ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග්                             05 mrspzfPaoh ( 05. Chapter )                   fu;a;d ixl,amh :...
jrA;udkfhys tfia fkdjSu ksid iudch uqyqK md isgsk .egZM ms<snZo fn#oaO ixorANhdkQl~,js.@yhla o fuhska is|= flfrA fn#oaO iQ...
fuz wdldrfhka isf;ys m@.`K jkakd jQ fu;a;dixl,amh ;j |=rg;a ixl,amhla muKlau jkafkao hk .egZMjfuysoS meK fkdkZ.skq ,nkafka...
fkdfjkiaj mj;shs flfkl` ;udf.a cSjs;h mj;ajdf.k hEug we;s leue;af;a m@udKhguwfkla mqoa.,hd ;ukaf.a cSjs;h mj;ajdf.k hEug l...
;Dma;su;a lr.ekSug wjYH bvlv iudch jsiska iuzu; lr.kakd ,o rduqjla ;`< iSud lrkq,en we; fuys oS mqoa.,hd yd iudch w;r fmd|...
iemhSfuka ish Y@djlhka uq<djg m;alsrSu msKsi lghq;` fkd lrkq we; wi;Hh wfkl`;aish,qu jerosj,g uQ, ldrKhla jk nejska wi;H i...
ffu;@sh ,nd iqjm;a jQ wdldrh mqoa., l@shdldrSFjh flfrys fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEufmkajhs27              jrA;udk iudch fkdfhl...
thska jshqla;j fkdfjz tf,i jshqla;j ie,l~ l, iudch o wrA:j;a fkdfjz iudchla hkqiudc ixia:d fndfyda .Kklska ie|=uz,;a b;du;...
iuznJO;djhka iuznJOfhka mqoa., l@shdldrSFjfhys we;s jgskdlu fmkajd oSug fya;`j jqfhafu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka nq|=iuh w;am...
lrf.k yg.ekSu yd ;j|=rg;a fkdkeiS rZod meje;au ksidh33 fuz ksid iudc miq;,hlskamrsndysrj hful`g idrOrAu! fyda iodpdrh wF:!...
fkdyeZoskafjk w;r tjd yeZoskafjkafka idrOrAu! f,ih               idrOrAu! j,g meyeos,sju wd.usl miq;,hla" ixialD;sl miqnsu...
m@;sIaGdmkhg m;alrjSu msKsi;a" iduh yd iuZ.sh jrAOkh lrjSu msKsi;a kS;sh keue;sjHia:d moaO;sh wkqj lghq;` lr tu kS;shg wkq...
jrola is|=lrkq ,nkafka iudc iduQyslFjhg tfrysj nejska oKavkfhysmoku jsh hq;af;a mqoa.,fhl`f.ka fyda mqoa., lKavdhfuka m<s....
fndfyda mqoa.,hka YdrSrsl yd udkisl bys,anjla we;slr .ekSu msKsi ldhsl yd udkislwNHdi mqyqKq lrjkakd jQ ia:dk lrd fndfyda ...
fu;a;d ixl,amh fmroersj lghq;` lrkq ,nk mqoa.,hkag jsjsO ffcjfldgzGdY w;sYhskau m@shlrk nj o fuu ffcj fldgzGdY w;rg usksid...
fuhska woyia fkdfjz mqoa., iuznJO;djhkaj, oS Ndjs;d flfrkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amfhys mgqiajrEmh jk w;r iudc iuznJO;djhka ys oS ...
udkisl wdjzokhka olsk ;j;a mqoa.,fhl`f.a fyda mqoa.,hka msrsilf.a o is;ays tu lreKwrUhd us;@YS,S wdl,am we;sjSug Okd;aul j...
jk nejsks kuq;a Z{dk jsNd.h iuznJOfhka iudch mCIh js.@ylr ne,Sfuz oS yqfola ;ksmqoa.,fhl`f.a wjYH;djhka blaujd .sh iudcuh ...
l@shd;aul jk fudfydf;ys oS tla tla mqoa.,hdf.a udkisl iajNdjh fu;a;d ixla,mh Tiafialsishuz tlZ.Fjhlg meusKSu ksidh fyj;a u...
isgu usksia ckdjdi uq,skau nsys jQ od isg usksid yqre mqre|= jQfha yqol,dj cSj;ajSug fkdjiuQy jYfhka lKavdhuz jYfhka osjs ...
fu;a;d ixl,amhhs iaj,amfhka iEySug m;ajSu yd ;ukag ;sfnk m@udKfhka iekiSu hym;aiudc iuznJO;djhla f.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS yd f....
mqrdKfhys f.@da;sl iudc nsysj ;snq hq.fhys mgka kQ;kfhys iduQysl cSjkrgdj olajd iEu ukqIHfhl`f.au ffoksl osjs fmfj; yd fu;...
ixl,amh mj;S fyda fu;a;d ixl,amh l@shd;aul jsug iq|=iq mrsirhla iliaj we;soehs jgyd.ekSug wiSre fkdfjz tnejska fu;a;d ixl,...
usksiqka yd Tjqkaf.a weoys,s yd jsYajdi ms<snZo wOHhkhkays oS jsfYaIfhkau;`<kd;aul ixialD;sl wOHhkhkays oS usksiqka w;r tl...
oreKq lvd jegSulg yd uy;a iudcuh mrsydkshlg m;aj we; ta ksid fuz iudcfhysfjfikakka osjs f.jkqfha b;du;au oevs wiykfhka l< ...
