ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ 5.social foundation

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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ 5.social foundation Document Transcript

  • ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග් 05 mrspzfPaoh ( 05. Chapter ) fu;a;d ixl,amh : iudcuh moku ( Metta Concept : Societal Foundation ) fu;a;d idrOrAufhys iudcuh mokug wh;a jkafka ndysr ifudaOdkh we;slr .ekSu ms<snZo lreKqh fuz uZ.ska iudc m@;sudk ( Norms ) wdrCIdjSu flfrA fu;a;didrOrAuh olajk odhlFjh ms<snZo lreKq .eUqrska jsurAYkh flfrA fu;a;d ixl,amhixl,amhla muKla f,iska oelajQj o tys .enzjk w;sYh m@fhda.sl Ndjh Wmfhda.S lr.efkkqfha ;ks mqoa.,hka iuznJO idrOrAu jO!khlg tyd .sh iudc iuznJO;djhkaysjsOsu;a idrOrAu! wka;rA.; YsCIKhla l@shd;aul lsrSu flfrys nj fmkajd oS u fuhskawfmaCIs;h1 fu;a;d ixl,amh nsys jkqfhao tla mqoa.,fhl` wruqKq lrf.k fkdfjz wjujYfhka mqoa.,hka tla wfhl`g jevs msrsila wruqKq lr.ksusks uQ,sl wjia:dfjys ;ksmqoa.,fhl` jYfhka ;uka ;ukaygu ffu;@sh jO!kh lsrSu jsia;r lr ;snqK o thska wfmaCIs;jS ;snqfKa ;uka yqol,d jS ;ukagu muKla os.gu ffu;@sh jevSu fkdj wkHhkayg me;srjSugfmrd;`j tlS me;srjSu ukdj yqre mqre|= jSu iZoyd uq,skau fu;a;d ixl,amh ;uka ;`< ukdjm@.`K lsrSug uQ,sl mqyqKqjla ,nd.ekSu muKls2 tuksid fu;a;d ixl,amh iudcuh moku;`< oS Ndjs;d lsrSug wuq;`jka W;aiyhla .; hq;` fkdjkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh wF:!j;ajkafkau iudc moaO;shla ;`< cSjSka msrsila w;frys oS muKla ksidh3 nq|=iufhys js.@y jkakdjQ fu;a;d ixl,amh ffcj f,dalhg wu;rj mrsirh iuznJOfhka o fhoS we;s wdldrhm@d;sfudCIfhys jskh YsCId mo meKjSuz foi jsurAYkd;aulj n,k l, fmkS hk lreKls4fulS iudcuh mokfuys oS jvd;a W;aiql jkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amh iudc iuznJOdjhka jsOsu;alsrSfuys,d odhl jS we;s wdldrh ms<snZoj jsurAYkh lr ne,Sughs5 iudc iuznJO;djhkaf.dvkeZ.Sfuz oS fukau mj;ajd .ekSfuys oS tl f,iu fu;a;d ixl,amh uy;a fia wdOdrWmldrj;a jk w;r tys Wmrsu ;,fhys oS ;uka yd wkHhka w;r iSud iuzfNaoh yer ouuskalghq;` lsrSug udkjhd jsfYaI mqyqKqjla ,nhs6 fu;a;d ixl,amh iudc iuznJO;d jsIfhys l@shd;aul jk wdldrh uekjskajs.@yjk jsIhla kuz fn#oaO iudc jsoHdjhs7 jsfYaI jYfhka fn#oaO iudc jsoHdjg wod< jkwhqrska fu;a;d idrOrAu!fha iudc jsoHd;aul jeo.;alu ms<snZo w;sYh mqZM,a js.@yhla fuzmrspzfPaoh uZ.ska bosrsm;a flfrA iudc iuznJO;djhka uekjska ilia jsh hq;` wdldrh yd 191
  • jrA;udkfhys tfia fkdjSu ksid iudch uqyqK md isgsk .egZM ms<snZo fn#oaO ixorANhdkQl~,js.@yhla o fuhska is|= flfrA fn#oaO iQ;@ foaYkd w;rska iudc jsoHd;aul jeo.;alula .kakdjsjsO iQ;@ foaYkd fndfydauhla we;s w;r ta iEu iQ;@ Ou!hla uZ.skau fu;a;d idr Ou!hjsYaf,aIKh lrkq ,nk w;r fu;a;d ixl,amhg jsfYaI wkqn,hla o ,ndfohs tfukau fn#oaOiudc jsoHdj yd fiiq iudchSh jsoHd fCIa;@hg wka;rA.; jkakd jQ jsIh fCIa;@hkays ms<s.;akHdhhka yd fn#oaO iQ;@ foaYkd ;`<kd;aulj jsYaf,aIKh lsrSu ;`<ska fu;a;d idrOrAu!fhysiudcuh Ndjs;dfjys we;s Wmfhda.S;djh biau;` fldg oelajSu fuz mrspzfPAoh uZZ.ska is|= flfrAfulS iudcSh Ndjs;dj wka ljrodgj;a jvd jrA;udkfhys wjYH jS we;af;a osfkka osk jvjvd;a ixlSrAK jk usksia yeisrSuz rgdjka ms<snZoj ms<smeosh hq;` kshu l@uh fu;a;dixl,amfhka bosrsm;a flfrk nejsks fu;a;d ixl,amh iudch flfrys wod<lr .; hq;` kshuwdldrfhka Ndjs;hg f.k we;s kuz jrA;udkfhys Woa.;j we;s jsjsO iudcuh wrAnqo yd .egZMj,ska usksia iudch jshqla; jSug fyda yels;dla wju ugzgul tajd rZojd .ekSug wjldYie,fikq we;8 isZ.df,dajdo iQ;@fhys iudcuh moku wF:! oelafjkafka hq;`luz yd j.lSuz hkfohdldrfhks9 fuu hq;`luz yd j.lSuz l@shd;aul jSu iZoyd isZ.df,djdo iQ;@fhys jsia;rflfrkakd jQ uQ<sl iudc ixia:d ih ;`< wfkdakH jYfhka l@shd;aul jkakd jQ ysff;ISiajNdjhla mej;sh hq;`h10 fuu ysff;Is Ndjh kuz fu;a;d ixl,amhhs fuhska fmfkkafkaudkj ixia:dfjz wfkdkH neZoSu talFjh we;s lsrSfuys,d fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ldrAhNdrhb;du;a iqjsfYaIS jk njhs nq|= oyfuys iZoyka jk wdldrhg m<uqj mqoa.,hd wkHhkagfu;a;d ixl,amh me;srjSug m<uqj ;uka ;ud jsIfhysu th me;srjSu uZ.ska ukdj m@.`KNdjhg m;alr .; hq;` fjz bka blans;sj muKla tnZ|= ;eke;a;dg ;uka Wmudjg f.k wkawh fj; o l@udkQl~,j fu;a is; me;srjsh yels jkq we;s nj nq|= iuh fmkajd oS ;sfnz ;udgm<uqj fu;a;d ixl,amh me;srjSu wd;audrA:h f,ig we;euz wh l,amkd lr;;a thska jkafka|=rAj,j mej;s ;u is; Yla;su;a lsrSu muKs ienjskau ;uka flfrysj;a fu;a;d ixl,amhf.dvkZ.d .ekSug ;ruz j;a fkdyelshdfjka hqla; jQ iudc mrsirhl osjs f.fjk idudkHmqyq|=ka usksid l< hq;af;a m<uqfjka ;uka Yla;su;a lr.ekSuh iudch ;`< ;uka o tla;rdmqoa.,fhls by<ska isg iuia;h foi n,kafkl`yg fmfkkafka o ta whqrsks ixl,am ms<snZo h:diajNdjh jkqfha th yg.kafka o jrAOkh jkqfha o is; weiqrskau jk fyhska uq,skau ishisf;ys we;s lr.;a;d jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh msg;g o jsyso hk wdldrfhka Yla;su;a lr.ekSuuQ<slju l< hq;`j we;11 fu;a;d ixl,amh m@.`K lrkafka l@u l@ufhka ;uka o wkHhka o hkiSudj ;`kSjk wdldrfhks wjidkfha oS ish,qu iSudjka bj;a fldg ;uka o wkHhka o hkyeZ.Su rys;j fu;a;d ixl,amhu muKla isf;ys msysgqjd .ekSu fu;a;d ixl,am jrAOkfhys.eUqreu wjia:dj f,i nq|=iuh fmkajhs fu;a;d Ndjkdj ;`< fuh b;du;a ijsia;rj olajdwe; 192
  • fuz wdldrfhka isf;ys m@.`K jkakd jQ fu;a;dixl,amh ;j |=rg;a ixl,amhla muKlau jkafkao hk .egZMjfuysoS meK fkdkZ.skq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdkk"wdfjzok yd prAhduh hk ;@sjsO wxYhkaf.ka mrsmQrAKixl,amhla jk fyhsks fuz ;@sjsO wxYhkau fu;a;d ixl,amfhysb;du m@n,Fjhg m;a jQ wxY jk w;r fuys uQ<sl wjia:djm@cdkk wxYh w;am;a lr.kshs prAhduh mCIfhka ta m@cdkkwxYfhka jrAOkh lr.kakd ,o ixl,amuh wjia:dj l@shdldrS jSmsg;g jsyso hhs12 idudkH fn#oaOhdf.a ks;H YS,h f,iie,flk tfiau fn#oaO yd wfn#oaO ldg;a iudc cSjs;fhaoSksrjq,aj lghq;` lsrSfuz yelshdj" ta iZoyd wjYHlrk jgdmsgdjilia lrfok iudc iuzuq;shla f,i mxpYS, m@;smodj fmkajdosh yelsh mxpYS, m@;smodj uZ.ska mqoa.,hdj iudch jsiska oiudch jsiska mqoa.,hdj o iqrCIs; lrfokq ,nhs iudchla hkqmqoa.,hka rdYshlf.a jsjsO iuznJO;d yd wka;rAl@shdjkatla;eka jQ wjia:djla jk nejska fuu iuznJO;d ydwka;rAl@shdjka tla;rd jsOsu;a iajrEmhlska md,kh jsh hq;`hhkq idrOrAu! iuznJOfhka we;slr.; hq;` wF:!l:khla f,ioelajsh yel md,kh jsh hq;` jsOsu;a iajrEmh fuz hehs mxpYS, m@;smodj uZ.ska fmkajd fokq,nhs mxpYS, m@;smodfjys we;s iqjsfYaISFjh jkqfha wd.u ixl,amfhka mrsndysrj jqj o TzkEuck fldgzGdYhlg th wod< lr.; yelsjSuhs fuz hgf;a jsjsO wd.uz yd jsjsO jsYajdi orKta wkqj lghq;` lrk TzkEu mqoa.,fhl`g ish cSjs;fhys lghq;` idrA:l lr.ekSu iZoydmxpYS, m@;smodfjka ie,fikqha fkduZo fufyhls ffcj ys;jdoS nj mxpYS, m@;smodfjyswka;rA.; jsYajjSh nfjys mokuhs iuia; mxpYS, m@;smodj mqrdu jsyso mj;skakd jQ udkjysff;ISnfjys ryi jkqfha o th fu;a;d ixl,amh mdolj iliaj mej;Suhs13 m<uqfjks YsCIdmoh uZ.ska wF:!j;a lrkq ,nkafka mqoa.,hdf.a cSj;ajSfuzwhs;sh iq/lSuhs14 fuhg mdol jkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amhhs huz flfkl`yg iudch ;`< iajlShcSj;ajSfuz whs;sh iqrCIs;j ;nd .kakg kuz fy;u wkHhkaf.a cSj;ajSfuz whs;shg .relrkafkl` yd th /l oSug fjfyi .kafkl` njg m;ajsh hq;` nj fuz uZ.ska lshfjz fuysjeo.;au ,CIKh jkqfha hq;`luz yd j.lSuz iajrEmfhka fomigu tl f,ig iunrjl@shd;aul jkakd jq lsishuz .sjsiqul yd iuzuq;shl iajrEmhla tys .enzjSuhs15 ish,qu iFjhka;ukaf.a cSjs;hg wdYd lrkq ,nk nj nq|=iuh ms,s.kshs mqoa.,hka rdYshla tla;eka jSiudc.; jkqfha o fuu cSjs;h ksrjq,aj yd jvd hym;a whqrska mj;ajd .ekSfuz wjYH;djhksidh fuz fya;`j ksid lsis|= fNaohlska f;drj ieu fokdg mdfya ish cSjs;h flaJ|@ fldgf.kfuu wjYH;djh yg.kakd nejska wd.u ixl,amfhka mrsndysrj jqj o cSjs;hl we;s jgskdlu 193
  • fkdfjkiaj mj;shs flfkl` ;udf.a cSjs;h mj;ajdf.k hEug we;s leue;af;a m@udKhguwfkla mqoa.,hd ;ukaf.a cSjs;h mj;ajdf.k hEug leue;af;ka isgsk nj o fuhska f;areuz.; yelsh16 m<uq fldgu ;ukag fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh lrkqfha mqoa.,fhl`yg ;ukaf.acSjs;fhys jgskdlu wjfndaO lrosu msKsi jk w;r m@.`K jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh we;smqoa.,hdyg ;j |=rg;a th wkHhka olajdu jHdma; l< yels ugzgulg meusfKa jevs|=rg;afu;a;d ixl,amh m@.`K lsrSfuz oS ;uka yd wkHhka w;r mj;akd jQ jHdc isudj w;sl@uKhlsrSug mqoa.,hdyg wjia:dj ,efnz fuu iSudjka jHd;sl@uKh lsrSuu fu;a;d ixl,amfhysjvd;au jrAOkSh wjia:dj f,i ie,fla mrsmQrAK mqoa., fm#reIFjh f,i wrA: oelafjkqfhaofujeks wdldrfhka ishZM wdldrfha ;uka yd wkHhka hk iSudj |=re lr lghq;` lsrSugyelshdjla ;ud ;`< jrAOkh lr.kq ,enQ wjia:djhs wd;audrA:h hkqfjka yeZoskafjk iEu jsgu;ukaf.a iqL jsyrKh muKla is;k wkHhka .ek fkdis;k wjia:dj yg.efkkqfha ;uka ydwkHhka w;r w;s jsYd, mr;rhla ukiska ;nd l,amkd lsrSu ;`<sks mrdrA:h kshudldrfhkawrA:l:kh jkafka ;uka o wkHhka yd iudkh hk yeZ.Su we;s jk wdldrfhka ffu;@sfhysWmrsu jrAOkSh wjia:dj jk ;uka yd wkHhka w;r iSudj bj;a lr fmd|= cSjSka hkqfjka tlumrudorAYh wkqj is;Su ;`<h17 mqoa.,fhl`f.a osjs meje;au ukdj iqrCIs;j .; lsrSu iZoyd wdydr mdk" weZ|=uzme<|=uz" ksjdi jeks uQ<sl wjYH;djhka ksis fia iuzmQrAK jsh hq;`h fuzjd ,nd .ekSu iZoydmqoa.,fhl`yg lsishuz l@h Yla;shla fyj;a fuzjd us<oS .ekSfuz yelshdjla mej;sh hq;`h tfiauuQ<sl wjYH;djhka iuzmQrAK lr.ekSu msKsi imhd .kakd ,o iuzm;a l@udkQl~,j N`la;s jsoSumsKsi /ia lr ;nd .ekSu o uQ<sl usksia wjYH;djhlau fjz fujeks iuzm;a flfrys f,dn neZotajd ;fjfll` jsiska meyer .ekSu jkdyS iuzm;a we;a;df.a uQ<sl usksia whs;sjdisluz lvlsrSulao fjz tnejska bka je<lSu wkHhka flfrys ffu;@S mQrAjl is;ska is|= lrkq ,nk l@shdjla fjz18iudcfhys fjfik wfkl`;a idudcslhkaf.a iuzm;a /ia lsrSfuz we;s whs;sh ms<s.ekSu uQrA;su;aflfrkqfha tajd meyer fkd.ekSu ;`<sks wkHhkayg we;s iuzm;a /ialr ;nd mrsyrKhlsrSfuz whs;shg .re lsrSu;a iuZ.u iudch yd mqoa.,hd w;r iduQysl neZoSula yg.kshs fuuiduQyslFjh mqoa., ls@hdldrSFjh ksrrAnqo mrudorAYS iudchla ksrAudKh jSfuys,d Bg olajkiyh uQrA;su;a fldg fmkajhs19 m@;sjsreoaO ,sx.sl wdlrAIKh fya;`fldgf.k l@shd;aul jk mjq,a ixia:djjsOsu;aj wdrCIdjSug kuz th iudch jsiska ms<s.kakd ,o ksYaps; rduqjlg wkq.;j yeisrshhq;`jSu iudc.; wjYH;djhla f,i ie,lsh yelsh usksid o fiiq cSjSka fukau cdkuhjYfhka Wreu lr.kakd ,o fmd|= ffcjuh .`Khka wka;rA.; yd tlS ffcjSh meje;auwLKavj bosrshg f.khdu iZoyd ilia jS we;s YdrSrsl yd udkisl iychka wka;rA.;cSjsfhla jk kuq;a usksid iajNdjfhka Wreu lrf.k isgsk iqjsfYaIs; oshqKq ixialD;sl cSjkmeje;au fya;`fjka fiiq cSjSkag fuka ish YdrSrsl yd udkisl iychka ;ukaf.a is;eZ.s mrsos 194
  • ;Dma;su;a lr.ekSug wjYH bvlv iudch jsiska iuzu; lr.kakd ,o rduqjla ;`< iSud lrkq,en we; fuys oS mqoa.,hd yd iudch w;r fmd|= tlZ.Fjh jkqfha iudch jsiska iuzu;m@;sjsreoaO fofofkl` w;r f.dvkZ.d.kq ,nk ,sx.sl cSjs;hg fjk;a mdrAYjhka jsiska n,mEuzlrkq ,enSu ydls;dla wju lsrSuhs20 fuz ioyd uQ<OrAuhla f,i m@fhdackh f.k we;af;afu;a;d ixl,amhhs mjq,a tallfhys wdruzNhl wjia:dj f,i i,lkq ,nk fofofkl` w;rf.dvkZ.d.kq ,nk ,sx.sl iuznJO;djh l@udkQ, f,i orejka ,enSu;a wk;`rej fiiq iudcixia:d iuZ. we;slr .kq ,nk jsjsOdldrfhys wka;rAl@shdjka uZ.ska l@ul@ufhka ixlSrAKwjia:djka olajd jrAOkh lr.ksuska bosrshg f.khEu yd ta msKsi fmd|= iudcfhys iEufokdf.au osrs.ekajSuz fkduZoj ,nuska fu;a;d ixl,amh mdol lr.ksuska lghq;` lsrSuis.df,dajdo iQ;@fha iosidjka kuialdrfhys tla osYdjla jYfhka fmkajd oS we; f;jeksYsCIdmofhka wF:!j;a lrkqfha ksrrAnqo mjq,a ixia:djla f.dvkZ.d .ekSu yd th wLKavjbosrshg f.khdfuys,d mqoa.,sl yd mjq,a tallh w;r ;snsh hq;` wju idrOrAu! yeisrSuz rgdjfjz huz mqoa.,fhl` .; lrk mqoa.,sl cSjs;h mjd iudc ixia:djkays wLKav yd ksrrAnqomeje;au ;yjqre lrkakla jsh hq;` njg losu ksoiqkla jkafka o ,sx.sl cSjs;fhys iSudiys; ydl@uj;aNdjh flfrys olajk ie,ls,a,hs nsrsZo iajdushd flfrys;a" iajdushd nsrsZo flfrys;a"ujzmshka |+ orejka flfrys;a" |+ orejka ujzmshka flfrys;a f.dvkZ.d .kakd jQ neZosu fu;a;dixl,amh mdolrf.k we;slr.; hq;` w;sYhskau fifkfyjka; yd l`ZMKq .`Kfhka hqla;jQjla jsh hq;` nj nq|=iuh wjOdrKh lrhs21 iudcfhys fjfikakd iEu ;rd;srulu mqoa.,fhl` jsiskau ish osjs meje;au f.khdfuz oS f;dr;`re ikaksfjzokfhys fhfohs tys oS yels;dla ksrjoH yd i;H f;dr;`re ,nd.ekSug ieu mqoa.,fhl`ygu we;s whs;sh idrOrAu!hls tfiau th mqoa., yd udkj whs;sjdisluls tu whs;sjdislu huz wdldrhlska lvjSu fyda lvlsrSu msKsi odhlFjh iemhSu fuz wkqj jrols f;dr;`re ,ndoSfuz oS fukau f;dr;`re ,nd.ekSfuz oS o tlS f;dr;`re ,efnk uQ,dY@ ms<snZo .@dylhd ,nd.kakd jsYajdih m<q|= fkdjS ;nd .ekSug ikaksfjzolhd jsiska lghq;` lrkq ,enSu udkj whs;shls wi;H f;dr;`re ikaksfjzokh jkafka mqoa.,hka wkHhka uq<djg m;alsrSfuz fpz;dfjka hqla;j idjoH f;dr;`re iemhSu uZ.sks22 wkHhka /jgSfuz fpz;kdj yg.kqfha wkHhka flfrys ffjrh" fl@daOh is;ays we;s l,h f;dr;`re ikaksfjzolhd mqoa.,hd flfrys;a iuia; iudch flfrys;a fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgqfldgf.k lghq;` lrkafka kuz idjoH f;dr;`re 195
  • iemhSfuka ish Y@djlhka uq<djg m;alsrSu msKsi lghq;` fkd lrkq we; wi;Hh wfkl`;aish,qu jerosj,g uQ, ldrKhla jk nejska wi;H ikaksfjzokh lrkq ,nk mqoa.,hd is|= lrkq,nk l@shdj iudcfhys ms<s.;a iudc iuznJO;d ish,a,lau nsZo ouk iqZM fjz TzkEu jerosl@shdjla is|= fldg th is|=lf,a ke;ehs lSu ksid u;`jg ksjeros mqoa.,fhl` jSug we;s yelshdj ofuz ksid wju fjz23 iajlSh isysh wjq,a lrf.k iudcfhys lghq;` lsrSug mqoa.,hd wfmdfydi;ahu;a meka yd u;a|@jH Ndjs;h ksid mshjs isysh mqoa.,hd ;`<ska ;`rkaj fha u;ameka mdkh ksiduqZM uy;a iudchgu wjevodhs mqoa.,fhl` njg TzkEu mqoa.,fhl` m;ajkafka ksrdhdifhks24;ukaf.a isysh wjq,a lr.eksu msKsi lghq;` lrkakd jQ mqoa.,hd tfia lrkafka oafjzIh ksiduq<d jQ is;lsks ;ukag;a wkHhkayg;a jevodhs mrsos ksjeros isysfhka lghq;` lrkakd jQmqoa.,fhl` tfia l@shdlrkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh u; mdol jQ is;sks fu;a;d ixl,amh h:dmrsos l@shdjg kZ.kakg kuz b;du;a fydZo isysl,amkdjla mqoa.,hd i;`jSu wksjdrAhwjYH;djhls tfiau fuys oS iDKd;aul w;r fm<UjSfuz kHdh l@shd;aul flfrA fulSfm<UjSuz kHhdfhka is|= flfrkafka huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` os.ska os.gu huzlsis l@shdjla wrUhdOkd;aul fyda iDKd;aul whqrska lsishuz fm<UjSula is|= lrjSuhs hym;a idrOrAu!iuznJOfhka fulS fm<UjSu l@shd;aul jk th Okd;aul mCIfhys jQ hym;a fm<UjSula f,io |=Yaprs;fhys ,d fulS fm<UjSu l@shd;aul jk jsg th iDKd;aul mCIfhys jQ whym;afm<UjSula f,i o idudkHfhka yZ|=kajhs u;ameka ksid mqoa.,hd ;`< ldhsl yd udkislmCIfhka yg.efkk fm<UjSu wh;a jkqfha iDKd;aul fm<UjSula f,ighs fuys oS ;ukau;ameka u;a|@jH .ekSu iajlSh mrsydksh <Z.d lrjdfok ;uka jsiska ;ukaju fm<UjSula jkw;r fjk;a mqoa.,fhl` fuz wdldrfhka fm<UjSu ;ukag;a tlS mqoa.,hdyg;a tlfia mrsydksh<Z.d lrfohs25 iEu fohlgu fome;a;la we; mqoa.,hd iudchg fukau iudchmqoa.,hdyg;a ldreKsl jSu nq|=iuh wkqu; lrhs tfiau th fmkajd fokq ,nhs iudcfhkamrsndysrj mqoa., meje;aula ;snsh fkdyelsjdla fukau mqoa., meje;afuka mrsndysrj iudcuhmeje;aula o ;snsh fkd yelsh tfia fyhska mqoa.,hd yd iudch hk fowxYhu wka;rAl@shdlsrsfuz oS fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgq fldgf.k l@shdlsrSu uZ.ska mqoa.,hd iudc weiqfrys oS meKkZ.sKq ,nk fndfyd .eg,q wju lr.ekSug ,efnkq we;26 jrA;udkfhys fndfyda mqoa., ydiudc .egZM meK kZ.skq ,nkafka fuz fowxYh ms<snZoju fome;a;gu ksis wdldrfha jegySulafkdue;s nejsks we;euz ;ekl oS mqoa.,hdyg iudch jsiska oafjzI iy.;j i,lkq ,nk w;rtys m@;sjsmdlg iudchgu w;ajsZoskakg is|=fjk wjia:d b;du;au nyq,h nqoaO ld,fhyswysxil keue;s n@dyauK ;reKhd wx.`,sud, keue;s oreKq wmrdOlrefjl` njg m;ajQfha fuzwhqrska mqoa.,hd flfrys oafjzI iy.; f,i iudch lghq;` lsrSu ksidh tfiau l`vdl, mgkaiudcfhys oafjzIhg nZ|=kaj isgS iqkS; yd fidmdl jeks l`vd orejka nq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.a 196
  • ffu;@sh ,nd iqjm;a jQ wdldrh mqoa., l@shdldrSFjh flfrys fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEufmkajhs27 jrA;udk iudch fkdfhla wdldrfhys fya;~ka ksid jsjsOdldrfhka fNao Nskakjwe; tfia jSug m@Odk jYfhkau fya;`j iudcfhys fjfik fndfyda fokd wkHhka ms,snZojfu;a;d ixl,amh mdolj lghq;` fkdlsrSuhs wkHhka w;ska is|=jk b;du;au iqZM is|=jSul oSmjd fndfyda nrm;, oZvqjuz yd fkdfhla ysxidldrS l@shd is|= lrkakg iudcfhys fjfikwe;euqka ;`< lsishuz fm<TjSula olakg ,efnkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh l`vdl<mgkau ksis wdldrfhka fkd,enQ ksidnj fmfkkakg ;sfnz mqoa.,hdyg iudch;a iudchgmqoa.,hd;a .ig fmd;a; fuks .i;a fmd;a;;a /flk l,u iuia; jDCIfhys mej;auis|=jkakdla fuka mqoa.,hd;a iudch;a /flk wjia:dfjys oS muKla udkj jrA.hdf.a ksrrAnqomej;au jsoHudk fjz tfia fkdjk l,ays fkdfhl`;a l,flda<dy< rKavq onr jsm;a wdoshguqyqK mEug iuia; udkj jrA.hdygu is|=jkq fkdwkqudkh iudc ixia:dkays l@shd;auljSuf.kne,Qj;a fulS isoaOdka;h olakg ,efnz fndfyda fofkl` jsiska jrA;udk mejsos iudch w;S;mejsos iudch yd iiZod n,d bka jsoHudks; jk fkdfhl`;a lreKq wrUhd jsfjzpk bosrsm;alrkqfha th mj;skafka" mjq,a ixia:djkays .egZM yd oreKq iudcuh wrAnqo nyq, jrA;udk .sysiudcfhys Wm l`,lhla f,i l,amkdjg fkdf.kh isZ.df,djdo iQ;@fhys iosid kuialdrhuehska bosrsm;a lrk ,o m@Odk iudc ixia:djka flfrys iudcuh n,mEu ksid tlS iudcixia:djka ;`< jsoHudk jk jsjsO .egZM idlpzPd l< hq;af;a mj;sk iudchg idfmaCIlj jskd 197
