tf m>LDr~m d[k`evn p^cVFlp&tfpdAevZ esArkmZkfrFemn` v[LkFemZ VfOSApdy aArOSAkfrFmx upeyA`gFevZ.4an<n`eg` s[psmZpt` ekerhf esArsftk` hx g[enn<ey` an<n`st= vs`t=v tmAst=krg[nFemZ elA`Byt` EkFelA`By pAdkkrgt` Ir~SYA prvVv> cft`tyt` smHgy. s`pr~VkAmy ekerhf elA`l#vy aDfkvFmnfsA sft vfr[d`Dlf^gfkes`vnyevta[dFyAm sfzevZ.5emhfdF smAj sdAcAryvn<ey` Ey smAn>gtva[tf ymZ ymZ epAz smZm<tFn`x an<k+lv pfLfgt`smZmt sdAcAr s^dr~Byk`t=lfn` tm avVYtA ix<krvA g[nFmyf6.nm<t` elA`l#vy aDfkvgfyt[en`dF mn<SyyA smZmt sdAcAry ik`mvA k&fyAkfrFmxyAm nfsA an<n`vfSeyhf eevrFecZtnAvt`akAr[NfkBAvyt` Ir~SYAprvV vFmt` E` eh`t=evn` m<sAbs` bfNFmt` sfzevZ. m<dftAvyn sArDr~m s^kl`py k&fyAt`mkvFmt=lfn` iht aAkAreyn` bfHdv[xfyh[kf p&vNtAv aehA`sfvF hAavmvF egAs` smAj sdAcAry aArOSAvFmx mAr~gy p{ed`. emes` smAjy eker~ m<dftAevn` y<k`tv> t[n[t`tA tmn` smAjey` anYyn`evt vwAt`smFpvFmx a[g{l<mZkmZ a[tfkrg[nFmt=lfn` tvt` ebAehA`ednAx Eym anfymZ mAnsfk hA kAyfkblp{mk` a[tfvfy h[kfyyf avebA`Dkregn mDYs`TtAv ehvt` uep`OSAv a[tfkrg[nFmxut`s<kevZ.7smAj sdAcArey` uprFm prfpAky mDYs`TtAvy ehvt` uep`OSAv yn sArDr~ms^kl`py mHgfn` nfr{pftevZ.1 ixh;a; ksldh 11" f.d;u iq;a;" nq c uq 16 msgqj mqnzfnj fu NslaLfj iuzfndaOd wjNsiuznoaOiai qoafndaOsi;a;iafij if;d t;ofydis2 fn#oaO iodpdrfha uQ<OrAu".`Kmd, OrAuisr" kqf.af.dv"1980" 112 msgqj3 fndaOsprAhdj;dr"ixia fudrgqfjz idikr;k ysu" 160- 164 msgq4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fid ld,dud wrsh idjflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d|=;shx …5 tu ,qoafOda…|=gzfGda… uQ<afyda …mkdhx ld,dud mqrsi mq.a.f,da f,dafNk..fodafiak…fudafyak…wNsN~f;damrshdoskak ps;af;da ….mrodruzms .pzP;s…mruzms ;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS>r;a;x wys;dh mrodruz|=laLhd;s6 w ks v jH.a>mcAc iq;a; nq c uq 234 msgqj uhx Nkaf; .syS ldufNda. mq;a; iuzndO ihkx wcACOddjiduldisl jJokx mpzpkqfNdu ud,d .JO jsf,amkx Odfrhdu cd;rEmx rc;x idoshdu f;x fkd Nkaf; N.jd;:d Ouzux fofi;` fh wuzydlx wiaiq Ouzud osgzGOuzuys;dh osgzGOuzu iqLdh mruzmrdh ys;dh iuzmrdhiqLdh7 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrsh idjflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da WfmlaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix mcdfkdaMrs;ajd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d |=;shx ;:d p;`;a:x ;;d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOuf;da ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh
  16. 16. 198 emes` smAjey` evesn s{m p<d`gleyk=evtm dfVA eB`dykfn` kAl avs`TA eB`dykfn`etArv uep`OSAv pt=rvn mDYs`T adhs` a[tf p<d`glyA sms`t smAjy ek`$z&gtekAxegnmsm mAnsfk s`vBAvykfn` y<t=v slkA gnfyf.st=r[ mft=r[ vfr[d`D avfr[d`D aAdF kfsfz eB`ds`vBAvyk` emhfdF enAs[lekn b[vfn` eemt&fy kr[NAv hA m<dftAv yn sArDr~m mxZxmxvwA uep`OSA sArDr~m mxZxm itAm sfy<mZ sArDr~m mxZxmk` bvd Eyx p[mfNfyh[k`ek`pfLfevlfn` eemt&fy kr[NAv hA m<dftAv yn sArDr~m s^kl`p mxZxmZ ps<kLAv> p<d`glyn`xmpmNk`b[vZd emhf vfeV`S lOSNykf.1kAlAm s>t&eyhf emZ ay<rfn` uep`OSA shftv evesn`enk=eg` mAnsfk s`vBAvy vfs`treker~. ‘E` aAyY% V&Avketm uep`OSAshgt sftfn` Ek`dfsAvk` pt=r[vA vAsykryf.Ees`m edevnfdfVAvd Ees`m t=n`v[nf dfVAvd Ees`m htrv[nf dfVAvd emes` uwd yxd srsd s{m tn`hfhFn mDYmAdF sfyl`l a[tfb[vfn` sfyHP s#vyn` a[t`tAv> elA`ky mht`v> mht`bvx gfyAv>aeevrFv> vYApAd rhftv> uepOSA shgt sftfn` pt=r[vA vAsykryf.’2 emZ ay<rfn` sm sftfn` mDYs`Tv evesn aAr~yV&AvkyA smAjey`a[tfenAeyk=t` eB`d enAslkyf.smAnAt`mtAvy gr[kryf.hFn p&NFt elAk=k=wA zp`pt` epAehAst` ebUd`D aebUd`Ds`t&F p<r[S aAdF vVeyn` EkfenkAeg` us`mfxfkmZ enAsftyf.smAjey` evesn s{m sAmAjfk eyk=evtm dk`vn`en` mDYs`TaAkl`mhls3 flfkl`g fuh t;ruz Wmfhda.S;djhla fkdue;sfia tlajrujegyS.sh;a ienjskau fuz kr[N iht vfs`trkrnld eemt&Fkr[NA hA m<dftA yn sArDr~ms^kl`pvlx vwA upeyA`gFtAvyk` a[tf sArDr~m s^kl`pykf.Ey nfds<nkfn` emes` d[k`vfyh[kfy. edmvZpfyn`vfsfn` tm dr[vn`vfSeyhf eemt&F shgtvFmt`,kAr[NfkvFmt`,dr[vn`eg` dfy<N<vd[k st=x<vFmZvVeyn` m<dftAv a[tfkrg[nFmt`,dr[esenhs a[tf s{m edmvZpfeyk=xm itA s<HPedykf.nm<t` dr[vn`wg` k=zmht` s{mkxy<t`hfdFm E` hA smAnv uep`OSAshftv ps<vFm dr[vn`x a[tf aDfkesenhs nfsAm EbHz edmvZpfyn`x aphs<y.dr[esenhs nfsAm tmn`eg` enApfr[N< aep`OSA pfx<ps dr[vn` hMAy[vFmt` dr[vn` E` pfx<ps hMAegAs` tmn`dr[vn`x lbAzn` ilk`k dr[vn` sAk`SAt`ekAx ov<n`eg` jFvft sAr~Tkkrg[nFmt` dkfn asn edmvZpfyn`st=xx pt`evtf.Ees`m E` k&fyAvLfy asAr~Tkkrgt` dr[vn` pfLfbHdv ov<n` ps<t[vflfevtf.EkFdr[vn`eg` anAgtyg[n sftA eVA`kevtf,cft`t prfdAhyx p[mfeNtf.4inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLd iy..f;a k fpz;kd jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak wfjzfrAkwnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jssyr;s j1 tu2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq3 tu i fLd fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx wfjzrps;af;d tajx wnNdmcACOps;af;da tajx wixls,sgzGps;af;datajx jsiqoaO ps;af;da tajx ;iai osgzfGj Ouzfuz p;a;dfrda wiaidid wOs.;d fydkaa;s fydk4 w ks iv" ldufNda.s iq;a;" nq c uq 326 msgqj