idrA:l iudc iuznJO;djhla iZoyd w;HdjYHu idOlh kuz yels;dla bjiSu;ud ;`< .`K Ou!hla f,i jO!kh lr .ekSug;a" us;@YS,S wdl,amj...
fuu l@ufjzoh idudkHfhka wF:! olajkq ,nkafka prAhdjdoh jYfhks ufkda jsoHdfjz jsjsOisoaOdka; yd uQ<OrAu f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a iF...
ix;Dma;shla NdKav yd fiajd mrsfNdackhlska f;drj ,nd.; yels kuz iajNdjfhkaf,dalfhys wdrA:sl NdKav yd fiajdjkaf.a ysZ.lu yd ...
fjfikakd jQ ishZMu fokd ;`< cks; l< hq;af;a o jv jvd;a jO!kh l< hq;af;a o fu;a;dixl,amhhs fu;a;d ixl,amh ksid ;uka yd wkHh...
fjz tu kHdh yd isoaOdka; uZ.ska if;HCIKh lrkq ,nkafka usksia yeisrSuzys huz huzjsp,Hhkah usksia yeisrSuzys wfmaCIs; ;;ajh ...
udkqIsl iuznJO;djhl ffcjuh meje;aula o we; ishZM cSjSkaf.a ffcj l@shdldrSFjfhysOkd;aul mCIh rZod mj;skqfha usksid ffcj ys;...
mqoa.,hkayg iudc moaO;sh ksrjq,aj meje;su msKsi lsishuz fjfyila ord iajlSh wdfjzokhkausksia iudchg ys;lr jk iajrEmfhka kej...
iudcuh cSjs;g wF:! iuzmkak jkqfha o fulS nsh rys; njlg mqoa., osjs meje;au mrsjrA;khjQ l,uh94 ienjskau mxpYS, m@;smodfjka ...
iajrEmhlska iuznJO fjz we;euz jsg fulS iuznJO;djfhys iajrEmh u;`msgska jsoHdudk jQjlajsh yels w;r we;euz jsgl oS ta wdldrf...
l~Gdm@dma;sh is|= jkafka th yels;dla iudc.; jSu ;`< yd th flfia flf;la |=rlg wkHhkajsIfhys irAj idOrK jkafka o hk lreK u;h...
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ             5.social foundation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ 5.social foundation

220 views
141 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
220
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ 5.social foundation

  1. 1. ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග් 05 mrspzfPaoh ( 05. Chapter ) fu;a;d ixl,amh : iudcuh moku ( Metta Concept : Societal Foundation ) fu;a;d idrOrAufhys iudcuh mokug wh;a jkafka ndysr ifudaOdkh we;slr .ekSu ms<snZo lreKqh fuz uZ.ska iudc m@;sudk ( Norms ) wdrCIdjSu flfrA fu;a;didrOrAuh olajk odhlFjh ms<snZo lreKq .eUqrska jsurAYkh flfrA fu;a;d ixl,amhixl,amhla muKla f,iska oelajQj o tys .enzjk w;sYh m@fhda.sl Ndjh Wmfhda.S lr.efkkqfha ;ks mqoa.,hka iuznJO idrOrAu jO!khlg tyd .sh iudc iuznJO;djhkaysjsOsu;a idrOrAu! wka;rA.; YsCIKhla l@shd;aul lsrSu flfrys nj fmkajd oS u fuhskawfmaCIs;h1 fu;a;d ixl,amh nsys jkqfhao tla mqoa.,fhl` wruqKq lrf.k fkdfjz wjujYfhka mqoa.,hka tla wfhl`g jevs msrsila wruqKq lr.ksusks uQ,sl wjia:dfjys ;ksmqoa.,fhl` jYfhka ;uka ;ukaygu ffu;@sh jO!kh lsrSu jsia;r lr ;snqK o thska wfmaCIs;jS ;snqfKa ;uka yqol,d jS ;ukagu muKla os.gu ffu;@sh jevSu fkdj wkHhkayg me;srjSugfmrd;`j tlS me;srjSu ukdj yqre mqre|= jSu iZoyd uq,skau fu;a;d ixl,amh ;uka ;`< ukdjm@.`K lsrSug uQ,sl mqyqKqjla ,nd.ekSu muKls2 tuksid fu;a;d ixl,amh iudcuh moku;`< oS Ndjs;d lsrSug wuq;`jka W;aiyhla .; hq;` fkdjkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh wF:!j;ajkafkau iudc moaO;shla ;`< cSjSka msrsila w;frys oS muKla ksidh3 nq|=iufhys js.