  • thska jshqla;j fkdfjz tf,i jshqla;j ie,l~ l, iudch o wrA:j;a fkdfjz iudchla hkqiudc ixia:d fndfyda .Kklska ie|=uz,;a b;du;a ixlSrAK moaO;shla ksid tys iEu wxYhluiunr;djh fiiq wxYj,g wod< fjz bka tla wxYhla fyda fu;a;d ixl,amfhka mrsndysrjlghq;` lsrSu fuz fya;`j ksid fiiq wxYj,g b;du;a wrAnqoldrS f,i n,mdkq ,nhs jrA;udkiudcfhys mj;akakd jQ wrAnqoldrS .egquzldrS jd;djrKh fuz ksid tla tla mdrAYjhlafya;`fjka is|= jQjla f,i tlsfkldyg we.s,s os.` lr.ekSu f;areula fkdue;s ksIaM, jQjlsnq|=iuh lsisjsfglj;a huzlsis lreKla is|=jSug n,mdkq ,nk fya;`j fyda fya;`rdYsh foijsuid fkdn,d yqfola .egZMjg ms<shuz fhoSu wkqu; fkdlrkq ,nhs jsoHd;aul pska;kfhys,do fuz lreK fufiau js.@yhg nZ|=ka lrkq ,nk w;r .egZM iZoyd ms,shuz fhdckd lsrSfuz oSojsurAYkd;aul fya;`jg ksis ms<shuz fhoSu yd wod< i;Huh we.hquz Ndjs;d lsrSu is|= lrkq,nhs jsoHd;aul l@ufhys oS fukau nq|=iufhys oS o mqoa.,hd j;afmdfydi;alu" l`<h" iudc;;ajh" ia;@S mqreI Ndjh" Z{d;S iuznJO;d ie<ls,a,g .ksuska ukskq fkd,nk w;r idOdrKwe.hqulg meusKSu msKsi mqoa., l@shdjka muKla fpz;kdjg hg;aj ie,ls,a,g .kq ,nhsfn#oaO iS, YsCIdfjys yd m@d;sfudCIfhys jskh YsCIdjkays fpz;kdjg uy;a ie,ls,a,la olajkw;r th w;sYhskau udkqIsl jQjla o fjz28 frdau ,kafoais kS;sfhys o fpz;kdj wkqj l@shdfjysiajNdjh ;SrKh lrkq ,nk nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz fpz;kdj fu;a;d ixl,amh u; mokuzjiudcuh iuznJO;djhka f.dvkZ.d .ekSu ksrka;rfhkau hym;a fjz fojzo;a f;reka nq|=kajyiafiaf.a isrer u;g .,la fmr,d thska nq|= isrer ;`jd, is|=lr f,a fi,jSu wdkka;rShwl`Y,hla jkafka;a" thska we;s jQ ;`jd,hg yd ;e,Su iZoyd ms<shuz f,i cSjl ffjoHjrhdjsiska fnfy;a .e,ajSu msKsi nq|=ka jykafiaf.a ;`jd,h yd ;e,Su m,d f,a fi,jSu jsYd,l`Y,hla jqfha;a tlS isoaOs foflys oS fpz;kdfjys l@shdldrSFjh fjkia jQ nejsks fuz fya;`jksidu ksrka;rfhkau iudcYS,S osjshla .;lrkakd jQ mqoa.,hka fnfyjska fu;a;d ixl,amhfiajkh l< hq;af;a iudc iuznJO;d iEu tlloSu mdfya ffu;@S mQrAjlju lghq;` lsrSu w;sYhjeo.;a nejsks29 wjros. rgj,a jsiska ish ixjrAOkfhys uQ<OrAu f,i i,ld l@shdlrkq ,nk ydTjqkaf.a WmfoaYlhka udrA.fhka tajd taldka; i;H f,i furgg o fnodfokq ,nk" ngysroekquz moaO;s iEu jsglu mdfya mqoa.,hd yd iudch tlla jYfhka fkdj folla jYfhkai,ld lghq;` lrkakg mQrAjdorAY imhd we;s uq;a l`rsre ukqIH >d;k yd f,a je.srjSuzudrA.fhka o jsfYaIfhkau fj<Zo ixialD;sfhys wdOsm;H uZ.ska o hgm;a lr we;s fmros. oekquzmoaO;sj, jsfYaIFjh jkqfha iEu jsgloS u mqoa.,hd iucfhka jshqla; fldg fkdjiudcfhysu mQrAj tallh jYfhka i,ld we;s njhs jsfYaIfhkau fmros. oekquz moaO;sh;`<oS;a" ffjosl ixialD;sh ;`< fkdj m@;sffjosl ixialD;sh ;`< fnfyjskau fuz ms<snZojidlpzPdjg nZ|=ka jS ;sfnz tu ksidu ffjosl ixialD;shg jvd udkj flaJ|@shl iajrEmhla m@;sffjosl ixialD;sh ;`< jsoHudk fjz m@;s ffjosl ixialD;sh ;`<;a Igz Ydia;Djkaf.a wd.uslb.ekajSuzj,g jvd jevs bvlvla nq|=iufhys udkj flaJ|@Sh iajNdjh yd iudcuh 198
  • iuznJO;djhka iuznJOfhka mqoa., l@shdldrSFjfhys we;s jgskdlu fmkajd oSug fya;`j jqfhafu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka nq|=iuh w;am;a lrf.k we;s mqZM,a w;aoelSuz yd oekquz fldgzGdYh ksid hehs ks.ukhlg meusKsug mqZMjk tfiau wkH iuhhka yqfola fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jmirsh yqfola fpz;kdfjka mrsndysrj ldhsl mCIhg muKla iSud lr oelafuka muKla iEySulg m;a jQ iajrEmhla jsoHudk jk w;r nq|= iuh bka Tnzng f.dia tys udkisl mCIh l@udkQl~, wkaouska mrAfhaIKd;aul wkaouska is|= lrkq ,enQ mqoa., w;aoelSuz mdol lrf.k fy<sorjz lruska tys kj udkhka lrd jsyso f.dia we; iudcuh l@shdldrSFjh ;`<oS tf,i fidhd .kakd ,o fu;a;d ixl,amfhys kj udkhka yd m@fjzYhka b;du;a idrA:l wdldrfhka iudc yeiSrSuzys wfkHdakH iqyonj yd jsYajikSh nj jrAOkh lr.ksuska mj;ajd .ekSu msKsi Ndjs;hg .ekSugyelshdj we;30 jsfYaIfhkau fn#oaO idrOrAu! ish,a,lau mdfya mdol jS we;af;a fu;a;dixl,amh flaJ|@fldgf.k nj meyeos,sju fmfkkakg ;sfnz thg fya;`jla nq|=iuh b;du;awjsysxidjdoS oyula jSuhs fndfyda fokd nq|=oyug jvd iSudka;sl jQ mru wjsysxidjla ffckiuh ;`< jsoHudk fj;ehs mjikafka th w;a;ls,u:dkQfhda.S wjsysxid orAYkhla bosrsm;a lrknejsks fuz ;`< wkHhka jsIfhys fu;a;d ixl,amh ksis wdldrfhka l@shd;aul jSu fmfkkakg;sfn;;a" ;ukag b;du;a mSvdckl ;;ajhka flfrys fhduq lrk nejska ;ud flfrys fu;a;dixl,amh h:d whqrska l@shd;aul fjz hehs mejiSug wmyiqh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ksis iudcl@shdldrSFjh oel.ekSug kuz th wkHhka jsIfhys fukau ;ud jsIfhys o tlf,igu iSudiuzfNaohlska f;drj l@shd;auljsh hq;`h fuz fya;`j ksid nq|=iufhys ;ruz mqZM,a iajrEmfhkaffck oyu ;`< fu;a;d ixl,amh iunrj l@shd;aul fkdfjz fuz ksid nq|=iuhg jvd mqZM,ajmirshl jQ mru wjsysxidjla fjk;a lsis|= iuhjdohl fkd b.ekafj;ehs mejish yelsh31iudc l@shdldrsFjfhys il@shldrS iajNdjh flfrys fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,meu meyeos,sjuoel.; yelsh ienjskau fu;a;d ixl,amh wF:! iuzmkak jkqfha iudc l@shdldrSFjh ksiduh32 idrOrAu!j, ish,af,ysu;a" iodpdr iuzmkak lghq;` is,af,ysu;a moku fu;a;dixl,amh f,i wF:! oelajsh yelafla ta is,a,lau wF:! iuzmkak jkqfha iudc miq;,h mdol 199
  • lrf.k yg.ekSu yd ;j|=rg;a fkdkeiS rZod meje;au ksidh33 fuz ksid iudc miq;,hlskamrsndysrj hful`g idrOrAu! fyda iodpdrh wF:! iuzmkak l< yelalla fkdfjz34 tf,iiudcfhka mrsndysrj idrOrAu!j,g fyda iodpdrhg fyda meje;aula ;snsh fkdyelafla taish,a,f.au iSudjka usksia jgskdluz yd we.hquz wkqju ;SrKh flrekq iajrEmhla ta ;`<ujsoHudk nejsks usksia jgskdluz yd huz huz we.hquz tajdg ysus lrfokq ,nkafka iudch ;`<oSiduQysl jYfhka tlZ.jkq ,nk ksyZv iuzuq;Ska j,oSh35 ixl,amSh mCIfhka jshqla;j yodrkq,nk idrOrAu! fuz wkqj Ndjs;fhys oS Ndjs;hg .kq ,nk ia:dkh" mqoa., iajrEmh wkqj l,ska;SrKh l< fkdyels wdldrfhys jsjsO mrsjrA;kSh iajrEmhkag jsp,khjSu fuz wdldrfhkafkdje<lajsh yels fohla jkq we; idrOrAu! jsjsO iajrEmfhka mej;sh;a tys moku f,iie,flk fu;a;d ixl,amh ;j |=rg;a tys uq,a iajrEmfhkau l@shd;aul jSu u; tlSidrOrAu!fhys iudcuh jeo.;alu rZod mj;S usksia iudch ;`< iudcuh taldnoaO;djh rZodmj;skafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjh ta iudch ;`< l`uk wdldrfhka mejf;kafkaohk lreK u;h36 huz wdldrhlska usksfil` ;j flfkl`f.a uq<sl usksia whs;sjdisluzW,a,x>kh lrhso tjsg fkdoekqj;au fya ;ukaf.a meje;auugu jsk lr.kafkl` njg fuzksrhdifhkau m;afjz37 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys meje;au tnZ|= mqoa.,hd w;ska lvflfrk nejsksiudcfhys jQ huz mqoa.,fhl` w;ska fu;a;d ixl,amfhka mrsndysrj iudc iuzu; huz fohlalvjk wjia:djl oS th wfkl`;a mqoa.,hka flfrys n,mdkq ,nk iajrEmh wkqj th yqfolawdpdr Ou! w,a,x>khla o idrOrAu! mCIfhys jQ msrsySula o fkdtfia kuz wmrdOhliajrEmfhys jrola o hkak ;SrKh flfrA38 huz pdrs;@hla nsys jkafka iudcfhysfjfik fmd|= ishZM fokdf.au iuzuq;sfhks pdrs;@ jdrs;@fofldgilg fuys fnoSu olakg ,efnz jdrs;@ hkqhuzlsis fohla fkd l< hq;` hehs iduQyslj we;slr.kakd ,o ;SrKhla jk w;r jdrs;@ hkq fuzwdldrfhkau huz huz foa fkd l< hq;` hehs we;slr.kakd ,o iduQysl neZoSu fjz isrs;a jsrs;a f,iyeZoskafjkafkao pdrs;@ yd jdrs;@ jYfhka wF:! olajk ,ofohu fjz fujeks foa iudcfhys yg.kq ,nkafka iudcmoaO;sh ;`< fjfikakd jQ mqoa.,hka Tjqfkdjqka w;riduQyslj we;s lr.kakd ,o udkqIsl neZoSu ksihsudkqIslFjh cks; jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,meuksidh39 fuz whqrska mqoa.,hka ;`< iduQyslFjh cks;lrk fu;a;d ixl,amh ixjrAOkSh mCIfhka ;j ;j;afudard h;au wdpdrOu! jmirsfhka o Tnzng hdug iu;afjz tjsg wdpdr Ou! ;j|=rg;a wdpdrOu! f,i 200
  • fkdyeZoskafjk w;r tjd yeZoskafjkafka idrOrAu! f,ih idrOrAu! j,g meyeos,sju wd.usl miq;,hla" ixialD;sl miqnsula we;wd.usl" wdrA:sl yd iudchSh miqnsu fmd|=fjz .;al< th ixialD;sl miq;,h jYfhkayeZoskafjz fuz wkqj fu;a;d ixl,amh o yqfola wdpdrOu! miqnsfuka wdruzN jS" pdrs;@ jdrs;@Tiafia bosrshg .uka lr irOu! ;,hg <Z.d fjz fmd|=fjz .;a l< ishZM wdpdrOu! yd idrOrAu!iZoyd iudchSh iyNd.SFjh wfmaCIs; nejska yd iudc odhlFjh ,ensh hq;` nejska fu;a;dixl,amh Tiafia ishZM foh fm< .iajkq ,nhs ishZM iudc ixia:djka w;frys hq;`luz ydj.lSuz wF:! oelafjkafka o fu;a;d ixl,amh l@shd;aul jk jsg nejska hq;`luz yd j.lSuzj,u;j;a iajrEmhlau jQ wdpdr Ou! fukau idrOrAu! o fu;a;d ixl,amhu mdolj yg .efka40fu;a;d ixl,amh ishZM fofhys mokuhs cSjhhs usksidf.a ishZM l@shdldrluz hym;a wxYhg.uka lrjkafka tfukau iudch yd tjka iudc iuznJO;d flfrys l@shdldrS mCIfhka odhllrjkafka fu;a;d ixl,amhhs41 fuz ksid fu;a;d ixl,amh wfkla ixl,amj,g idfmaCIljb;du;a by< iudc l@shdldrSFjhla fmkajk ixl,amhla jYfhka o we.hqug md;@ l< yelshjsfYaIfhka fu;a;d ixl,amg iudk wfkla iuh ixl,amj, jsoHdudk fkdjk m@dfhda.sl yrmoaO;shla yd iuia;uh mrsmQrAK njla fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jsoHdudkjSug tys nqoaOs mdoljrAOkSh YlH;dj fkduZoj bjy,aa jS ;sfnz idrOrAu! ksrka;rfhkau iudch;a" mqoa.,hd;a Okd;aul wxYfhka bosrshg.uka lrjSu msKsi uQ<slFjh imhk kshuqldrlhhs fufyhquz m@OdkFjh .kakd idrOrAu!ish,a,lau fu;a;d ixl,amfhka cSjh ,nhs nz,Qlhsuz mjid we;s mrsos iudc nJOkhla f,iidrOrAu! l@shd;auljSfuz oS iudcfhys tla tl iudc ixia:djka wrUhd o tla tla iudcixia:djla ;`< ixia:d.;jk mqoa.,hka w;r iduQyslnjla" us;@Fjhla cks;lrjSu wrUhd o"fu;a;d ixl,amh iDcq f,iu ueosy;a fjz fuz ueosy;ajSu iudc ixia:djka iEu tlla flfrysuiudk f,i yd ;sria fukau isria iuznJO;djhka f,i o l@shd;aul fjz fuys isriaiuznJO;djhka f,i wF:!h:kh jkafka iudcfhys m@OdkFjh .kakd wkqms<sfj< hgf;ys by<isg wjidk mqrel olajd mqoa.,dka;r iy ixia:duh iuznJO;djhka jk w;r" ;sriaiuznJO;djhka jkafka tl iudc ix;shlu fyda tlu fY@aKsfhys jQ mqoa.,dka;r iy iudcixia:duh iuznJO;djhkah wmg iudcfhys jsjsO mqoa.,hka iuz. lghq;` lsrSfuz oS fuls ;sriayd isria iuznJO;djhkaj,g wkqj wm iudch keue;s wm jeksu mqoa.,hskaf.ka iqieos iqjsYd,moaO;sh yd tla jS jsjsO l@shdldruzys fhfokafkda fjuq42 oKavkh" kS;sh ms<snZo oDIaGs fldaKfhka jsuid ne,Sfuys oS" huzlsis jrolahkak wF:!l:kh lr we;af;a iudcfhys cSj;ajk ishZM fokdf.au iduQysl meje;augtlZ.Fjhg jsreoaOj hdula fyda tu iduQysl nj LKavkh lsrSug uQ,dY@ iemhSula f,ih tjsgta iZoyd m@;slu!h jYfhka kej;;a iudcfhys tlS iduQysl nju we;s fldg th uekjska 201
  • m@;sIaGdmkhg m;alrjSu msKsi;a" iduh yd iuZ.sh jrAOkh lrjSu msKsi;a kS;sh keue;sjHia:d moaO;sh wkqj lghq;` lr tu kS;shg wkq.;j tys iZoyka jk mrsoafoka tlS jrog iq|=iq oKavk l@ufjzohla ;`<ska tu jro ksjeros lsrSu msKsi;a" m<s.ekSfuys fpz;kdfjka mrsndysrj wod< pqos;hd flfrys ioaNdjfhka lghq;` ms<sfh< lrkq ,nhs iudcfhys kS;sh keue;s fmd|= yd iduqysl jHjia:dud<dj ilia jS we;af;a o fulS wruqKq bgqlr.ekSu uZ.ska iudc iduQyslFjh iqrCIs; lr,Su iZoydh tla tla iudc ixia:d w;r udkqIsluh me;slv Tiafia jsYajikSh id idOdrK .Kqfokqj,g uZ.yir fy<s fmfy<s lr.ekSu wrNhdh tu ksid kS;sh iEu jsgu irAjidOdrK yd irAj ksrAfodaIs ish,a,ka jsiskau w.hfldg ie,lsh hq;a;lao jkafkahtfukau kS;sh l@shd;aul jkafka ieu mqoa.,fhl`f.au fm#oa.,sl iudc ;;ajh wkqj fkdjish,a,kau iudkFjfhka ie,ls,a,g f.kh tu ksid kS;shg olajk f.#rjh jkdyS yqfolajHjia:d ud<djlg muKla olajk mCImd;SFjhla fkdj iudcfhys fmd|= nj iduQyslFjhgtlZ.Fjhg olajk ie,ls,a,la yd f.#rjhla fjz iudc taldnoaO;djh rZod meje;au iZoydfuu lreK w;sYhska jeo.;a fjz43 kS;sh jkdyS iudcfhys fjfik mqoa.,hska w;r mKjd .kakd ,o fmd|=jHjia:d ud<djls meKjSuz moaO;shls fuu jHjia:djka meKjSu fyda ilia lsrSug ;ksmqoa.,fhl`g muKla ksfYaOs; n,hla fkdue;s w;r th iudcfhys wfkl`;a idudcslhka w;rwe;s lr.kq ,nk fmd|= tlZ.Fjhla u;" tu tlZ.Fjh iqrCIs; lr.kq iZoydu is|= lr.kq,nk meKjSulau jsh hq;`h44 tu meKjsu uZ.ska yqfola iudcfhys fmd|= tlZ.Fjh iqyoFjhus;@Fjh iqrCIs; jsh hq;` w;r fuz ;`<ska lsishuz mqoa.,fhl`g fyda mqoa.,hska lKavdhulrsojSfuz fyda m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdjla fkdjsh hq;`h fyj;a oafjzIfhka f;drj us;@Fjfhka hq;`jiEu flfkl`g ;j;a mqoa.,fhl` iuZ. lghq;` lsrSfuz yelshdj iqrCIs; lsrSfuz woyiskaujHjia:dj iEu fokd jsiskau wdrCId lsrSug neZoS isgs;s 202
  • jrola is|=lrkq ,nkafka iudc iduQyslFjhg tfrysj nejska oKavkfhysmoku jsh hq;af;a mqoa.,fhl`f.ka fyda mqoa., lKavdhfuka m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdfjka fkdjknejska oKavkfhys wruqK jsh hq;af;a o iudc yd mqoa., m<s.ekSulska f;drj mqoa., ydiudc iduQyslFjh we;s lrjSuhs fuz fya;`j ksid mqoa.,hd jroska uqojd .ekSu;a" iudchiqrCIs; lsrSu;a hk folu tlajr iq|=iq wdldrfhka m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdfjka f;drj fhdokq,nk oKavkh ;`<ska wfmaCIs;hs nq|=rcdKka jykafia ldhsl oKavkfhka neyerj udkisloKavkh wkqu; lr we;af;a o mqoa.,hd jroska uqojd hym;g .ekSfuz yelshdjla ta ;`< we;snejsks udkisl oKavkh l@shd;aul jkafka mqoa.,hd jroska uqqojd Tyqg;a" fiiq iudchg;a"hym;la is|=lr,Sfuz ffu;@S mQrAjl fpz;kdj Tiafia nejska th iq|=iq l@ufjzohla f,i ks.ukhl< yelsh45 fu;a;d ixl,amh Tiafia ish pska;kh fufyhjk mqoa.,hd w;ska ;ukag;aiudchg;a hym;lau muKla Wodfjhs Wolau ;ud ;`< we;s mqyq|=ka iajNdjh ksidu"yosisfhka we;sjk jsjsO ps;a;fjz.sl is;sjs,s yd iakdhquh wdfjz.hka ksid huz jrolg fydajroldrS njlg fyda mqoa.,hd fhduq jqj o jyd ;u jro isysjSfuka fyda fjk;a flfkl` jsiskafmkajd fokq ,enSfuka miq Tyqg ksjerosjSug wjldY ie,fikafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIhksrka;rfhkau ,enSu ksid Tyq ;`< wNHka;r wys;lr wxYfhys ps;a;fjz.d;aul md,khlaf.dvkeZ.S ;snSu;a os.` l,la ;siafia tnZ|= iajlSh md,khlg fu;a is; fmrgq fldgf.k ;@sjsOoajdrfhka lgqhq;` lsrSug mqoa.,hd uekjska yqre mqre|=j isgSu;a ksidh46 ;ud ;`< fu;a;dixl,amh jrAOkhjSu lsisfia;a huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` iudch;`< wl@shdldrS WodiSk mqoa.,fhl`njg m;a fkd lrjk w;r iudch ;`< fnfyjska l@shdldrS prs; .;lrkafka fu;a;dixl,amfhka iukajs; is;a we;af;dau fj;s47 usksia iudchla hkq ksrka;rfhka ir< frALshj ir< iudka;rj yeujsgu.uka lrkakla" jsldYh jkakla fkdfjz iudch fndfyda ixlSrAK ia:dkhls tnejska tysiudc iuznJO;djhka o fnfyjska ixlSrAKh fujka ixlSrAK iudc iuznJO;djhka mj;ajd tata iudc ixia:dj,g wh;a mqoa.,hka o ir< fkdjQ cSjs; .; lrkakka fj;s48 fujka ixlSrAKffoksl cSjk rgdjla .;lrkakg jSu ksid jrA;udkfhys fnfyjska usksiqka ;`< isrefrysffcjuh wiu;`<s;;djh fya;`fjka yg.efkk fkdfhl`;a ldhsl frda.dndOhka" wOsl f,iudkisl f;fygzgqjg m;ajSu fya;`fjka oevs udkisl wd;;sh ksid yg.kakd udkislfrda.dndOhka yd fud<fhys iakdhq.; frda.dndOhka nyq, f,i jHdma;j we; tfiau tuixlSrAK frda.dndOhkag m@;sldr m;d frday,a .;jkakka o nyq,h fujka iudcfhys mj;skjsIu ;;ajhka ksid yg.kakd jsjsO ldhsl |=rAj,;djhka yd udkisl wd;;Skaf.ka usksia ukiksrka;rfhka mSvdjg m;ajk nejska fulS frda.dndO iqjlr .ekSu msKsi jrA;udkfhys 203
  • fndfyda mqoa.,hka YdrSrsl yd udkisl bys,anjla we;slr .ekSu msKsi ldhsl yd udkislwNHdi mqyqKq lrjkakd jQ ia:dk lrd fndfyda fia weoS h;s49 nq|=iuh fmkajd fokq ,nkafka wOsl jev lghq;` j,ska f;dr iqjodhl ieye,a,q nj mqoa., ukig jsfjzlh yd iykYS,;djh f.k fok njhs tfiau fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d lsrSu uZ.ska mqoa., uki b;du;a blaukska ieye,a,q yd iqjodhs iajNdjhlg mrsjrA;kh jk wdldrh nq|=iuh uekjska js.@yfldg fmkajhs50 usksia ukfiys wd;;s iukhg fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d lsrSu ;ruz ;j;a fjkhuz Tiqjla fkdue;s ;rug tuZ.ska ,efnk mqoa., yd iudc iykYS,;djh buy;ah fuuZ.ska ,efnk iudc iykYS,;djh fl;ruz o lsjfyd;a fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d lrkq ,nk mqoa.,hd flfrys wdlrAIKhla olajkafka yqfola ukqIHhkau muKla fkdj jsjsO ik`ka hCI fm@a; foaj;d yd n@yau jeks fldgzGdY uy;a rdYshla jQ wukqIH fldgia o we;s nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz fuhska fmfkkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;dfjka jrA;udkfhys wm is;d isgk iudch jk usksiqkaf.ka muKla iqieos iudchg;a jvd mqZM,a jQ w;sYhskau jsYd,s;j jQ iudc moaO;shla yd ta ;`< jsjsO iudc iuznJOdjhka wka;rA.; ikaksfjzok cd,hla fu;a;dixl,amh Ndjs;d lsrSu ksrka;rfhkau mqre|= mqyqKq lsrSu ;`< mqoa.,hkayg Wreu jk njhs51 wm jrA;udkfhys iudch hkakg usksiqkaf.ka muKla iukajs; iudchla wF:!olajkq ,enQj;a nq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.a wF:!l:kh wkqj iudch fuu usksia iudch blaujdiFjhska wukqIHhska we;`ZMj jsYajSh iudch flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrjd tu jsYajshiudcfhys usksid jsish hq;af;a fldhs wdldrhlg o yd tu iudcfhys usksid fiiq iFjhskaiuZ. iudcuh iuznJO;d f.dvkZ.d .; hq;af;a yd iudc iuznJO;d mj;ajd.; hq;af;a l`ukmqoa.,hska iuZ. l`ukdldrhg oehs hkdoS jYfhka b;du;a mqZM,a oelaulska hqla;j Wmfoia ,ndoS ;sfnz52 ta iEu jsgloSu ksrka;rfhkau mqoa.,hd wjfYaI iFjhska iuZ. lghq;` l< hq;af;afu;a;d ixl,amh fmroersj nj Wkajykafia jsiska wjOdrKh lrkq ,en we; tjsg usksidg;uka fkdis;k wdldrhg ;ukag lsisosk msysg fjzhehs fkdis;k jsjsO wukqIH iFjfldgzGdYjs,ska mjd msysg yd wdrCIdj ie,fik nj fuysoS jevs |=rg;a Wkajykafia jsiskameyeos,s lr oS ;sfnz ffu;@sh ish is;a i;kays we;s lr.kakd yd jv jvd;a th jO!kh lrf.kta wkqj lghq;` lrkakd mqoa.,hd wukqIHhskag mjd m@sh ukdm jk nj yd wukqIHhkaf.ka mjdmsysg ie,fik wdldrh b;d m@dfhda.slj Tmamqlr fmkajd oS ;sfnz53 204
  • fu;a;d ixl,amh fmroersj lghq;` lrkq ,nk mqoa.,hkag jsjsO ffcjfldgzGdY w;sYhskau m@shlrk nj o fuu ffcj fldgzGdY w;rg usksidg wu;rj jsjsO ffcjjsfYaIhka o wka;rA.; jk nj o nq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiska fmkajd oS we;af;a usksid ;`< ;udyer wfkl`;a iFjhska ms<snZoj lsishuz idkqluzms; oelaula my<jSu uZ.ska usksid iajNdjfhkauus;@YS,S iudc iuznJO;d mj;ajkakd jQ wh njg mrsjrA;kh lsrSu msKsih wju jYfhka wmcSjSka jYfhka i,lkq ,nk Ydl f,dalh flfrys mjd fu;a;d ixl,amh fmroersj l@shdlrkfuka NsCIqka jykafia,dyg fkdfhl`;a jsg Wmfoia ,nd oS we;s wdldrh wkqj nq|=rdcKkajykafia ieneu mrsirfjzosfhl` jYfhka l@shdldrS jS we;s wdldrh yZ|=kd.; yel54 wdydroduhl ksIamdolhd f,i usksid we;`ZM ffcj mrsirh mj;skafka yd rZod mj;skafka Ydlf,dalh mokuz lrf.k nejska usksia l@shdldrluz fu;a;d ixl,amh mdolj Ydl f,dalh /l.ekSu iZoyd o jsYd, odhlFjhla iemhsh hq;`h hkak nq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.a woyi njfuhska meyeos,sh iudcfhys;a iudc l@shdldrSFjfhys;a wdruzNl ia:dkh mqoa.,hd yd mqoa.,l@shdldrSFjh f,i ms<s.kakd nq|= iuh ksrka;rfhkau mqoa.,.; l@shdldrSFjh wrUhd wkHhkajsIfhys ys;dkqluzmSj lghq;` lsrSu yd wfkHdkH iuQmldr meje;au wkqu; lr we;af;a hym;amrudorAYS iudc iuznJO;d f.dkeZ.Sfuz oS yd tajd uekjska mj;ajdf.k hefuz oS wkHhkaf.amqoa., prs; iajNdjh yd wdfjzKsl huz huz .;s isrs;a ksid ps;a; wdfjz.hkag k;`jSu uZ.ska tuiudc iuznJO;djhka nsZoS hEfuys bvlv nyq, nejsks55 tuZ.ska iudc iuznJO;d f.dvkeZ.SfuzoS yd meje;ajSfuz oS tla mdrAYpjhla w;ska is|=jk yd is|=jsh yels b;du;au iqZM iqZM wvqmdvqluzfkd i,ld yer wfkla mdrAYpjh foi ohdkqluzmdfjka ne,Sug yelshdj we;s mqoa.,hskafldgzGdYhla nsyslsrSu fuu orAYkfhys moku f,i ie,fla56 iudc nsZojegSula fyda iudc wr.,hla ksrAudKhjSug;a th jrAOkhjsug;aiudch ;`< tla mqoa., fldgzGdYhla ;j;a mqoa., fldgzGdYhla fm<uska urAOkh lruskaTjqkaf.a whs;sjdisluz N`la;sjsZoSu fya;` idOl fjz fufia jkqfha n,h ms<snZo we;sjk ;Kaydjfya;`fjka mqoa., whs;sh md.d urd oeuSu ksidh fuh lsisfia;a fifkyi udkj ohdjuq,afldgf.k is|=jkakd jQ l@shdjla fkdfjz oafjzI iy.; is;ska l`rsre wdl,amj,ska is|= lrkq,nkakla jk w;r m@;sM,h ixudc ixia:djka w;r iudc iuznJO;djhka mZM|= jS hEuhmqoa., yd iudc iuznJO;djhkays f.#rjKSh iajNdjh fifkyi us;@Fjh yd iqrCIs; lsrSugfu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d jSu fuz ksid wjYHu jQ fohls57 fu;a;d ixl,amfhka mrsndysrjis|=lrkq ,nk mqoa., iuznJO;djhla fyda iudc ixjrAOkhla wF:! iuzmkak fkdfjz fu;a;dixl,afmys wF:!h rZod mj;skafka o th mqoa., iuznJO;djh blaujd iudc iuznJO;djh lrdfhduq jk wjia:dj ;`< oSh mqoa., iuznJO;djhkays oS fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d fkdjk njla 205