  17. 17. 199 asAr~Tkv> emAehAet` tmn`l[bfyy<t=mv> mAnsfk as`v[sfl`l tm dr[vn`x lbAdFmx emZnfsA EbHz edmvZpfeyA` asmt`evtf.1p&tfPly dr[vn`` evnt` mAr~gykfn` ehA` tm jFvft aep`OSAix<krg[nFmx ov<n`x tfb> avs`TAv emZeh`t=v nfsAm ov<n`evtfn` gflfhFyAmevZ.2vfkl`p mAr~gos`es` egAs` tmn`eg` dOStA k=sltA vD%ny krgnfmfn` tm tmn`eg` jFvft nv ilk`kos`es`egnyAmx dr[vn`x a[tf ayftfy emZ mHgfn` ov<n`x ahfmfkrvFm hA Ix edmvZpfyn`eg`esenhsmHgfn`m ay<t=bADk El`lvFmt` emZ mHgfn` sfzevZ. edmvZpfyn`t=L eemt&fy kr[NAv m<dftAv trmx m tm dr[vn` ekerhf uep`OSAv vD%nyvFtfb<nAnmZ,edmvZpfyn` atfn` emZ vrd sfz enAevZ. EbHz edmvZpfyn` dr[vn`eg` sfyHP kxy<t=vldFov<n`x shRdyn` hA mAr~egA`ped`Vyn` vnvA mfsk` blAt`kAreyn` mAr~geyhf a[degn yn`nn`enAvnb[vfnf. uvmnAvxvwA dr[vn`x aArOSAv s[pyFm emn`m n<vmnA prfdf aDfkels dr[vn`eker~ avDAneyn` ps<vFmd dr[vn`eg` epAr[SvD%ny eker~ ahftkrels blpAnbvt`aDYApn menA`vfdYAevZdF ig[n`evZ.3 emZ aAkAreyn`m smAjey` ess< sAmAjfkyn` ekerhfmuep`OSAv vD%nykrnvAnmZ smAjy ekbHz aAkArykfn` evns`v<vt` E`pfLfbHdv sftxkNgAx<vk` a[tfenAevZ. a[t[mZ p<d`glyn` smAjy h[sfern aAkAry smAjy gr[krn smAjsArDm% sdAcAry v[nfkr[N< vrfn`vr evns`vn<blA E`vA tmAx r[cfay<rfn` enAtfebn<d[k p>r~v smAjy s{m atfn`m‘ehAHdy’(atFt kAmy)vr~tmAn smAjy s{m atfn`m‘nrky’ynAdFvVeyn` sftrfdvA gnftf.4emZay<rfn` kl`pnAkrnp<d`glyAeg` mAnsfk shny n[tfvn`en` oh< n<v<mnAprfdf smAjyx a[lFg[lFkxy<t=krn b[vfnf.eemt&fy kr[NAv hA m<dftAv nfsA‘esenhs’arm<N<krgt` b[mZemn`smAjey` evesn`nAv> mAnvp&jAveker~ b[eHdn emAh< sfyl`l tmA aBfmt prfdf r[cfkrn prfdfsfzvfyy<t=y[yf hHgfyf. nm<t` smAj p&jAvk` yn< mfnfs<n` itA vfVAl p&jAvk` Ekt=vF s{zn< mAnv pd`Dtfykf.vfvfDp<r[z vfvfD h[sfrFmZrxA vfvfD aAkl`p,vfvfD adhs` udhs` aAdF mAnv h[sfrFmZ hA p<r[z an`trA.; mAnsfkvY>hyn` rAVfykeg` an`tr~ smZb$DtA jAlykf smAjy yn<evn` h[Hdfn`evn`en`.EhfdF smAjey` smAjey` sAmAjfkyn` un<n` hA an`tr~ smZb$DtA pvt`vn<ey` ov<enAv<n`xmaAevZNfk emv[nf mAnsfk vY>hyk` pdnmZekAxegnyf. E` nfsA sms`t smAjyt=L evesn`nAv>sAmAjfkyn`eg` vfvfDh[sfrFmZ rxA pAdk ekAxegn sms`t smAjym evns`evmfn` idfrfyx glAyyf.Ey kfsfdfenk atFtey` sr~vV=BvAdFv tfb<en`vt` vr~tmAney` sfyl`l aV=BvAdF elst`smZp>r~Neyn`m sks`vn`en` enAevZ. smAjey` a[t`et` evns`vFmyf.ehvt` anftY tAvyyf.emy ehAHd ehA` nrk vVeyn` vfg&hkLh[kfenAevZ.ekenk= Ees`krn`en` hA Ees`kfrFmx eh`t=vn`en` emZ evns`vFm tmAeg` p>v%mAnsfks^kl`pyn` eprd[rfkregn ehAHd ehA` nrk vVeyn` s^jAnnykfrFmyf.emZ k&fyAvLfy eh`t=evn`1 oS ks 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nq c uq 295 -296 msgq yd <ore mdie,a .`re w;afmd; ohdfrdayK w;`fldar,YsCIdukaosrh 19912 w ks 11" wkK iq;a;" nq c uq 130 msgqj yd ,ud wdl,am ixjrAOkh foudmsh .`re ldrAhNdrh fm@audl`v,s.u iSudiys; oSmdks uq|@K m@ldYk kqf.af.dv 20013 wOHdmk ufkdajsoHdj iy ,uhs fla f,dfj,a wOHdmk m@ldYk fomdrA;fuzka;`j biqremdh n;a;ruq,a, 19814 wOHdmk ,sms(uQ, OrAu)"fykars jSrisxy"m@cd uq|@Kd,h"fld<U"1980
  18. 18. 200adAL p<d`glyA nfrt=r[ mAnsfk pFwAvkxlk`evZ.uep`OSAv p<r[z p<h<N<kfrFm t=Lfn` ihtkF aAkAreyn` smAjey` anftYtAv et`r[mZegn E` an<v sfyHPed` ekerhf mDYs`Tg=Neyn`s[LkFm x p<r[zp<h<N< v<vehAt` s^kl`p g&hNy hA edA`Sshftv s^jAnnykfrFemZ k&fyAvlfyntrvF vfVAl mAnsfk shnyk` E` t=Lfn` udAkrgth[kfy.Eyx iht d[k`v< ay<rfn`uep`OSAvp<r[z p<h<N<kfrFm itAm eyA`gY kArNykf.1 kAlAms>t&eyhf d[k`evn emm ebUd`D sArDr~ms^kl`pstr EnmZ eemt&fy kr[NAv,m<dftAvhA uep`OSAv yn str vD%nykfrFemZdF Ehf ek`$z&Fykr[N els aeevry hA vYApAd rhft 2BAvy dk`vA tfebZ. Ey eemt&Fs^kl`pey`m vfkAVykf.EmnfsA eemt&fy,kr[NAv,m<dftAv hAuep`OSAv yn sArDr~m s^kl`py eemt&fy bv p[h[dflfevZ.Ey kAlAm s>t&eyhf emZ ay<rfn`d[k`evZ.3 ‘E` aAyY%V&Avketm…..eemt&Fshgt sftkfn` ..ep..kr[Nashgt sftfn`..ep..m<dftA shgtsftfn`..mht`v> mht``bvx gfyAv> aeevrFv>,vYApAd rhftv>..eemt&Fshgt.. ep..krNAshgt..ep…m<dftA shgtsftfn` vAsykryf.’ emZ an<v eemt&fy kr[NAv m<dftAv hA uep`OSAvx aeevry hA vYApAdrhftbv upkArFevZ. nYAyAt`mkv d[k`v>vfx Ey et`r[mZg[nFm phs<y.EnmZ1.aAyY% V&AvkyA‘aeevrFv> vYApAd rhftv>’eemt&Fshgt sftfn` vAsykryf.42.aAyY% V&AvkyA‘aeevrFv> vYApAd rhftv>’kr[NAshgt sftfn` vAsykryf.53.aAyY% V&AvkyA‘aeevrFv> vYApAd rhftv>‘m<dftAshgt sftfn` vAsykryf.64.aAyY% V&AvkyA‘aeevrFv> vYApAd rhftv>‘uep`OSAshgt sftfn` vAsykryf.7 Eb[vfn` iht sArDm% s^kl`p strxm‘eemt&fy’nm[tf Ekm sArDm%s^kl`py m>lyvF tfebnaAkAry p[h[dflfy.emZ an<v ketA`lfkdhmt=Ld‘ep&`my’ynvcney` g[bZv a[t`tAv> eemt&fyy ynadhs gt ehAt` byfbley` d[k`evn8 ‘asl`v[sfyn`x ep&`m krn`n’yn kfymn smAjAn<eyA`jn1 wOHdmk ufkdajsoHdj yd wOHdmk jHjydr ms<snZo rpkd"ohd frdayK w;`fldar,"YsCIdukaosr"fld<U"19992 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjfldawrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da fu;a;diy.f;ak fu;afpz;id…fm…lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id… uqos;d iy.f;ak…WfmalaLdiy.f;ak fpz;id talx osixMrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;xf,dalx WfmalaLdiy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjdjsyr;s3 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq4 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id5 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siai idjfldaf;da lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id6 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuq<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id7 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuq<affyda iuzmcdfkda m;siai idjfldaf;da WfmlaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id8 w,q;a .sjsiqu(.S;dj,sh we;`ZMj)"Y@S ,xld nhsn,a iud.u"293".d,qmdr"fld<U 3".,d;s 512293 msgqj kqUgfuka kqfUz wi,ajeishdg fm@aulrmkak hk tl jdkHfhkau uqZM jHjia:dj iuzmQrAK fjz
  19. 19. 201smAjAn<eyA`jn eyhflA v[dgt` vn`nAes`m b<zsmyt=L vfg&hekern‘eemt&fy’nm[tfsArDm% s^kl`pyd smAjA n<eyAjnfhys,d jeo.;a fjz.1 emhflA asl`v[sfyn`x ep&`mkfrFm yn`enhf ar[t mAnv smAj sdAcArp&Qp`tfy enAsfHdaArOSAkfrFm uedsA avVYkrn`nAv> m>Lfk sArDm%s^kl`py vn mft=r[bv yn`nyf.2Ehfm b<zsmey` a#T%d[k`evn ‘eemt&fy’pAdkkregn strb&h`mvfhrNeyn` y<t=v smAjeyhf mAnvsmZb$DtA vfSeyhf sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy aArOSAkfrFm ketA`lfk dhmt=L3‘ep`&my’yn sArDm%s^kl`peyn` ar~Tvt`vn adhsx itAm smFpv<vt` prfp>r~NBAveyn` eemt&F sArDm% s^kl`pyvwAt` idfrfeyn` sfxfnbvk`epen`.4 Ees`m kAlAm s>t&eyhf emm eemt&Fs^kl`py nfdhs` cfn`tny eprd[rfkregn itAmnmYVFlF aAkAreyn` idfrfpt`kr tfebZ.idfrfpt` krtfebn aAkAry pfrfk`s>vfx h[eHgn`en` kAlAms>t&eyhf d[k`evn sArDm%s^kl`p hA sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy k&fyAt`mkkfrFmx ekenk= ebUd`Deyk=vFm avVYenAvnbvyf.5Ehf kfy[evned` pfLfp[d in` sAr~Tk p&tfPl lbAgn`nvAvfnA aAgmZ hAdr~Vn vVeyn` el`bl` alvAg[nFemn` ar~Tyk` enAl[ebnbv in`vfg&hevZ.kAlAm