@y jkakdjQ fu;a;d ixl,amh ffcj f,dalhg wu;rj mrsirh iuznJOfhka o fhoS we;s wdldrhm@d;sfudCIfhys jskh YsCId mo meKjSuz foi jsurAYkd;aulj n,k l, fmkS hk lreKls4fulS iudcuh mokfuys oS jvd;a W;aiql jkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amh iudc iuznJOdjhka jsOsu;alsrSfuys,d odhl jS we;s wdldrh ms<snZoj jsurAYkh lr ne,Sughs5 iudc iuznJO;djhkaf.dvkeZ.Sfuz oS fukau mj;ajd .ekSfuys oS tl f,iu fu;a;d ixl,amh uy;a fia wdOdrWmldrj;a jk w;r tys Wmrsu ;,fhys oS ;uka yd wkHhka w;r iSud iuzfNaoh yer ouuskalghq;` lsrSug udkjhd jsfYaI mqyqKqjla ,nhs6 fu;a;d ixl,amh iudc iuznJO;d jsIfhys l@shd;aul jk wdldrh uekjskajs.@yjk jsIhla kuz fn#oaO iudc jsoHdjhs7 jsfYaI jYfhka fn#oaO iudc jsoHdjg wod< jkwhqrska fu;a;d idrOrAu!fha iudc jsoHd;aul jeo.;alu ms<snZo w;sYh mqZM,a js.@yhla fuzmrspzfPaoh uZ.ska bosrsm;a flfrA iudc iuznJO;djhka uekjska ilia jsh hq;` wdldrh yd 191
  2. 2. jrA;udkfhys tfia fkdjSu ksid iudch uqyqK md isgsk .egZM ms<snZo fn#oaO ixorANhdkQl~,js.@yhla o fuhska is|= flfrA fn#oaO iQ;@ foaYkd w;rska iudc jsoHd;aul jeo.;alula .kakdjsjsO iQ;@ foaYkd fndfydauhla we;s w;r ta iEu iQ;@ Ou!hla uZ.skau fu;a;d idr Ou!hjsYaf,aIKh lrkq ,nk w;r fu;a;d ixl,amhg jsfYaI wkqn,hla o ,ndfohs tfukau fn#oaOiudc jsoHdj yd fiiq iudchSh jsoHd fCIa;@hg wka;rA.; jkakd jQ jsIh fCIa;@hkays ms<s.;akHdhhka yd fn#oaO iQ;@ foaYkd ;`<kd;aulj jsYaf,aIKh lsrSu ;`<ska fu;a;d idrOrAu!fhysiudcuh Ndjs;dfjys we;s Wmfhda.S;djh biau;` fldg oelajSu fuz mrspzfPAoh uZZ.ska is|= flfrAfulS iudcSh Ndjs;dj wka ljrodgj;a jvd jrA;udkfhys wjYH jS we;af;a osfkka osk jvjvd;a ixlSrAK jk usksia yeisrSuz rgdjka ms<snZoj ms<smeosh hq;` kshu l@uh fu;a;dixl,amfhka bosrsm;a flfrk nejsks fu;a;d ixl,amh iudch flfrys wod<lr .; hq;` kshuwdldrfhka Ndjs;hg f.k we;s kuz jrA;udkfhys Woa.;j we;s jsjsO iudcuh wrAnqo yd .egZMj,ska usksia iudch jshqla; jSug fyda yels;dla wju ugzgul tajd rZojd .ekSug wjldYie,fikq we;8 isZ.df,dajdo iQ;@fhys iudcuh moku wF:! oelafjkafka hq;`luz yd j.lSuz hkfohdldrfhks9 fuu hq;`luz yd j.lSuz l@shd;aul jSu iZoyd isZ.df,djdo iQ;@fhys jsia;rflfrkakd jQ uQ<sl iudc ixia:d ih ;`< wfkdakH jYfhka l@shd;aul jkakd jQ ysff;ISiajNdjhla mej;sh hq;`h10 fuu ysff;Is Ndjh kuz fu;a;d ixl,amhhs fuhska fmfkkafkaudkj ixia:dfjz wfkdkH neZoSu talFjh we;s lsrSfuys,d fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ldrAhNdrhb;du;a iqjsfYaIS jk njhs nq|= oyfuys iZoyka jk wdldrhg m<uqj mqoa.,hd wkHhkagfu;a;d ixl,amh me;srjSug m<uqj ;uka ;ud jsIfhysu th me;srjSu uZ.ska ukdj m@.`KNdjhg m;alr .; hq;` fjz bka blans;sj muKla tnZ|= ;eke;a;dg ;uka Wmudjg f.k wkawh fj; o l@udkQl~,j fu;a is; me;srjsh yels jkq we;s nj nq|= iuh fmkajd oS ;sfnz ;udgm<uqj fu;a;d ixl,amh me;srjSu wd;audrA:h f,ig we;euz wh l,amkd lr;;a thska jkafka|=rAj,j mej;s ;u is; Yla;su;a lsrSu muKs ienjskau ;uka flfrysj;a fu;a;d ixl,amhf.dvkZ.d .ekSug ;ruz j;a fkdyelshdfjka hqla; jQ iudc mrsirhl osjs f.fjk idudkHmqyq|=ka usksid l< hq;af;a m<uqfjka ;uka Yla;su;a lr.ekSuh iudch ;`< ;uka o tla;rdmqoa.,fhls by<ska isg iuia;h foi n,kafkl`yg fmfkkafka o ta whqrsks ixl,am ms<snZo h:diajNdjh jkqfha th yg.kafka o jrAOkh jkqfha o is; weiqrskau jk fyhska uq,skau ishisf;ys we;s lr.;a;d jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh msg;g o jsyso hk wdldrfhka Yla;su;a lr.ekSuuQ<slju l< hq;`j we;11 fu;a;d ixl,amh m@.`K lrkafka l@u l@ufhka ;uka o wkHhka o hkiSudj ;`kSjk wdldrfhks wjidkfha oS ish,qu iSudjka bj;a fldg ;uka o wkHhka o hkyeZ.Su rys;j fu;a;d ixl,amhu muKla isf;ys msysgqjd .ekSu fu;a;d ixl,am jrAOkfhys.eUqreu wjia:dj f,i nq|=iuh fmkajhs fu;a;d Ndjkdj ;`< fuh b;du;a ijsia;rj olajdwe; 192