  • fuhska woyia fkdfjz mqoa., iuznJO;djhkaj, oS Ndjs;d flfrkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amfhys mgqiajrEmh jk w;r iudc iuznJO;djhka ys oS tys mqZM,a iajrEmh Ndjs;hg .kq ,nhs58 fu;a;d ixl,amh fnfyjska mqZM,a udkqIsl YlH;djhlska iukajs; ixl,amhla jk w;r m@cdkk" wdfjzok" prAhduh" Z{dk jsNd.Sh yd iudcuh jeks me;slv .Kkdjlska iukajs; jQjls fuz fya;`j ksidu fu;a;d ixl,amh fiiq ixl,amj,g jvd iudcuh iuznJO;djhka flfrys jevs jYfhka odhlFjhla iemhsh yels yd imhkakd jQ ixl,amhls i;H jYfhkau iudc iuznJO;d werUSfuz oS f.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS jrAOkh lsrSfuz oS mj;ajd .ekSfuz oS fu;a;d ixl,amfhys hf:dala; jsjsO me;slv jsjsOdldrfhka odhlFjhla ta msKsi imhkq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys m@cdkk me;slv iudc iuznJO;djhkays wdruzNl ia:dkhhs uQ<slju usksia ukfiys Wmosk us;@YS,S wdl,am ckkh jkafka yd wjfndaOlr.kq ,nkafka m@cdkkh fya;`fjks fu;a;d ixl,amh wkHhka flfrys we;slr .ekSu fukau wkH mqoa.,hka ;ud fj; olajk fu;a;d ixl,amh uekjska jgydf.k ta wkqj Tjqkayg m@;spdr oelajSu o is|=lrkq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys m@cdkk me;slv iudcuh wxYfhka l@shd;aul jSfuys oSh59 tfukau uQ<slju ;u isf;yswkHhka fjkqfjka yg.kq ,enQ fu;a;d ixl,amh ;j ;j;a jO!kh lr .ksuska wLKavjmj;ajdf.k hkafka yd fiiq me;slvjk wdfjzok" prAhduh" Z{dk jsNd. yd iudcuh me;slvTiafia us;@YS,sFjh jO!kh lr.ekSu Wfoid wod< tla tla me;slv w;r iudfhdackldrAhNdrh uekjska bgqlrkq ,nkafka o fu;a;d ixl,amfhys m@cdkk me;slv wdOdrfhks60 wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjz.YS,S nj fyj;a yeZ.Suzckkh lsrSufuz yd th biau;` lsrSfuz wjia:dj Wod lrkq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amh mdollrf.k we;sjk wdfjz.hka b;du;au ishquz ugis,sgs wdfjzokhka jk w;r th b;du;auieye,a,q is; ksjd,k iqZM wdfjzokhka fjz idudkHhka wm fiiq wdfjzokhka uZ.ska is|=lrkq ,nkNdjd;aul mCIh l<Uk iqZM iajNdjh fjkqjg fuhska is|=jkqfha is; tlZ. njg m;alsrSumuKs61 tu yeZ.Suz yd Ndjhka u;`lsrSu WoaoSmkh lsrSu uZ.ska iudcfhys tla tla mqoa.,hkaw;r we;sjk Ndjuh ;;ajhka uq,a lr.kakd ,o ifydaord;aul fukau us;@YS,S yeZ.Suz ckkhlrkq ,nhs ;udg fukau fiiq iudcfhys fjfikakd jQ TzkEu mqoa.,fhl` wrUhd isf;ysckkh jk m@S;sh yg.ekSu iZoyd fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv mqoa.,fhl`yg uy;afia Wmldrj;a fjz62 tla mqoa.,fhl` ;`< uqyqKska isrerska ckkh jk m@shukdm jQ us;@YS,S 206
  • udkisl wdjzokhka olsk ;j;a mqoa.,fhl`f.a fyda mqoa.,hka msrsilf.a o is;ays tu lreKwrUhd us;@YS,S wdl,am we;sjSug Okd;aul jYfhka we;s iuzNdjs;dj b;du;au wOsl nejzmeyeos,sh iudcfhys fjfikakd jQ wkH mqoa.,hka flfrys us;@YS,S wdfjzok j,ska iukajs;jlghq;` lrkakd jQ mqoa.,fhl`f.a isf;ys ;j ;j;a tu is;sjs,s frdamKh jS tu mqoa.,hdf.amuKla fkdj Tyq iuZ. lghq;` lrk fiiq whf.a o is;a i;ka ksjS iekyS hkafka fndfydaieye,a,q wdldrfhka jSu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys m@n,Fjh fudkjg biau;`fldg fmkajkwjia:djls63 fN#;sl jYfhka .;al< mqoa.,hdf.a isrefrys fydafudak ls@hdldrSFjh hym;aw;g mrsjrA;khjSug;a f,a Od;`j mjs;@jSug;a udkisl yd ldhsl kSfrda.S;djh yg .ekSug;aus;@YS,S wdfjzok j,ska iukajs;j ish ffoksl osjs fmfj; .;lsrSu yd iudchSh lghq;`j,ksr;jSu uy;a msgsjy,la jk nejz fmkajd osh yelsh64 iudc cSjs;fhys uy;a fia WmldrSjk fu;a;d ixl,amfhys fiiq me;slvla kuz prAhduh me;slvhs wkHhkayg WmldrlsrSu" jsmf;ys oS ;ukag jsm;la meusKshd fia is;d thg msysgjSu" jeks foa uZ.ska ndysrj iudch iuZ. fN#;slj lghq;` lsrSu fuhg we;`<;a fjz fu;a;d ixla,mh mdol lrf.k iudcYS,SNdjhg meusfKk mqoa.,hd m@cdkk me;slfvka ixl,am .ukdruzNj wdjzok me;slv ;`< .ukalr f;jk woshr f,i .uka lrkakd jQ osYdk;sh prAhduh me;slv uZ.ska uQrA;su;a flfrA fu;a;d ixla,mfhys prAhduh me;slv ;`<ska iudc iuznJO;d werUSu" mj;ajdf.k hdug fm<fUk mqoa.,hdf.a mqjsfYaIs;djh jkqfha ieu jsgloSu us;@YS,S wdl,amj,ska iukajs;j ;udf.a yeisrSuz rgdj wkHhkaf.a is;a fkdrsfok mrsos f.dvkZ.d .ekSug tu mqoa.,hka ;`< mj;sk iqjsYd, oCI;djhhs65 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Z{dk jsNd.Sh me;slv uZ.ska mqoa.,hdf.a iudc iuznJO;djhkays oS tlS mqoa., udkisl iajNdjh ljrdldrfhka nqoaOsuh odhlFjhla iudciuznJO;d f.dvkeZ.Su yd f.dvkZ.d .kq ,enQ iudc iuznJO;djhka uekjska mj;ajdf.k hEumsKsi ,ndfokafkaoehs jsuid ne,Su is|=lrkq ,nhs lsishuz mqoa.,fhl` yqol,dj jikafka kuzfyda tlS mqoa.,hd iudchla ;`< iudc iuznJO;d fkdm;ajhs kuz tlS mqoa.,hdf.a nqoaOsuhmCIh ms<snZoj t;ruz |=rglg jsuid l@shdlsrSu wjYH fkdjk lreKls ukao yqfola TzkEuiFjfhl`f.a uQ<sl wjYH;d wju jYfhka ix;Dma; lsrSu iZoyd wjYHjk Z{dk jsNd.ixorANhla muKla wejeisjk ;;ajhla ;`< thg jvd nqoaOsuh ixorANhla mej;su fydafkdmej;su iudchg fyj;a wkH mqoa.,hkayg .egZMjla fkdjkakd jq fm#oa.,sl jq lreKla 207
  • jk nejsks kuq;a Z{dk jsNd.h iuznJOfhka iudch mCIh js.@ylr ne,Sfuz oS yqfola ;ksmqoa.,fhl`f.a wjYH;djhka blaujd .sh iudcuh wjYH;djhka uekjska ix;Dma; lsrSu msKsi,ndfok nqoaOsuh odhlFjh ms<snZoj jsurAYkh lsrSug wjYH fjz66 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh me;slv ielfikafka fulS ishZM me;slvj,odhlFjh ,enSu fya;`fjka iudc moaO;sfhys taldnoaO;djh uekjska mj;ajdf.k hEu flfrysfldmuK Wmfhda.S;djhla olajkjdo hk lreK flaJ|@fldg f.khs fu;a;d ixl,amhfndfydafldgu iudc me;slv fnfyjska jsoHudk ixl,amhls huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` yqol,djfjfikjdg jvd iudch iuZ. iyfhda.fhka lghq;` lsrSfuz oS us;@YS,S wdl,am we;slr.ekSuw;HjYHh tnejska ksrdifhkau mqoa.,hd us;@YS,Sj iyfhda.fhka lghq;` lsrSfuz oS fu;a;dixl,amfhys iudc me;slv m@fhda.slj l@shdjg kZ.kafka fjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wjidkksIaGdj jkqfha o fulS iudcuh me;slvu fjz fuys woyi mqoa.,fhl` ;udyg muKla fkdjiudchg;a jevodhl mqoa.,fhl` njg mrsjrA;kh jSuhs67 mqoa.,hd ;`< ksirA. jYfhkaumj;skakd jQ wd;audrA:lduS iajNdjh myj hkafka o fulS iudc me;slv Tyq ;`< udkjskajO!kh jSfuys oSh ;ud;a wkH mqoa.,hkq;a w;r is;ska we;slr f.k isgskakd jQ iSud iuzfNaohis;ska |=rej hkqfha o wd;audrA:lduS iajNdjh wvq jQ ;rugh wd;audrA:h ;uka yd wkqka w;rjsYd, udkisl mjqrla we;s lrjkq ,nhs fuz mjqr nsZo oefukqfha jv jvd;a jOkh lr.kq ,enQfu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.sks lsishuz mqoa.,fhl` b;d fydZo iudcYS,s osjs fmfj;la .; lrkq,nkafka tu mqoa.,hdf.a isf;ys wd;audrA:lduS is;sjs,s fkdue;s jk ;rug fu;a;d ixl,amhjO!kh jS we;s jsg muKs fu;a;d ixl,amh mqoa.,fhl` iudc cSjs;h hym;aj .; lsrSu msKsifm<fUk yqre lrjk ixl,amhls fiiq idrOrAu! w;rska fu;a;d ixl,amhg iqjsfYaIs ia:dkhlajeo.;alula ,efnkafka fiiq idrOrAu! wF:!j;a jkafka fu;a;d ixla,m mqoa., uki ;`<l@shdldrS jkafka kuz muKla nejsks mrs;Hd.h .;fyd;a fjkhuz flfkl`yg hula mrs;Hd.lsrSfuz is;la bmfokafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEu ksidh wkHhka fj; fjkhuz fyda lsis|=Wmldrhla lsrSu msKsi lsishuz fyda mqoa.,fhl` fm<fukafka tu mqoa.,hdf.a isf;ys wkHhkams<snZo us;@YS,S wdl,am yg.kakd nejsks fuz fya;`j ksid idrOrAu! isf;ys yg.ekajSug fu;a;dixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjh b;du;a il@Sh f,i wjYH jkjd muKla fkdj fu;a;d ixl,amhisf;ys mQrAjx.u jYfhka yg.ekSug o fuz wkqj iduQysl meje;au fya;`jk nj meyeos,sjoelajsh yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amh iudc cSjs;fhys oS;a mqoa.,sl cSjs;fhys oS;a tl yd iudkjmqoa.,hdyg jeo.;a jkafka ukaoehs fidhd ne,Sfuz oS th ;uka yd fiiq wh w;r we;s lr.kq,nk tla;rd wdldrhl woDIHudk .sjsiqula jeks fohla l@shd;aul jSu ksid nj fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdNdIhg ,la jQ mqoa.,hdg jegyS hd yelsh thg fya;`j kuz i;Hh jYfhkauiudch yd mqoa.,hd w;r fmd|= tlZ.Fjhla we;sjSu u; idOkSh udkisl iuznJO;djhkaus;@Fjh Tiafia yg.eksuhs68 fuu udkisl iuznJO;djh yg.efkkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amh 208
  • l@shd;aul jk fudfydf;ys oS tla tla mqoa.,hdf.a udkisl iajNdjh fu;a;d ixla,mh Tiafialsishuz tlZ.Fjhlg meusKSu ksidh fyj;a us;@YS,S wdl,am" us;@YS,S yeZ.Suz yd us;@YS,S prAhdrgdjka ksid iEu mqoa.,fhl`gu ;uka wkH mqoa.,hd hkqfjka ndysr f,dalh is;ska f.dvkZ.df.k ;sfnk mjqr us;Hdjla nj jegfykakg mgka .kS us;@YS,S wdl,amj,ska iukajs; tlndysr iudc moaO;shla jqj o yZ.skq ,nkafka ;uka fjka fjka mqoa.,hska rdYshla jYfhka fkdjtla mqoa.,fhl` jYfhks fuh iudcuh taldnoaO;djfhys wdruzNl wjia:dj jYfhka oyZ|=kajd osh yelsh fujka iudcuh taldnoaO;djh uZ.ska ukd uki YsCIKh lr.kq ,nkmqoa.,hska lKavdhula yqfola l@shd;aul jkafka o ;ks ;ks mqoa.,hska jYfhka fkdj iduQyslpska;khlska iukajs; tla ;ks mqoa.,fhl` jYfhks69 i;H jYfhkau iudcuh talShFjfhysuq,au w;a;sjdru jefgkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amh mqoa., ps;a; wNHka;rhg m@fjzYj tys ;ekam;ajmqoa., l@shdldrSFjh iudc iuznJO;d meje;ajSu Tiafia tys l@shdldrSFjhg iudc foayhk;`jSu;a iu.uh mqoa., l@shdldrSjfhys yd iudcuh ls@hdldrSFjfhys tald;ausljSu ke;fyd;atlajSu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmrsu iudc M,h f,i iudc jsoHdZ{hska jsiska yZ|=kdf.k ;sfnz usksid iajNdjfhkau iudcSh iFjfhls iudc cSjs;hg iy iudcYS,SNdjhgWm;skau usksid ,eoshdj olajkafkls th Tyqqf.a iychhs huz flfkl` wmrdOhla l< jsg kS;sbosrsfhys jrolrefjl` jk nj Tmamq jQ jsg Tyq isr.; lsrSu hkqfjka is|=lrkakd jQl@shdj<sfhys mku jkqfha Tyqg oZvqjula jYfhka wjfYaI iudcfhka fjkafldg ;enSuh fuhTyqg YdrSrsl fukau udkisl o oKavkhls fuuZ.ska Tyqg ;udf.a wjfndaO fldgf.k bkaksjeros ms<sfj;g meusKSu wod< oZvqjuz ,ndoSfuz mrudrA:hhs boska usksid ;`< iudchShiFjfhl` jYfhka osjs f.jSfuz iych ke;fyd;a iycdYdj fkd;snqfka jS kuz" Tyq isr.;fldg ;enSu uZ.ska Tyqg ovqjuz ,ndoSu f;areula fkdue;s l@shdjla njg m;a fjz ta Tyq jvdleu;s" m@sh lrk fohska fjka lsrSu uZ.ska Tyqg ldhsl yd udkisl wmyiq njla cks; lrjSuhshuz fyhlska usksid iudchSh iFjfhl` fkdjqkd kuz iycfhkau yqol,dj m@sh lrkafkl` jSkuz tjsg by; olajk ,o ovqju ;j|=rg;a oKavkhla fkdj wdYsrAjdohla njg bfnzumrsjrA;kh fjz kuq;a h:d iajNdjh th fkdjk nj wms oksuq boska usksidf.a o iycdYdjwkH mqoa.,hka iu. iyfhda.fhka iycSjkfhka iuQmldrfhka l@shdlsrSu kuz ta us;@YS,S njwe;s lsrSu msKsi lsishuz iychla o ksrdhdifhka Tyq ;`< f.dvkeZ.S ;snsh hq;`uh fuz iychkuz fu;a;d ixl,amhhs ienjskau fu;a;d ixl,amh neyerska usksia is;a i;ka ;`<g m@fjzYlr.kq ,nkakla fkdj th ksrdhdifhkau ujzl`i ;`< oSu iycfhkau wdfjzKsfhkau usksidg ofiiq iFj jsfYaIhkag o Wreu jkakla f,i fmkajd osh yelsh usksid fukau fiiq iFjjsfYaIhka o iajNdjfhkau ke;sj yqol,dj yeisrSug jvd rxpq jYfhka .ejiSug jevsukdmhla olaj;s fuhg fya;` jYfhka iZoyka l< yelafla Tjqkaf.a wdrCIdjg ksrdhdifhkauTjqka ;`< iycfhkau u;`jk iychka f,isks th ffcj jsoHd;aulj iFj jsfYaIhkaf.a bosrsmeje;au iqrCIs; lsrSu iZoyd ksrdhdifhkau mejf;uska tk iyc cdkuh jQ ,CIKhls usksido iFj jsfYaIhlg wh;a cSjsfhl` jk nejska fuu ,CIKh usksidg o Wreuh wE; w;S;fha 209
  • isgu usksia ckdjdi uq,skau nsys jQ od isg usksid yqre mqre|= jQfha yqol,dj cSj;ajSug fkdjiuQy jYfhka lKavdhuz jYfhka osjs f.jSugh ixpdrl hq.fha oS mjd usksiqka lKavdhuzjYfhka rglska rglg m<d;lska m<d;lg iuzfm@aIKh jkakg yqre mqre|= jS isgs njg mqrdjsoHd;aul idOl wo mjd jsoHudkh jsfYaIfhkau f,dal YsIaGdpdrfhys jsjsO ck lKavdhuzfndfyda wE; w;S;fha oS tlu ck lKavdhulska mej; js;a jsjsO rgj, wdfjzKsl iajNdjslmrsir ;;ajhkag ukdj wkq.; jSfuka miq Tjqka w;r jrA;udkfhys jsoHdudk fN#;sljsjsO;djhka yg.;a nj udkj jsoHdZ{hska jsiska ffcj jsoHd;aul idOl iys;j fmkajd oS we; rglska rglg k.rfhka k.rhlg m<d;lska m<d;lg usksiqka YsIaGdpdrfhatla;rd hq.hl oS ixl@uKh fjuska yqfola ixpdrl hq.hla .; lroaoS jqj;a usksiqkaf.aiduQysl yeisrSfuz iychka fkdfjkiaj mejf;uska ;snsKs usksid l@ufhka YsIaGFjfhkaixjO!khg m;afj;au udkisl mCIfhka b;du;a by< nqoaOsuh mrsmdlhg .uka .ks;au Tyq;`< uQ<slj mejf;uska meusKs iyfhda.S;djh oshqKq ;,hlg m;ajSfuz m@jK;djhla we;sjSuudkj wjYH;djhla njg ksrdhdifhkau m;ajsKs usksid fN#;sl jYfhka ixjrAOkfha by<u;,h lrd iuzm@dma; njska isgsh o Tyq jsiska wfmaCIs; wdOHd;ausl ixjrAOkfha m@;sM, ;ju,nd fkdisgsk fihla Tyqf.a jrA;udk prAhd rgd wOHhk lrk l, fmkS hhs ndysrskaixjrAOkfhys m@;sM, iamrAY l< o ta yd iudkju ukiska wdOHd;ausl ;;ajfha wfmaCIs;ksIaGdjg meusKSug mqoa.,hd wfmdfydi;ajSu iudcfha oejeka; lvd jegSug uQ<sljufya;`jhs70 mqoa.,hd ;`< n,mj;ajk Tyqf.a wdOHd;ausl ;,h ls,sgs lrk huz huz Ou!;djhkagTyq ksrdhdifhkau k;`jSu fya;`fjka yd tu ;;ajhkag Yla;su;aj uqyqK oSug ;ruz Tyqf.awdOHd;auh Yla;su;a fkdjSu fya;`fjka jrA;udk usksid iudc mrsydkshg m;aj isgshs BrAIHdj" ffjrh" fl@daOh yd m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdj hk iDKd;aulixl,amhkaf.a fm<UjSu ksid usksidf.a wdOHd;auh wfmaCIs; idrOrAu! ksIaGdjg meusKSugwfmdfydi;aj we; fuz fya;`j ksid iudc ixia:d w;r wiu.sh jO!kh fjuska mj;S71 iudcixia:d tlska tl lvd jegSug mgka f.k we; fu;a;d ixl,amh fulS wdOHd;ausl ;;ajh kZ.disgqjSug .; yels fydZou jsiZ|=uhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .enz jkqfha mqoa., .; |=l fukauiudc.; |=l o ix;Dma; lrk wdldrfha b;d oejeka; udkisl bys,a njls fu;a;d ixl,amhish cSjs;hg <Z.d lr.eksu uZ.ska mqoa., fm#reIFjh f.dvkZ.d .ekSug wjYH bvkviemsfrkjd muKla fkdj iudc.; fm#reIFjh jrAOkh lr .ekSug o fuhska wjldYie,fia mqoa.,.; fukau iudc.; oshqKqj i,id .ekSu msKsi fu;a;d ixl,amfhysodhlFjh b;d uy;ah wkHhkaf.a oshqKqj oel th fu;a is;ska bjiSug bka ;u is;g o i;`glaWmojd .ekSug o wkHhka yd wkjYH f,i ;rZ.ldrS osjs fmfj;lg fkdf.dia ;ukag ;sfnkm@udKfhka iEySulg m;a jS osjs f.jSug wjYH udkisl jd;djrKh ilia lr fokq ,nkafka 210
  • fu;a;d ixl,amhhs iaj,amfhka iEySug m;ajSu yd ;ukag ;sfnk m@udKfhka iekiSu hym;aiudc iuznJO;djhla f.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS yd f.dvkZ.d .kakd ,o iudc iuznJO;djhkamj;ajdf.k hEfuys oS w;sYhskau jeo.;ajk isoaOdka;hls ieye,a,q osjsfmfj;la .; lrkakdjQ mqoa.,hdg bka w;am;a jk ldhsl yd udkisl iqjh yereKq jg iudcuh jYfhka thska,efnk iykYS,S cSjk rgdj ;`< ;rZ.ldrS nj ksid mek kZ.sk whym;a jsIu iudcuh.egZMj,ska usksid uqojd ,kq ,nhs fndfyda jsg .egZM mek kZ.skq ,nkafka;a" huz huz mSvdldrS;;ajhkayg mqoa.,hskayg uqyqK mEug is|= jkafka;a ;rZ.ldrS nj ksid mek kZ.sk n,h flfiaw;am;a lr.kafkaoehs ta ms<snZo we;s jkakd jQ iSudka;sl wjYH;djh usksia iudchgoefkkakgjSfuz oS yd tfia oekqkq jqukdj u; usksiqka ;ud iuZ. isgskakd jQ wkH mqoa.,hka iuZ.lghq;` lrkakg yd jsjsO iudc iuznJO;d meje;ajSug hdfuzoS;a h jsfYaIfhkau iudciuznJO;djhka meje;ajSfuz oS th ksis whqrska j.lSulska iys;j yd jsOsu;a whqrska is|= lsrSuiudc moaO;shg wh;a iEu mqoa.,fhl`f.au j.lSu yd hq;`lu fjz fuu hq;`lu yd j.lsu ksiswdldrfhka bgq lsrSug kuz iEu mqoa.,fhl`u wkH mqoa.,hka iuZ. b;du;a iyfhda.fhkaiqyoYS,Sj lghq;` lsrSu jeo.;ah iudchla ;`< iuQmldr meje;au fydZoska is|= jkqfha us;@YS,Swdl,amj,ska huzlsis iudc moaO;shla iukajs;j we;s jsgloSh72 iudc osjsfha oS fu;a;d ixl,amfhys olakg ,efnk iqjsfYaIS;djh Tyqf.a thixl,amSh ;,h blaujd m@dfhda.sl ;,hg meusKSuhs fndfyda ixl,am wdl,amuh ;,fhys oSidrA:l jqj;a" m@fhda.sl ;,fhys oS widrA:l jkqfha tajdfhys lsis|= m@dfhda.sl iajrEmhla .enzfkdjSu ksidhs kuq;a fuz w;ska fu;a;d ixl,am tys wdl,amuh ;,hg yd iudkju jeo.;alula m@fhda.sl ;,fhys o fmkajk nejska iudc osjsfhys oS b;d iqjsYd, jeo.;a lulaWreulr .kshs iyfhda.S;djh yd wkHhka fj; Wmldr lsrSu iudc.; osjsfhys oS fu;a;dixl,amfhys m@fhda.sl mCIh f,i jsoHudk jk fohhs fuz Tiafia iudcfhys TzkEumqoa.,fhl`f.a is; oskd .ekSug;a" wkHhka w;r lemS fmkSug;a" wjldY ie,fia mQK! kuHYS,Sosjs fmfj;la .;lrk iudc fiajlfhl`g uqo,la f.jdj;a ,nd .; fkdyels m@isoaOsh ydwkHhkaf.a is;a oskd .ekSu fuz uZ.ska ksrdhdifhka ,efnz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ksrdhdifhkau.enz jk w;sYhskau m@fhda.sl iajNdjh th fkdfhla ldrAhhka iZoyd odhl lr.ekSfuz oSw;sYhskau jeo.;a fjz tfukau jsjsOdldrfha mqoa.,hka wjk; lr.ekSfuz uy;a n,hla ofu;a;d ixl,amfhys wka;rA.; fjz idudkHfhka iudc ixia:djkays fukau iudch ;`<l@shd;aul jkakd jQ l`vd iuQy jk wdh;k yd mqoa., lKavdhuz ;`< iuZ.sh yd l@shdldrSFjhjO!kh lsrSu wrnhd o fu;a;d ixl,amh fnfyjska Ndjs;d lrkq ,nhs l<uKdlrkfCIa;@fhys oS fndfyda jsg jsjsO jD;a;slhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys w.h olshs mqoa.,hka Tjqkaf.aoCI;dj,g wkq.; jk mrsos jsjsO ldrAhhkays ksr; lrjSu ioyd;a" Tjqkaj ukdj yeisrjSumsKsi;a jrA;udkfhys fu;a;d ixl,amh l<uKdlrk l@shdj<sh idrA:lj yiqrjd,Su iZoydodhl lr .kshs 211