s>t&y vnAhFedp[t`tk[epn ck&Ay<Dyk` bHzy.prfp>r~N sAr Dr~m s^kl`p hA sdAcAr p&Qp`tfyk` idfrfpt`enAkrn anYsmyvAdyn`x emn`m p&AeyA`gfk#veyn` etAr h<z gtAn<gtfk cfn`tny os`es`El`bgt` el`bl`ebUd`Dyn`xt` in` phrvdF.6 mfnfs` smAjey` vfvfD smyvAdyn` vfvfDaAgmfk dRS`XFn` shft p<d`gleyA` ebAehA`evt`.7kAlAmebAehA`evt`.7kAlAm s>t&eyn`` idfrfpt`ekern sArDr~m s^kl`p hA sdAcArp&Qp`tfy emZsfyHPednAxm epAzevZ k&fyAt`mkkLh[kfvFm hA Ees` k&fyAt`mkkr tm tmn`x tm tmn`eg`epUd`glfk jFvftyt=LdFm in` udAvn mAnsfkshny mAnsfk as`v[sfl`l emZ sfyHPednAxmEkes` p&tYOSkrgt h[kfy.81w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshid jflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkd m;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id2 tu3 w,q;a .sjsiqu(.S;dj,sh we;`ZMj)"Y@S ,xld nhsn,a iud.u"293".d,qmdr"fld<U 3".,d;s 512293 msgqj kqUgfuka kqfUz wi,ajeishdg fm@au lrmkak hk tl jdlHfhkau uqZM jHjia:dj iuzmQrAK fjz4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix ;dNsMrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;xf,dalx WfmalaLdiy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjdjsyr;s5 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq wmfrAms Nkaf; tafla iuKn@dyauKdflaimq;a;x wd.pzPka;s f;ams ilZ[afZ[j jdox oSfmka;s fcdaf;ka;s mrjdox mk Lqxfika;s juzfyka;s TzmlaLsxlfrdka;s mrsNjka;s f;aix fkda Nkaf;a wuzydlx fydaf;aj lxLd fyda;s jspslspzPd fldaiq kdu bfuzix fkdaNjka;dkx iuK n@dyauKdkx ipzpx wdy flda uqid;s w,x ys fjda ld,dud lxLsx;`x w,x jspslspzPs;`x lxLksfhap mk fjda Gdfka jspslspzPd Wmamkakd6 tu ta: ;`uzfya ld,dud ud wkqiaifjzk ud mruzmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgl iuzmodfkak ud ;lalfya;` udkhfya;` ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak ud osgzGs kscACOdk laLka;shd ud NnznrEm;dh ud iufKda fkda .rE;s7 tu ika;s Nka;s tafla iuKn@yauKd flaimq;a;x wd.pzPka;s f;a ilZ[afZ[p jdox oSfmka;s fcdaf;ka;smrjdox mk Lqxfika;ss juzfNka;s TzmlaLsx lfrdka;s mrsNjka;s wmfrAmsNkaf; tafla iuK n@dyauKd ;flaimq;a;x wd.pzPka;s f;ams ilZ[afZ[p jdox oSfmka;s fcdaf;ka;s mrjdox mk Lqxfika;s juzfNka;sTzmmlaLsx lfrdka;s mrsNjka;s f;aix fkda Nkaf; wuzydlx fydaf;aj lxLd fyda;s jspslspzPd fldaiqq kdu ibfuzix Njka;dkx iuK n@dyauKdkx ipzpx wdy fld uqid;s8 tu w,x ys fjda ld,dud lxLs;`x w,x jspslspzPs;`x lxLksfha p mk fjda Gdfka jspslspzPd Wmamkakd
  20. 20. 202 EkFs^dr~By yxet` kAlAms>t&y t=Lfn` idfrfpt`krn< lbn dhmZ pNfv<wy p&AeyA`gfkhA hrvt`edyk`bvx tmn`eg` p&YOSypdnmZkr gt` avebA`Dyt` E` avebA`Dymt a[tfkrgt`vfV`vAsyt`,EkF dhmZ pNfv<wy ed`VnAkrn`nA mnAv Ey ed`VnAekAx tfebZdyn`nt`,ed`VnAkrnld p<d`glyA ekerhf a[tfkrgn`nAld p[h[dFm hA avebA`Dyt`, E` avebA`Dymt a[tfkrgt` vfV`vAsyt`,kAlAms>t&eyn` nfr~ed`Vft sArDr~m s^kl`p hA sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy an<gmnykfrFmt=Lfn` oZn{m p<d`gleyk=x s[nsFm udAkrgt h[kfyyn aAkl`pyt`,E`aAkl`py t=Lfn` tvebAehA`p<d`glyfn` rAVfyk`hx atFt vr~tmAn hA anAgt(pcZc<pn`nAcey` s^GA) yn kAlt&eyhf ebAehA` hfts<v pfNfsvF a[tfbv hA idfrfey`dF vfyh[kf bv pfLfbHdv mnA avebA`Dyt` E`avebA`Dymt an<gmny krn`nAv> p<d`gl kN`wAymZ(s^GyA)ekerhf a[tfkrgn`nAld vfV`vAsyn` yn t&fvfDvfV`vAsyn` krNekAx oh< tfsrNeyhf nft[tfn`m pfhfxyf.1 etr[vn` srNgfy ebUd`Deyk= bvx ehtm pt`vn`en` tfsrN vAkYy kfyvA gtAn<gtfkvenAv vfcAr p>v%kv p&QAv emehyvA lbn tm p&tYOS avebA`Dyt=Lfnf.2emm srNyAmgATA hA pAlf vAkY kfyvA etr[vn` srNy[vFmx vwA s`Tfr sArv>vkf.d[wfv>vkf.Ees`menAesl`evn edykf.(pcZct`t^ evZdftbZb^ vfHJ`HOz|hFtf.)3 kAlAm s>t&eyhf avsn`ekAxshf in` idfrfpt`ekern sArDr~m s^kl`p hA sdAcArp&gtfymnAv g&hNykregn sfy jFvnp&tfpdAvt=L p&AeyA`gfkv aT% vt`krgn<lbn p<d`glyAlbns[nsFmZvg% strk` vfs`treker~.ebUd`D aebUd`D akfrfyvAdF nAs`tfkvAdF aeh`t=k apcZcyvAdFucZecZdvAdF eBUtfk vAdF ehA` km%PlvAdF oZn{m smyvAdyk` aAgmfk dr~Vnyk` dRS`XfvV eyn`gt` oZn{mp<d`gleyk= emm s[nsFmZvg% str lbn aAkAry kAlAm s>t&eyhf epn`vA edn`en`pht d[k`evn prfdfy.4 ‘kAlAmeynf,aAyY%V&Avk etm emes` ever sft` a[t`etk`evZd,emes` avYApAd sft` a[t`etk`evZd,emes` enAkfHPx< sft` a[t`etk=evZd,emes`` pfrfsfz sft` a[t`et` evZd oh<vfsfn` emZ aAt`meyhfas`v[sFmZ htrk` lbn ld`dAh< evt`.51‘idfn` prelAvk` a[t`et`nmZ krnld ehAHd enAehAHd km%yn`eg` vfpAk a[t`et`nmZ kybfHdFemn` mrNfn` ps< yhpt` gtfa[tf s`vr~g elA`keyhf updfn`enmZ yn emZ pLm<v[nf as`v[sFmoh< vfsfn` lbn ld`ed`evyf.’61 i ks 11"mxpNhfjzr iq;a;"nq c uq 108 msgqj bO .ym;s wrshidjflda nqoafO wfjpzpmamidfoakiukakd.f;da fyd;s ….Ouzfuz wfjzpspmamidfok….ixf> wfjpzpmamidfok…wrshlkaf;ys iSf,ys d.f;daiukakd.f;da fyda;…bfuzys p;`ys fid;dm;a;s wxf.ys iukakd.f;d fyd;s s2 i ks v (1)"wjscAcd iq;a;"nq c uq 02 msgqj jscAcd fLda NslaLfj mqnznx.ud l`I,dkx Ouzudkx iudm;a;shdwkajfoaaj ysfrd;a;mamx jscAcd.;iai NslaLfj jsoaoiqfkd iuzudosgzGs mfyd;s fo3 u ks 111"uydp;a;drSxil iq;a;"nq c uq 214 msgqj fida uspzPdosgzGshd mydkdh jdhu;s iuzud osgzGshdWmiuzmodh iajdiai fyd;s iuzud jdhdfud4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxwfjzrps;af;da tajx wnHdmcACO ps;af;da tajx wixls,sgzG ps;af;da tajx jsiqoaOps;af;da ;iai osgzfGj Ouzfuzp;a;dfrda wiaidid wOs.;d fydka;s5 tu6 tu ifpz fLda mk wF:s mfrda f,daflda wF:s iqlx |=llgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdflda Gdkuyx ldhiaifNaodmruzurKd iq.;sx i.a.x f,dalx WmamcAcsiaiduS;s whuziai mGfuda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fydka;s