  3. 3. fuz wdldrfhka isf;ys m@.`K jkakd jQ fu;a;dixl,amh ;j |=rg;a ixl,amhla muKlau jkafkao hk .egZMjfuysoS meK fkdkZ.skq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdkk"wdfjzok yd prAhduh hk ;@sjsO wxYhkaf.ka mrsmQrAKixl,amhla jk fyhsks fuz ;@sjsO wxYhkau fu;a;d ixl,amfhysb;du m@n,Fjhg m;a jQ wxY jk w;r fuys uQ<sl wjia:djm@cdkk wxYh w;am;a lr.kshs prAhduh mCIfhka ta m@cdkkwxYfhka jrAOkh lr.kakd ,o ixl,amuh wjia:dj l@shdldrS jSmsg;g jsyso hhs12 idudkH fn#oaOhdf.a ks;H YS,h f,iie,flk tfiau fn#oaO yd wfn#oaO ldg;a iudc cSjs;fhaoSksrjq,aj lghq;` lsrSfuz yelshdj" ta iZoyd wjYHlrk jgdmsgdjilia lrfok iudc iuzuq;shla f,i mxpYS, m@;smodj fmkajdosh yelsh mxpYS, m@;smodj uZ.ska mqoa.,hdj iudch jsiska oiudch jsiska mqoa.,hdj o iqrCIs; lrfokq ,nhs iudchla hkqmqoa.,hka rdYshlf.a jsjsO iuznJO;d yd wka;rAl@shdjkatla;eka jQ wjia:djla jk nejska fuu iuznJO;d ydwka;rAl@shdjka tla;rd jsOsu;a iajrEmhlska md,kh jsh hq;`hhkq idrOrAu! iuznJOfhka we;slr.; hq;` wF:!l:khla f,ioelajsh yel md,kh jsh hq;` jsOsu;a iajrEmh fuz hehs mxpYS, m@;smodj uZ.ska fmkajd fokq,nhs mxpYS, m@;smodfjys we;s iqjsfYaISFjh jkqfha wd.u ixl,amfhka mrsndysrj jqj o TzkEuck fldgzGdYhlg th wod< lr.; yelsjSuhs fuz hgf;a jsjsO wd.uz yd jsjsO jsYajdi orKta wkqj lghq;` lrk TzkEu mqoa.,fhl`g ish cSjs;fhys lghq;` idrA:l lr.ekSu iZoydmxpYS, m@;smodfjka ie,fikqha fkduZo fufyhls ffcj ys;jdoS nj mxpYS, m@;smodfjyswka;rA.; jsYajjSh nfjys mokuhs iuia; mxpYS, m@;smodj mqrdu jsyso mj;skakd jQ udkjysff;ISnfjys ryi jkqfha o th fu;a;d ixl,amh mdolj iliaj mej;Suhs13 m<uqfjks YsCIdmoh uZ.ska wF:!j;a lrkq ,nkafka mqoa.,hdf.a cSj;ajSfuzwhs;sh iq/lSuhs14 fuhg mdol jkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amhhs huz flfkl`yg iudch ;`< iajlShcSj;ajSfuz whs;sh iqrCIs;j ;nd .kakg kuz fy;u wkHhkaf.a cSj;ajSfuz whs;shg .relrkafkl` yd th /l oSug fjfyi .kafkl` njg m;ajsh hq;` nj fuz uZ.ska lshfjz fuysjeo.;au ,CIKh jkqfha hq;`luz yd j.lSuz iajrEmfhka fomigu tl f,ig iunrjl@shd;aul jkakd jq lsishuz .sjsiqul yd iuzuq;shl iajrEmhla tys .enzjSuhs15 ish,qu iFjhka;ukaf.a cSjs;hg wdYd lrkq ,nk nj nq|=iuh ms,s.kshs mqoa.,hka rdYshla tla;eka jSiudc.; jkqfha o fuu cSjs;h ksrjq,aj yd jvd hym;a whqrska mj;ajd .ekSfuz wjYH;djhksidh fuz fya;`j ksid lsis|= fNaohlska f;drj ieu fokdg mdfya ish cSjs;h flaJ|@ fldgf.kfuu wjYH;djh yg.kakd nejska wd.u ixl,amfhka mrsndysrj jqj o cSjs;hl we;s jgskdlu 193