  • mqrdKfhys f.@da;sl iudc nsysj ;snq hq.fhys mgka kQ;kfhys iduQysl cSjkrgdj olajd iEu ukqIHfhl`f.au ffoksl osjs fmfj; yd fu;a;d ixl,amh b;du;au mq|=udldrf,iska yd jsYajikShFjhlska neZoS we; tl w;lska th idudkH ukqIH iajNdjh blaujdfoajFjh lrd md ;nk ysksuZ.la jeksh fN#;sl oshqKq jk ;rugu usksid wNHka;rfhka rZMfkdjkafka kuz fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska fcj jsoHd;aulj ksrdhdifhka Tyqf.a yoj; mqnq|=lrjk ukqIHFjfhys mdvu ijka fkdoS isgSug Tyqg lsis|= wjldYhla uska fkdie,fia neyerska,efnk iudcuh iuzmrAlh ksid u;`jk wd.ka;`l ixl,amj,ska usksia uki ls,sgs fkdjkakgusksia ukfiys h:drA:h mru mjs;@ jQ fu;a;d ixl,amhhs fuhg fydZou ksoiqkla kuz l`vdjsfhys bkakd <orejdhs <orejkaf.a is;a ixfjzoS nejska yd jevsysgs is;a ;ruz wmjs;@ jS fkdue;snejska <orejkaf.a f,dalh jevsysgshkaf.a f,dalh ;ruz oafjzIfhka msrS fkd mj;shsjsfYaIfhkau l`vd orejka b;du;a us;@YS,S nj fmfkkakg ;sfnz th jevsysgshka mjd,ecAcdfjka yl`ZMjk iqZMh wOHdmk jsoHdfjz mqfrda.dushka m@lg wOHdmkZ{hska mjd mjidwe;af;a jevysgshka jQ wmg l`vd orejkaf.ka bf.k .; yels jgskd mdvuz mj;sk njhs ,udf,dj jevsysgs f,djg jvd iqkaor jkafka tys oafjzIh" fl@daOh yd m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdj fkdue;snejsks wjdikdj jkqfha l@u l@ufhka <orejd jshm;a jS jevsysgs f,djg mshjr ;n;au" jevsysgsf,dalfhys ffkirA.sl .;s ,CIK f,iska yZ|=kd .kakd ,o oafjzI" fl@daO yd jsysxidixl,amj,g yqremqre|= j Tyq o iDKd;aul is;sjs,sj, fldaIaGd.drhla njg mrsjrA;kh jSuhlsis|= fya;`jla ksid iudcuh osjsfhys oS fu;a;d ixl,amhg jvd oafjzIh" fl@daOh yd jsysxidjjsoHd;aul pska;kh wkqj w;am;a lr.kafka b;du;au my< pska;duh yd udkisl ia:rhls tlSwdfjzokhkaf.ka uqim;aj is|=lrkq ,nk l@shdjka we;euzjsgl oS pdrs;@ jdrs;@" idrOrAu!"wdpdrOu! yd iodpdrd;aul fkdjkakd jQ l@shdjl iajrEmh blaujd f.dia wmrdOhla kdufhka.efkk nrm;, is|=jSuz olajd .uka lrjk ;rug tys m@;sjsmdl nsysiqKqh fujka nsysiqKqis|=jSuz ksrka;rfhka isrs;la f,i is|=jk iudc ugzgul jrA;udkfhys usksia iudch miqjSu;`< jrA;udkfhys iudc iuznJO;dj, iajrEmh fl;ruz msrsyS f.dia we;aoehs hkak fijSugfuhg jvd fydZo ksrAKdhlhla ;j;a fkdue;s ;ruzh oshqKq hehs wmg fkdfhla jr weZ.s,af,kawek ;ukaf.a ndysr ixjrAOkh usksia YsIaGdpdrfhys m@drm@dma; oshqKqj f,i yd tluksrAKdhlh jYfhka yqjd olajk fN#;sl jYfhka oshqKq rgj,ska jdrA;djk tnZ|= wmrdO ydis|=jSuz foi wjOdkh fhduq lrk jsg ienjskau Tjqka jsiska wmyg fmkajd fokq ,nk oshqKqjmj;akafka ld iZoyd o hk meKh ksrdhdifhkau keZ.sug wmg is|= fjz usksia iudch Wkqka yd.kqfokq lrk iajrEmh fuz id my;a ugzgulg jegS we;akuz ksrka;rfhkau ;srsika.;iFjhkaf.a yeisrSuz isyshg kxjhs kuz ienjskau fN#;sl oshqfjys we;s m@;sM,h wod< lr.kq,nkafka ljqreka jsiska l`ula iZoyd oehs hk .egZMj kej; kej;;a meK kZ.shs usksidf.aoshqKqj usksid iZoydu kuz ukqIHFjhg tfrysj hkakd jQ fujka ieyeis yd nrm;, ysxidldrS;;ajhla mek fkdkZ.skq we; usksiqka tlsfkld flfrys ksrdhdifhkau yg.kakd jQus;@YS,SFjh mdol fldg.;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhka hqla;j jdih lrkq we; kuq;a ksrAKdlhf,i Ndjs;d lrkq ,nk rgj, iudc w.h fufia kuz tu iudc moaO;Ska ;`< fu;a;d 212
  • ixl,amh mj;S fyda fu;a;d ixl,amh l@shd;aul jsug iq|=iq mrsirhla iliaj we;soehs jgyd.ekSug wiSre fkdfjz tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amh l@shd;aul fkdjkakd fyda l@shd;auljSfuz wjYHbvlv uqZMukskau weysrekd jQ ffjrfhka fl@daOfhka |+Is;j .sh iudchla ixjrAOkh uekne,Sfuz tlu ksrAKdhlh f,i Ndjs;d lsrSu b;du;au wufkda{ jQjla nj jegyS hhs iudcfhys hy meje;au iZoyd usksia ufkda uQ<hka b;du;au ishquzj .fjzIKh lsrSfuz oS usksid i;` iychla jk fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh .;s ,CIK ms<snZoj wjOdkh fhduq lsrSu jeo.;a f,i fmfka fu;a;d ixl,amh wdl,amhla jYfhka o wdfjzokhla jYfhka o prAhd rgdjla jYfhka o f.k lreKq js.@y lsrSu wOHdmk jsoHdZ{hska jsiska ksrka;rfhka is|=lrkq ,nk l@shd mgsmdgshls wOHdmk jsoHd oDIaGs fldaKfhka jsYaf,aIKh lrk jsg" mqoa., prAhdjka uZ.ska m@lg flfrkakd jQ usksia .;s ,CIK ms<snZo t<fUkq ,nkakd jQ wOHdmk jsoHd;aul js.@yhka yd tuZ.ska is|=jk wOHdmk" wOHhk ldrAhNdrh idrA:l lr.; yels wkaofuz hym;a Okd;aul l@ufjzohka ms<snZo ie,iquz iuzmdokh lsrSfuka tu ldrAhNdrh b;du;au idrA:l f,i iudc.; l< yels hehs wOHdmkZ{fhda l,amkd lr;s ck ikaksfjzokh uZ.ska is|= flfrkakd jQ f;dr;`re iuzmdok ldrAhfhys oS mjd buy;a fia bjy,a lr.; yels uQf,damdhhka wOHdmk jsoHd isoaOdka;hkays wka;rA.;h hf:dla; ldrAhfhys ksrka;rfhka fhoS isgskakd jQ ckudOHfjzoSka ish ldrAhNdrh uekjska yiqrjd,Su msKsi fnfyjska bjy,a lr.kq ,nkqfhafujeks ffikaOdka;sl lreKqh tfukau Tjqkayg tys we;s jeo.;alu o wjsjdos;h tysh:drA:h jkqfha iudch ;`< fjfikakd jQ wkH mqoa.,hka iuZ. ksrka;rfhka ixjdofhysfhfokakg yd NdIK l@shdj<sfhys ksr;jSu msKsi mQrAj iQodkula jYfhka Tjqkaf.a prAhdrgdjka flf,i ilia jS we;aoehs wOHhkh lsrSu miq ld,Skj is|= lrkq ,nk ck ikaksfjzoklghq;a; iZoyd myiqjla jk nejsks73 tfukau ck ikaksfjzokh o jsoHd;aul mokula u;f.dvkZ.d we;s jsoHdkQl~, pska;khla nejska jsoHd;aul jsOsl@uhkag wkql~,j mqoa.,dka;rikaksfjzokh idrA:lj is|=l< yels jkafka mqoa., lKavdhuz us;@YS,s wdl,amj,ska iukajs; jQl< nj fuys uQ<OrAu w;r jeo.;a ia:dkhla ia:dkhla .kakd m@Odk;u uQ<OrAuh fjz74usksiqka w;r huz huz iudc ;;ajhka uZ.ska mr;rhla ;ndf.k hym;a ikaksfjzolfhl` f,iyDohdx.u f,i ck ikaksfjzok ldrAhNdrfhys ksr;jsh fkdyels w;r yels;dla mqoa.,hdfj;g iuSm jQ ;rugu ck ikaksfjzok ldrAhNdrh jvd;a iM,odhl fohla njg m;a lr.;yelsh hkak fuhska lshfjz75 213
  • usksiqka yd Tjqkaf.a weoys,s yd jsYajdi ms<snZo wOHhkhkays oS jsfYaIfhkau;`<kd;aul ixialD;sl wOHhkhkays oS usksiqka w;r tlsfkld w;r neZo ;nd .kakd iudcuhue,shula f,i o fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d jk nejska fuys iudcuh ldrAhNdrfhys oSmqoa.,hka w;r iqyonj jO!kh lsrSfuys ,d is|= lrkakd jQ ldrAhNdrh ms<snZoj jspdr mQrAjlwjOdkh fhduq lsrSu w;sYhskau jeo.;ah usksia jsYajdihka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh,enSu ksid mqoa.,fhla ;j;a mqoa.,fhl`g fyda mqoa., fldgzGdYhlg wdlrAYkh fjz fuhisoaOdka;hla jYfhka i;Hjk lreKls m@fhda.slj ksrSCIKh fldg ne,Q l, o by; lSks.ukh yd tlZ.jSug wjldY ie,fikq we; jrA;udkfhys fukau YsIaGdpdrfhys b;du;auwe; hq.j, oS mjd usksia l@shdldrSFjh fu;a;d ixl,amh weiqrska fmdaIK jQ njg idOliemfha b;d we; w;S;fha oS f.da;@sl iudc i;`j lsishuz wd.usl ixfla;hla uZ.ska tlSf.da;@fhys ishZMu idudcslhka tlg neZo ;nd .kakd ,oS ta iZoyd tla tla f.da;@fhysidudcslhka w;r taldnoaO;djh uekjska mj;ajd .ekSu msKsi ta tla tla f.da;@hgu wkHkHjqKq wd.usl ixfla;hka" foaj ixl,amhka yd wNspdr jsOSka ksrAudKh jsh fu;a;d ixl,amhyd iuznJO wd.usl woyia iy wNspdr jsOSka wdruzN jQfha;a" l@udkQl~,j jrAOkh jkakgjQfha;a" tla tla mqoa.,hd w;r mej;sh hq;` jQ iudc iuznJO;dfjz udkqIsl iajrEmh ydwksjdrAhh;djh wE; w;S;fhys jsiQ usksia iudch mjd ms<sf.k ;snQ nejsks jrA;udkfhysiudch Tjqka jsiska w;am;a lr.kakd ,o fN#;sl oshqKqjg idfmaCIlj bosrshg hd hq;` jqj;a"uq,a hq.fhys mej;s iudc iuznJO;d mjd jrA;udk hq.h jk jsg msrsyS f.dia" nsZo jegS we;af;awiSus;j kQ;k usksid fm<fUk fl@daOh yd oafjzIh hk Ndjd;aul ixl,amhkays wdNdIhgk;`jSu ksidh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh Ndjs;dfjz we;s wfkla wka;h jkqfha usksiaiudch ksrdhdifhkau iyfhda.S iuznJO;djhka mj;ajkafka kuz Tjqka w;r iudciuznJOdjhka ms<snZo jQ .egZM wju kuz tlS iudcfhys jdih lrkakd jQ mqoa.,hka oksrdhdifhkau fu;a;d ixl,amh Tiafia iajlSh pska;kh fufyhjSug W;aiy lrkqfha ishiudc iuznJO;djhka uekjska mj;ajd .ekSu flfrys Tjqka olajk repsh ksidh tfukauiudc iuznJO;djhkag tla jk kj idudcslhka o ish merKs idudcslhkaj wkq.ukh lruska;uka jsiska o fu;a;d ixl,amh uekjska Ndjs;d lsrSug fydZoska yqre mqre|= fjz kuq;a fulSlreK jrA;udkfhys oS ta wdldrfhau l@shd;aul fkdfjz ta fjkqjg mqoa.,hd bosrsfhys we;af;a;ukag fkdue;s iem jsyrK wkHhska jsiska mrsyrKh lrkq n,uska Wkqka flfrys BrAIHdjnyq, fpz;kdfjka hqla;j iudc iuznJO;djhka f.dvkZ.d .kakd yd mj;ajkakd jQ mqoa.,hkaiukajs; jQ oaafjzIfhka |+Is; jQ fuz iudc moaO;shhs fuz iudc moaO;shg wh;ajk iudc ixia:diEu tllau mdfya fuz fya;`j ksid jrA;udk hq.h jk jsg" oreKq nsZo jegsulg ,laj iudciuznJO;d jskdY jS f.dia we; oshqKqfjys tlu yd wjidk ksrAKdhlh usksid jsiska w;am;alr.kakd ,o fN#;sl ixjrAOkh f,i ie,lSu ksid jrA;udk iduch fufia fuz wdldrfhka 214
  • oreKq lvd jegSulg yd uy;a iudcuh mrsydkshlg m;aj we; ta ksid fuz iudcfhysfjfikakka osjs f.jkqfha b;du;au oevs wiykfhka l< lsrSfuka yd |=llsks fuz fya;`j ksidjrA;udkfhys fndfyda fokd w;r wOsl reOsr mSvkh" oshjevshdj" ixlSrAK yDo frda." jsjsOiakdhq wdndO yd oreKq udkisl frda. ;;ajhka jrAOkhjSfuz iuzNdjs;dj wOsl jS ;sfnz fuzwhqrska mqo., ldhsl yd udkisl ;;ajh msrsyS hdug oafjzI uQ<slj lghq;` lrk" iudciuznJO;d mj;ajk jrA;udk usksia l@shdldrSFjhu m@Odk fya;`jla jS ;sfnz76 idudkHfhka usksia l@shdldrluzyeisrSuz ksrdhdifhkau md,khlska f;drj .,dhdugwjYHlrk bvlv ie,eiajqjfyd;a" th iudkHfhkaukqIHFjh jO!kh lrkakd jQ osYdjg fkdjukqIHFjfhka o my< ;srsika iFj ugzgu olajdl@shd;auljSfuz iuzNdjs;djla jsoHudk fjz kuq;a usksidnqoaOsuh w;ska wiia udkisl ugzgula yd oshqKqixialD;sl mrsirhla Wreu lr.kq ,enQ iFjfldgzGdYhls fuz fya;`j u; usksidf.a iEu iudciuznJO;djhlau Tyqf.a wdOHd;ausl yd ndysrYlH;djhkag yd;amiskau ieifZok mrsoafokaf.dvkZ.d .ekSug;a" mj;ajd .ekSug;a ksirA.l`i,;djhla usksid i;`jsh hq;`uh fuz ksirA.l`i,;djh udkjhd jsiska w;am;a lr.; hq;af;amd,khlska f;drj usksia wdl,am" wdfjzok yd usksial@shdldrluz ksoe,af,a is|= lsrsug bvoSu uZ.ska fkdj"jsOsu;a ixhuhla" md,khla iys;j ld,hla uqZM,af,ayqre mqre|= lrjSu uZ.sks udkj pska;kh" udkjffp;isl ugzgu huz ;;ajhlg ixjrAOkh lsrSug kuz m<uqj is;g ksrka;rfhka wiSus;j.,d tk is;sjs,s flfrys usksid ksrka;rfhka wjOsfhka yd isysfhka hqla;j lghq;` lsrSug yqremqre|= jS isgsh hq;`h tjsg mqo.,dka;r iuznJO;d f.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS yd mj;ajdf.k hEfuz oStla tla mqoa.,hdf.a ffp;isl ugzguz yd mqoa., fjzu;a;;djhg wkql~,jk mrsoafoka jrska jriudc iuznJO;d mj;ajkakd jQ rgdfjys iajrEmh jsp,kh lsrSu uZ.ska tys ukd meje;auiqrCIs; yd ia:sridr njg m;a l< yelsh77 fndfydajsg jkafka" fjkia jkakd jQ iudcuhmiq;,h fya;`fldg f.k mqoa.,hka ;`< iajNdjfhka mj;sk jsp,khjSug olajk wlue;siajrEmh ksidu fjkiajk iudcuh ;;ajh flfrys is; ;`< oafjzIhla Wmojdf.k ta wkqjlghq;` lsrSug mqoa.,hd fm<USuhs tjsg mqoa.,hka jsiska f.dvkZ.d .kakd yd mj;ajkakd jQiudc iuznJO;djhka idrA:ljSug we;s bvlv wju fjz 215
  • idrA:l iudc iuznJO;djhla iZoyd w;HdjYHu idOlh kuz yels;dla bjiSu;ud ;`< .`K Ou!hla f,i jO!kh lr .ekSug;a" us;@YS,S wdl,amj,ska hqla;j wkHhka iuZ.lghq;` lsrSug yqre mqre|= jSu;a fjz iudc iuznJO;d meje;ajSfuz oS yd kj iudc iuznJO;df.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS wkH mqoa.,hka ienjskau wfmaCId lrkqfha ;uka mj;ajkakd jQ fydaf.dvkZ.d .kakd jQ iudc iuznJO;djhka ;`<ska m<uq fldgu ;uka ;Dma;su;ajSu yd ;ukaf.awjYH;djhka tuZ.ska imqrd .ekSuhs tfia ;Dma;su;ajSu yd wjYH;djhka imqrd .ekSu ishZMfokdf.au wruqK kuz ishZM fokdu tl f,iskau tls wruqK YdlaId;a lr.ekSu iZoydffOrAhhu;aj ls@hdlrkafka kuz ishZM fokdgu ;uka n,dfmdfrd;a;`jk wruqK jk wd;au;Dma;sh yd wjYH;djhka bgqjSu hk lreKq iuzmQrAK lr.ekSfuz wjYH bvlv tuZ.ska,nd.; yelsjkq we; kuq;a ienjskau wm cSj;ajk ienE iudcfhys iajrEmh t;ruz idOdrKidulduS yd h:drA:jdoS fohla fkdfjz wixjsOs; iudc iuznJO;djhkaf.ka fyns fnfyjskaw;Dma;sfhka l,af.jk mqoa.,hka nyq, ixlSrAK iudchla wm yuqfjz we; ;ukan,dfmdfrd;a;` jkakd jQ ienE iekiSu yd ;Dma;sh ienjskau <Z.d lr .ekSug fndfydafofkl`g fyda gsl fofkl`g wjxlju wjYH jqj;a" iEu flfkl` ygu ta wjYH;djh tawdldrfhkau ienjskau we;ehs wmg iy;sl jsh fkdyelsh wmg ksrAjHdcj wjxlju mejiSugyels jkafka ta iZoyd wm;a huz muKl wjxl odhlFjhla Wmrsufhka oelajQjd hk ldrKhmuKs tfia kuz fiiq ish,a, ffojh u;g nerlr tys wjidk m@;sM,h brKug mjrd ksyZvjisgSu jsoHd;aul pska;khg mgyeksh iudc iuznJO;djhkays h:d iajrEmh fijSu ffojhgndr lrkjd kuz tys kshu ijrEmh jsoHd;aul miqnsulska fy<slr .ekSu iZoyd wjYH bvlvweysrS hkq we; kuq;a tf,i lsrSfuz wjYH;djhla ienjskau we;s fkdfjz kshu iudciuznJO;djhkays iajrEmh jsoHd;aul pska;kh uZ.ska myod .; yelsh jsoHd;au; pska;kfhysWmfhda.S;djh jkqfhao fuys oS iudc iuznJO;djhka ksis wdldrfhka jsurAYkhkag yiqlr.ekSu msKsi iyh jSuhs iudc iuznJO;djhkays meyeos,sj olakg ,efnk Okd;auljsmrAhdihka yg.efkkqfha th jvdla udkqIsluh uqyqKqjrlska hqla;j mj;sk l,h iudciuznJO;djhka udkqIsluh jYfhka usksia iudch ;`< fjfikakd jQ iEu mqoa.,fhl`ygupska;kuh m@fndaOh is;g tla lrhs fulS pska;kuh m@fndaOh fifkyi" f.#rjh" us;@YS,SiajNdjh" mfrdamldrh iy iyfhda.h jeks fmd|= nj .enzjqkq yeZ.Suz mdol lrf.k is|=lrkq,nkakd jQ prAhduh ,CIK uZ.ska neyerska jsoHdudk fjz jsoHd;aul pska;kh Tiafia iudcmoaO;shla js.@yfldg tys iuznJO;djhka w;r mj;akd udkqIsl uqyqKqjr fy<s fmfy<s lr.; yelsh udkqIsl uqyqKqjr yg.kq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh ,enSu ;`<sks idudkHfhka ps;a;fjz.sl yeZ.Sula fyda Ndjd;aul mCIfhys hulg wh;a jkixl,am jsYaf,aIKh lr jsjrKh lsrSu msKsi lsishuz jsoHdkQl~, jsOsl@uhla Ndjs;d l<fkdyel ufkda jsoHdfjzoS huz huz udkisl .;s ,CIK js.@y lr jsYaf,aIKh fldg oelajSumsKsi bjy,a lr.kq ,nkakd jQ l@ufjzohla f,i wod< ixl,amh we;s mqoa.,hdf.a iudcuhl@shdldrSFjh ndysrska ksrSCIKh lr ta wkqj jsjsO ks.ukhkaj,g t<USfuz yelshdjla mj;S 216
  • fuu l@ufjzoh idudkHfhka wF:! olajkq ,nkafka prAhdjdoh jYfhks ufkda jsoHdfjz jsjsOisoaOdka; yd uQ<OrAu f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a iFj l@shdldrSFjh fuz wdldrfhka ksrSCIKh lsrSu uZ.sks fuys we;euz isoaOdka; iFj l@shdldrSFjh weiqrska o we;euz isoaOdka; usksia l@shdldrSFjh weiqrska o iliaj we; mqoa.,.; prAhdj iduQysl prAhdjg n,mdkq ,nkafka fldhs wdldrfhkaoehs jsjsO mrAfhaIK uy;a rdYshla mqoa., lKavdhuz jsYd, m@udKhla Ndjs;d lsrSu uZ.ska ksrSCIKh fldg we; tfiau lKavdhuz prAhdjka mqoa.,.; prAhdj flfrys we;s lrjk n,mEu o fuysoS wjOdkhg ,lalr ;sfnz mqoa.,hd yd lKavdhuz flfrys n,mdk mrsir jeks fjk;a idOl flfrys o fuysoS ie,ls,a, fhduq jS ;sfnz lsishuz iudc moaO;shla ;`< o ta iudc moaO;sh ;`< fjfik udkjhkaf.a udkj l@shdldrSFjh yd Tjqka jsiska f.dv kZ.d .kakd jsjsO iudc iuznJO;djhkaj, iajrEmh jsOsu;aj jsYaf,aIKh lsrsu iZoyd Ndjs;d lrkq ,nk fuj,u f,i usksia udkisl l@shdldrSFjh msg;g fmkajk tlu iajrEmh jk ndysr prAhdjka oelajsh yelsh fuu ndysr prAhdjka ksrSCIKh lsrSfuzoS meyeos,ju fy<s jQ b;du;a jeo.;a lreKla jkqfha tlsfkld fj; ;oska wdldrAYKh jqKqtfiau b;d iyfhda.fhka osjs fmfj;la .; lrkq ,nk udkj lKavhuz ;`< jsjsOm@;sjsfrdaOdjhka w,amjsu fya;`fldgf.k Tjqka w;r mq|=udldr iuZ.shla ;snqKq nj yd tlSiuZ.sh fya;`fldgf.k tu iudc iuznJO;djhkaj, iajrEmh o jvd;a hym;a yd idulduSksrrAnqo tlla jQ njhs fuz wkqj tlS iudc moaO;sh ;`< fjfikakd jQ udkjhska Tjqfkdjqkatlsfkldg m@;s Wmldr lr.ksuska yels;dla wrAnqoj,ska jshqla;j osjs f.jhso tu iudchfu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh ,nd we;ehs ks.ukh l< yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amhkshudldrfhka l@shd;aul jkakd jQ iudch ika;Dma; iudchla jYfhka yZ|=kajdoSug o 78yelsh th wdrA:sl jsoHd kHdhkag wkql~,j yqfola NdKav yd fiajd mrsfNdackh uZ.ska ,efnkndysr ika;Dma;shg jvd oshqKq wNHka;r.; ix;Dma;shls fuu ix;Dma;sh Wmfhda.S;djhjYfhka wdrA:sl jsoHdj ;`< wF:! olajkq ,efnz flf;la wOsl;r iqL jsyrK f.kk NdKav ydfiajdjla jqj;a os.ska os.gu mrsfNdackh lsrSu ;`<ska usksidg ;j |=rg;a we;sjkqfha iqLhlafkdj lsishuz tmd jSuls l<lsrSuls fuh l@udkQl~,j we;sjkakla jk w;r fuys wdrA:sljsoHdfjz ySkjk Wmfhda.S;djh f,i js.@ylr olajhs nq|=iuh ;`< |=lL ,CIKh f,ioelafjkqfhao flf;la wOsl;r iqL jsyrKhla mjd os.ska os.g jskaokh lsrSfuzoS thskal<lsrSug m;ajk iajNdjhhs wiykldrS ;;ajhhs usksid NdKav yd fiajd mrsfNdackhlsrSfuka ,nkqfha o wjidk js.@yfha os udkisl i;`gu jk nejska iDcqju udkisl i;`gla 217
  • ix;Dma;shla NdKav yd fiajd mrsfNdackhlska f;drj ,nd.; yels kuz iajNdjfhkaf,dalfhys wdrA:sl NdKav yd fiajdjkaf.a ysZ.lu yd ta ysZ.;djh ksidu tajd Wkqka w;r;rZ.ldrS f,i w;am;a lr.ekSfuz wjYH;djh ksid yg.kq ,nkakd jQ w;Dma;slr wdYdjkaf.ka.yk jrA;udk iudchg fuuZ.ska ,nd.; yels udkisl iykh wus, fohla jkq we;79 usksiqka fndfyda jsg iudc iuznJO;d f.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS Tjqkaf.a fm#oa.,slreps wrepsluz yd wdfjzKsl usksia .;s iajNdjhka wkqj tajdg wkq.; jk mrsos" lghq;` lsrSugjevs keUqrejla olajk nj fkdfhla jsg ksrSCIKhg yiqj we;s ;j;a lreKls fuysos ;u;ukaf.a wdfjzKsl iajNdjhkag wkql~,jsu iZoyd orK ,o m@h;akhkays oS Tjqka jsiskaf.dvkZ.d .kakd ,o fyda f.dvkZ.d .ekSug huzlsis m@h;akhla orK ,o iudciuznJO;djhla fj;akuz tu iudc iuznJO;djhkays iajrEmh o jsOsu;a ;,fha isg wjsOsu;a;,hg ixl@uKh fjz fndfyda jsg iudc iuznJO;djhkays jsOsu;a iajrEmhla w;S;fhaoSg jvdjrA;udkfhys wju jkqfha iudc mrsKduKfhys oS mqoa., prAhdjka woyia yd iyc wdfjzKsliajNdjhka o ixlSrAK ;;ajhkaf.ka jsldYh fjuska meusKs nejsks tjsg iudcfhys fjfikakdjQ usksiqka w;r mj;akd jQ mqoa., prAhdfjz iajrEmh o jsmrs;j f.dia wjsOsu;a iajrEmhlgm;aj we; we;euzjsg jsOsu;a iuznJO;djhka meje;ajSug jvd;a repshla olajkakd jQ mqoa.,hkayd mqoa., lKavdhuz fuz fya;`fjka oevs wiSre;djhlg o uqyqK meug is|= fjz wjsOsu;aiuznJO;djhka mjka;d jQ mqoa.,hkaf.a prAhdj w;r lsishuz >gzGkhla iudc moaO;shla ;`< oSis|=jk nejska iudch o fjz.fhka ;j ;j;a jsmrAhdihkag ,lafjz fuz .egqu iodld,sl ydwksjdrAh .egquls mrsKdukh jSu hkqfjka wm yZ|=kajk jsldYh is|=jSug fun|= iudc >gzGkwksjdrAhh we; w;S;fha oS ;snQ iudch yd jrA;udk iudch w;r wo mj;sk jsYd, fjkiksrAudKh jS ;sfnkqfha fulS >gzGkfhys m@;sM,hla jYfhka hehs fmkajd osh yelsh fujeks>gzGk iudcfha jsldYhg Wojzjla usi ydkshla we;s fkdlrhs tfy;a iudcfhys fjfikakd jQfndfyda fofkla jsfYaIfhkau jevsuyZM mrmqr is;kqfha fuhska iudch jskdYhg m;ajk njhsiudch |+IKhg m;ajk njhs fuf,i iudc >gzGkhkaf.ka is|=jk w;`re jsmdl w;r fydZojsmdl fukau krl jsmdl o we; tys fydZo krl uZ.yer krl jsmdl foh muKla wjOdkhfhduq lr ta ieu jsglu iudc >gzGhkaf.ka iudch jskdY fj;ehs ks.ukhlg meusKSuw;sYhska u fnd<Zo jQjls fn#oaO ixorANh ;`< wks;H ,CIKh uZ.ska jsYaf,aIKh lrkq,nkafka o fulS >gzGkh ksid yg.efkk jsmrsKduS ;;ajhhs tysoS ksrka;rfhka fjkiajknj ishZM ixialdr Ou!hkays wksjdrAh ,CIKhla nejska th ms<sf.k ta wkqj iajlSh pska;khilialr .ekSu msKsi wjYHjk l@shdudrA.h meyeos,s lrfokq ,efnz fulS jsmrsKduS ,CIKhmqoa., ps;a; ika;dkh ;`< muKla fkdj bka neyer iudc mrsirfhys,d o tl f,iu jeo.;ajk nj nq|=iuh wjOdrKh lrhs iudc >gzGkhkaf.a fydZo m@;sM, Wodlrkafka fu;a;dixl,amh n,mEu uZ.ska jk w;r wys;lr m@;sM, Wodlrkafka fl@daOh" ffjrh" BrAIHdj"m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdj jeks wdl,amhkaf.a n,mEu ksidh iudch fjkiajk nj yd iudc>gzGkh wksjdrAh fohla kuz thska Wlyd.; hq;af;a fydZo m@;sM, muKlau kuz iudcfhys 218