  21. 21. 2032‘idfn` prelAvk` n[t`et`nmZ,krNld ehAHd enAehAHd km%yn`eg` Pl vfpAkn[t`et`nmZ,emZaAt`meyhfm eevr n[tfv zk`n[tfv,s<ves` aAt`my prfhrNy krn`enmf yn emZ t=n`v[nfas`v[sFm oh<vfsfn` lbn ld`ed`evyf.’13.‘idfn` pvZkrn`nAx vfpAkedn< l[ebZnmZ,mm vnAhF kfsfevk=x vrdk` enAsftmf.pvZenAkrn`nAv> mx ekes`nmZ zkk` p[mfeNn`en`d?enAp[mfeNn`en`d?yn emZ t=n`v[nf as`v[sFmoh<vfsfn` lbnld`ed`evyf.’24.‘idfn` pvZkrn`nAx vfpAk enAedn< l[ebZnmZ,d[n` mm vnAhF pevn`d,vfpAkeyn`d ynedkfn`m pfrfsfz v> tmA dk`enmZ ynemZ strv[nf as`v[sFm lbn ld`ed`evyf.’3 emZ aAkAreyn` strvfDfykx nYAyAt`mkv upkl`pny krnkL tmn`drn eBUtfkvAdFaeh`t=kvAdF nfr~mANvAdF kvr ehA` dRS`Xfyk`mt pfhfxA kxy<t= krn p<d`gleyk=v<vt` tmn`eg`dRS`Xfy bADAvk` krenAegn‘ehAHdkrn`nAx emelAv vVeyn` strAkAr s[nsFmk` lbA gth[kfbv avebA`Dkrgth[kfevZ. emZ dhmZ a[s> kAlAmeyA` emZ kr[N emZ aAkAreyn`m tm tmn`eg` p&tYOSy p&mANykregn avebA`Dkrgnftf.Ees`m ov<h< kAlAms>t&eyn` ehLfvn ebUd`D sArDm% s^kl`p hAsmAj sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy atr a[tf aKN`w sbHdtAv mnAv avebA`Dkrgnftf.b<zrzn` kAlAmv[sfyn`x ed`VnAkrnld kAlAms>t&ey` an`tr~gtey` hry vn<ey``d yeTA`k`t kr[Nyf.4m<lfn`m b<zrzn` kAlAmv[sfyn`x dRS`Xfeyn` agtfyx enAynels il`lFmk` idfrfpt`kr ymk`pfLfbHd nfv[rdf vfnfV`cykx ELMFmx vfvRtmAnsfk#vykfn` ps<vFm atYvVY kr[Nk` vnb[vfnf.in`ps<v Ees` dRS`Xfeyn` agtfyx yAh[kf dRS`XfprAmr~Vny krn<lbn`nAv> m>lyn` dhyk`ed`VnAkrtf. vfcArp>r~vk aAkl`pykfn` kxy<t=kfrFemZ avVYtAvy kAlAm v[sfyn`x avDArNy krnb<zrzn` kAlAm v[sfyn` vfcArp>r~vk enAvn aAgmfkdRS`XFn` eker~ vfmtf(s[k)ipfdvFm g[nov<n`x p&s^VAkrtf.5emyfn` kAlAmv[sfeyA` b>zrzn`ekerhf p[h[fo;s.6jspdrmQrAl wdl,amhlskaf;drjlghq;`lrk TzkEu mqoa.,fhl` eker~(yxt` pfrfesyfn` tmn`vhn`es` ekerhfpvA tmn`vhn`es` Ees`kxy<t= enAkrn`en`nmZ)s[kphL kr g[nFm sADrNbv p[vsfyh[k`ek` EbHzm1 tu ifpz fLda mk kF:s mfrda f,daflda kF:s iqlg |=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdfla bodyx osgzfGj Ouzfuzwfjzrx wnHdmcACOx wkS>x iqLx w;a;dkx mrsyrduS;s whuiai |=;sfhda wiaidfida wOs.f;d fyda;s2 tu ifpz fLda mk lfdaf;da lrshH;s mdmx k fLda mkdyx liaips mdmx fpzf;aus wlfrdka;x fLda mk uxmdmdx luzux l`f;da |=lLx Mqiais;S;s whuziai ;;sfhda wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s3 tu ifpz fLda mk lfrdaf;da k lrshH;s mdmx bodyx WNhfkaj jsiqoaOx w;a;dkx iukqmiaiduS;s whuiai lfrdap;`;af:da wiaidfida wOs.f;da fyda;s4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq tajfuz;x N.jd tajfuz;x iq.; i fLdafida Nkaf; wrshidjflda tajx wixls,sgzG ps;af;da tajx jsiqoaO ps;af;da ;iai osgzfGj Ouzfuz bfuz p;a;dfrdawiaidid wOs.;d fydka;S;s5 tu w,x ys fjda ld,dud lxLs;`x w,x jspslspzPs;`x lxLksfha j mk fjda Gdfka jspslzpzPd Wmamkakd6 tu wNslalka;x Nkaf;…fm…taf;s uhx Nkaf;a N.jka;x irKx .pzPdu Ouzux p NslaLq ix>xj Wmdiflafkda Nkaf;a N.jd OdfrA;` wcAc;.af.a mdKqfmaf;a irKx .f;a;s
  22. 22. 204aAkArykfn` vfcArp>r~vk s^kl`p gr[krn nfdhs` b<d`Dfmetk=hxm pmNk` bvavebA`Dkr gn`nA kAlAmeyA` emZ ay<rfn` b<zrzn` eker~ vfV`vAsbvx p[mfeNtf.1 EhfdF un`vhn`es` smAjey` sdAcAry aArOSAvFm sHdhA avVYkrn m>Lfk sdAcAr Dm%phk`kAlAm yn`x ed`VnAkrtf.2p^cVFl p&tfpdAv yxet` ig[n`evn kr[N<ps Em sdAcAr Dm%5yf.emy ebUd`D aebUd`D eB`dykfn` etArv vfcArp>r~vk aAkl`pykfn` smAj sdAcAry aArOSAkfrFm pfNfs ut`sh gn`nA oZn{m mn<Syeyk=eker~ p[vtfyy<t=v> sADArN mn<SY Dm%tA 5k`bv b<zrzn` eh`t= shftv kAlAm v[sfyn`x avebA`Dkrvtf.3 in` ant=r[v b<zrzn` ihtkF sdAcArDm% 5a[tfkrg[nFmx avVYkrn sAr Dm% strk`pfLfbHdv vfs`trkrtf.Em sArDm% strnmZ str b&h`mvfhrNyf.4str b&h`mvfhrN dfy<N<kfrFmsArDm% vD%ny elsxt` sArDm% vD%nykfrFmt=lfn` smAj sdAcAr Dm%tA 5 aArOSAvn ay<r[kAlAm v[sfyn`x avebA`Dkrvtf.emm sArDm% s^kl`p str(str b&h`mvfhrN)ebUd`D aebUd`DeB`dykfn` etArv smAj sdAcAry aArOSAkrn`nAv> s{m p<d`gleyk=vfsfn`m sfy sn`tAn gtvvD%nykfrFmx avVYkrn`nAv> g=NDm%4k`elsx b<zrzn` epn`vAedtf.emZ mHgfn` sdAcAry hAsArDm% atra[tf sbHdtAevZ s`vr{peyn` p&AeyA`gfk smAj sdAcAry aArOSAkfrFmZ vfSeyhfb<zdhemZ epn`vAedn sArDm%ebUd`D aebUd`D eB`dy kfn` etArv oZn{mekenk=x p&AeyA`gfkvk&fyAevZeydvfyh[kfkr[N<bvt` epn`vAedtf.5m>Lfk sArDm% 4v> str b&h`mvfhrNyx pAdkvn`en` an<n` vfSeyhf pvt`nA mft&t`vy(eemt&fy)bvd emhf vfs`treker~.6 emm b&h`mvfhAr str hA b[zn< tvt` sArDm% t&ft`vyk` b<zrzn` kAlAmv[sfyn`x epn`vAedtf.EnmZ k=slm>L 3yf.aelA`B,aedA`s,aemA`h yn k=slm>Lyn` t=nvD%ny kfrFm t=lfn` smAjsdAcAry aArOSAvn bv epn`vAedtf7.emhfdFt` sArDm%vn k=slm>Lyn` hA smAj sdAcAry vnvn sdAcAr p&Qp`tfy(p^cVFl p&tfpdAv)atr pvtfn aKN`w sbHdtAvy kAlAm v[sfyn`xavebA`D kredtf.8ebUd`D aebUd`D eB`dykfn` etArv emZ ay<rfn` kxy<t=kfrFm s{mmn<Syeyk=eg`m mAnv vgkFmk` bvt` E` mHgfn` mn<SYDr~m aArOSAkfrFm sfzvnbvt`,emkFmAnvDm% aArOSA kfrFmx aAgmZ jAtfeB`dyk` avVYn[tfbvt` phdAedtf.1 tu2 tu …..wmrshdhoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx I fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdhd;s3tu4tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda fidam;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id..fm..lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id..uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id…WfmalaLdiy.flak fpz;id talx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx ufOdainznzOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKakwfjzfrAk wnHdmcAcfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s5 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq hod ;`uzfya ld,dud w;akdj cdfkhahd:bfuz Ouzud wl``I,d bfuz Ouzud idjcAcd bfuz Ouzud js[aZC|+ .rys;d bfuz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh wl|=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;s w: ;`uzfya ld,dud mcfyhahd:d;s b;s hx ;x jq;a;x bofuz;x mgspzp jq;a;x6 tu7 tu ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wf,dafNda mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcAcudfkda WmamcAc;s ys;dh jd wys;dh mcAjd;s$ys;dh Nkaf; ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfodafida mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmamcACudfkda WmamcAC;s ys;dh jdwys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf; ;x lsx uZ[aZ[: ld,dud wfudafyd mqrsiiai wcACO;a;x WmmcAcudfkda WmamcAc;sys;dh jd wys;dh jd;s$ys;dh Nkaf;8 tu ….wmrshdoskak ps;af;da fkaj mdKx yka;s k woskakx wdosh;s k mrodrx .pzP;s k uqid NK;s mruzms;:;a;dh iudofma;s hx i fyda;s oS> r;a;x ys;dh iqLdh;s