  4. 4. fkdfjkiaj mj;shs flfkl` ;udf.a cSjs;h mj;ajdf.k hEug we;s leue;af;a m@udKhguwfkla mqoa.,hd ;ukaf.a cSjs;h mj;ajdf.k hEug leue;af;ka isgsk nj o fuhska f;areuz.; yelsh16 m<uq fldgu ;ukag fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh lrkqfha mqoa.,fhl`yg ;ukaf.acSjs;fhys jgskdlu wjfndaO lrosu msKsi jk w;r m@.`K jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh we;smqoa.,hdyg ;j |=rg;a th wkHhka olajdu jHdma; l< yels ugzgulg meusfKa jevs|=rg;afu;a;d ixl,amh m@.`K lsrSfuz oS ;uka yd wkHhka w;r mj;akd jQ jHdc isudj w;sl@uKhlsrSug mqoa.,hdyg wjia:dj ,efnz fuu iSudjka jHd;sl@uKh lsrSuu fu;a;d ixl,amfhysjvd;au jrAOkSh wjia:dj f,i ie,fla mrsmQrAK mqoa., fm#reIFjh f,i wrA: oelafjkqfhaofujeks wdldrfhka ishZM wdldrfha ;uka yd wkHhka hk iSudj |=re lr lghq;` lsrSugyelshdjla ;ud ;`< jrAOkh lr.kq ,enQ wjia:djhs wd;audrA:h hkqfjka yeZoskafjk iEu jsgu;ukaf.a iqL jsyrKh muKla is;k wkHhka .ek fkdis;k wjia:dj yg.efkkqfha ;uka ydwkHhka w;r w;s jsYd, mr;rhla ukiska ;nd l,amkd lsrSu ;`<sks mrdrA:h kshudldrfhkawrA:l:kh jkafka ;uka o wkHhka yd iudkh hk yeZ.Su we;s jk wdldrfhka ffu;@sfhysWmrsu jrAOkSh wjia:dj jk ;uka yd wkHhka w;r iSudj bj;a lr fmd|= cSjSka hkqfjka tlumrudorAYh wkqj is;Su ;`<h17 mqoa.,fhl`f.a osjs meje;au ukdj iqrCIs;j .; lsrSu iZoyd wdydr mdk" weZ|=uzme<|=uz" ksjdi jeks uQ<sl wjYH;djhka ksis fia iuzmQrAK jsh hq;`h fuzjd ,nd .ekSu iZoydmqoa.,fhl`yg lsishuz l@h Yla;shla fyj;a fuzjd us<oS .ekSfuz yelshdjla mej;sh hq;`h tfiauuQ<sl wjYH;djhka iuzmQrAK lr.ekSu msKsi imhd .kakd ,o iuzm;a l@udkQl~,j N`la;s jsoSumsKsi /ia lr ;nd .ekSu o uQ<sl usksia wjYH;djhlau fjz fujeks iuzm;a flfrys f,dn neZotajd ;fjfll` jsiska meyer .ekSu jkdyS iuzm;a we;a;df.a uQ<sl usksia whs;sjdisluz lvlsrSulao fjz tnejska bka je<lSu wkHhka flfrys ffu;@S mQrAjl is;ska is|= lrkq ,nk l@shdjla fjz18iudcfhys fjfik wfkl`;a idudcslhkaf.a iuzm;a /ia lsrSfuz we;s whs;sh ms<s.ekSu uQrA;su;aflfrkqfha tajd meyer fkd.ekSu ;`<sks wkHhkayg we;s iuzm;a /ialr ;nd mrsyrKhlsrSfuz whs;shg .re lsrSu;a iuZ.u iudch yd mqoa.,hd w;r iduQysl neZoSula yg.kshs fuuiduQyslFjh mqoa., ls@hdldrSFjh ksrrAnqo mrudorAYS iudchla ksrAudKh jSfuys,d Bg olajkiyh uQrA;su;a fldg fmkajhs19 m@;sjsreoaO ,sx.sl wdlrAIKh fya;`fldgf.k l@shd;aul jk mjq,a ixia:djjsOsu;aj wdrCIdjSug kuz th iudch jsiska ms<s.kakd ,o ksYaps; rduqjlg wkq.;j yeisrshhq;`jSu iudc.; wjYH;djhla f,i ie,lsh yelsh usksid o fiiq cSjSka fukau cdkuhjYfhka Wreu lr.kakd ,o fmd|= ffcjuh .`Khka wka;rA.; yd tlS ffcjSh meje;auwLKavj bosrshg f.khdu iZoyd ilia jS we;s YdrSrsl yd udkisl iychka wka;rA.;cSjsfhla jk kuq;a usksid iajNdjfhka Wreu lrf.k isgsk iqjsfYaIs; oshqKq ixialD;sl cSjkmeje;au fya;`fjka fiiq cSjSkag fuka ish YdrSrsl yd udkisl iychka ;ukaf.a is;eZ.s mrsos 194
  5. 5. ;Dma;su;a lr.ekSug wjYH bvlv iudch jsiska iuzu; lr.kakd ,o rduqjla ;`< iSud lrkq,en we; fuys oS mqoa.,hd yd iudch w;r fmd|= tlZ.Fjh jkqfha iudch jsiska iuzu;m@;sjsreoaO fofofkl` w;r f.dvkZ.d.kq ,nk ,sx.sl cSjs;hg fjk;a mdrAYjhka jsiska n,mEuzlrkq ,enSu ydls;dla wju lsrSuhs20 fuz ioyd uQ<OrAuhla f,i m@fhdackh f.k we;af;afu;a;d ixl,amhhs mjq,a tallfhys wdruzNhl wjia:dj f,i i,lkq ,nk fofofkl` w;rf.dvkZ.d.kq ,nk ,sx.sl iuznJO;djh l@udkQ, f,i orejka ,enSu;a wk;`rej fiiq iudcixia:d iuZ. we;slr .kq ,nk jsjsOdldrfhys wka;rAl@shdjka uZ.ska l@ul@ufhka ixlSrAKwjia:djka olajd jrAOkh lr.ksuska bosrshg f.khEu yd ta msKsi fmd|= iudcfhys iEufokdf.au osrs.ekajSuz fkduZoj ,nuska fu;a;d ixl,amh mdol lr.ksuska lghq;` lsrSuis.df,dajdo iQ;@fha