  • fjfikakd jQ ishZMu fokd ;`< cks; l< hq;af;a o jv jvd;a jO!kh l< hq;af;a o fu;a;dixl,amhhs fu;a;d ixl,amh ksid ;uka yd wkHhka w;r mj;skakd jQ iSudiys; wd;aurA:lduSudkisl mjqr is;ska bj;alr oud w;sYhskau mqZM,a ukilska iudch foi n,d lghq;` lsrSugusksiqka fm<fuz tjsg lKaydj" fl@daOh" BrAIHdj" udkh m<s.ekSfuz fp;kdj usksia is;a ;`<ska;`rkaj f.dia iuZ.sh" us;@Fjh" iyfhda.h yd iycSjkh usksiqka ;`<g m@fjzY fjz80 jsoHd;aul pska;kh Tiafia iudc iuznJO;d jsYaf,aIKh lsrSfuz oS uqyqK fokakg is|=jk B<Z. .egZMj jkqfha iudc >gzGkhka ;`<ska we;sjk m@;sM,j, iajNdjh ljrdldroehs ksrSCIKh lsrSuhs jsoHd;aul pska;kh ;u pska;k l@ufjzoh f,i Ndjs;dlrkq ,nk jsoHdZ{hska jsiska fuz iZoyd meyeos,s lrfokq ,nk Wmdh udrA.h kuz kj jsIhhka Tiafia pska;kh fufyhjSuhs tu jsIh kuz" iudc jsoHdjhs iudc jsoHdj kS;sh" wmrdO jsoHdj" wOHdmk jsoHdj" ufkda jsoHdj ikaksfjzoh jeks usksia l@shdldrluz ms<snZo js.@yhka jsoHd;aul pska;khg wkqj jsYaf,aIKh fldg js.@yfldg ne,Su wruqK lruska nsys jQ oDIaGSka ish,a, idudcSh jsoHdjka f,i jsoHdZ{hska jsiska wF:! olajd we; fuz hgf;a fuys tk ljr oDIaGshlskaj;a iudch js.@yl<;a" jsYaf,aIKh l<;a" is|=lr n,kafka usksia jgskdluz mdol lr.kakd ,o iudcix>gzGkhhkays w;`reM, ms<sno jsYaf,aIKhls81 tys kHdh isoaOdka; f.dvkZ.d we; ta Tiafiabosrs oelau ms<snZo ks.ukhkag meusKSu;a" l@u jsYaf,aIKh;a olakg ,efnz ta wkqj iudchms<snZo jsoHd;aul pska;kh mdol lrf.k jsYaf,aIKhla is|= lrkq ,nkafka iudc jsoHdZ{hskajsisks iudc jsoHdfjzoS Wml,amk" ksheos" iuzmrSCIK wdosh Ndjs;d lr.ksuska is|= lrkq,nkafka iudc jsoHd kHdh isoaOdka; weiqrska iudc l@shdldrSFjh uekjska wOHhkh lsrSuhsufkda jsoHdfjys prAhdjdoh js.@y lr oelajSfuz oS usksiqkaf.a yd i;`kaf.a ndysr prAhdrgdjkafjkiajk iajrEmh wkqj tu usksiqkaf.a yd i;`kaf.a ps;a;fjz.sl miqnsu iliajk wdldrhlsishuz jsHd;aul l@u fjzohlg wkqj fmkajd oSu msKsi jsoHd;aul pska;kh Ndjs;d lrkakdlafukau iudc jsoHdZ{hska jsiska lsishuz iudc moaO;shla ;`< udkjhkaf.a yeisrSuz rgdjkawOHhkh lsrSfuz wruqKska Wps; f,i iajlSh kHdhhka" yd isoaOdka; Ndjs;d lruska usksiaprAhdjka ms<snZoj huz huz ks.ukhkag t<USu iudc jsoHd;aul mrAfhaIKhkays ldrAhNdrh 219
  • fjz tu kHdh yd isoaOdka; uZ.ska if;HCIKh lrkq ,nkafka usksia yeisrSuzys huz huzjsp,Hhkah usksia yeisrSuzys wfmaCIs; ;;ajh kuz iyfhda.h yd iuZ.shhs82 fuh iudciuznJO;djhkays uq,au mqrelhs iudc taldnoaO;djh we;s jkafka iuZ.sh yd us;@YS,S yeZ.SuuZ.ska we;s lrkq ,nk iyfhda.h lrKfldg f.kh fuz wkqj fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;djSums<snZoj prAhdj uZ.ska uefkk m@;sM,h uZ.ska iudch flfrys fld;ruz |=rlg fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdNdIh ,nd ;sfnzo hkak lshfjz flfia fyda iudc moaO;shl idrA:l iudciuznJO;d f.dvkeZ.Sfuz ldrAhNdrfha oS fu;a;d ixl,amh b;du;au iqjsYd, jeo.;alula.kakd jQ ixl,amhla nj fuys m@;sM, uZ.ska ikd: fjz83 iudc foayhl huz jgskdlula ;SrKhjSu" jgskdlula we;s lrjSu yd ksYaps;f,i th Ndjs;d lsrSu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh wkqoekqu wkqj is|= fjz fu;a;d ixl,amhtys iudcuh jgskdlula wkqj b;du;a iqjsfYaIS ia:dkhl miqjk ixl,amhls iudciuznJO;djhkays jsoHd;aul iajrEmh h:drA:jdoS f,i jsYaf,aIKh lsrSu iZoyd;a" js.@yfldgoelajSu iZoyd;a fu;a;d ixl,amh idrA:l f,i bjy,a lrf.k we; fu;a;d ixl,amfhysmj;skakd jQ us;@YS,S nj iyfhda.h jeks lreKq idrA:l iudc iuznJO;djhla f.dvkeZ.SuiZoyd uy;a fia wdOdr Wmldrj;a fjz tfuka hym;a ps;a;fjz.sl wdl,amhka we;slr .ekSutfiau tjeks ps;a;fjz.hka mqoa., jYfhka iudcuh jYfhka M,odhsl f,i Ndjs;hg .ekSuiZoyd fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jsoHduk Wmfhda.S;djh lsisfia;a wu;l l< fkd yel fiiq ps;a;ixl,amhkag idfmaCIlj fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;fha oS meyeos,sju jsoHudkjk ir< nj;ameyeos,s l@shdldrSFjh;a mqoa., jsIu;djhlska f;drj Ndjs;fhys we;s iq.u iajNdjh;a ksidjeks iqjsfYaI;d .Kkdjla fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jgskdlu Tmj;a lrhs tfukau fu;a;dixl,amfhys wNHka;rfhys .enzjk nJOkSh iajNdjh ksidu" iudc taldnoaO;djh msKsiuy;a fia Wmfhda.S lr.; yels m@Odku ixl,amh f,i fiiq ps;a; ixl,amhka jO!khlsrSfuys,d mdol lr.ekSfuz yelshdj" fu;a;d ixl,amfhys nyq, jYfhka wka;rA.;h usksiapska;kh yd pska;k rgdj ilia lsrSfuz l@shdj<sfhys oS fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wka;rA.; huz huzm@cdkk" wdfjzok yd prAhduh ,CIK fiiq ps;a; ixl,amhka iuZ. b;du;a idrA:l f,iixfhdackh lsrSu uZ.ska jvd;a iudcdkqfhda.S ps;a; .;s iajNdjhka f.dvkxjd.; yelsh84 iudchla ia:r .Kkla yd fCI;@ .Kklska iukajs; moaO;shls moaO;shlatu fCI;@ rdYsh w;r iuznjO;d uy;a rdYshlska ilia jS we; tu iuznJO;djhka w;r neZoSumj;sk iajrEmh udkqIsl kuz tu moaO;sh ;`< fjfik ishZM udkjhskag th iqjodhs njla ysusjSug lreKls kuq;a huz fyhlska fyda ishZM iuznJO;djhkays jsYajikSh iajNdjh udkjohdj yd udkj ys;jdoS nj /ZoS mj;skafka w;sYhskau ixfjzoSjQ;a ysff;IS jQ;a udkj iuznJO;dmoaO;shla w;frys muKs85 tfia fkdjqkq l< tlS udkj iuznJO;djhkays iajrEmh yqfolahdka;@sl l@shdldrSFjhlg muKla iSud jkq we;86 tfia jk l< tlS udkqIsl iuznJO;djhkaysh:d iajrEmh jsh hq;`jQ <f;;a nj uqiqjqkq us;@YS,S wdl,amh flfrka th |=riaj hkq we; 220
  • udkqIsl iuznJO;djhl ffcjuh meje;aula o we; ishZM cSjSkaf.a ffcj l@shdldrSFjfhysOkd;aul mCIh rZod mj;skqfha usksid ffcj ys;jdoS nj flfrys olajk ys;lr wdl,amhu;h th ienjskau tfia fkdjqkq l, ta meje;afuys iunr;djh |=re jS hhs usksidg fuzusys;,h u; meje;aula we;af;a usksia l@shdldrSFjh iunr njlska ffcj ys;jdoS nj flfrysolajk Okd;aul wdl,amh Wv muKs87 tfia is|= fkdjk l< usksia iajNdjh yqfola hdka;@sliajrEmfhka usksi;a nj udkqIsl nj us;@YS,S nj jshelS hd kuz tjsg wys;lr whqrskamrsjrA;khg ,lajk nj nq|=iufhys wjOdrKh lr ;sfnz ngysr oekqu yd tu wdl,am usksid we;`ZM fiiq iuia; iFj m@cdj mrsirfhkajshqla; fldg is;kakg wkqn, yd osrs fok l, nq|= oyu we;`ZM fmros. ixialD;sh mrsirhusksid we;`ZM ffcjSkaf.ka jshqla; fkdlr th yqfola tlu moaO;shla f,i is;kakg yd ta wkql@shdlrkakg wkqn, ,nd fohs fuu pska;kh jsOSka folskau jvd;a ffcj ys;jdoS nj ,ndfokafka nq|=iuh m@uqL fmros. ixialD;sh nj fmkajd osh yelsh fmros. ixialD;sh ;`<;ajvd;a nq|=iuh ;`< fuu mrsirh iuznJO idlpzPd fnfyjska is|= jQ nj nqoaO foaYkd wkqjmeyeos,s fjz88 uq,a nq|=iufhys iZoyka mrsir ys;jdoS iajrEmh nq|=iuh b;du;a iS>@fhkaixialD;sl .;jSu flfrys ;oskau n,mdk ,o lreKls nqoaO foaYkd ;`< ksrka;rfhkauiZoyka jkafka usksid ;uka flfrysu;a wkH cSjSka flfrys;a mrsirh flfrys;a mej;sh hq;`us;@YS,S wdl,amhhs udkj ys;jdoS njska hqla;j oevs us;@YS,S ms<sfj;la wkq.ukh lsrSu ;`<skauZ.ska muKla usksidg usysu; u; jvd;a iunr iqjodhs osjs fmfj;la .; l< yels nj tys oSfmkajd oS ;sfnz89 tfiau tjka usksfil`yg fndfyda frda.dndO wju nj o ishZM f,#lsl oshqKqjTyq lrd b;du;au blaukska <Z.d jk nj o jevs |=rg;a fmkajd oS ;sfnz usksia yeisrSuz us;@YS,Swdl,amhlska hqla;j iliajsh hq;` wdldrh wfkl`;a ukqIHhska yd ffiq iFjhska iuZ. l@shdl<hq;` iajrEmh uekjska jsYaf,aIKh lsrSu uZ.ska o meyeos,s lrfokq ,nkqfha us;@YS,S yeisrSuzrgdj iudc iuznJO;d meje;ajSfuz oS yd mj;ajkakd jQ iudc iuznJO;djhka jsOsu;awdldrhlska ilia lr.ekSfuzys oS mej;sh hq;` jQ yd iliajsh hq;` jQ iajrEmhhhs tfiau Bgwod< jkakd jq fiiq .`Kdx.hka o biau;` fldg olajd we;90 usksiqka ;`< iajlSh ps;a; wNHka;rfhys we;s jk yd we;s jsh yels wys;lrwdl,am" ixl,am" wdfjzok iukhlg m;alr iqjodhs udkisl iajNdjhlska iukajs; jSu ;`<skaiym;a iudc iuznJO;d f.dvkZ.d .ekSu msKsi jvd;a Wps; udkisl jgdmsgdjla ;uka ;`<ksrAudKh lr .; yels wdldrh nq|=iuh jsia;r lr fohs fulS usksia yeisrSuz rgdfjys;sfnkakd jQ wdfjzokd;aul iajrEmh mjd ilia jsh hq;af;a o Ndjd;sYh jsh hq;af;a o us;@YS,Smiq;,hla u; nj fmkajd fokq ,nhs usksid iajNdjfhkau wdfjzokYS,S iFjfhl` kuz Tyqf.apska;k ud;@hka mej;sh hq;` jkafka wdfjzokhka iukh jk whqrsks91 ;on, wdfjzokhkaf.kamsreKq wdfjzokYS,S yeisrSuz rgdjka iys; usksiqka iykYS,S iudc rgdjlg Wps; fkdjkq we;tnZ|= mqoa.,hka iudcfhys jdih lsrSu lsisfjl`yg keje;ajsh fkdyel tfiakuz tnZ|= 221
  • mqoa.,hkayg iudc moaO;sh ksrjq,aj meje;su msKsi lsishuz fjfyila ord iajlSh wdfjzokhkausksia iudchg ys;lr jk iajrEmfhka kej; ilialr .ekSug Wps; udrAf.damfoaYkhnq|=iuh uZ.ska ,ndfoa nq|=iuh uZ.ska tnZ|= mqoa.,hkayg ,ndfokakd jQ fulS udrAf.damfoaYkjsOsl@uhka lsisfia;au ;djld,sl jsiZ|=uz f,i ie,lsh fkdyelafla tlS ieu jsOs l@uhlau uekjskaw;ayod n,d w;sYhskau m@fhda.slj m@;HCI fldgf.k bka wk;`rej fmkajd fokq ,nkl@ufjzohla nejsks tfiau tu l@ufjzohka ilaij we;af;a Bg ksis nqoaOsuh mrsmdlh fhda.Hwhqrska we;s ish is;a i;kays lsis|= wys;lr wdfjzokhla fkdue;s ishZM wys;lr wdfjzohkaiajlSh is;a i;ka ;`<ska uqZM ukskau m@ySK l<d jQ W;`uz mqoa.,hkaf.a cSjk w;aoelSuz weiqrska jSutys m@fhda.sl jgskdluz ;j;a Tma kxjhs92 nq|=iuh usksiqka yd Tjqkaf.a pska;khka flfia iliajsh hq;`oehs fmkajd fokq,nkafka o iudcuh jsma,jhla we;slrkq ,enqfha o lsis|= ysxiduh l@shdudrA.hlg wj;SrAKfkdfjuska jSu nq|=iufhys we;s b.ekajSuzj, jgskdlu f,djg fmkajd oSuls tfiau uq,skauiudch fjkia lsrSu mfil ;nd mqoa.,hka fjkia lsrSu yd uekjska ilia lsrSu Tiafia iudchfjkia lsrSu yd iudc .uka uZ. ksjeros osYdjlg ilia lsrSu is|= lr we; nq|=iuh wkqjjvd;au jeo.;a jkqfha tla tla mqoa.,hd i;`j we;s pska;khhhs iudc l@shdldrSFjh js.@ylsrSfuz oS yd iudch jsiska f.dvkZ.df.k we;a;d jQ jsjsO iudc ixl,amj,g kj wF:!l:kbosrsm;a lsrSfuz oS mj;skakd jQ l@ufjzohg uqZMukskau wjk; fkdfjuska yd m@;sfCIamfldguqZMukau fy<d oelSulska f;drj wjYH wdldrhg mj;skakd jQ iudc ixl,am ioyd nq|=r|=kajsiska iajlSh kj wF:! js.@yhka Bg iq|=iq Wmdh udrA.hka Ndjs; fldg bosrsm;a lrwe; fuzfya;`j ksidu nq|=iuh b;du;au flgs l,lska iuia; Ndr;h mqrdu jsYd, f,i jHdma; jQ njft;sydisl idOl jsoHudkh93 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys we;s nsh jsrys; Ndjh ksidu th m@Z{dj W;amdo lsrSfuys,d iu;a luz olajhs nsh we;s jsg ishZM nqoaOsh hgm;a fjz yeZ.Suz biau;` jS nqoaOsh hgm;a jknejsks kuq;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhys mj;skakd jQ hg;a fkdjkakd jQ iajNdjh ;`< biau;` jkakdjQ m@Z{dj uZ.ska nsh ;`<ska we;s jk nqoaOsuh wdjrKh |=re lrkq ,nkafka kej; thyg.ekajSug fya;`jk ufkdauh uQ<hka o isZo nsZo ouusks fulS ufkda uq<hka yg.ekajSu msKsiNdjs;djk m@Odk;u fya;~ka jk oafjzIh wdYdj yd uq<dj hk idOl ;`k uq,skqmqgd oukq ,nhsishZM fida |=la ixld yg.kq ,nkqfha fulS idOl ;`fkys n,mEug k;`jSh iudcuh cSjs;h ;`<oS nsh rys; Ndjh iudc taldnoaO;djh flfrys w;sYhskau bjy,a fjz uq,skau mqoa.,fhl` ;ud;`< nsh rys; iajNdjhla we;s lr .ekSu uZ.ska ;j |=rg;a tlS mqoa.,hd ygu iudch jsIfhysnsh rys; iajNdjhla we;s lr.ekSu flrys n,mdkq ,nhs iudc.; osjsh mqrdj nsh rys;iajNdjh uQ,slju yg.kq ,nk fu;a;d ixl,amh m@Z{dj wjOslrkq ,nhs m@Z{d iuzmkakmej;`uz we;s mqoa.,hd iuia; iudch flfrysu;a ;uka flfrys;a nsh fkdolskakd jQmqoa.,fhl` njg m;ajkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ukd wdNdIh ksiduh tfukau iuia; 222
  • iudcuh cSjs;g wF:! iuzmkak jkqfha o fulS nsh rys; njlg mqoa., osjs meje;au mrsjrA;khjQ l,uh94 ienjskau mxpYS, m@;smodfjka wF:!j;a jkqfha o fujeks nsh rys; iudcuhjgdmsgdjla usksidg Wreu lr oSuh usksid iajNdjfhkau wfkla ishZM iFj jrA.hd fukau nsh;ukaf.a fod;ska /f.k meusfKk cSjsfhls boska usksidf.a idudkH iajNdjh jQ nsh iys; nj|=re lrkq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh iuia; iudchuh l@shd;drSFjh ;`< iq,Njh oelsh yels,CIKhla njg mrsjrA;kh jQ l,uh hg;a msrsfihska iudcfhys cSj;a jk tla mqoa.,fhl`fyda fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d lsrSu tlS iudch nsh rys; m@Z{d iuzmkak iudchla njg m;alsrSfuz uq<sl wvs;d,u njg m;a lrjsh yelsh wk;`rej ishZMu mqoa.,hkaf.a fu;a;d ixl,amjrAOkh uZ.ska ;j |=rg;a iudcuh Ndjs;dj yd iudcuh taldnoaO;djh jv jvd;a m@p,s;lsrSug yd ixjrAOkh lsrSug yelshdj ,efnkq we;95 usksia iudch jsgska jsg fkdfhl`;a mrsjrA;kSh iajNdjh ,la jSu jsYajidOdrK jQ OrAu;djhla f,iska ie,fla fjkia fkdjkakd jQ iudchla ;nd fjkia fkdjkakdjQ lsishuz uQ< modrA:hlaj;a fkdue;s hehs ie,flk nejsks boska iudch wkjr;fhka fulSfjkia jSfuz l@shdj<shg uqyqK mdhs kuz tnZ|= fjkiajSula ;`< usksid iudcfhys fiiq mqoa.,hkaiuZ. lghq;` lsrSfuz oS jv jvd;a us;@YS,S osjs meje;aulg fhduq jSu uZ.ska fjkia jkakd jQ usksiaixl,amh yd wdl,am l@udkQl~, wkaouska usksidf.a ffp;isl ixjrAOkh msKsi odhl lr.ekSfuz jsYd, iuzNdjs;djla we;s nj fmfkkakg ;sfnz fjkiajSu ;`<u usksia yeisrSuz ydl@shdldrSFjhka wkHhkaf.a ys; iqj ie,iSfuz wruqK lrd fhduq jQ jsg tu fjkiajSu usksidguy;a wdYsrAjdohla lr.; yelsh96 jrA;udkfhys fulS iudcfhys jsp,H;djh fu;a;dixl,amh weiqfrka ilia lr fkd.ekSfuz nshlre m@;sjsmdlh kuz hf:dla; fjkiajSuixialD;sl iudcuh yd fm#oa.,sl jYfhka tla tla mqoa.,hd flfrys yd iuia; iudchflfrys;a b;du;au wys;lr wkaouska n,md we;s iajNdjhka jsoHudk jSuhs fjkiajSu ;`< usksiayeisrSfuz ys m@;scdkkd;aul md,kh yd ixjsOdkh uZ.ska tlS fjkialu usksidf.au hym;iZoyd Ndjs;d lr.ekSug yelshdj we;s w;r tlS wruqK fu;a;d ixl,amh mdolj l@shd;auljsh hq;`h97 usksia yeisrSuz uZ.ska iudch fj; is|= jkakd jQ whym;a n,mEu wju lr.ekSfuzwruqKska hqla;j th lsishuz jsOsl@uhlg wkqj f.dvkeZ.Su w;HjYH fjz tfiau usksia yeisrSuziudc m@.ukh lrd jsOs wdldrfhka odhl lr.ekSfuz jHdhduh o fuhska is|= jSu wfmaCId l<hq;` fohls tfiau lsishuz wd.usl ixl,am moaO;shlg iSud jQ fldg oelajsh fkdyels irAjld,Sk yd irAj idOrK wdpdr Ou! moaO;shla jsh hq;`h mxpYS, m@;smodfjys jsoHudk jkwdpdr Ou! moaO;sh uZ.ska iudch fj; ;s<sK lrkq ,nkafka o fulS wjYH;dhjhka iZoydirs,k wdldrfha jsiZ|=uls iEu iudc wjYH;djhlau mqoa., wjYH;djhla fkdfjz tfiau iEumqoa., wjYH;djhlau iudch wjYH;djhla o fkdfjz kuq;a iEu mqoa., wjYH;djhlau iudcwjYH;djhla iuZ. o iEu iudc wjYH;djhlau mqoa., wjYH;djhla iuZ.u lsishuz 223
  • iajrEmhlska iuznJO fjz we;euz jsg fulS iuznJO;djfhys iajrEmh u;`msgska jsoHdudk jQjlajsh yels w;r we;euz jsgl oS ta wdldrfhka u;`msgska fkdj wNHka;rj jsysfok iajNdjhla jshyelsh we;euz jsgl oS fuz fohdldrfhys iuznJO;djhka mjd jsoHudk jsh yelsh mqoa.,wjYH;djhka yd iudc wjYH;djhka w;r lsishuz iduQysl njla tlZ.Fjhla we;s lr.ekSufu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska is|= flfrA fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh Ndjs;dj ilia jkqfha o fuzwdldrfhka mqoa., yd iudc ixorANfhys ,d th l@shd;aul jk iajNdjh wkqjh fu;a;dixl,amfhys mqoa., yd iudc l@shdldrSFjh tl iudk jeo.;a lulska hqla; njla .enz jSmj;S us;@YS,S nj kshu jYfhka oelajSu hkqfjka woyia lrkqfha ;uka yd wkHhka w;rm@cdkk iduHhla f.dvkZ.d .ekSu jk nejsks tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdkkh nqoaOsf.dapr iajNdjhla .kq ,nk w;r tuZ.ska ishZM wdldrfha oDIaGSka w;yer ksoyi udkjhd ygWreu fldg fohs usksia l@shdldrSFjh iuia; ffcj ys;jdoS nj u; mokuz jk jsg muKlafu;a;d ixl,amh mQrAK jYfhka iudcfhys uq,a nei .kafka hehs ks.ukh l< yels jkq we;i;H jYfhkau mqoa., fjzu;a;;djh ffcj jsjsOFjh jeks idOl mej;sfha jqj o ishZMfjkialuz Nskak repslFjhka mfil ,d iduQyslFjh ;`<ska Tmj;a jQ us;@YS<S wdl,amhkaf.kaiukajs; jsYajSh m@cdjla ilia lsrSfuys ,d fu;a;d ixl,amh ,nd fokafka fkduZo msgqjy,lsfu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh Ndjs;dj by< w.hl mj;ska jsg oS muKla th iduQysliudchla jYfhka yeZoskajSu jvd;a ksrjoH jkq we; fuhska woyia jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amhjshqla; ixl,amhla fkdj fnfyjska m@fhda.sl ;,fhys rZod mj;akd jQ w.hla njhs fu;a;dixl,amfhys jgskdlu ;j |=rg;a Tma kexfjkafka th m@cdkk me;slv blaujd wdfjzok;,fhys mjd ish il@Sh odhlFjh ,ndfok wdldrfhks lsishuz iudc moaO;shl oS m@cdkkfCIa;@hg iu.duSj thg iudk w.hla wdfjzok me;slv fj; ;s<sK lrkq ,nk fyhskafu;a;d ixl,amh ishZMu jsp,Hhka ;`<kh lrkq ,nk jgskdluz tlajr ,ndfokq ,nkixl,amhla f,i oelajsh yelsh fndfyda ixl,amhka j, fuz jgskdlu oel.; fkdyels w;rw.hkays jsp,Hhka w;r fulS .e,mSu o jsoHudk fkdfjz iudcuh Ndjs;djl oS fujeks .e,mSuzwe;s ixl,amhl we;s w.h fuz ksid wjsjdos;h98 tfiau iudchla hkq fkdfhla wdldrfha Nskak repshlFjhka yd NskakwjYH;djhka iys; msrsilf.ka iukajs; ixia:duh fohla nejska tjka msrsila ksr;`rejuix;Dma; lsrSu Tjqfkdjqkaf.a wka;rA l@shdldrSFjh uZ.skau is|= jsh hq;a;la ksid ta wka;rAl@shdldrSFjh irAj iudkj yd idOdrK wdldrfhka is|= jSug wjYH miq;,h fu;a;d ixl,amhuZ.ska ksrka;rfhka ilia lr fokq ,nhs99 fuz fya;`j ksid fu;a;d ixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjhidudkHfhka us;@Fjfha iSudfjka Tnzng;a jsyso me;sr hkaklaa fjz iudc foayhl ksrjq,ameje;au ia:sr jYfhkau rZod mj;afka tlS iudch fld;ruz |=rlg fu;a;d ixl,amh fuzwdldrfhka Ndjs;hg f.k ish meje;au ta Tiafia ilia lr .kakjdo hkak u;hs fu;a;dixl,amfhys iudcuh w.h fuz fya;`j ksid wksjdrAhfhkau mqoa., w.h wNsnjd fmruqK.ekSug iu;a fjz100 tfiau fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wjidk mrudrA:uh ksIaGdj yd ixl,amSh 224
  • l~Gdm@dma;sh is|= jkafka th yels;dla iudc.; jSu ;`< yd th flfia flf;la |=rlg wkHhkajsIfhys irAj idOrK jkafka o hk lreK u;h101 fuz fya;` ksid fu;a;d ixl,amfhysjHdma;sh yd iSudjka l`ulaoehs mQrAjfhka jsksYaphkg t<Ush yels fkdfjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhysiSudjka yd jHdma;sh wdruzNl uq,a woshr ;`< fiiq ixl,amhkays fuka jqj;a tys wjidk ydl~Gdm@dma;s wjia:djka ixl,amSh iSudjka w;sl@uKh lruska talFjh lrd <Z.d jkakla fjz fuysidlpzPdjk talFjh jkdyS mQrAK flduskshqiagz yd iudcjdoS iudcj, jHqyhkays mrudorAYf,i ie,flk iudcfhys ndysrska jsoHudk jk jsjsO iudc ixia:d yd iudc iuQy w;rjsoHudk jsjsO;djhka wfydaislr oeuSu ;`<ska iudc foayfhys u;`msg ia:rh fjkia lsrSumuKlau woyia fkdfjz fuys talFjh hkafkka woyia jkqfha mqoa., m@cdkk me;slv fukauiudcuh m@cdkk me;slv o tl f,iu tlu mrudorAYhla jgd f.dkq lsrSug huzlsis idOrKm@h;akhla .ekSuhs fuh iudc foayfhys ndysr iajrEmh iudk lsrSug jvd b;du;au wmyiqjQjla jk w;r kuq;a Bg jvd fnfyjska m@dfhda.sl jQjla o fjz tnejska ndysr fjkia lsrSulgjvd iudch wNHka;rslj fjkia lsrSug m@h;ak oerSu wiSre jQjla hehs yd iuyr jsgl oS lsisf,ilska fkdyels jQjla hehs fmfkkag ;snqK;a th b;du;au m@dfhda.s; jQjla jk w;r l<hq;`u foh jkqfha o thhs iudch ndysrska fjkialsrSulg m@Odk fuj,u f,i oafjzIh mdollr.ksuska lsishuz udkj >gzgkhla is|= lsrSu wjYH jk w;r iudcfhys wNHka;r jsma,jhlais|= lsrSu iZoyd wjYH jkafka mqoa., ps;a; ika;dkh jsOsu;a mrsos ksjd ouuska wkHhka ms<snZoixfjzoS iajNdjhla ukfiys we;s jSug bvlv ,efnk mrsos fu;a;d ixl,amh yels;dla Ndjs;dlsrSu msKsi udkjhka fm<USuhs fuu fm<Uqfuys wksjdrAhfhkau m@OdkFjh bis,sh hq;af;aiudcfhys cSj;ajk mqoa.,hka fldhs ljqre;a ;u ;ud jsiskauh tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amhNdjs;d l< hq;af;a o ;uka jsiskau nj iudcfhys fjfik wkHhkayg o ta;a;` .efkk mrsoslghq;` lsrSug ishZM fokdygu fjka fjka mqoa.,sl j.lSula wksjdrAhfhkau we;102 fuz j.lSuziys;Ndjh rZod mj;skakd jQ iajrEmh u; yd ;ukayg tfia lsrSfuka ,efnk iudcuhm@;s,dNh flf;ruz jsYd, o hkak fydZoska wjfndaO jQ jsg usksiqka ;j |=rg;a fu;a;d ixl,amhNdjs;d lsrSu iZoyd W;aiyfhka fm<Ush hq;` fkdfjz103 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh Ndjs;djtfia iudcuh Ndjs;dj ;`<ska ,efnk Wmfhda.S;djh u;u rod mj;akjd jskd ndysr fm<UqulauZ.ska mqoa.,hka ;`<g megjsh yelalla fkdfjz104 usksia YsIaGdpdrfhys wdruzNfha isgu jrA;udkh olajd wkql@ufhka mejf;kiudcuh jrAOkh ;`< oS jvd;a jeo.;a jQ ldrKh jkqfha usksid jrA;udkh jk jsg usysu;skajZo jS fkdf.dia b;srs jQfha usksia iudch fnfyjska iduQyslj cSj;a jQ jevs msrsilf.ka iukajs;jSu ksid hk lreKhs usksid iajNdjfhkau .egqulska f;drj osjs fmfj; .;lsrSugrepslFjhla olajkafkls usksia YsIaGdpdrfhys wE; w;S;fha isgu ta ta f.da;@sl ixfla;hka f,ius;@ ixl,amh jsjsO iajrEmfhka Ndjs;djSu wkqj fmkS hkafka o fulS woyihs fu;a;dixl,amfhys oDIHudk iajNdjh us;@ hkqfjka ksrEms; foajFjhlg kxjuska thg .re i;aldrlrkjd hkafkys wF:!h jkqfha us;`re nj iudcfhys mj;ajdf.k hkakg lsishuz 225