  23. 23. 205 emZ ay<rfn` kxy<t=krn`nAv> p<d`glyA tmAeg` jFvftey`dFm s[nsFmZvg% strk` lbnbvt`emm s[nsFmZ vg%str oh<eg` kvr dRS`Xfyk` mtvt` evns`vn`nk` enAvnbvt` kAlAmv[sfyn`x phdAedtf. emhf a[tf vfeV`S lOSNyvn<ey` sArDm% hA sdAcAry pfLfbHd dk`vn s{mkr[Nk` aArmZBvn`en` b<zrzn`vfsfn` kfsfz dRS`Xfykx enAp[mfeNn els ihtdF sAkcZCAkrnld kAlAmyn` vfsfn` s[kupdvA gn`nAld vfcArp>r~vk aAkl`pyk` enAm[tf dRS`Xf 10hHzn`vAdFemn` ant=r[v kAlAmyn` Ix an<gtv kfsfz dRS`Xfykx enAp[mfeNnbvx epAerAn`zkrvAegn bvy. emyfn` epenn`en` b<zrzn`eg` arm<NvF tfb<en` EdA BArtFy vYAp`tvFtfb> vfvfD aAgmfkdRS`Xf62x tvt` aAgmfkdRS`Xfyk` Ekt=ekAx 63k` kfrFm enAv E` dRS`Xf 62n`m mns nfdhs` krvAgn`nA aAkAry mfnfs<n`x kfyAdFmbv kAlAm s>t&eyn` ehLf vn sArDm% aDYyneyn` p[h[dflfevZ.emhfdF sArDm% hA sdAcAr atr pvtfn sbHdtAvey` yTAs`vr{py smAjyx itA p<HPl`vb<zrzn` vfsfn` vfvfrNykL aAkAry emhfdF vfeV`S v[dgt`kmk`gnF.fuu oDIaGsjdo foi jsuY!kd;aulj ne,Q l< meyeos,s jkakdjQ tla fohla kuz fuz oDIaGsjdo 62u f.dvkeZ.S ;sfnkqfha wOsldruhpska;kh mdol lrf.k jSuhsfuhskao meyeos,s jkafka wOsldruh pska;kfhys mj;skakdjQ uq<dlrjk iqZM iajrEmhhsjsfgl th nqoaOsuh iajrEmfhkao odrAYksl iajrEmfhkao usksiqka yuqjgmeusfKk nejska fudavfhda muKla fkdj uyd m@dZ{hska hehs ;`uQu is;kakjqkao fuu pska;k cd,fhys fj<S meg,S.ks;sfuh m@lg lshuklstkuz jsgl hCIhdo odrAYksl jSug jvd;a m@shnjhs ld,duiQ;@h uZ.ska bosrsm;a flfrkakdjQ .`KOu!hkays flaF|@ia:dkh f,i olajd ;sfnkqfha i;rn@yau jsyrKhhs1fuu i;r n@yau jsyrKhu; mdolj ishZM ukqIH OrAuhka wkql@ufhka tajdfhysmrsiudma;sh lrd t<fUkakdjQ wdldrh fuz;`,ska js.@yflrS we;uqZM uy;a ukqIH iudch l`,f.da;@u;fkdj uq,sl iodpdr m@Z{ma;sh hgf;ys tlu ukqIH jrA.hlanjla tu ukqIH jrA.hd f.aiudcSh taldnoaO;djh flfrys n@yau jsyrK kdufhka wrA: oelafjkakdjQ mdol ixl,am i;rfufyjSfuz fma@rKhka i;rla f,i l@shd;aul jknj fmkajdoS we;2tu fufyhjSfuz fma@rKhkaysl@shdldrSFjh my; iZoyka mrsos mqZM,a jYfhka js.@yhlg ,lal< yelsh uq,skau i;r n@yaujsyrKkdufhka wrA: oelafjk fufyhjSuz fma@rKhka i;rfj; wjOdkh fhduq lruq3 1 fu;a;d Metta (Loving-Kindess)4 2 lreKd Karuna (Mercy)5 3 uqos;d Mudita ( Delight)6 4 WfmalaId Upekka ( Indifferent)11w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fid ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da fu;a;diy.f;k fpz;id…uqos;diy.f;ak fpz;id….WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id….talx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:dp;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx WfmalaLdiy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak diy.f;auy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s2 tu3 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx wfjzrps;af;da tajx wnHdcACO ps;af;da tajx wixls,sgzG ps;af;da tajxjsiqoaOps;af;da ;iai osgzfGj Ouzfuz p;a;dfrda wiaidid wOs.f;da fyda;s fyda4 tu ..fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id..5 tu…lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id…6 tu…uqos;d iy.f;ak fpz;id..
  24. 24. 206 1 fu;a;d Metta ( Loving-Kindness)- 2 fu;a;d ixl,amh hkq l`ulaoehs uZola meyeos,s lr.ekSu jeo.;ahfu;a;d hk md,s jpkfhkawoyia lrkafka us;@;ajh hk wrA:hhs3fuh bF:s ,sx. wdldrdka; mGud jsNla;s taljpkfhys fhoSwe;nFOkSh iajNdjh neZ|=kqnj uD|=nj ms<snZo bZ.shla fuz u.ska ,ndfohsiuia; wkdrAh iuzm@odhhg wh;a oS>! ld,hla ;siafia jevqkdjQ ixl,amhla f,i fuu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys b;sydih yZ|=kajdosh yelshwkdrAh iuzm@odfha uq,a ld,fha mjd us;@ ixl,amh us;@ foaj;djd msoSu kuska iuia;f.da;@fhysu taldnoaO;djh mj;ajdf.k hEu msKsi ms<sfh< jS ;snqKdjQ tla;rd wd.usl isrs;ls4fuu isrs; Ndjs;djS ;snqfka wd.usl lghq;`j,oS f.da;@sl jxY yZ.jkakdjQpsyakhka msoSfuz Wf<,layegshghuq,skau bka|= ksuzk YsIaGdpdrj, fuu ixl,amh mej;S we;snjg mqrdjsoHd ;aul idOlyuqjS ;sfnzwdrAh ixialD;sh ish n,h Ndr;h mqrdm;`rejd .;a kuq;a wkdrAhh iuzm@odh i;`jQ fuzmqrdK oekquz moaO;s uqZM ukskau jskdYlroeuSug thg fkdyelsjsh fuu ixl,amhka wkdrAh iuzm@odh uZ.ska nsysjQ Y@uK iuzm@odh i;`j mej;s mdruzmrsl oekquzmoaO;shlsfuu mdruzmrsl oekquz moaO;sh Y@uK iuzm@odhg wh;a jQ ishZMu Y@uK fldgzGdYhkaw;frysu jHdma;j mej;s nj meyeos,s f,iu fmfkkakg ;sfnzY@uK iuzm@odhgu wh;ajQ fldgzGdYmyla ms<snZoj jsia;rfjztkuz 1 ;dmi 2 mrsnzndcl 3 wdcSjl 4 ;sF:sh 5 ks.KaG5 fuu fldgia myu wh;ajQfha Y@uK iuzm@odhguh tfia fyhska fuu fldgzGdY mfiysu jQfjdafndafyda fihska tlanZ|= jQ pdrs;@ moaO;shla wkq.ukh l<yfudjqka w;r jQ m@Odku iudklu f,ioelajsh yelafla iEu fldgzGYhla jsiskau ish mdruzmrsl oekquz moaO;shla f,i i;rn@yau jsyrKNdjkdj Ndjs;d fldg we;snjhsfu;a;d ixl,amh;a wka;rA.; jkafka fuu i;r n@yau jsyrKNdjkdjgh 2 lreKd Karuna ( Delight) –61 tu WfmalaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id…2 tu i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajx js.;dNscAfCOda js.;dnHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkdam;siaif;da fu;a;d iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;sWoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx fu;a;d iy.f;ak foz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;akwmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s3 md,s isxy, wldrdosh"fmd,aj;af;a nqoaOo;a; ysus"fn#oaO ixialDls; uHia:dkh"foysj,"1998"397 msgqj4 ffjosl idys;Hh"fcA ;s,lisrs"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"1958" 5 msgqj5 ;@smsglfhys ixialD;sl ,CIK";,,af,a OuzudkJo ysus"iuhjrAOk uq|@Kd,h"fld<U"1979"137 msgqj6 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osixMrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;: p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;xf,dalx lreKd iy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s