iosidjka kuialdrfhys tla osYdjla jYfhka fmkajd oS we; f;jeksYsCIdmofhka wF:!j;a lrkqfha ksrrAnqo mjq,a ixia:djla f.dvkZ.d .ekSu yd th wLKavjbosrshg f.khdfuys,d mqoa.,sl yd mjq,a tallh w;r ;snsh hq;` wju idrOrAu! yeisrSuz rgdjfjz huz mqoa.,fhl` .; lrk mqoa.,sl cSjs;h mjd iudc ixia:djkays wLKav yd ksrrAnqomeje;au ;yjqre lrkakla jsh hq;` njg losu ksoiqkla jkafka o ,sx.sl cSjs;fhys iSudiys; ydl@uj;aNdjh flfrys olajk ie,ls,a,hs nsrsZo iajdushd flfrys;a" iajdushd nsrsZo flfrys;a"ujzmshka |+ orejka flfrys;a" |+ orejka ujzmshka flfrys;a f.dvkZ.d .kakd jQ neZosu fu;a;dixl,amh mdolrf.k we;slr.; hq;` w;sYhskau fifkfyjka; yd l`ZMKq .`Kfhka hqla;jQjla jsh hq;` nj nq|=iuh wjOdrKh lrhs21 iudcfhys fjfikakd iEu ;rd;srulu mqoa.,fhl` jsiskau ish osjs meje;au f.khdfuz oS f;dr;`re ikaksfjzokfhys fhfohs tys oS yels;dla ksrjoH yd i;H f;dr;`re ,nd.ekSug ieu mqoa.,fhl`ygu we;s whs;sh idrOrAu!hls tfiau th mqoa., yd udkj whs;sjdisluls tu whs;sjdislu huz wdldrhlska lvjSu fyda lvlsrSu msKsi odhlFjh iemhSu fuz wkqj jrols f;dr;`re ,ndoSfuz oS fukau f;dr;`re ,nd.ekSfuz oS o tlS f;dr;`re ,efnk uQ,dY@ ms<snZo .@dylhd ,nd.kakd jsYajdih m<q|= fkdjS ;nd .ekSug ikaksfjzolhd jsiska lghq;` lrkq ,enSu udkj whs;shls wi;H f;dr;`re ikaksfjzokh jkafka mqoa.,hka wkHhka uq<djg m;alsrSfuz fpz;dfjka hqla;j idjoH f;dr;`re iemhSu uZ.sks22 wkHhka /jgSfuz fpz;kdj yg.kqfha wkHhka flfrys ffjrh" fl@daOh is;ays we;s l,h f;dr;`re ikaksfjzolhd mqoa.,hd flfrys;a iuia; iudch flfrys;a fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgqfldgf.k lghq;` lrkafka kuz idjoH f;dr;`re 195
  6. 6. iemhSfuka ish Y@djlhka uq<djg m;alsrSu msKsi lghq;` fkd lrkq we; wi;Hh wfkl`;aish,qu jerosj,g uQ, ldrKhla jk nejska wi;H ikaksfjzokh lrkq ,nk mqoa.,hd is|= lrkq,nk l@shdj iudcfhys ms<s.;a iudc iuznJO;d ish,a,lau nsZo ouk iqZM fjz TzkEu jerosl@shdjla is|= fldg th is|=lf,a ke;ehs lSu ksid u;`jg ksjeros mqoa.,fhl` jSug we;s yelshdj ofuz ksid wju fjz23 iajlSh isysh wjq,a lrf.k iudcfhys lghq;` lsrSug mqoa.,hd wfmdfydi;ahu;a meka yd u;a|@jH Ndjs;h ksid mshjs isysh mqoa.,hd ;`<ska ;`rkaj fha u;ameka mdkh ksiduqZM uy;a iudchgu wjevodhs mqoa.,fhl` njg TzkEu mqoa.,fhl` m;ajkafka ksrdhdifhks24;ukaf.a isysh wjq,a lr.eksu msKsi lghq;` lrkakd jQ mqoa.,hd tfia lrkafka oafjzIh ksiduq<d jQ is;lsks ;ukag;a wkHhkayg;a jevodhs mrsos ksjeros isysfhka lghq;` lrkakd jQmqoa.,fhl` tfia l@shdlrkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh u; mdol jQ is;sks fu;a;d ixl,amh h:dmrsos l@shdjg kZ.kakg kuz b;du;a fydZo isysl,amkdjla mqoa.,hd i;`jSu wksjdrAhwjYH;djhls tfiau fuys oS iDKd;aul w;r fm<UjSfuz kHdh l@shd;aul flfrA fulSfm<UjSuz kHhdfhka is|= flfrkafka huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` os.ska os.gu huzlsis l@shdjla wrUhdOkd;aul fyda iDKd;aul whqrska lsishuz fm<UjSula is|= lrjSuhs hym;a idrOrAu!iuznJOfhka fulS fm<UjSu l@shd;aul jk th Okd;aul mCIfhys jQ hym;a fm<UjSula f,io |=Yaprs;fhys ,d fulS fm<UjSu l@shd;aul jk jsg th iDKd;aul mCIfhys jQ whym;afm<UjSula f,i o idudkHfhka yZ|=kajhs u;ameka ksid mqoa.,hd ;`< ldhsl yd udkislmCIfhka yg.efkk fm<UjSu wh;a jkqfha iDKd;aul fm<UjSula