  • m@;scdkkd;aul wkq,nhla ta ;`<ska ,ndfokjd hkakhs fulS foajFjhg wdfrdamKh lsrSu ;`<skafu;a;d ixl,amh fyj;a us;`re nj b;du;a iuzNdjkdjg md;@ jsh hq;` yd th ish,a,kaf.aie,ls,a,g Ndckh jkakg b;du;a fhda.H ixl,amhla nj;a th wksjdrAhfhkau iudcfhys;yjqre l< hq;` fohla njg;a wjOdrKh lr ;sfnz us;`re nj yd iyfhda.h udkjhka msrsilatlaj lghq;` lsrSfuz oS ;snsh hq;`u .`Kdx.hls foajFjhg kxjd fmkajd fokafka thhs jvd;ajeo.;a jkafka fulS fu;a;d ixl,amh mqoa.,Fjfhka neyerj iudc iuznJO;d jsIfhys wod<lr.ekqkq wdldrhhs mqoa.,sl nj wd;audrA:lduSFjh ;`< jsoHudk jk fohls ienjskau msrsila;`< huz mqoa.,fhl`yg mqoa., wkkH;djhla ;snsh yels kuq|= tu wkkH;djh Tiafia f.dvk.d.kakd ,o wd;audrA:lduS pska;k rgdjla ;snsh fkdyelaflah mqoa.,sl nj iuzm;a mrsfNdackrgdj wkqj udkjhska jsiska ilia lr.kakd ,o fohls mqoa., wkHkH;djh ffkirA.sljumqoa.,hka ;`< mejf;k fohls mqoa., wkkH;djh mokuz lrf.k mqoa.,slFjfhka neyerjhuska fmd|= njg mrsjrA;kh jSu fu;a;d ixl,amh ksid b;du;aj idrA:l wdldrfhka l<yelsh tjsg mqoa.,sl iuzu;hka iudc iuzu;hka njg o iudc iuzu;hka mqoa.,sl iuzu;hkanjg o mrssjrA;YS,Sj l@shd;aul jk nejska fuys oS mqoa., wkkH;djh ms<snZo .egZMjla meKkZ.skafka ke; mqoa., wkkH;djh idrOrAu! yd iodpdrh ms<snZo lghq;` j,oS w;sYhskau wjYHjk fohls idrOrAu! yd iodpdrh wF:!j;a jkqfha o mqoa., wkkH;djh ksiduh kuq;a iuzm;amrsyrKfha oS wjsOsu;a f,i mqoa.,sl mrsfNdack rgdj l@shd;aul jSu;a iuZ.u mqoa.,wkkH;djh uZ.ska wF:!j;a jkakd jQ idrOrAu! yd iodpdrh nsZo jefghs kuz mqoa.,slFjh mqoa.,wkkH;djfhka jsNskak jQ yd mqoa., wkkH;djh flfrys m@;sfYaOkd;aul whqrska n,mdkq,nkakla nj fmkS hhs fufia jkafka mqoa.,sl njg mokuz jkafka mqoa.,hd yd udkjjgskdluzj,g wkq.; fkdjk Tyqf.a ndysr l@shdldrluz usi iduQysl nj fyda i;H udkjwe.hquz fyda fkdjk nejsks fu;a;d ixl,amh iEu jsgloSu fmd|= nj ms<snZoj weZ.jquz ldrlhfjz udkj is;a ;`< mqoa.,sl nj bj;a fldg mqoa., wkkH;djh fmd|= njg mrsjrA;khlrjkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Ndjs;dj uZ.sks fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d lsrSu fya;`fjkamqoa., wkkH;djfhys wfydis jSula is|= fkdjk w;r tfia jqjfyd;a idrOrAu! yd iodpdrhfu;a;d ixl,amfhka ksfYaO jkafka hehs mejiSug yelshdj we;;a tfia fkdj fu;a;dixl,amfhys Ndjs;dj fya;`fjka mqoa., wkkH;djh hym;a wdldrh f.dvkeZ.Sula o is|= jknejska th idrOrAu! yd iodpdrh w;r lsishuz iuSm iuznJO;djhla o cks; lrhs 105 idudkH iudc jHjydrh wkqj idrOrAu! yd iodpdrh w;r t;ruz jsYd,fjkila jsoHudk fkdfj;;a" jsoHd;aul pska;kh wkqj fuu me;slv fol w;r fjkialuzjsoHudkh idrOrAu! jkdyS wd.fuka wd.ug ixialD;sfhka ixialD;shg jsjsO yev;,hka.kakd w;r iodpdrh tfia fjkiajkafka fkdfjz iodpdrh jsYajSh fohla fjz tfukau jshqla;j.;al< jqj o tys we;s ksrfmaCI jeo.;alu yd we.hquz fkdfjkiaj mj;S idudkH ;;ajhka;`< oS idrOrAu! td iodpdrh w;r w;s jsYd, mr;rhla we;ejsgl oS jsoHudk fj;;a fn#oaOidrOrAu! iuznJOfhka idrOrAu! yd iodpdrh w;r tjka jsjsOFjhla jsoHudk fkdfjz106 226
  • jsfYaIfhka fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka tys iudc jHjydrfhys oS idudkH iuzu; iodpdrhwF:!j;a flfrkafka o fn#oaO idrOrAu! uZ.sks fn#oaO idrOrAu! iuznJOfhka fu;a;d ixl,amholajk fulS keushdj fuys we;s iqjsfYaIs Ndjh o fjz fn#oaO idrOrAu! fndfyda olakg we;;a"iudc jHjydrsl osjs fmfj; iuznJOfhka bosrsm;a flfrk ksrAjpkh yd tlS ksrAjpkShdkQl~,meje;au fnfyjska m@dfhda.sl yd m@Yia; ugzgfuys mej;Su fu;a;d ixl,amfhys w.h jvjvd;a by< hdug fya;`j f,i fmkajd osh yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amh tys Ndjs;dj uZ.skau iudcjHyqh f.dvkeZ.Su iZoyd tuZ.ska ,nfok odhlFjh ksrEmKh lr fmkajSug iu;a fjz fuzfya;`j ksidu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudc jsoHd;aul w.h fjk;a idfmaCI fndfyda ixl,amj,gjvd b;du;a bosrsfhka mej;Sug fya;` idOl fjz iudchla f.dvkeZ.Sug yd tys ksrrAnqomeje;au iZoyd iuzmQrAK jsh hq;` w;HjYH idOl /ila mj;shs iudchla wjYHfhkau usksiqka/ilska iukajs; moaO;shla ksid tlS usksiqka ish,q fokdf.au idudcSh wjYH;djhka;Dma;su;ajSu fulS iudc moaO;shla f.dv keZ.Sfuz yd th uekjska mj;ajdf.k hEfuz m<uqwjYH;djh f,i ie,ls,a,g .; yelsh usksid fuf,dj cSj;ajSfuz mrudrA:h ;uka ;ukaWfoid muKla fkdj ;uka iudch Wfoid l`ula l< hq;af;ao yd flfia l< hq;af;a o hklreKq iuzmQrAK lsrSu nj usksia YsIaGdpdrfhys b;sydih uekjska msrslaiSfuz oS oek.; yelsjvd;a jeo.;au mdvuhs tjsg oshqKq l< hq;af;ao oshqKq l< yelafla o fuf,dj ;sfnkakd jQfN#;sl jia;~ka fkdj usksidu nj ukdj meyeos,s fjkq we; wiu.sluz mj;sk ia:dkhla ydwiuZ.sluz msrsKq iudchla lsisosfkl oshqKq l< yelafla fkdfjz107 tu ksid oshqKqfjz m@Odkudj; n,lkqj iuZ.shhs mqoa.,hka w;r mj;sk iu.sh iudcfhys iu.sh olajd jHma; l<yelsjkq we; iuZ.sh iyfhda.h us;@Fjh we;s jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh wkqj thska msreKqis;aj,ska hqla;j lghq;` lsrSu ;`<sks iu.sh us;`renjg b;du;a fydZo md<uls w;aje,ls iudctaldnoaO;djh rZojd,sh yelafla ukdj us;@YS,S yeZ.Suz j,ska msreKq iudchla we;s lsrSfukamuKls fld;ruz jsjsOFjh mej;sh o iudc taldnoaO;djh flfrys tjka jsjsO iSudjka uZ.skawkjYH n,mEula we;s lsrSug fu;a;d ixl,amh l@shd;aul jk ;`re lsis|= bvlvla ksrAudKhfkdfjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmrsu l@shd;aul iajNdjh mj;sk;`re iudc taldnoaO;djhie,iSfuz m@Odk;u l@shdldrlh jkqfha o fu;a;d ixl,amhu fjz tfkau wkH mqoa., idrOrAu! f,i ie,flk iqjp iajNdjh" ldrAhCIu;djhksmqK nj" uD|= nj" ldreKsl nj" ieye,a,q meje;au" w,am lghq;` we;s nj jeks jsjsO mqoa.,jsjsO;djhka mqoa.,hka ;`< we;sl< yelafla fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Ndjs;dj ksid nj nq|=iuhfmkajd fokq ,nhs108 fujeks mqoa., jsjsO;djhka mqoa.,hka ;`< we;s lr.ekSug wkqn,,ndfokq ,nkafka o fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska Tma kexjqkq iudcuh miq;,hhs huzlsismqoa.,fhl` iudc lghq;` flfrys fkd wk,iaj iudc lghq;` ioyd iuzmQrAK odhlFjh,ndfokq ,nk wjia:djl oS jqj o fu;a;d ixl,amh tlS mqoa,hdf.a ps;a; ika;dkfhysl@shd;aul jSfuz iajrEmh wkqj iudc osjsfhys mqoa., jsjsOFjh yg.kshs lsishuz mqoa.,fhl`iudcfhys wkHhka w;r ckm@sh jkafka;a tlS mqoa.,hd wka whg m@sh ukdm jkafka;a fulS 227
  • fu;a;d ixl,amh fl;ruz |=rlg mqoa., ps;a; ika;dkfhys l@shd;aul jkafkaoehs hk lreKu;h tmuK |=rlg jsOsu;a yd fkdjsOsu;a wdldrfhka fu;a;d ixl,amh mqoa., ps;a;ika;dk.; ixfjzoS meje;aulg uZ. mdokq ,nhs lsishuz mqoa.,fhl` w;sYhskau wka wh flfrysixfjzoS jkqfha tlS mqoa.,hd ;`< fu;a;d ixl,amh l@shd;auljSu uZ.ska mqoa., ps;a; ika;dkhishquz jSu ksidh we;euz mqoa.,hka b;du;au rZM udkisl ;;ajhkaf.ka iukajs; jk w;rwe;euz mqoa.,hka b;du;a ishquz" ixfjzoS mqoa.,hka jSug m@Odk fya;`jla f,i oelajsh yelafla ofuz wdldrfhka fu;a;d ixl,amh tu ixfjzoS mqoa.,hka ;`< nyq, wdldrfhka Ndjs;d lsrSuhsjrA;udkfhys mqoa.,fhl`f.a pska;kh ilia jSu flfrys tlS mqoa.,hd w;S; Njhka ;`< oSlshk lrk yd is;k ,o we;euz foa iDcqju yd jl@ f,i n,mdkq ,nhs tysoS jvd;au m@n, foaiDcqju yd |=n, foa jl@ f,i n,mdkq ,nhs mqoa., l@shdldrSFjh flfrys fuz wdldrfhkaOkd;aul yd iDKd;aul wdldrfhka n,mdkq ,nk Tyqf.au pska;kh wkqj ilia jQ is;sjs,sl@shd yd mqre|= uZ.ska ;uka iudcfhys isgsh hq;` kshu ia:dkh Tyq jsiskau mQrAjfhkau ilialr.kq ,nhs ;uka cSj;ajk uqZM ld,h uqZM,af,au fuz wkqj tla tla mqoa.,hd jsiska ilialr.kakd jQ pska;kh l@shdjka yd mqre|= uZ.ska thg iudk wkH mqoa.,hka Tyq lrd wdlrAYKhjk w;r tl yd iudk woyia wdl,am l@shdjka we;s mqoa., lKavdhuz nsys jSug m@OdkodhlFjh fuz uZ.ska imhkq ,nhs iudch ;`< jsjsO mqoa., lKavdhuz" l,a,s yd ixjsOdk nsysjSug fuz lreK b;du;au m@n, wdldrfhka Wmia:uzNkh jk nj meyeos,sj fmfkkag we; tawkqj tu iudc lKavdhul m@OdkFjh Wiq,kq ,nkafka mqoa.,hduh fuz fya;`j ksid mqoa.,hdyels;dla wdl,am w;ska fukau l@shdldrSFjh w;ska o ksrjoHjSu iudc l@shdldrSFjh hym;a jSuflfrys wkshuz yd iDcq jYfhka n,mdkq ,nk nj fmkS hhs109 mqoa., yd iudc l@shdldrSFjhhym;ajSu;a iuZ.u tu iudch ;j |=rg;a usksiqka jsish yels idOdrK iudc moaO;shla f,imj;shs tjsg usksiqkayg lsis|= ms<sl`<lska f;drj tlS iudcfhys jdih lsrSug bv m@ia;djie,fia hg;a msrsfihska iudc l@shdldrSFjh flfrys tla tla mqoa.,hkaf.a wdpdr Ou! mjdn,mdkq ,nhs iudcfhys mqoa.,hkaf.a wdpdr Ou! hym;a jk jsg u;`msgska o tu iudchwdpdrYS,S iudchla f,i ms<s.ekSug md;@ fjz fn#oaO wdpdr Ou! ish,a,lau mdfya f.dv keZ.S;sfnkqfha ixjsOs; idrOrAu! moaO;shla yd ksYaps; iodpdr mokula iys;juh fuz ksid tfiafkdue;sj ndysrska muKla jsoHudk jk yqfola kduslj muKla wF:!l:kh jk wdpdr Ou!j,gu muKla iSud jQ wdpdr Ou! j,g jvd b;du;au .eUqre pska;k mokula yd meyeos,sorAYkhla nq|=iufhys js.@yjk wdpdr Ou!j, .enzfjz nq|=iuh ksrka;rfhka usksidyg,ndfokafka ffcj ys;jdoS uqZM uy;a jsYajh flfrysu us;@YS,S wdpdr Ou! moaO;shls ta ;`<udkj ys;jdoh muKla fkdj ishZM ffcj ys;jdoS nj o wvx.`h tmuKla fkdj ;ud wjgmrsirhg mjd ys;j;aj us;@YS,Sj lghq;` lsrSu ffcj meje;au iZoyd w;HjYH lreKla njnq|=iufhka fmkajd fokq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhka ie,iqkq jsjsO m@fhdackhka w;r frda. iqjh o tlalreKls fu;a;d ixl,amh u.ska fkdfhla wdldrfha ldhsl yd udkisl frda.j,ska iqjh ,ensh 228
  • yels nj nq|=iuh fmkajd oS we; iudc osjsh ;`< huz mqoa.,fhl`yg jvd;a mrsmQrAK iudcYS,Sosjsfmjf;la .; lsrSu wrUhd kSfrda.sj isgSu w;sYhskau jeo.;a fjz mQrAKld,Skj iudc osjshWoafhda.fhka .; l< yels jkafka tjsg muKs fuys oS ldhsl ksfrda.S;djhg jvd udkislksfrda.S;djh w;sYhskau jeo.;a fjz mqoa.,fhl` ;`< iunr fm#reIFjhla f.dvkeZ.sh yelaflatjsgh iunr fm#reIh uZ.ska jvd;a ksjeros wdldrfhka wkHhka wjfndaO lr.ekSfuz yelshdjie,fik nejska iudcuh osjs fmfj; ;`< oS Bg ,efnkqfha b;du;a jsYd, ia:dkhls mqoa.,fhl`ldhslj frda.SjSug;a udkislj frda.SjSug;a ndysr mrsirh m@Odk fya;`jla fjz jrA;udkfhausksidg je<ZoS we;a;d jQ fndfyda frda.dndOhkag m@Odk fya;`j jkafka usksid whym;a iudciuznJO;d f.dvk.d .ekSu yd whym;a iudc iuznJO;d meje;ajSu f,i oelajsh yelshusksiqka w;r jsoHdudk fulS iudc iuznJO;djhkays jslD;s;djhka yg.kq ,enqfjz yosisfhawyuznhlska fkdfjz oSrA>ld,Sj mj;ajdf.k tkq ,enQ whym;a iudc wdrA:sl rgdj ;`< usksidfyuzn;a jSu wksjdrAh fohla njg m;alr oukq ,en we;af;a usksidf.a wjYH;djh msKsi fkdjTyq jsiska f.dvkxjkq ,enQ iudcfhys iducsl wjYH;djhka mdol lr ta Tiafia usksidglghq;` lrkakg is|=jSu ksidh fuu iudc wdrA:sl rgdj mqrdu jsoHudk jkafka b;du;auixlSrAK yd oevs ;rZ.ldrS iajNdjhls b;du wkjYH ;rZ.hlg usksidj ksrmrdofhaksrdjrKh lsrSfuz b;du;au whym;a m@;sM,h wo jk jsg wmg w;ajsZoskakg is|= jS ;sfnzjrA;udkfhys fndfyda iudc jsoHdZ{hska jsiska wF:! olajk iudch yd iudc iuznJO;djhkafndfyda fia ixlSrAK iajrEmhlg mrsjrA;kh jSu ksid usksid ldhsl yd udkisl mCIhkaf.kafyuzn;ajSu wOslh110 fulS fyuzn;ajSu wjidkfhys usksia YrSrfhys fkdfhl`;a fydafudakuhyd ffcj ridhksl fjkialuzj,g ksrka;rfhka uqyqKmEug usksidg is|=jSu fya;`fjka usksiaYrSrh wNHka;rfhys iajNdjsl m@;sYla;slrK moaO;sh nsZo jegSu;a ta fya;`fjkau b;du;aublaukska fkdfhl`;a frd.dndOhka myiqfjka je<ZoSug;a" fmr l, wid fkd;snq wkaofuz W.@ ydm@;sldr fkdue;s frda.dndOhka yosisfha ysi tijSug;a mgkaf.k we;s nj fmfkkakg ;sfnzfujka ;;ajhka ;`< fu;a;d ixl,amh idrA:l wdldrfhka Ndjs;d lsrSu uZ.ska by; olajk ,ojHikhkag b;d idrA:lj uqyqK osh yels nj oeka ffcj yd ffjoH jsoHd;aul fCIa;@fhysis|=flfrkakd jQ jsjsOdldr mrAfhaIKhkays m@;sM, uZ.ska wjfndaO lrf.k ;sfnz nq|=iufhysfu;a;d ixl,amh jsjsO ldhsl yd udkisl frda. iZoyd psls;ail l@ufjzohla f,i idrA:lwdldrfhka Wmfhda.S lr.; yels wdldrh fmkajd oS ;sfnz111 mqoa.,fhl` ldhsl yd udkislmCIfhka ksfrda.Sj jsiSu hym;a iudc iuznJO;djhka l@sld;aul jSu msKsi iDcqjufya;`ldrl fjz iudchla hkq mqoa.,hka rdYshlska iukajs; ia:dkhla jk nejska tla tlamqoa.,hdf.a kSfrda.SNdjh iuia; iudcfhys ksfrda.SNdjh iZoyd w;sYhskau bjy,a fjz iudcfhys jspdr mQrAjl pska;kh l@shd;aul jSu msKsi o fu;a;d ixl,amhuy;a fia wdOdr Wmldrs jk ixl,amhls jspdr mQrAjl iajNdjh wksjdrAhfhkau yg.kqfhanqoaOsu;a nj ksidh112 hula fidhdn,d jsuid ms<s.ekSu jsoHd;aul pska;kfhys o tla;rdwxYhls nqoaO foaYkdjka w;rska ld,du iQ;@fhys fuz pska;k jsOsluh b;du;a fydZoska js.@y lr @ 229
  • ;sfnz113 i;H ms<s.ekSu i;Hhu l:d lsrSu jeks foa uZ.ska iudch ;`< jsoHd;aul pska;khia:dms; l< yelsh wkHhka fndrefjka fkd/jgSu;a os.ska os.g fndrej mj;ajd fkdhEu;auZ.ska h:drA:hg uki yqrejSu yd fm<USu we;s fjz wkHhka ,nkakd jq hi biqre flfrys f,dnneZo ;uka o W;aiyfhka l@shdfldg tjeks iem iuzm;a ,enSug fkdis;d oafjzIfhka fm<s fm<Swkqka m<jdyer ta ia:dkhg ,Z.djS tu iem iuzm;a ;uka wh;a lr.ekSfuz mdm fpz;kdfjkafufyhjk is;a we;sj iajlSh m@fhdackh iZoydu muKla ;uka jsiskau ilia lrk ,o oSrA>ld,Sk ie,eiaulg wkqj l`uka;@Kh lruska iudcfhys wfkl`;a idudcslhka fndrefjkarjguska ;ukaf.a oafjzIhg f.d|=re jk wysxil mqoa.,hkaf.a prs; >d;kh lruska yd ffoksljev lghq;` wjq,a lruska lghq;` lrkakd jQ jsIu mqoa.,hka iudc ixia:djkays jrA;udkfhysb;du;a wOsl jYfhka jsoHdudkj we;af;a fu;a;d ixl,amh jsoHd;aul pska;khla f,iska;ukaf.a yd wkHhkaf.a Y`N isoaOsh Wfoid M,odhS whqrska Ndjs;d lrjSug fkdokakdluksidh114 jsoHd;aul pska;kh ;`<ska is|= flfrkafka yels;dla i;Hhu fidhd hEu jk nejskawi;Hfhka wE;a jQ muKgu i;Hh wm lrd <Z.d jSu fjz.j;a fjz ksr;`reju i;Hhgu uqyqKfouska i;Hfhkau cSj;a fjkakd ;`< h:drA:jdoS yd h:drA:lduS iajNdjh wOslh fuz fya;`jksid wOsl jYfhka nqoaOsh m@Ndu;a jSfuz yelshdjla we;af;a i;H .rel mqoa.,hd ;`< nejskajspdr mQrAjl pska;kh jvd;a Ndjs;d l< yelshdj we;a;d o Tyquh huz flfkla ;`< jrola |=gql< tlS jroska ta ;eke;a;d uqojd .ekSfuz fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgq fldgf.k tu jro wod<;eke;a;d wnsuqLfhys oS ta ;eke;a;dgu mejiSu m@d;sfudCI jskfhka o wfmaCIs; b;d jeo.;alreKls115 fujeks jsgl oS jro l< ;eke;a;dyg Tyq l< jro ms<snZo fkdokajd Tyqj wod<jroska uqojd fkdf.k isgSu o jrola jk w;r th is|= lrkafka oafjzIfhka hqla;j nj olajd;sfnz fujeks l@shdudrA.hlg mqoa.,fhl`yg m@fjzYjSug bv m@ia;dj ie,fikqfha jspdr mQrAjliajNdjhlska lghq;` lsrSfuz mrsphla wod< ;eke;a;dyg ;sfnz kuz muKs fuz wkq jspdr mQrAjlpska;kh huz mqoa.,fhl` ;snsh hq;` muKla fkdj fu;a;d ixl,amh fmroersj ;udf.kawkHhkaf.a prs; ixjrAOkhg w;HjYH lghq;` is|= lsrSu;a ;ukaf.a ffoksl osk prshdfjysb;du;a jeo.;a ia:dkhla .kakd lghq;a;la nj;a fmkajd oS ;sfnz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wjidkmrudrA:uh iudc ksIaGdj lrd iuzm@dma;jSfuz oS huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` yqfola ;uka iudcfhysfiiq mqoa.,hka flfrka jshqla;j yqol,dj ksjerosj lghq;` lsrSu muKla iajlSh taldhkffoksl ms<sfj; lr fkd.; hq;` nj fuhska ,nd.; hq;` jeo.;a wdorAYhhs fuhska fmkajdfokq ,nkafka ;uka ksjerosjSu ;ruzu wkHhkayg ksjeros jSu iZoyd wjia:djla i,id oSu ojeo.;a njhs fuys oS lghq;` l< hq;af;a ;uka yd wkHhka hkqfjka lsis|= iSudjla jYfhka iSudiuzfNaohla mKjd fkdf.k nj fuhska lshefjz mqoa., ilia jSulgu iudc ta yd wkkQl~,iliajSula o iudc iliajSulgu ta yd inefZok mqoa., iliajSula o jsoHudk nejz fujekslreKq wkqj ks.ukh l< yelsh ;ukaf.a cSjs;h ;ukayg wdYsrAjdohla fukau wkHhkayg oOkd;aul udrAf.damfoaYhla jsh hq;` nj fuhska wfmaCIs; mrudorAYhhs usksia cSjs;h b;du;auflgsld,Sk fohls tjka flgsld,Sk fohla jqj o ukdf,i l<uKdlrKh lr.ksuska wkHhkafjkqfjka l@shd;aul jSu nq|=iuh miihs116 tjka mqoa.,hd iEu osYdjlgu iqjZo yuk u,la 230
  • fuka iqjZoj;a cSjs;hla wF:!j;a cSjs;hla .; lrk nj nq|=iuh olajhs iudcfhys l@shdldrS osjsfmfj;la .; lrkakd jQ mqoa.,hd jsiska o fujeks l@shdudrA.hlg wj;SrAK jSu iudcfhysfndfyda fofkl`f.a iudc iqN isoaOsh we;s lsrSu msKsi fya;` jkakla o fjz jspdr mQrAjlpska;kh fukau wkHhka ms<snZoj wkHhkaf.a iqL jsyrKh msKsi is; fhduqlsrSu b;du;aM,odhl iudc iuznJO;d we;slr .ekSfuys muKla fkdj mj;akd jQ iudc iuznJO;djhkajvd;a M,odhl f,i f.khdfuys oS mjd w;sYhskau jeo.;a ;ekla .kakd lreKla f,ioelajsh yelsh117 nqoaOsuh ia:drhla u; iudc jgdmsgdj ilia jSug bv yerSu uZZ.ska iudcksrka;rfhkau idlpzPdjg ixjdohg md;@lr ;enSu jspdr mQrAjl pska;kh iliajSu iZoydfndfyda fldg bjy,a jk fohls ne,Q ne,aug lsis ms<sfj<la fkdue;s jsOsu;a oroZvq jskhlskaneZo ;enSula rys; iudchla f,i fmkS .sho ienjskau udkj ksoyi yd fu;a;d ixl,amhWmrsufhka l@shd;aul lsrSug kuz usksia iudch ndysrska fm<k lsis|= fohla l@shd;aul fkdjshhq;`h118 nq|=iufhys js.@y jk mxpYS, YsCIKh jQ l,S tnZ|= ndysrska iudch neZo ;nkakd jQwd.ka;`l jHjia:d ud<djla fkdfjz119 th iudc foayh wNHka;rfhka meK kef.kakd jQiudc iuznJO;djhka jsOsu;a lsrSfuz wruqKska ishZM fokd jsiska iduQysl tlZ.FjhlgmeusKSula jeks fohls120 tys we;af;a yqfola wdpdr jsoHd;aul mCIfhka idrOrAu! yd iodpdrmoaO;shla jskd ffk;sl jHjia:djla fkdfjz huz mqoa.,fhla mxpYS, m@;smodj LKavkh l<fyd;a ta iZoyd kS;sfhka oZvqjuz ,nd osh fkdyel tfia l< hq;` o fkdfjz kuq;a mxpYS,m@;smodfjys .enzjk ishZMu wdpdr jsoHd;aul isoaOdka; uZ.ska mqoa.,hd yd iudch iqrCIs;lsrSula is|= flfrk nejska mxpYS, m@;smodj levSu hkq tu wdrCIdj mqoa.,hd yd iudch fj;,nd fkdoSula nZ|=h tjka jsgl oS trfgz kS;sh wkqj mqoa., wdrCIdj yd iudc wdrCIdjiqrCIs; lsrSfuz wruqKska trfgys idudkH kS;sh l@shd;aul jSug iq|=iq jd;drKhla iliajSulais|= fjz fuz wkqj mxpYS, m@;smodj kS;shla fkdjqk o TzkEu rgl TzkEu ckiudchl TzkEuwd.usl lKavdhula w;r mj;akd jQ cSj;ajSfuz we;s whs;sh iy cSjs;h fydZoska mj;ajdf.khEfuz whs;sh mxpYS, m@;smodj uZ.ska iqrCIs; lrk w;r th lvjSu trfgys idudkH kS;shwkqj kS;sfhka ovqjuz ,ensh hq;` wmrdOhla olajdu jqj o th m@n, yd n,j;a jrola olajdmxpYS, m@;smod LKavkh mrsjrA;kh jsh yelshdj we;s nj fuz uZ.ska ukdj meyeos,s fjz121jrA;udkfhys l@shd;aul jk frdau ,kafoais kS;sh ;`< jqj o jsoHudkjk kHdhdkQl~,isoaOdka;h o thuh122 mqoa., whs;sjdislu ms<snZoj idlpzPd lrk jsg idudcsl whs;sjdislu ms<snZojo wjOdkh fhduqjSu jeo.;ah mqoa., whs;sjdislulska f;drj idudcsl whs;sjdislul`;aidudcsl whs;sjdislulska f;drj mqoa.,sl whs;sjdislul`;a rZod fkdmj;shs mqoa., whs;shidudcsl whs;sfhkao idudcsl whs;sh mqoa., whs;sfhkao uQrA;su;a flfrA123 Wkqka wfkdakHjYfhka wdOdr fjuska mj;akd fuu mqoa., yd idudcsl whs;sjdislu jQ l,S mqoa.,hd ydiudch w;r mj;skakd jQ tla;rd .kqfokqjls124 udkj iuznJO;djhls fulS udkjiuznJO;dfjys ienE iajrEmh fmkajd fokq ,nkqfha mqoa.,hd yd iudch tlsfkld w;r fulS 231