  25. 25. 207 lreKd hk jpkh bF:s ,sx. wdldrdka; mGu jsNla;s taljpk mohls1 bkawoyia jkafkawkqluzmdj ohdj hk wrA:hhs2huzlsis |=lg m;ajS we;s flfkl`f.a |=laLs; iajNdjh oel ta;eke;a;d bka uqojd .ekSuz jYfhka is;ays my<jk yeZ.Suz iajNdjh lreKdj f,i yeZoskafjzishZMiFj j.!hd wruqKq fldg nq|=jrhka jykfia kulf.a is;ays my<jkakdjQ lreKdj uydlreKdjf,i wrA: oelafjzta Wkajykafiaf.a is;ays we;sjkakdjQQ ldreKsl iajNdjh Y@jl is;ays my<jklreKdjg;a jvd b;d jsYo;r yd w;sYhskau iqmsrsis|= jQj;a nejsksfuu lreKdj fldagshlaujqjrekaf.a;a fldgshla mshjrekaf.a;a lreKdjg;a jvd jevsjQj;a nj oelafjk wrA: l:kh;`<tlS lreKdfjys uy;aiajNdjh m@lgfjz flfkl` fndaOsiFj N~ushg uQ<slj u m@fjzYjSu is|=jkqfha fuu uyd lreKdj ksidu njuydhdkh;`< lshefjzuydlreKd yd uyd m@Z{d hk folu fndaOsiuzNdrh msrSu iZoyd flfkl`fhduqjSug wjYH kuq;a ;uka w;g m;ajQ wrAy;aM,h mjd lemfldg hful` iir fjfikd wkHiFjhkaf.a |=lLH ksjdrKh msKsi ixfjzoS is;a we;af;l` njg m;ajS wkqkafjkqfjka iir /ZoSisgskafka m@Odk jYfhkau ldreKdj ksidnj uydhdk fn#oaOfhda jsYajdi lr;sfuz ksid uydhdkslfn#oaOhka w;r m@Z{djg jvd lreKdj flfrA iqjsfYaIS wjOdkhla olakg ,efnz fl;ruz nqoaOsuf;l` jqj;a wd;audrA:lduS ;eke;af;l`g nqoaOFjh jeks w;sfY@aIaG mojshlaflfiaj;a isysfkkq|= me;sh fkdyeltjeks ixfjzoS udkisl ;;ajhla jsjsO orAYjdoj,ska iqCIloekquz mrdihkaf.ka uki mqrjd.;a wd;audrA:lduS .;s.`Ke;s W.;`kag nqoaOsu;`kag jsIh fkdfjzwe;af;kau fud<h;`<g jsjsO foa tla/ia lrf.k ixpdrl mqia;ld,hla jQ muKska flfklanqoaOsuf;la jkjdoehs hkak;a jsiZosh hq;`jQ fjku m@Yakhlsflfkl`f.a nqoaOsu;alu YsIaGiuzmkaknj jgskdlu ueksh hq;af;a Tyq ks;ru maf,afgdaf.a isg lald .ek l:dlrk ;ruska fkdj Tyqf.ayoj; wfkla wh flfrys fld;ruz jsjD;jo hkak u;h3 3 uqos;dj Mudita (Delight)4 – uqos;d hk jpkh bF:s ,sx. wdldrdka; mGu jsNla;s taljpk mohls5b;a woyia jkafka wkqkaf.aiemoel i;`gqjSu hk wrA:hhsuD|= nj weZ.fjk uq|= hk moh;a i;`g m@S;sh weZ.fjk uqod hk moh;a;`,kd;aulj i,ld n,kl< uqos;d hk moh;`< wka;rA.; .`Kh ms<snZoj o< yeZ.Sula we;slr.;yelshis; by<g bms<S tk wdldrfhka wkHhkaf.a i;`gfjkqfjka ;ud;`< mekkZ.skakd jQ uD|=fiduzkia iy.; fpz;kdj fujsg tlajru lemSfmfka1 md,s isxy, wldrdosh"fmd,aj;af;a nqoaOo;a; ysus"fn#oaO ixilD;sl uOHia:dkh"foysj,"1998"151 msgqj2 tu3 ienE ljsfhl`f.a l;dj-8"fndfyda foa lshd |=ka mdmka|= l@Svdj"iqks,a udOj"isZMusK brsod"tlai;a m@jD;a;sm;@ iud.u"fld<U"03042005"08 msgqj4 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxjs.;dNscA fCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da uqos;d iy.f;aak fpz;id talx osix iy.f;prsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx ;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjk;xf,dalx uqos;diy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s5 md,s isxy, wldrdosh"fmd,aj;af;a nqoaOo;a; ysus"fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh"foysj,"1998"395 msgqj
  26. 26. 208 uqos;dfjys jsreoaOdrA:h kuz BrAIHdjhsBrIHdj we;s ;eke;a;dg uqos;dj jevshfkdyeluqos;dj jevSug kuz furudf.a iuzm;a foi BrAIHd mrjYfkdjS i;`gq is;lska ne,Sfuysyelshdj we;af;l` jsshhq;`hfuysoS uqos;dfjys ;j;a ,CIKhlao meyeos,s fjztkuz uqos;dj jevSugkuz iqjm;ajQ iFjhka isgsh hq;`njhsfu;a;d ixl,amh iFjhd jsIfhys ys;j;aNdjh m;`rejkaklajk ksid thg wjYH jkqfha iudknjlska ie,lsh yels fldgilsfuz fuzksid jvd myiqhlreKdfjzoS |=laLs; iFjhka fldgila isgsk w;r Tjqkaf.a |=flysoS is;a WKq jSu idudkHfhkaoelshyels jQ iajNdjhls kuq;a fu;a;d ixl,amh me;srjSug jvd wiSreh uqos;d ixl,amh me;srjSu fu;a;d yd lreKd hk ixl,am fol me;srjSugo jvd wiSrehthtfiajkafka uqos;djg idudkHfhka flfkl`;`< oel.ekSug wjYH lrkakdjQ .`Khla jevS ;snSuwksjdrAh nejskstkuz BrAIHdfjka f;drjSuhs wkqka flfrys us;`renj me;srjSug;a jvd wkqkagwkqluzmd lsrSug;a jvd wkqka flfrys BrAIHjlska f;drj lghq;` lsrSu idudkHfhka wmyiq nejskstZkEu flfkl`f.s isf;ys iemfhka miqjkakka flffrys we;s jkafka wkqluzmdjla fkdj ;udg tjkaiem iuzm;a fkdue;sh hk wdldrfha ;ry is;sjs,a,la nj ksidhtnejska fydZo hym;a uy;aud.;swe;s mqoa.,hka f,i idudkHfhka ie,flkakdjQ mqoa.,hka w;r mjd wkqkag BrAIHd lsrSu olskg,efnzwe;euzjsfgl fuh wo iudcfha fnfyjska me;srhk T#IO yd m@;slu! rys; oreKq .KfhajHdOshla jYfhkao wF:!l:kh lsrSug yelsh iuyre |=laLs;j isgskl< uq,ska wkqluzmd l<;a miqj iemj;aj isgskq olskl< ta wkqluzmdl<mqoa.,hdu ;ukag BrAIHdlrkq olakg ,efnzwe;euzjsg idOdrKj l,amkd lr n,kl< fufiajkafka wehsoehs is;d.ekSug mjd fkdyeluqos;djg mjd mdol jkqfha ffu;@sh nj fmfkkag ;sfnzfuysoS ffu;@sh lrkafka iemj;a iFjhkag jSu lEmS fmfkhsffu;@sfhys iajNdjh us;`re njhsfuysiudkd;au;d .`Kh we;s w;r uqos;dfjys we;af;a wkqka ms<snZoj i;`gg m;ajk iajNdjhhsfuysoSffu;@sfhysoS we;sjk wdfjzokfhys ixhqla; iajNdjh;a olakg ,efnk w;r uqos;dfjys we;sjkwdfjzokfhys ixhqla; iajNdjhla olakg ,efnz iuyre ;ukaf.a iudc ugzguska yd W.;aluska ;ukag jvd by< ;;ajhkays fjfik WojshgBrAIHd lrk w;r we;euzfokd uq,ska my< isg oshqKq jS ;ukaj iudc ugzguska yd W.;aluskamiqlrhk whg BrAIhd lsrSuo olakg ,efnzboska .sys iudcfhys olakg ,efnk funZ|= BrAIHdjkaf.a iajNdjh rpkh lrkakg W;aiy lrf;d;a fujeks fmd;a lsysmhla ta msksi leml<;a thmrsiudma;shg meusKjsh fkdyelsjkq we;flfiajqj;a BrAIHdj fydZo fohla kuz fkdfjzb;du;a gslfofkla muKla b;du;a mq|=udldr f,i jer jEhfuka oshqKqjk whg BrAIHd fkdlrk w;r wjYHwdYsrAjdoh fkduZoj ,ndoSug wjYH mshjr .ks;suqos;dfjys wjYH;djh ;oskau oefkkafkajrA;udk iudch fuf,i BrAIHdfjka fj<S mj;sk whqre olsk jsgh iS, ;fmda .`Kfhka wkQk nyqiD;Fjfhka w.;ekam;ajQ jrA;udkfhys jsYajjsoHd, uydpdrAhjrfhl`j mjd jsIh oekqfuka fukau nqoaOsu;anfjka wnsnjd l@shdl, yels muKgu m@Z{d mdgjfhkam@dpSk yd m@;spSk mdKavs;Hfhka yd iuhiuhdka;r jsYdroZ{dkfhka iu,xlD;jQ wfma merKs h;siudcfhys jQ cSjudk nq|=jre nZ|= uykdysusjrekajykafia,d ish YsIH m@cdj fj; olajk ,oafoa