f,ighs fuys oS ;ukau;ameka u;a|@jH .ekSu iajlSh mrsydksh <Z.d lrjdfok ;uka jsiska ;ukaju fm<UjSula jkw;r fjk;a mqoa.,fhl` fuz wdldrfhka fm<UjSu ;ukag;a tlS mqoa.,hdyg;a tlfia mrsydksh<Z.d lrfohs25 iEu fohlgu fome;a;la we; mqoa.,hd iudchg fukau iudchmqoa.,hdyg;a ldreKsl jSu nq|=iuh wkqu; lrhs tfiau th fmkajd fokq ,nhs iudcfhkamrsndysrj mqoa., meje;aula ;snsh fkdyelsjdla fukau mqoa., meje;afuka mrsndysrj iudcuhmeje;aula o ;snsh fkd yelsh tfia fyhska mqoa.,hd yd iudch hk fowxYhu wka;rAl@shdlsrsfuz oS fu;a;d ixl,amh fmrgq fldgf.k l@shdlsrSu uZ.ska mqoa.,hd iudc weiqfrys oS meKkZ.sKq ,nk fndfyd .eg,q wju lr.ekSug ,efnkq we;26 jrA;udkfhys fndfyda mqoa., ydiudc .egZM meK kZ.skq ,nkafka fuz fowxYh ms<snZoju fome;a;gu ksis wdldrfha jegySulafkdue;s nejsks we;euz ;ekl oS mqoa.,hdyg iudch jsiska oafjzI iy.;j i,lkq ,nk w;rtys m@;sjsmdlg iudchgu w;ajsZoskakg is|=fjk wjia:d b;du;au nyq,h nqoaO ld,fhyswysxil keue;s n@dyauK ;reKhd wx.`,sud, keue;s oreKq wmrdOlrefjl` njg m;ajQfha fuzwhqrska mqoa.,hd flfrys oafjzI iy.; f,i iudch lghq;` lsrSu ksidh tfiau l`vdl, mgkaiudcfhys oafjzIhg nZ|=kaj isgS iqkS; yd fidmdl jeks l`vd orejka nq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.a 196
  7. 7. ffu;@sh ,nd iqjm;a jQ wdldrh mqoa., l@shdldrSFjh flfrys fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEufmkajhs27 jrA;udk iudch fkdfhla wdldrfhys fya;~ka ksid jsjsOdldrfhka fNao Nskakjwe; tfia jSug m@Odk jYfhkau fya;`j iudcfhys fjfik fndfyda fokd wkHhka ms,snZojfu;a;d ixl,amh mdolj lghq;` fkdlsrSuhs wkHhka w;ska is|=jk b;du;au iqZM is|=jSul oSmjd fndfyda nrm;, oZvqjuz yd fkdfhla ysxidldrS l@shd is|= lrkakg iudcfhys fjfikwe;euqka ;`< lsishuz fm<TjSula olakg ,efnkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh l`vdl<mgkau ksis wdldrfhka fkd,enQ ksidnj fmfkkakg ;sfnz mqoa.,hdyg iudch;a iudchgmqoa.,hd;a .ig fmd;a; fuks .i;a fmd;a;;a /flk l,u iuia; jDCIfhys mej;auis|=jkakdla fuka mqoa.,hd;a iudch;a /flk wjia:dfjys oS muKla udkj jrA.hdf.a ksrrAnqomej;au jsoHudk fjz tfia fkdjk l,ays fkdfhl`;a l,flda<dy< rKavq onr jsm;a wdoshguqyqK mEug iuia; udkj jrA.hdygu is|=jkq fkdwkqudkh iudc ixia:dkays l@shd;auljSuf.kne,Qj;a fulS isoaOdka;h olakg ,efnz fndfyda fofkl` jsiska jrA;udk mejsos iudch w;S;mejsos iudch yd iiZod n,d bka jsoHudks; jk fkdfhl`;a lreKq wrUhd jsfjzpk bosrsm;alrkqfha th mj;skafka" mjq,a ixia:djkays .egZM yd oreKq iudcuh wrAnqo nyq, jrA;udk .sysiudcfhys Wm l`,lhla f,i l,amkdjg fkdf.kh isZ.df,djdo iQ;@fhys iosid kuialdrhuehska bosrsm;a lrk ,o m@Odk iudc ixia:djka flfrys iudcuh n,mEu ksid tlS iudcixia:djka ;`< jsoHudk jk jsjsO .egZM idlpzPd l< hq;af;a mj;sk iudchg idfmaCIlj jskd 197