  • udkj iuznJO;djh mj;ajkakd jQ wdldrh wdorAYlhla lr.ksusks iudcfhys usksiqka w;rmej;sh hq;` jkafka ienE us;@YS,S udkj iuznJO;djhka usi oevs wd;audrA:lduS woyiaj,ska u;ajQ is;sjs,s yd l@shdoduhka wkq.; udkj iuznJO;djhka fkdfjz jHdcFjh lmgslu jxpdjl`ylFjh cks; lrkq ,nkafka fujeks lD;su udkj iuznJO;djhka nyq, f,i usksid jsiskaish ffoksl osjs fmfj; ;`< f.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz m@;sM,hla jYfhks fuhg m@Odk fya;`j jkafkausksiqka wkH mqoa.,hka iu. kshudldrfhka us;@YS,S ms<sfj;l msysgd isg ish idudcslwjYH;djhka imqrd fkd.ekSuhs us;@Fjh we;s jsg wkHhka /jgSu yd jxpksl l@shdjkajsoHudk fkdfjz thg fya;`j mqoa.,hka wkH mqoa.,hka ;`<ska o iajlSh udkqIslFjhu ms<snsUqlrkq olsk nejska ;ud ;ukag i,lkdldrfhkau wkHhka jsIfhys l@shdlsrSug usksidksrdhdifhkau fm<fUk nejsks125 usksid wkHhka iuZ. ksrka;rfhkau .kq fokqlrkdldrfhka tla tla mqoa.,hd flfrys flf;ruz |=rlg fu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh jS;sfnzoehs oeln,d .; yelsh us;@Fjh yd us;`re ms<sfj; iuia; idudcsl iuznJO;djhkaysuQ,druzNhhs usys;,h u; usksid wkH iFjhkaf.ka fjkia jkafka m<uq fldgu usksid ;srsika.;s .`Khla jQ oafjzIh yer oud fu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh lsrSfuz uZ.g ms<smka nejsks usksidfiiq iFjhka w;rska jvd;a nqoaOs iuzmkaku cSjshd jkqfha o fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIhiajlSh jspdr mQrAjl pska;kh Wfoid odhdo lr.;a fyhsks usksia YsIaGdpdrh iFj f,dalh ;`<b;du jeo.;a odhdohka /ila w;am;a lrf.k we;af;a o fu;a;d ixl,amfhys tla tla wxYhkawvq jevs jYfhka jsjsOdldrfhka usksia wd.usl ixl,am ;`<g wka;rA.; lruska ;u ;ukaf.awd.usl woyiaj, js.@y jk wkaoug flf,iska fyda th jO!kh lr.;a fyhsks jeo.;a jkafkafu;a;d ixl,amh l`uk oyfuz jvd;a mrsmQrAKj js.@y jS we;aoehs jsjdodmkak jSug jvd thskajs.@yjk lreKq ;u ;ukaf.a is;a i;kays ord tlS lreKq m@fhda.sl njg m;alsrSug ;u ;ukaflf;la |=rg wjxlju lemfjkjdoehs hk lreKhs lK.dgqjg fuka jrA;udkfhys fndfydafokd yqre mqre|= isgskqfha iudk ,CIK fudkjdoehs yeoErSug jvd l`uk fjkialuz usksiqkaw;r mj;skafkaoehs fidhuska fNao NskakjSug th fya;` idOlhla lr.ekSuhs fuh yqfola os.`l,la Ydia;@Shj lreKq yeoErSu ;`<ska ,;a mrsphla ksid fyda fjkhuz nqoaOsuh wjfndaOhlskajspdr mQrAjlj is|= flfrkakla fkdjk w;r yeZ.Suzj,ska jYSlD;j wjs;rAl wjspdr mQrAjljfulS ldrAhfhys ksrka;rfhkau ksr;jSu ksidu odhdo jYfhka w;am;a lr.;a wys;lrudkisl wenzneysjSuls fulS l@shdj<sh fu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh iuznJOfhka kuz thg wkkql~,l@shdudrA.hla fkdjk nejz b;d wlue;af;ka jqj o mejiSug is|= j we; fu;a;d ixl,amfhys nqoaOsuh m@ia;`;hla wka;rA.; jqjo th jvd;au NdjuhmCIhlska iukajs; jSu ksidu jsfYaIfhka iudcfhys fndfydafofkl` yg jevs wmyiqjlskaf;drju Bg <Z.djSug ms<sjka jS ;sfnz jsfYaIfhka jevs m@cdkk Yla;shlska iukajs; fkdjQ l`vdorejka jeks wh jsIfhys mjd jevs wdhdihlska f;drj l@shd;aul lsrSfuz iuzNdjs;dj fu;a;dixl,amh i;`jSu th jevs msrsila lrd <Z.djSug fya;` idOl jS we; fujeks lreKq iudcuhixl,amhla iuznJOfhka w;sYhskau jeo.;a lreKla jk nejska fu;a;d ixl,amh b;du;a 232
  • jsYd, ldrAhNdrhla iudc taldnoaO;djh uekjska wdrCIdlsrSu msKsi bgq lrkq ,nhs ngysriudc rgdjg jvd fmros. iudc rgdj Yla;su;aj neZoS mej;Su flfrys fmros. wd.uslixl,amhkays .enz jS mej;`kq fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk fjk;a us;@Fjh iuznJO b.ekajSuzuy;a fia wdOdr WmldrS jS ;sfnz ngysr wd.usl ixl,amj,g mjd us;@Fjh iuznJO b.ekajSuzmeusK we;af;a fmros. isg ixl@uKh jQ usksiqka w;ska nj meyeos,sh yska|= ffck ;dmimrsj@dcl wdcSjl WmksIoa jeks l`uk b.ekajSul jqj;a fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk wd.uslb.ekajSuz wka;rA.;j ;sfnz tod mqrdK iudch uekjska iliajSfuz ldrAhfhys ,d fulS wd.uslb.ekajSuz uy;a fia msgsjy,a jS ;sfnz jrA;udkfhys mj;sk ffjrh m<s.ekSu BrAIHdj jmqrkiudc wdrA:Sl rgdj ksidu iudch jsjsO wdldrfhka f.da;@sl wdl,am iys; l`vd lKavdhuzj,gfnoS f.dia ;sfnk w;r bosrsfha oS ;j ;j;a jsjsO fnoSuz cks; fjuska mj;shs ta iEu fnoSulguuQ,sl fya;`j kuz usksid wkHhka ;uka jeks usksiqka f,i l,amkd fkdlsrSfuz jrohs fuz whqrskal,amkd lsrSug uQ,sl w;a;sjdru jkafka uQ,slju mqoa.,fhl`f.a isf;ys yg.kakd ffu;@S mQrAjlwjfndaOhhs usksid jsjsO lreKq ksid nqoaOsuh jYfhka fyda oekqfuz jmirsh wkqj uq,a ld,Skusksidg jvd bosrsfhka isgsk njla m< jqj o ta fya;`j ksidu Ndjuh jYfhka uy;amrsydkshlg wo m;aj isgshs Wiia ri jskaok Yla;shla fkdue;s nj ksid b;du;a nd, my;ayriqka foa w.h lsrSug usksid yqre mqre|=j isgsk w;r jrA;udkfhys wkqNj lrk mialuziemfhka Tnzng kj udkhka fidhd hEfuz jspdr mQrAjl l`;`y,h kjSk ck ikaksfjzokudOHhka uZ.ska fudglr oukq ,en we; Wiia ri jskaok Yla;shla cks; jkafka misZ|=rkaYsCIs; f,i yslaujd f.k ishquz ixfjzoS ukilska hq;`j iudcfhys jdih lrk l,h bZ|=rkaYsCIs; jkafka;a ishquz ixfjzoS ukila we;s jkafka;a wkHhka foi fu;a;d ixl,amh mQrAjx.ujlghq;` lrkakg yqre mqre|= jS isgskakd jQ jsglh wjdikdjlg fuka jrA;udkfhys l@shd;auljk wOHdmk l@shdj<sh uZ.ska is|= flfrkafka o ;j ;j;a oekqug muKla f,dn nZok is;aysudkqIsl nj ixfjzoSFjh wju mrmqrla we;s lsrSuh wOHdmk l@ufhys taldhk wruqK lsis|=bjla njla fkdue;s ;rZ.ldrSFjh ksid ta wkjYH ;rZ.h usksiqka oafjzIfhka BrAIHdfjka ydl`ylFjfhka hqla; fkdusksiqka lrkq ,nhs nq|=iuh wOHdmkfhys uQ,sl wruqK lr.kq ,enqfjzfu;a;d ixl,amfhka iukajs; msrsmqka ixfjzoS usksiqka ksrAudKh lsrSuhs fuys oS oekqug jvd uq,a;ek ,enqfka wNHka;r ixfjzoS nj yd ffu;@S mQrAjl wdl,amhlska lghq;` lsrSug yqre mqre|=lsrSuhs tuZ.ska oekqug jvd jgskd nqoaOsuh yd ixcdkk jeo.;alulska iukajs; fuj,ula jkm@Z{dj wjOslr .ekSug iEu ukqIHfhl`ygu wjia:dj ie,iS ;snsKs126 fmd;m;ska fyda fjk;atnZ|= wdldrfha udOHhla weiqre lsrSu uZ.ska myiqfjka ,nd.; yels jsgska jsg w;suy;afjz.fhka fjkiajk oekqu miqmiu wjspdr mQrAjlj yUd hdfuz wdoSkjh jkafka tf,i lsis|=udOHhlska f;drj ;ukaf.a isf;ys Wmojd .; yelsj ;snQ m@Z{dj wjOslr .ekSug usksidwfmdfydi;ajSuhs m@Z{dj fkdue;sj oekqu muKlska iukajs; kQ;k usksid wOHdmk iy;sl yd,nd.kakd WmdOs ixLHdfjka muKlska iEySulg m;ajSug mqre|= mqyqKq jSu ksidu jrA;udkiudcfhys usksia l@shdldrluz usksiqkaygu isky Wmojk ;;ajhg mrsydkshg m;aj ;sfnz127 233
  • iudchla hkq jsjsO mqoa.,hka iuQyhlska iukajs; jQjla fjz ta ;`< kSfrda.Sfrda.S wdndOs; f,dl` l`vd jsjsO ;rd;srfuz mqoa.,hka isgsh yelsh fuz w;r jsYd, msrsilg;j;a flfkl`f.a wdOdrh Wmldrh rys;j ish ffoksl wjYH;djhka mjd bgq lr.; fkdyelsugzgfuz mqoa.,hka mjd jsoHdukh tjka iudchlg b;du;a jsYd, jYfhka wjYH jkafkayqfola ;u ;uka ;u ;ukaf.a lghq;` muKla bgq lr.kakd wd;audrA:lduS mqoa.,hka ;j;j;a we;s lr.ekSug jvd ;uka yer wkHhka ms<snZo fifkyiska ohdfjka us;@YS,Sj is;d n,dlghq;` lrkakdjQ mqoa.,hkah128 fujka mqoa.,hka iudchlg ksrAudKh lrfokq ,nkafkafu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdOdrh Wmldrh ksidh we;a; jYfhkau fu;a;d ixl,amh mqoa.,hkaflfrka iudchg ,ensh hq;`jd fiau iudcfhka o fmr<d mqoa.,hka fj; fu;a;d ixl,amh.,d hd hq;`h tjska fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj ukd yqjudrejla .kqfokqjla iudch ;`< is|=jknj mejish yelsh iudcfhys l`vdu tallh mjq, jk nejska l`vd l< l`vdu iudc tallh jkmjqfys idudcslhska jk ujzmsh fom, ;`<ska mqoa.,hd uq,a jrg fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .`K iqjZoiamrAY l< hq;`h uq,a jrg ish ujzmsh fom, ;`<ska fu;a;d ixl,amh yZ|=kd.kakd <Zorejdjevsysgsfhl` jQ miqj o fu;a;d ixl,amh ish is;a i;kays wkjr;fhka .,d hk fu;a;dixl,amfhys osh myrska iukajs; ;eke;af;l` njg m;a jkafka ksrdhdifhks jevsjsh m;aorejd ish iudchSh j.lSuz Ndr.kakd oskh t<fUk jsg b;du;a j.lsj hq;` f,iska wkHhkaflfrys fu;a;d ixl,amh mQrAjx.uj lghq;` lsrSug uQ,sl mrsph ,nd isgskafkl` njgks;e;skau m;a fjz fu;a;d ixl,amh ta ;ruz usksia wjYH;djhka ms<snZoj ldreKslj oekyZ|=kd lghq;` lsrSug iu;aluz olajhs nq|=oyfuys js.@y flfrk jsfYaI ,CIKhla jkafka thwdruzN jkafka ujz msh fom<f.a fifkyi fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdruzNl mshjrg iu lruskath uQ,slj jO!kh lsrSug Wmfoia oS ;snSu ksidh129 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jsoHudk jk ;j;a wm@lg ,CIKhla f,i fmkajd oshyelafla ksrka;rfhkau th jO!kh lrkakd jQ mqoa.,hd tuZ.skau iqrCIs; lrkq ,enSuhs fuhfufia jkafka lsishuz wm@lg ydialulska hehs mjikjdg jvd fu;a;d ixl,amh flfrkajsoHudk jk jsoHd;aul pska;kfhys ,CIK wjfndaO lr .ekSu uZ.ska th is|= jk wdldrhms<snZo meyeos,s jegySula ,nd .; yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ;ukah wkHhkah hkqfjkameyeos,s fnod fjka lsrSula olakg fkdfjz tys iSud iuzfNaoh fkdue;s nj mjikafka fuz fya;`jksidh fulS ,CIKh ksid fu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh lrkakd meyeos,s f,iu wkHhka wruqKqlruska fu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh l<;a thska ksrdhdifhkau iajlSh iqrCIs; nj ie,fikafka;uka jsiskau wkHhka Wfoid;a ;uka Wfoid;a ;ukaf.a yojf;ka uQ,slj th is|= lrk nejsksfufia fu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh lrkakd th jsiskau iqrCIs; lrkq ,nhs ienjskau fu;a;dixl,amh ;`< .enzjkafka uqZM uy;a iudcuh jgskdluz ms<snZo b.ekajSuz moaO;shls th jO!khlsrSfuz oS tys n,mEu ndysrska fukau wNHka;rfhkao tl yd iudk wdldrfhka jsoHduk jkfohdldr l@shd;aul jSuz rgdjla tlS ixl,amh ;`< u wka;rA.;h i;`kaf.ka" ji jsI" wjswdhqO wdosfhka wk;`re wju jSu yd jsjsO frda.dndOhkaf.ka je,lSug wjYH lrk 234
  • m@;sYla;slrK moaO;sh Yla;su;ajSu wNHka;rfhka m@lg flfrkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,amfhysys;lr ,CIK jk w;r iudcfhys iEu mqoa.,fhl`ygu m@sh ukdj jSu wju jYfhkawukqIHhskag mjd m@sh jSu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ndysrska jsoHudk jk ,CIK fjz fuzwdldrfhys oajsjsO ,CIKhkaf.ka iukajs; fu;a;d ixl,amh iudcSh iuznJO;djhka ydmqoa.,sl iajia:;d ,CIKhka hk folgu tl f,i .e,fma fulS iudcuh iuznJO;djhka ydmqoa.,sl iajia:;djh hk lreKq fol fu;a;d ixl,amfhka m@Ndjs; jQ wfkHdakH jYfhkatlsfkl msysg wdOdr fldgf.k mj;akd jQ ,CIK folla fia ie,lsh yel130 mdol igyka ( Foot Notes ) & -1 ucACOsu ksldh 1" pQ,f.disx. iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 496 - 4982 Majjima Nikayo 1, P.T. S, pp.30,313 ucACOsu ksldh 1" pQ,f.disx. iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 4984 pq,a,j.a. md,s 11" fiakdikj;a;x" nqcuq" msgq 362 - 3685 Majjima Nikayo 1, P. T. S, p.3406 ucACOsu ksldh 1" pQ,f.disx. iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 497 - 4997 wx.`;a;r ksldh" nq c uQ" msgqj 7868 wx.`;a;r ksldh" nq c uQ" msgq 232"2339 oS> ksldh 111" nq c uq" fld<U" msgqj 11510 hf;d fLd .ym;s mq;a; wrshidjliai p;a;dfrd luzu lsf,id mySKd fydka;s p;~ys Gdfkys mdmx luzux k lfrd;s P p fNd.dkx wmdh uqLdks k fij;s fid tjx pqoaoimdmldm.f;d Poaosid ngspzPdos WNh f,dl jschdh mgsmkafkd fyd;s oS> ksldh 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" ncuq" msgqj 29011 bO NslaLfj tlpzpiai mqoa.,iai ;:drEmx plaLqx fyd;s h:drEfmk plaLqkd wkOs.;x jd fNd.x jd wOs.pzfPhH wOs.;x jd fNd.x Md;slfrhH ;:drEmuzmsiai plaLq fyd;s" h:drEfmk plaLqkd l`i,dl`i, Ouzfu cdfkhH idjcAcdkjcAfcOuzfu cdfkhH yskmamKSf; Ouzfu cdfkhH lKyiqlal imamgsNdf. Ouzfu cdfkhH" whx jqpzp;s NslaLfj mq.a.f,d oajsLlaLq wx.`;a;r ksldh 1" wkaOQmu iq;a;" fn#iuzixia" msgqj 48212 Ouzfuk fNdf. mrsfhi;s" wiydfikd;s buskd mGfuk Gdfkk mdixfid" w;a;dkx iqfL;s msfK;s" buskd |=;sfhk Gdfkk mdixfid" ixjsNc;s mqZ[aZ[;s lfrd;S;s buskd ;s;fhk Gdfkk mdixfid f; p fNdf. w.:sf;d wuqpzPsf;d wkcACOdmkafkd wdoSkjoiaidjS ksiairK mZ[afZ[d mrsN`Z[aZ[;s" buskd p;`;af:k Gdfkk mdixfid whx .duSkS ldufNd.S bfuys p;`Gdfkys mdixfid ixhq;a; ksldh iv" rdish iq;a;a" nqcuq" msgqj 6013 l;ud p .ym;s iS, iuzmod$ bO .ym;s wrshidjfld mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" uqidjdod mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" iqrdfurh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" m;a;luzu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 12414 l;ud p .ym;s iS, iuzmod$ bO .ym;s wrshidjfld mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" uqidjdod mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" iqrdfurh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" m;a;luzu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 12415 wyuz mcAc bux p r;a;sx bux p osjix mdKd;sm;x mydh mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d ksysk oKafvd ksys; i;af:d ,cAcs ohdmkafkd inznmdK N~; ys;dkqluzms jsyrdusbuskdmy wxf.k wry;x wkqlfrdus Wfmdif:d p fu Wmj;af:d Njsiai;S;s buskd mGfuk wxf.k iukakd.f;d fyd;s wx.`;a;r ksldh v" ixLs;a; wgzGx.`fmdi: iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 17416 hx .ym;s mdKd;smd;S" mdKd;smd; mpzphd osgzGOuzusluzms Nhx fjrx mij;s iuzmrdhsluzms Nhx fjrx fpz;isluzms |=laLx fodukiaix mgsixfjosh;s mdKd;smd;d mgsjsr;iai tjx ;x Nhx fjrx jQmika;x fyd;s ixhq;a; ksldh 11" mxp Nh fjr iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 10617 oyuz mcAc bux p r;a;sx bux p osjix mdKd;smd;x mydh mdKd;smd;d mgsjsr;s ksysk oKafvd ksys; i;af:d ,cAcS ohdmkafkd inznmdK N~; ys;dkqluzms jsyrdus buskdmy; wxf.k wryka;x wkqlfrdus Wfmdif:d p fu Wmjq;af:d Njsiai;S;s buskd mGfuk wxf.k iukakd.f;d fyd;s wx.`;a;r ksldh v" wgzGx.`fmdia: iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 17418 l;ud p .ym;s iS, iuzmod$ bO .ym;s wrshidjfld mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" uqidjdod mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" iqrdfurh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" m;a;luzu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 12419 ;o.af. fLd mk jdfigzGd woskakodkx mZ[aZ[dh;s .ryd mZ[aZ[dh;s uqidjdod mZ[aZ[dh;s oKavdodkx mZ[aZ[dh;s 235
  • oS> ksldh 111" nq c uq" msgqj 15620 l;ud p .ym;s iS, iuzmod$ bO .ym;s wrshidjfld mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" uqidjdod mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" iqrdfurh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" m;a;luzu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 12421 mdfKd k yka;nzfnd" woskakx kdod;nznx" ldfuiq uspzPd k prs;nznd" uqid k Ndis;nznd" ucAcx k md;nznx h:d N`;a;Z[ap N`Z[ac:d;s oS> ksldh 111" plalj;a;s iSykdo iq;a;" nqcuq"msgqj 10422 l;ud p .ym;s iS, iuzmod$ bO .ym;s wrshidjfld mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" uqidjdod mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" iqrdfurh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" m;a;luzu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 12423 hf;d fLd .ym;s mq;a; wrshidjliai p;a;dfrd luzulsf,fid mySKd fydka;s p;~ysGdfkks mdmluzux k lfrd; P p fNd.dkx wmdhuqLdks k fiaj;s fid tjx pqoaoimdmldm.f;d PoaosidmgspzPdoS WfNd f,dl jschdh mgsmkafkd fyd;s ;iai whxfpj f,dfld wdroafOd fyd;s mfrd p f,dfld fid ldhiaifNfod mruzurKd iq.;sx i.a. f,dlx WmamcAc;s oS> ksldh 111"isZ.d,l iq;a;" nqcuq"msgqj 29024 l;ud p .ym;s iS, iuzmod$ bO .ym;s wrshidjfld mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" uqidjdod mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" iqrdfurh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" m;a;luzu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 12425 wx.`;a;r ksldh" nq c uQ" msgqj 78626 wmsp fLd box ixjsOdk wd.uzu tjfu;iai oiaiqLS,iai iuzud iuq.a>df;d fyd;s f;k ys Njx rdcd fh fNdf;d rZ[afZ[d ckmfo Wmaiyka;s jKscAcdh f;i Njx rdcd N;a;fj;kx mlmam;` f; p ukqiaid iluzumiq;d rZ[afZ[d ckmox k jsfyfGiaika;s uyd p eZ[afZ[d rdisfld Njsiai;s fLuzgzGsf;d ckmod wlKaGld wjqmamS,d ukqiaid p uqod fudoudkd Wfr mq;a;d kpzfpkaf;d wmdrE; mrd uZ[aZf[a jsyrsiaika;s oS> ksldh 1" l~g oka; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 26227 mdKd;smd;x mydh mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ksy; oKafvd ksys; i;af:d ,cAcs ohdmkafkd inznmdKN~; ys;dkqluzms jsyr;s bouzmsiai fyd;s iS,iausx oS> ksldh 1" iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 11028 hf;d p fLd idrsmq;a; bfOlpzfpz wdijgzGdkShd Ouzud ixf> md;`Njka;s" w: iF:d idjldkx islaLd mox mZ[aZ[dfm;s Woaosi;s md;sfudlaLx f;iZ[aZ[j wdijgzGdkShdkx Ouzudkx mgs>d;dh mdrdcsld md,s" nqcuq" msgqj 2229 Ouzux pr uydrdc - us. mlaLSiq L;a;sh bO Ouzux prsFjdk - rdc i.a.x .usiai;s Wuzuoka;s cd;l md,s" nqcuq" .d:dj 344630 ucACOsu ksldh 1" pQ,f.disx. iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 49831 lsishuz mqoa.,fhl` jsiska ndysr iudch iuZ. lghq;` lsrSfuz oS yels;dla wjsysxilj usksiqkaf.a is;a fkdrsofjk mrsos ffu;@S iy.; jokfhka l:d ( fu;af;k ) l< hq;` nj nq|= iufhys meyeos,sju olajd we; ucACOsu ksldh 1" lljQmu ia;a;" nqcuq" msgq 318 - 31932 wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" l`, iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 177 - 17933 ucACOsu ksldh 1" fldiuznsh iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 754 - 75634 wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" l`, iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 17835 ucACOsu ksldh 1" pQ,f.disx. iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 196 - 49836 bfu fLd NslaLfj P idrdKshd Ouzud mshlrKd .relrKd" ix.ydh wjjdodh idu.a.shd talSNdjdh ixj;a;ka;s ucACOsu ksldh 1" fldiuznsh iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 75637 jqoaOsfyid Noaod,s wrshiai jskfh fhd wpzpjhx wpzphf;d osiajd h:d Ouzux mgslfrd;s wdh;sx ixjrx wmcAc;s ucACOsu ksldh 11" Noaod,s iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 17838 uydj.a. md,s" 11" nqcuq" msgq 759 - 77139 ucACOsu ksldh 1" pQ,f.disx. iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 49840 ud;d ms;d osid mqnznd - wdprshd olaLsKd osid mq;a;odrd osid mpzPd - us;a;d upzpd p W;a;rd odi luzuldrd fygzGd - w,u;af;d l`f, .syS oS> ksldh 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 30841 mdfKd k yka;nzfnd" woskakx kdod;nznx" ldfuziquspzPd k prs;nznd" uqid k Ndis;nznd" ucAcx k md;nznx h:d N~;a;Z[ap N~Z[ac:d;s oS> ksldh 111" plalj;a;s iSykdo iq;a;" nqcuq"msgqj 10442 oS> ksldh 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nqcuq"msgqj 30243 N.jd p idrs mq;a; ll`ikafOd" N.jd p fldKd.ufkd N.jd p ldiaifmd wls,diqfkd wfyiqx idjldkx jsF:dfrk Ouzux fofi;`x nyqx p f;ix fydis iq;a;x f.hHx fjo,a,x mZ[aZ[;a;x idjldkx islaLdmox WoaosgzGx md;sfudlaLx 236