  27. 27. 209uqos;d .`Kfhka wkQk jQ fifkyils Wkajykafia,d jsiska ish YsIHhkaf.a oshqKqj oelwjxlju yo m;af,kau i;`gg m;ajQ w;r ks;rka;rfhka ish YsIHhdj jsoaj;a iudchg yZ|=kajdoSmsfhl` ;udf.au orefjl`g olajk ;rfuz fifkyilska wdorfhka /ln,d.kakd ,oS we;euzjsg fndaOsiuzNdr mqrkakdjQ W;`uka w;frys mjd fulS |=rA.`Khka biau;` jSufya;`fjka;uka wfmaCIdl<djQ f,daflda;a;r wOs.uhkag mjd th ndOdjla jQ whqre isoaOdrA: fndaOsiFjhkajykafia yd foajo;a; prs;h w;r we;sjqkdjQ u;.egquz ms<snZo mqj;aj,ska msrS we;s cd;l l:dj,skafmfka foaj;a; hk prs;h;a iuzmQrAK lZM prs;hla fkdj u;` igzGsiair kuz mfianq|= njgtaldka;fhkau meusfKkakdjQ iir fmreuz msrE mdrus;d Yla;shla iys; W;`ful`nj nq|=r|=kau mjdiZoyka lr;sfnzfy;u foajrdc kuska iuzud iuznqoaOFjhg meusfKk nj ioaOrAu mqKavrSl kuzixialD; uydhdk OrAu .@J:fhys okajd ;sfnz1 4 WfmalaLdj Upekka ( Indifferent)2 – WfmalaLd hk jpkh bF:s ,sx. wdldrdka; mGud jsNla;s taljpk mohlsfuys wrA:h jkqfhaueoy;a nj iem|=la fkdjQ fjzokdj hkakhs3uOHia:;djh hkq lsisjla flfrys mCImd;S nfjkaf;drjSu hkqhsmCImd;Snj ks;ru wka;hka fiajkh lrkakg f,d,anjla olajk ksid tnZ|= wka;hkaf.aka usoS lghq;` lsrSfuys wNs,dY we;s ;eke;af;a lsis|= wka;hla ;oska .@yKh lrfkdf.k iEujsglu uOHia:;djh Nckh lsrSug jEhuz lrhsiqj |=la jYfhka fyda fjzjd kskaod m@Yxid jYfhkafyda fjzjd wgf,da oyugwh;a OrAu;djhkays fjkiajkakdjQ iajNdjh ks;ru f.k tkafka lsisjlaflrys neZoS mej;Su |=la iys; njhsfuz ;;ajh hgf;ys iEu fohla flfrysu wkqmdodkSh wdl,amhla we;slr.kSu we;af;kau iqjodhsnjla cks; lrkakdjQ ldrKhls uOHia:djh we;slr .ekSug kuz isf;ys we,Su yd .egSu hk l@shdldrSFjfhys tla;rd |=rlgCIjSula ;snsh hq;`uhtfia ke;sj lrkakdjQ WfmaCIl jSu kshu WfmaCIl iajNdjh fkdfjzlsisj;alrkafka ke;sj w,ij ysZoSuo WfmaCIl jSula fkdfjzfuu WfmCIl iajNdjh fu;a;d lreKd yduqos;d hk ixl,amhkg jvd jevSu wmyiqhfu;a;d lreKd yd uqos;d hk ixl,amhkays tla;rd|=rlg iFj ixZ{dj yd we,Sfuys .`Kh mj;shsfuu ;;ajhka isf;ys iuzmQrAK CIdka;shla we;s lr.ekSfuys ,d ndOdjla jYfhka l@shd;aul fjziFj ixZ{dj yd we,Suz .egSuzl@shdj,sh uZ.ska mqoa.,hdfuf,djg neZo;nd .kakd fm@arK f,i l@shd;aul jk ksid isf;ys mQrAK jsuqla;shla Wod lr.ekSug kuz by;lS fm@arKhkaf.ka is; yels;dla ksoyiaj ;nd .kSu wjYHfhkau l<hq;`jQ fohls ta iZoyd WfmaCId jsyrKh w;HjYH fjzfuz ksidu iDoaOs m@d;sydrAh jeks iqjsfYaIS w;sudkqIsluhyelshdjla mjd ,efnkafka isf;ys Tz,drslj mj;skakdjQ iFj ixZ{dj yd we,Suz .egSuz l@shdj,sh1 YdlH uqkSkaJ|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA: f.#;u nqoaO prs;h n<kaf.dv wdkkao ffu;@Sh ysus iuhjrAOkm@ldYk fld<U 1986 289 msgqj2 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxjs.;dNscAfCOda js.;nHdmdfoda wiuzuQ<afyda iuzmcdfkda m;siaif;da WfmlaLd iy.f;ak fpz;id talx osixMrsFjd ;:d |=;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalxWfmalaLdiy.f;ak fpz;id jsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmmudfKak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsCjd jsyr;s wmmudfKa3 md,s isxy, wldrdosh fmd,aj;af;a nqoaOo;a; ysus"fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh"foysj,"1998"120 msgqj
  28. 28. 210tla;rd |=rlg ixisZojkakdjQ tfukau p;`;:s OHdk wjia:dj ixfla;j;a lrkakdjQ WfmaCIdjsyrKh jevSu;`,sks osidjka ih (6) (Six Sides)1 i;r n@yau jsyrKh jevSu msKsi osYdjka wglg fnodf.k we; fuys jsfYaIFjh jkafkaidudkHfhka wm okakd osYdjka yhg wu;rj ;j;a osYdjka folla tlaj ;snSuhs fuh mqrdKfnoSfuz l@uhla jsh yelshs fujeks wdldrfhka osYdjkafnod oelajSfuys iuzm@odhhla Y@uK iuzm@odhi;`j mej;sks i;r n@yau jsyrKh fujeks wdldrfhka jHdma; lsrSug fya;`j th iuia; cSjjrA.hd fj; me;srjSfuz wjYH;djhhs 1 tla osidjla (One Side) 2 fojk osidj (Second Side) 3 ;`kajeks osYdj (Third Side) 4 y;rjeks osYdj 5 fufia Wv osYdj 6 hg osYdj 7 iri (yria w;g jk osYdj) 2 8 iEu ;kays^ osYd taldnoaO;djh (ishZM osYdjkays iuia;h) m@udK (ishZM iFjhka wruqK)( Sizes / Objective of All Beings)3 i;r n@yau jsyrKhka jevSu msKsi ishZMu iFjhka wruqKq lrkakdjQ iFj ksus;a; fuysm@udKhf,i ie,flaf,dal jsIh wpska;h wm@udKh th nq|=r|=ka jsiska jodrd we;fuysoS i;r n@yaujsyrKhka jevSu wkql@ufhk ixjrAOkhg m;alr.; hq;`;la jk w;r ta iZoyd foaYkd lrk,owkql@usl m@;smodj jQl,S fuys oelafjk iFjhka wruqKq lrkakdjQ jsOsl@uhhstkuz 1 ySk (Small) 2 uOHu (Medium) 3 uy;a ( Massive) 4 ish,a, ^ iuia;h (All)4 f,dal jsIh (iFj jsIh) ( Subject of Univers / Subject of Beings/Lifes/Spirits)51 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgqtalx osix MrsFjd jsyr;s ;:d |=;shx;:d ;;shx ;:d p;`;a:sx b;s WoaOufOda ;srshx inznOs inzn;a;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx….iy.f;ak fpz;idjsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfkak wfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s2 w ks1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq.inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x f,dalx3 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgqjsmqf,ak uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKakwfjzfrAk wnHdmcAfCOk MrsFjd jsyr;s4 tu …inznOs inzn;a;;dh inzndjka;x5 tu jsmqf,ak
  29. 29. 211 fuhska woyia jkafka Ndjkd lrk l@ufjzofhys ishquz fkdishquz njhs uq,skau i;r n@yau jsydrNdjkdj jvkakdjQ fhda.shd tlajru ishquz wruqKla lu!ia:dkh jYfhka ;ndf.k tu NdjkdjwerUsh fkdyelshtn|= mqoa.,hska jsiska uQ<sl jYfhka i;r n@yau jsyrK Ndjkdjkays jevsh hq;`jkafka Tz,drsl ixZ{djhsTz,drsl ixZ{dj jqj;a ;ukaf.a isf;ys m@.`K l< hq;`jkafka buy;awiSrejlska iy uy;a bjiSulsksuq,skau isf;ys tal.a.;djh hkqfjka woyiajk tl wruqKlfndfyda fj,d mj;sk iajNdjh fkdue;s ksid .kakd,o wruqK isf;ys rZod isgSfuz .`Kh ySkhNdjkdj wLKavj lrf.k huska uy;a W;aiyfhka tla wruqKla Tiafia ;u is; msysgqjd .ekSugfhda.djprhd W;aiyl< hq;`h fufia W;aiy lr;a lr;a wkql@ufhka ps;a; jS:Skays ;uka Wmojd.kakd iFj wruqK tkuz i;rn@yau jsyrK wruqK u Tiafia wLKavj we;s jkakdjQ is;a fm<la we;sjSu fuu tlZ.;d .