  • mdrdcs;d md,s" nqcuq"msgqj 2044 hf;d p fLd idrs mq;a; bfOlpzfpz wdijgzGdkShd Ouzud ixf> md;`Njka;s" w: iF:d idjldkx islaLd mox mZ[aZ[dfm;s" Woaosi;s md;sfudlaLx f;iZ[afZ[j wijzgzGdkshdkx Ouzudkx ms>d;dh mdrdcsld md,s" nqcuq"msgqj 2245 mdrdcsld md,s" nqcuq" msgqj 5446 l:Z[ap .ym;s mq;a;" wrshidjfld Poaosid mgspzPdos fyd;s oS> ksldh 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 301 - 30347 wyuz mcAc bux p r;a;sx bux p osjix mdKd;sm;x mydh mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d ksysk oKafvd ksys; i;af:d ,cAcs ohdmkafkd inznmdK N~; ys;dkqluzms jsyrdusbuskdmy wxf.k wry;x wkqlfrdus Wfmdif:d p fu Wmj;af:d Njsiai;S;s buskd mGfuk wxf.k iukakd.f;d fyd;s wx.`;a;r ksldh v" ixLs;a; wgzGx.`fmdi: iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 17448 wF:s fLd mk uhd mdfKd w;smdfld hdj;fld jd ;dj;fld jd fhd fLd mk uhd mdfKd w;smdf;d" hdj;fld jd ;dj;fld jd ;x k iqgzGq ;x k idOq wyx fpj fLd mk ;mampzphd jsmamgsidrs wiaix k fu ;x mdmlx luzux wl;x Njsiai;S;s fid b;s mgsixLdh ;c fpj mdKd;smd;x mcy;swdh;sx p mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s tjfu;iai mdmiai luzuiai mydkx fyd;s tjfu;iai mdmiai luzuiai iu;slalfud fyd;s ixhq;a; ksldh iv" nqcuq" msgqj 58049 A. udkisl frda. m@Odk fldgia folls tkuz ihsfldishd ( Psychoses ) yd kshqfrdaishd ( Neuroses ) f,ihs iakdhq moaO;sfha yd fud<fha ridhksl jsmrAidhka ksid ihsfldishd frda.S ;;ajh yg .kakd w;r oevs ixlSrAK cSjk rgdjla f.jSu ksid we;s jk udkisl wd;;sh" wiykh" nsh" ldxidj( Anxiety )" bpzPdNx.Fjh ( Frustration )" udkisl jHdl~,;djh le<USu ;a;jhka ksid kshqfrdaishd frda.hka yg.kshs fuhska kshqfrdaisl udkisl wdndO t;ruz nrm;, f,i fkdie,flk w;r iq|=iq Ndjkd l@u yd ,sys,ajSfuz udkisl wNHdi Ndjs;fhka iqj lr .ekSug frda.shdgu yelshdj we; B. kdyx NslaLfj wZ[aZ[x tlOuzuuzms iukqmiidus hx tjx nyq,Sl;x iqLdjyx fyd;s" h:dhsox ps;a;x wx.`;a;r ksldh 1" iqLdjyps;a; iq;a;a" fn#iuzixia" msgqj 1450 wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" p;`F: mq.a., iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 248 - 25051 wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" ;;sh mq.a., iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 246 - 24852 wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" p;`F: mq.a., iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 248 - 25053 wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" ;;sh mq.a., iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 246 - 24854 A hd mk NslaLqKS Wpzpdrx jd miaidjx jd ixLdrx jd js>dixjd yrsf; PvzfVhH jd PvzvdfmhH jd mdps;a;shx mdps;a;sh md,s" NslaLqKS jsNx.h" nq c uq" fld<U" msgqj 154 B k Wofl Wpzpdrx jd miaidjx jd fL<x jd lrsiaiduS;s islaLd lrKShd mdps;a;sh md,s" NslaLqKS jsNx.h" nq c uq" fld<U" msgqj 55455 wkqcdkdus NslaLfj wdpdrshka;s wdpdriuzudr NslaLd mklx wdprshx wkqcdkdus iukamdidosld 111" fyauq"msgqj 73556 Tjfod;s wfkd;sKafK jF:Qiausx box lfrdys box ud lrsF:d;s jpkx" wkqidkS;s T;sKafK jd wfkd;sKafKjd mGux jpkx Tjdfod mqqkmamqk jpkx wkqidkS;s iukamdidosld 111" fyauq"msgqj 73357 uydj.a. md,s 1" nqcuq"msgq 114-11858 wkqcdkdus NslaLfj lH;af;k NslaLqfkd mgsnf,k mxp jiaid;s ksiaidh jF:q wnH;af;k hdjcSjx uydj.a. md,s 1" nqcuq" msgqj 19659 mGudm;a;sld & mGux jS;slalufK fhj wdmcAcs;nzfnd ;s wfF:dhdj ;;sfh iukqNdifk luzfu fydka;S;s hdj;;shld iuka;mdidosld ii" fyauqmsgq 454 - 45760 ixf>d wdosysfjp fifi p bpzPs;nzfnd wiaidks ix>dosfifid iuka;mdidosld iv"fyauqmsgq 993-100061 h:d rEmZ[ap fLd idrsmq;a;" osgzG mgs,dNx fijf;d wl`i,d Ouzud mrsydhka;s l`i,d Ouzud wNsjvzvka;s tjrEfmd osgzGsmgs,dfNd fijs;nzfnd wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" in@yau iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 18262 n@yaud;s NslaLfj ud;d ms;`kakx t;x wOsjpkx wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" in@yau iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 13263 ixhq;a; ksldh 11"pka|+mu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 302 - 30464 uspzPd osgzGsx uspzPd osgzGs;s mcdkd;s iuzud osgzGsx iuzud osgzGs;s mcdkd;s idiai fyd;s iuzud osgzGs ucACOsu ksldh 111" uyd p;a;drsil iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 21265 wx.`;a;r ksldh 1" mgsika:dr iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 237 - 24066 uydj.a. md,s 1" nqcuq" msgq 40 - 4267 liaifmd NslaLfj tjx ps;af;d mfrix Ouzux fofi;sliaifmk jd ys fjd NslaLfj Tjosiaidusfhdjd mkiai liaim iosfidTjosf;ys p mk fjd ;:;a;dh mgsmcAcs;nznx ixhq;a; ksldh 11"pka|+mu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 301 - 30868 f; p ukqiaid iluzumiq;d rZ[afZ[ ckmox k jsfyfGiaika;s uyd p rZ[af{d rdisfld Njsiai;s fLugGs;d ckmo" wlKaGld wkqmamS,d ukqiaid p uqodfudoudkd wmdre; >rd uZ[afZ[ jsyrsiaika;s oS> ksldh 1" l~goka; iq;a;" nqcuq"msgqj 262 237
  • 69 wx.`;a;r ksldh v" jH.a>mcAc iq;a;" nqcuq"msgqj 23670 Njx p fLd mk rdcd tjx ilKGfl ckmfo iWmamSf< n,suqoaOfrhH wlspzpldrS wiai f;k Njx rdcd oS> ksldh 1" l~G oka; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 260 - 26371 ishd fLd mk fNdf;d rZ[afZ[d tjuiai wyfu;x oiaiqLS<x jfOk jd nJOfkk jd cdkshd jd .rydhjd mnzncdckd h jd iuQyksiaiduS ;s k fLd mfk;iai oiaiqLS,iai tjx iuzud iuQ.a>df;d fyd;sfh f; N;djfiild Njsiaika;s";s f; mpzPd rZ[af{d ckmox jsfyfGiaika;s oS> ksldh 1" l~G oka; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 261 - 26472 oS> ksldh 111" isZ.d,l iq;a;" nqcuq"msgqj 30273 ixhq;a; ksldh 11" nqcuq" msgq 30474 idOq idOq kkaol" tjx fLd kkaol ;`uzydlx m;srEmx l`, mq;a;dkx ioaOd wd.driajd wk.drshx mnzncsldkx hx ;uzfy Ouzushd l:dh ikaksiSohHd:" ikaksm;s;dkx fjd kkaol oajhx lrKShx OuzuS jd l:d wrsfh jd ;`KayS Nfjd wx.`;a;r ksldh v" nqcuq" msgqj 38075 oS> ksldh 111" midosl iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 212 - 21476 fu;a;d Ndfj;nznd jHdmdoiai mydkdh Wodk md,s" fuz>sh iq;a;" fidudf,dal;siai ixia" msgqj 4977 b;sms fid N.jd nqoafOd N.jd ;s hiausx uydkdu iufh wrshidjfld" ;:d.;x wkqiair;s fkjiai ;iausx iufh rd.mrshqgzGs;x ps;a;x fyd;s k fodi k fudy Wcq.;fuj liausx iufh ps;a;x fyd;s" ;:d.;x wdruzN wcq.; ps;af;d fLd mk uydkdu wrsidjfld ,N;s wF:fjox ,N;s Ouzufjox ,N;s OuzuQmixys;x mdfudcAcx muqos;iai mS;scdh;s mS;sukiai ldfhd miaiuzN;s miaioaOldfhd iqLx fjosh;s iqLsfkd ps;a;x iudOsh;s wx.`;a;r ksldh iv" uydkdu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 1278 bO NslaLfj tlpzfpdiufKd jd n@dyaufKde jd wd;mamuJjdh mOdkukajdyh wkqfhd.ukajdh iuzud ukisldrukajdh ;:drEmx fpdf;d iudOsx Miq;s h:d iudysf; ps;af; wfkl jsys;x mqnzfnksjdix wkqiair;s oS> ksldh 1" n@yaucd, iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 2279 l:Z[ap NslaLfj mq.a.f,d f,df,d fyd;s$ bO NslaLfj tlpzfpd mq.a.f,d b;a;r ioafOd fyd;s b;a;r N;a;s" b;a;r fmfud" b;a;rmamidfod" tjx fid NslaLfj mq.a.f,d f,df,d fyd;s wx.`;a;r ksldh 111" wjcdkd;s iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 26880 fhd p fLd NslaLfj ;:d.;x jd ;:d.; idjldkx jd oiaikdh .pzP;s ksjsgzGioafOd ksjsgzGfmfud talka;.f;d wNsmamikafkd t;odkq;a;rshx NslaLfj oiaikdkx wx.`;a;r ksldh iv" wkq;a;rsh iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 7481 wx.`;a;r ksldh iv" mq.a.,mamido iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 44282 hdms fu tid fNdf;d f.d;uiai mqrsfuk l:di,a,dfmk wyq midou;a;d idms fu t;rys wkakrys;d ucACOsu ksldh 11" w.a.sjcAPf.d;a; iq;a;a" nqcuq" msgqj 26283 bO .ym;s wrshidjfld nqoafO wfjpzpmamidfok iukakd.f;d Ouzfu ixf> wrshlkaf;ys iSf,ys iukakd.f;d fyd;s ixhq;a; ksldh 11" mxp Nhfjr iq;a;" nqcuq" msgq 10884 ud huzmsiai ;x ioaOdu;a;lx fmu;a;lx ;uzydms mrsydhS;s ucACOsu ksldh 11" Noaod,s iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 18685 mdKd;smd;x mydh mdkd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ksys; oKafvd ksys; i;af:d ohdmkafkd inznmdKd;s ys;dkqluzms jsyr;s bouzmsiai fyd;s iS,iausx oS> ksldh 1" iduZ[aZ[M, iQ;a;" nq c uq" fld<U" msgqj 11086 mshd myq;d l,yd jsjdod mrsfoj fidld iy upzPrd p udkd;sudkd iy fmiq;d p upzPrsh hq;a;d l,yd jsjdod jsjdo cdf;iq p fmiq;dks oS> ksldh 11" l,yjsjdo iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 27287 ruKShdks wrZ[aZ[dks - hF: k rukS cfkd jS;rd.d rfuiaika;s - k f; ldu .fjzisfkd Ouzu mo isiSixia" fld<U" .d:dj 9988 hiai relaLiai Pdhdh - ksiSfohH ifhhH jd kd;iai idLx NZ[afPhH - us;a; |=nzfNdys mdmfld fm; jF:q" nq c uq" fld<U" msgqj 5289 ruKsfhd j; N~usNdf.d" mdidosfld p jk iKafvd koS p ikao;s fi;ld iqmam;sF:d ruKSfhd" iuka;d p f.dpr .dfud" w,x j;sox l`,mq;a;iai mOdkF:Sliai mOdkdh ucACOsu ksldh 1" wrshmrsfhaik iq;a;" nq c uq" fld<U" msgqj 40690 wx.`;a;r ksldh v" jH.a>ncAc iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 23691 budks fLd ;dks relaLuQ,dks mdidosldks" mdidoshdkShdks" wmamioaodks" wmamks.af>didks jsckjd;dks ukqiairdyfiHldks mgsi,a,dk iremamd;s hF: iqodx uhx ;x N.jka;x mhqre mdidu wryka;x iuzud iuznqoaOka;s ucACOsu ksldh 11" Ouzufpz;sh iq;a;a" nqcuq" msgqj 55092 ucACOsu ksldh 11" Ouzufpz;sh iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 55293 ucACOsu ksldh 11" Ouzufpz;sh iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 554 238
  • 94 hx NslaLfj k ;`uzydlx ;x mcy: ;x fjd mySkx ys;dh iqLdh Njsiaika;s ixhq;a; ksldh iv" |=;sh k ;`uzydlx iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 17495 f; p ukqiaid iluzumiq;d rZ[afZ[ ckmox k jsfyfGiaika;s uyd p rZ[afZ[d rdisfld Njsiai;s fLugGs;d ckmod" wlKaGld wkqmamS,d ukqiaidj uqodfudoudkd wmdre; >rd uZ[afZ[ jsyrsiaika;s oS> ksldh 1" l~goka; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 26296 jq;a;x fLd mfk;x uhd hx lsZ[aps fjohs;x ;x |=laLiauska;s ixhq;a; ksldh iv" rfy.; iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 41297 hf;d fLd .ym;s mq;a; wrshidjliai p;a;dfrdluzulsf,id mySKd fydka;s p;~ysGdfkks mdmluzu k lfrd;P p fN.dkx wmdhuqLdks k fiajls fid tjx pqoaoimdmldm.f;d PoaosidmgspzPdos WfNd f,dl jschdh mgsmkafkd fyd;s ;iai whxfjj f,dfld wdroafOd fyd;s mfrd p f,dfld fid ldhiai fNod mruzurKd iq.;sx i.a. f,dlx WmamcAc;s oS> ksldh 111" is.d,l iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 29098 luzuiaild udKj" i;a;d luzu odhdo luzu fhfks luzu nJOq luzu mgsirKd luzux i;af; jsNc;s hosox ySkmamKS;a;d ucACOsu ksldh 11" pQ<luzu jsNx. iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 43299 kF:s f,dfl rfyd kdu - mdmluzu ml`nznf;d w;a;d f; mqrsi cdkd;s - ipzpx jd hos jd uqid wx.`;a;r ksldh 1" wdOsmf;hH iq;a;" fn#iuzixia" msgqj 534100 ;SKsudks NslaLfj wOsmf;hHdks l;udKs;SKs$ w;a;dOsmf;hHx" f,dldOsmf;hHx" OuzudOsmf;hHx wx.`;a;r ksldh 1" wdOsmf;hH iq;a;" fn#iuzixia" msgqj 528101 hfoj Fjx rdyq, ldhluzux l;a;`ldfud wfydis ;foj f; ldh luzux mpzpfjlaLs;nznx hkakq fLd wyx box ldfhk luzux l;a;`ldfud box fu ldh luzux w;a;hHdndOdhms ixj;af;hH mrjHdndOdhms ixj;af;hH WNh jHdndOdhms ixj;af;hH wl`i,x box ldh luzux |=laLqodhx |=laL jsmdlx ucACOsu ksldh 11" wuzn,gzGsld rdyqf,djdo iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 132102 l;fud p NslaLfj luzudkx ksodk iuzNfjd Miafid NslaLfj luzudkx ksodk iuzNfjd wx.`;a;r ksldh iv" ksnzfnzOsl iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 208103 wF:s fLd mk uhd mdfKd w;smdf;d hdj;fld jd ;dj;fld jd fhd fLd mk uhd mdfKd w;smdf;d" hj;fld jd ;dj;fld jd ;x k mqgzGq ;x k idOq wyx fpj fLd mk ;mampzphd jsmamgsidrs wiaix k fu ;x mdmlx luzux wl;x Njsiai;S;s fid b;s mgsidLdh ;x f[j mdKd;smd;x mcy;s wdh;sxp mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s tjfu;iai ,d,iai luzuiai mydkx fyd;s tjfu;iai mdmiai luzuiai iu;slalfud fyd;s ixhq;a; ksldh iv" ixLOu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 580104 fpz;kdyx NslaLfj luzux jodus fj;hs;ajd luzux lfrd;s ldfhk jdpdh ukid wx.`;a;r ksldh iv" ksnzfnzOsl iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 208105 wms p Wodhs ;sgzG;` mqnznkaf;d" ;sgzG;` wmrkaf;d Ouzfu f; foisiaidus buiausx i;s box fyd;s buiaiqmamdod box Wmamcac;s buiausx wia;s box k fyd;s buiai ksfrdOd box ksrecACO;s ucACOsu ksldh 11" il`ZModhs iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 378106 wdroaO fLd fLd fu jsrshx Njsiai;S;s fid w;a;dkxfjj wOsm;sx lrsFjd wl`i,x mcy;s l`i,x Ndfj;s idjcAcx mcy;s wkjcAcx Ndfj;s iqoaOx w;a;dkx mrsyr;s box jqpzp;s NslaLfj w;a;dOsmf;hHx wx.`;a;r ksldh 1" wdOsmf;hH iq;a;" fn#iuzixia" msgqj 530107 pq,a,j.a. md,s 1" nqcuq" msgqj 362108 Ouzfuzk fNdf. mrsfhfi;s" wiydfikd;s buskd mGfuk Gdfkk mdixfid w;a;dkx iqfL;s msfK;s buskd |=;sfhk Gdfkk mdixfid" ixjssNc;s mqZ[aZ[d;s lfrd;s;s buskd ;s;fhk Gdfkk mdixfid f; p fNdf. w.:sf;d wuqpzPsf;d wwkcACOdmkafkd woSkjoiaidjS ksiairK mZ[afZ[d mrsN`Z[ac;s" buskd p;`;af:k Gdfkk mdixfid whx .duskS ldufNd.S nfuys p;`ysGdfkys mdixfid ixhq;a; ksldh iv" rdish iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 604109 wdroaO fLd fu jsrshx Njsiai;S;s fid w;a;dkxfuj wOsm;sx lrsFjd wl`i,x mcy;s l`i,x Ndfj;s idjcAcx mcy;s wkjcAcxNdfj;s iqoaOx w;a;dkx mrsyr;s box jqpzp;s NslaLfj w;a;dOsmf;hHx wx.`;ar ksldh 1" wdOsmf;hH iq;a;" fn#iuzixia" msgqj 530110 b;s fLd mfk;x wdkkao fjokx mgspzp ;Kayd ;Kayx mgspzp mrsfhikd ,dfNd jskspzPfhd Pkaordf.d wcAfCOdidkx mrs.a.fyd upzPrshx wdrlafLd oKavdodk i;a:dodk l,y js.a.y jsjdo ;`jx ;`jx fmiqZ[aZ[ uqidjdod wfkfl mdmld wl`i,d Ouzud iuzNjka;s oS> ksldh 11" uyd ksodk iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 86111 mshd myq;d l,yd jsjdod mrsfoj fidld iy upzPrd p udkd;sudkd iy fmiq;d p upzPrsh hq;a;d l,yd jsjdod jsjdo cdf;iq p fmiq;dks oS> ksldh 11" l,yjsjdo iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 272112 fhd fLd YslaLfj tjx jfohH wyfu;x inznx mpzplLdh wZ[aZ[x inznx mfZ[aZ[fmiaiuS;s ;iai jdpdjF:qfrjiai mqgzfGd p k iuzmdfhH W;a;rSx p js>d;x wdmcAfchH ;x lsiai fy;` & h:d ;x NslaLfj wjsihiausx ixhq;a; ksldh iv" inzniq;a;" nqcuq"msgqj 30113 hod ;`uzfy ld,dud w;a;kdj cfkhHd: bfu Ouzud wl`i,d bfu Ouzud idjcAcd bfu Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+ .rys;d 239
  • bfu Ouzud iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;k;S;s w: ;`uzfy ld,dud" mcfyhHd wx.`;a;r ksldh 1" ld,du iq;a;" fn#iuzixia"msgqj 638114 b;s fLd mfk;x wdkkao fjokx mgspzp ;Kayd ;Kayx mgspzp mrsfhikd ,dfNd jskspzPfhd Pkaordf.d wcAfCOdidkx mrs.a.fyd upzPrshx wdrlafLd oKavdodk i;a:dodk l,y js.a.y jsjdo ;`jx ;`jx fmiqZ[aZ[ uqidjdod wfkfl mdmld wl`i,d Ouzud iuzNjka;s oS> ksldh 11" uyd ksodk iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 86115 mGux mKavql f,dys;fld NslaLq fpdfo;nznd fpdfoFjd idfr;nznd" idfrFjd wdm;a;s wdfrdfm;nznd wdm;a;sx wdfrdafmFjd jH;af;; NslaLqkd mgsnf,k ixf>d Z[dfm;nzfnd pq,a,j.a. md,s 1" nqcuq" msgqj 4116 fkd p fLd wOkdkx Okukqmamodis wOkdkx wkkqmamoSh udfk od<soaoshx fjmq,a,u.udis os<soaosfh fjmq,a,x .f; wZ[aZ[;frd mqrsfid mfrix woskakx f:hHixLHd;x wdoshs oS> ksldh 111" plalj;a;s iSykdo iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 110117 ;o.af. fL mk jdfigzGd woskakdodkx mZ[aZ[dh;s .ryd mZ[aZ[dh;s uqidjdfod mz[aZ[dh;s oKavdodkx mZ[aZ[dh;s oS> ksldh 111" w.a.Z[aZ[ iq;a;a" nqcuq" msgq 155 - 156118 bO uydkdu wrshidjfld iS,jd fyd;s & md;sfudlaL ixjr ixjq;af;d jsyr;s wdpdrf.dpr iuzmkafkd wkqu;af;iq jcAfciq Nh oiaidjS iudodh islaL;s islaLdmfoiq ucACOsu ksldh 11" fL iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 30119 l;ud p .ym;s iS, iuzmod$ bO .ym;s wrshidjfld mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" uqidjdod mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" iqrdfurh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" m;a;luzu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 124120 Ouzuxfhj ksiaidh Ouzux ilalfrdkaf;d Ouzuslx rlaLdjrK .`;a;sx ixjsoyiaiq us.mlaLSiq oS. ksldh 111" plalj;a;s iSykdo iq;a;" nq c uq" fld<U" msgqj 102121 l;ud p .ym;s iS, iuzmod$ bO .ym;s wrshidjfld mdKd;smd;d mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" woskakdodkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s ldfuiq uspzPdpdrd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" uqidjdod mgsjsrf;d fyd;s" iqrdfurh ucAcmudogzGdkd mgsjsrf;d fyd;s whx jqpzp;s .ym;s iS,iuzmod wx.`;a;r ksldh 11" m;a;luzu iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 124122 wZ[aZ[uZ[aZ[uzys ;snzfnd w>df;d mpzpqmgzGsf;d Njsiai;s ;snzfnd nHsmsfod ;snzfnd ufkdmfodfid ;snznx jOlps;a;x wZ[aZ[uZ[aZ[x cSjs;d fjdfrdfmiaika;s oS> ksldh 111" plalj;a;s iSykdo iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 120123 ixf>d wdosuzysfpj fifi p bpzPs;nzfnd wiaid;s ix>dosfifid iuka; mdidosld v" fyauq" msgqj 1000124 ;SKsudks NslaLfj wOsmf;hHdks l;udks;SKs $ w;a;dOsmf;hHx" f,daldOsmf;hHx" OuzudOsmf;hHx wx.`;a;r ksldh 1" wdOsmf;hH iq;a;" fn#iuz ixia" msgqj 528125 hfoj Fjx rdyq, ldhluzux l;a;`ldfud wydis ;foj f; ldh luzux mpzpfjlaLs;nnx hkakq fLd wyx box ldfhk luzux l;a;`ldfud box fu ldhluzux w;a;ljHdndOdhms ixj;af;hH mrjHdndOdhms ixj;af;hH WNh jHdndOdh ms ixj;af;hH wl`i,x box ldh luzux |=laLqohx |=laL jsmdlx ucACOsu ksldh 11" wuzn,gzGsld rdyqf,djdo iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 132126 wx.`;a;r ksldh v" kkaol iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 384127 mshd myQ;d l,yd jsjdod mrsfoj fidld iy upzPrd p udkd;sudkd iy fmiQkd p upzPrsh hq;a;d l,yd jsjdod jsjdod cdf;iq p fmiqkdks iq;a; ksmd;" l,yjsjdo iq;a;" nqcuq" msgqj 272128 A uydj.a. md,s 1" ioaOs jdrsl j;a;x" fyauq" msgq 106 - 114 B uydj.a. md,s 1" wkaf;jdisl j;a;x" fyauq" msgq 142 - 150129 WmcACOfhd NslaLfj ioaOsjydruzys mq;a; ps;a;x WmgzGdfmiai;s ioaOs jsydrsfld WmcACOdhuzys ms;` ps;a;x WmgzGdfmiai;s iuka; mdidosld 111" fyauq" 729 - 735130 A. uydj.a. md,s 1" fyauq" msgq 114 - 118 B. uydj.a. md,s 1" fyauq" msgq 152 - 154 240