`Kh kuskayeZoskafjzuq,oS ps;a; jS:Ska ys we;sjk ps;a;CIK Ndjkd wruqK ms<snZoj wod< jkafka w;rska m;ris;a j,hkuq;a is; tlZ.jkjd hkq wLKavj ps;a; jS:shl jevs is;a .Kkl wod< wruqKwruqKqlrf.k pspCIK we;sjSuhsfuz ;;ajh tlajru Wod fkdfjzb;du;a jer jEhfukauykaisfhka Wodlr.; hq;`jQ ;;ajhls fuu Ndjkdjg n@yau jsyrK kduh jHjydr jkqfha n@yauhdf.a fuka uD|= jsyrKhla jknejska yd fYaIaG jsyrKhla nejsksfuys n@yau kduh fY@aIaG hkakg mhH!dh jYfhkao jHjydrjknejskstfukau fuu n@yau jsyrKj,g wmamuZ[aZ[d hehso jHjydr lrkq ,efnzta fuu wruqKqwm@udK iFjhka jsIfhys me;srjsh hq;`nejsksfuf;la iFjhka flfrys me;srjsh hq;`hbka Tnzfnysfkdme;srjsh hq;`hhsfuys kshuhla ke; ishZM iFjhka flfrysu me;srjsh hq;`htfia jqjo ffu;@Sjvk wdos lu!uslhd jsiska m<uq fldgu ;ud flfryso blans;s wdikakdoSka flfryso TOs jYfhkam;`rejd miqje wfkdaOs jYfhka me;srjsh hq;`hsTOs kuz iSudhfuu iSud wkql@usl wjia:djkajYfhkao wrA:oelajsh yelshwkql@usl wjia:d olajd we;af;a wdOqkslhdf.a myiqj iZoydh jevSfuz myiqj i,ld ld,duiQ;@fhys i;r n@yau jsyrK jevSfuys wkql@usl wjia:d follayZ|=kajd oS ;sfnztkuz 1 f,dalh uy;ajQ ( Considerable World)1 2 uy;a njg .shdjQ ( Went into the Considerable World) hk wjia:d folhs f,dalh uy;anjg .shdjQ( Considerable World) hkafkka oelafjkqfha uq<sl wruqKhsfu;a;dixl,amfhys kuz wkqka jsIfhys us;@Fjhhsus;`renjhslreKd ixl,amfhys kuzz |=laLs;iFjhka jsIfhys wkqluzml ijNdjhhsuqos;d ixl,amfhys kuz wkHhkaf.a iem; oel i;`ggm;ajk iajNdjhhsWfmaCIdfjys kuz uOHia: iajNdjhhs uQ,sl jYfhka iFj f,dalh by; oelajqkqwdldrfhka uy;af,i wruqKq lsrSu fuz;`< olakg ,efnz1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq uy.a.f;ak wmamudfKak
  30. 30. 212 fu;a;d kuzjk usl@Ndjh tkuz ishZM iFjhka flrys ys; MrKh jvkakdjQ fhda.djprhdoafjzIfhys wdoSkjo CIdka;sfhys wdksixio ie,lsh hq;`hm<uqfldgu m@shhka flfryso w;sm@shhkaflryso uOHia:hka flryso ffjrSka flfryso ffu;@S fkdjevsh hqq;`htfiau iSud iys; fldg ,sx.jsiNd.hka flfryso u<jqka flfryso fkdjevsh hq;`h;ud flfrys ffu;@S jvd blans;s ms<sfj,skaishZM iFjhka flfrys me;srjsh hq;`hs by; olajk ,o mrsoafoka fu;a;d ixl,amh wruqKq fldgf.k m@;sNd. ksus;a; ,efnk ;dlakej; kej;;aa is; ta Tiafia fufyhjSu mrslrAu NdjkdkuzfjzfuysoS f,dalh uy;aj( Considerab Qle World)jYfhka ie,lSu tlS mrslrAu Ndjkd fldgig wh;ajQ Ndjkd wruqKhsfyj;a m@;sNd.ksus;a;hs fuysoS Ndjkdkqfhda.shdg m@;sNd. ksus;a; jegfykafka wm@udK uy;ajQ iFj f,dalhwdY@hlrf.khsf,dalh hkqfjka fuys woyialr we;af;a wm@udK iFj iuQyhdhs uyfKks nUhla jQfuz YrSrhu f,dalh;a f,dal iuqoh;a f,dal ksfrdaOh;a f,dal ksfrdaOhg udrA.h;a mKjushkqfjkajQ nqoaO foaYkdfjka oelajQ mrsoafokau f,dalh uy;ajQ jYfhka .efkkqfha m<uqfldgu wdoslrAuslhdg wruqKq jQ m@;sNd. ksus;a;hs m@;sNd. ksus;a; ,enqKq miqj thu wruqKq fldg OHdkh ,efnk ;dla tys is; fufyhjSu WmpdrNdjkdhehs lshkq ,efnzta m@;sNd. ksus;a;u wruqKq fldg OHdkh ,efnk wjia:dfjys tys is;fufyhjSu wrAmKd Ndjkd hehs lshkq ,efnzwrAmKd kuz fuys OHdk m@dma;shhs fuu wrAmKdjfkd,efnkafka nqoaOd kqiai;s Ouzudkqiai;s ix>dkqiai;s iS,dkqiai;s pd.dkqiai;s foaj;dkqiai;sWmiudkqiai;s urKdkqiai;s hk wkqiai;s wfgys yd wydr mgslal~, ixZ[aZ[d p;`Od;`jjF:dk hkfoflys tl;`j jk oY lrAuia:dkfhys muKs i;r n@yau jsyrKfhys wrAmKdj ,efnz i;r n@yau jsyrK Ndjkdfjys Wmpdr Ndjkdj yd wrAmKd Ndjkdj hk ;;ajhka;`,oS isf;ysjrAOkhjkakdjQ m@;sNd. ksus;af;ys iajNdjh‘uy;a njg .shdjQ(Went into Considerable World)’hkfldgiska bosrsm;a flfrAfuz ;;ajh m@;sNd. ksus;af;ys f,dalh uy;ajQ ( Considerable World)hk ;Fjh wNsnjd hEuls fyj;a jrAOkSh iajNdjh w;ska m<uq fldgig jvd fojk fldgibosrshg .sh mqZM,a iajNdjhla olakg ,efnzi;r n@yaujsyrK Ndjkdj uZ.ska wrAmKdj bmsojshyelsnj l,ska jsia;rlr we; wrAmKdj jqjo fu;a;d lreKd uqos;d yd WfmalaLd hk ;`k pl`Ial OHdkslh fuz ;`k jvd m@:uOHdkdos OHdk i;r ,enshyelshffu;@S lreKd uqos;d foduzkiska kefZ.k jHdmdo jsysxid wr;s|=relrhs th fiduzkiska fjkaj fkd,efnztnejska iqL fjokd rys; mZ[apu OHdkdosh fuys fkd,oyelsh WfmalaLdj mZ[apu OHdkslh WfmalaLdj jvd mZ[api OHdkh muKla ,o yelshs iFjhkaflfrys uOHia: nejska fuys iqL OHdk fkd,efnz 1 mdol kHdhhka fol (Two Basic Theories)1 w ks 1" ;sl ksmd;h"uydj.a."ld,duiq;a;"nq c uq 337-343 msgq i fLda fida ld,dud wrshidjflda tajxwfjzr ps;af;da tajx wnHdmcACO ps;af;da tajx wixlsmsgzG ps;af;da tajx jsiqoaO ps;af;da I;a; osgzfGj Ouzfuzp;a;dfrda wiaidid wOs.;d fydka;s
  31. 31. 213 mdol kHdhhka fol f,i wrA: oelafjkafka i;r n@yau jsyrK Ndjkd jevSu msKsi bjy,alr.kakdjQ l@ufjzohka folhsfuys jsfYaI;djhla jkafka fjkilaa fkduelsj iuia; i;r n@yaujsyrKhu tlu fu;a;d ixl,amh u; mdolj ;snSuhsfuh fy,sjkafka mdol kHhhka folms<snZoj jsuiQ l,aysh ulakisido mdol kHhhka fol wffjrh yd jHdmdo rys;nj u; f.dvkeZ.S;snSuhwffjrh yd jHdmdo rys;nj hkq ffu;a;d ixl,amfhau jsjsO wkqmQrAj wjia:djka yegshgyZ|=kd.; yelsh fuzksid fuysoS iuia; i;r n@yau jsyrKhgu tla fmd|= idOlhla fuz;`,ska fidhd.; yelshtkuz fu;a;d ixl,amhhs uSg by;oS mejiQ mrsos iuia; Y@uK iuzm@odhu fu;a;d ixl,amh mdollrf.k f.dvkeZ.S we; hkak fuz uZ.ska ukdj ;yjqre fjzth ;j|=rg;a iamqg lsrSu iZoyd jskhYsCIdmo mekjS fkd;snQ ld,fhys nq|=kajykafia ;u Y@djl ix>hd yslaujd .ekSu msKsi TjqkagisysleZojSuz jYfhka foaYkdl< Tzjdo md;sfudlaLhg wka;rA.; lreKq jsYaf,aIKh lrne,shyelsh1 ‘inzn mdmiai wlrKx –l`i,iai Wmiuzmod ips;a; mrsfhdomKx- tlx nqoaOdk idikx’ hdomKx-(ishZM wl`i,ska |=rejSu l`i,a lsrSu yd oshqKq lsrSu ;udf.a is; msrsis|= lsrSu hk fuz nq|=jrhkaf.awkqYdikhhs) ‘Lka;s mrux ;fmda ;s;laLd ksnzndKx mrux joka;s nqoaOd k ys mnzncsf;da mrEm>d;s k iufKd fyd;s mrx jsfyGhkaf;d’(bjiSu fuz iiafkys W;`uz ;mihs nq|= mfianq|= uy ry;ayq ksrAjdKh W;`uzfldg lsh;a wkayg yxidmSvd lrkakd mejsoafola Y@uKfhla fkdfjz) ‘wkqmjdfoda wkqm>df;damd;sfudlafL p ixjfrda u;a;Z[aZ|=;d p N;a;iaisx mka;x p ihkdikdikx wOsps;af;a p wdfhdaf.da t;x nqoaOdk idikx’(Wmjdo fkdlsrSu ysxid mSvd fkdlsrSu m@d;sfudlaL(YsCIdmo) YS, bJ|@h ixjr YS, fol /lSufNdackfhys muK oekSu(wdcSj mdrSY`oaOs YS,h yd m@;H ikaks%Y@s; YS,h) jsfjzl fikiakl jsiSuwIag iudm;a;Ska ,enSfuys jShH! jevSuu hk fuz oE l< hq;`h)21 YdlHuqkSka|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA: f.#;u nqoaO prs;h"n<kaf.dv wdkkao ffu;@Sh ysus"iuhjrAOkm@ldYlfhda"fld<U"1986"161 msgqj2 YdlHuqkSka|@djodkh fyj;a isoaOdrA: f.#;u nqoaO prs;h"n<kaf.dv wdkkao ffu;@Sh ysus"iuhjrAOkm@ldYlfhda"fld<U"1986"161 msgqj

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