  8. 8. thska jshqla;j fkdfjz tf,i jshqla;j ie,l~ l, iudch o wrA:j;a fkdfjz iudchla hkqiudc ixia:d fndfyda .Kklska ie|=uz,;a b;du;a ixlSrAK moaO;shla ksid tys iEu wxYhluiunr;djh fiiq wxYj,g wod< fjz bka tla wxYhla fyda fu;a;d ixl,amfhka mrsndysrjlghq;` lsrSu fuz fya;`j ksid fiiq wxYj,g b;du;a wrAnqoldrS f,i n,mdkq ,nhs jrA;udkiudcfhys mj;akakd jQ wrAnqoldrS .egquzldrS jd;djrKh fuz ksid tla tla mdrAYjhlafya;`fjka is|= jQjla f,i tlsfkldyg we.s,s os.` lr.ekSu f;areula fkdue;s ksIaM, jQjlsnq|=iuh lsisjsfglj;a huzlsis lreKla is|=jSug n,mdkq ,nk fya;`j fyda fya;`rdYsh foijsuid fkdn,d yqfola .egZMjg ms<shuz fhoSu wkqu; fkdlrkq ,nhs jsoHd;aul pska;kfhys,do fuz lreK fufiau js.@yhg nZ|=ka lrkq ,nk w;r .egZM iZoyd ms,shuz fhdckd lsrSfuz oSojsurAYkd;aul fya;`jg ksis ms<shuz fhoSu yd wod< i;Huh we.hquz Ndjs;d lsrSu is|= lrkq,nhs jsoHd;aul l@ufhys oS fukau nq|=iufhys oS o mqoa.,hd j;afmdfydi;alu" l`<h" iudc;;ajh" ia;@S mqreI Ndjh" Z{d;S iuznJO;d ie<ls,a,g .ksuska ukskq fkd,nk w;r idOdrKwe.hqulg meusKSu msKsi mqoa., l@shdjka muKla fpz;kdjg hg;aj ie,ls,a,g .kq ,nhsfn#oaO iS, YsCIdfjys yd m@d;sfudCIfhys jskh YsCIdjkays fpz;kdjg uy;a ie,ls,a,la olajkw;r th w;sYhskau udkqIsl jQjla o fjz28 frdau ,kafoais kS;sfhys o fpz;kdj wkqj l@shdfjysiajNdjh ;SrKh lrkq ,nk nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz fpz;kdj fu;a;d ixl,amh u; mokuzjiudcuh iuznJO;djhka f.dvkZ.d .ekSu ksrka;rfhkau hym;a fjz fojzo;a f;reka nq|=kajyiafiaf.a isrer u;g .,la fmr,d thska nq|= isrer ;`jd, is|=lr f,a fi,jSu wdkka;rShwl`Y,hla jkafka;a" thska we;s jQ ;`jd,hg yd ;e,Su iZoyd ms<shuz f,i cSjl ffjoHjrhdjsiska fnfy;a .e,ajSu msKsi nq|=ka jykafiaf.a ;`jd,h yd ;e,Su m,d f,a fi,jSu jsYd,l`Y,hla jqfha;a tlS isoaOs foflys oS fpz;kdfjys l@shdldrSFjh fjkia jQ nejsks fuz fya;`jksidu ksrka;rfhkau iudcYS,S osjshla .;lrkakd jQ mqoa.,hka fnfyjska fu;a;d ixl,amhfiajkh l< hq;af;a iudc iuznJO;d iEu tlloSu mdfya ffu;@S mQrAjlju lghq;` lsrSu w;sYhjeo.;a nejsks29 wjros. rgj,a jsiska ish ixjrAOkfhys uQ<OrAu f,i i,ld l@shdlrkq ,nk ydTjqkaf.a WmfoaYlhka udrA.fhka tajd taldka; i;H f,i furgg o fnodfokq ,nk" ngysroekquz moaO;s iEu jsglu mdfya mqoa.,hd yd iudch tlla jYfhka fkdj folla jYfhkai,ld lghq;` lrkakg mQrAjdorAY imhd we;s uq;a l`rsre ukqIH >d;k yd f,a je.srjSuzudrA.fhka o jsfYaIfhkau fj<Zo ixialD;sfhys wdOsm;H uZ.ska o hgm;a lr we;s fmros. oekquzmoaO;sj, jsfYaIFjh jkqfha iEu jsgloS u mqoa.,hd iucfhka jshqla; fldg fkdjiudcfhysu mQrAj tallh jYfhka i,ld we;s njhs jsfYaIfhkau fmros. oekquz moaO;sh;`<oS;a" ffjosl ixialD;sh ;`< fkdj m@;sffjosl ixialD;sh ;`< fnfyjskau fuz ms<snZojidlpzPdjg nZ|=ka jS ;sfnz tu ksidu ffjosl ixialD;shg jvd udkj flaJ|@shl iajrEmhla m@;sffjosl ixialD;sh ;`< jsoHudk fjz m@;s ffjosl ixialD;sh ;`<;a Igz Ydia;Djkaf.a wd.uslb.ekajSuzj,g jvd jevs bvlvla nq|=iufhys udkj flaJ|@Sh iajNdjh yd iudcuh 198
  9. 9. iuznJO;djhka iuznJOfhka mqoa., l@shdldrSFjfhys we;s jgskdlu fmkajd oSug fya;`j jqfhafu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka nq|=iuh w;am;a lrf.k we;s mqZM,a w;aoelSuz yd oekquz fldgzGdYh ksid hehs ks.ukhlg meusKsug mqZMjk tfiau wkH iuhhka yqfola fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jmirsh yqfola fpz;kdfjka mrsndysrj ldhsl mCIhg muKla iSud lr oelafuka muKla iEySulg m;a jQ iajrEmhla jsoHudk jk w;r nq|= iuh bka Tnzng f.dia tys udkisl mCIh l@udkQl~, wkaouska mrAfhaIKd;aul wkaouska is|= lrkq ,enQ mqoa., w;aoelSuz mdol lrf.k fy<sorjz lruska tys kj udkhka lrd jsyso f.dia we; iudcuh l@shdldrSFjh ;`<oS tf,i fidhd .kakd ,o fu;a;d ixl,amfhys kj udkhka yd m@fjzYhka b;du;a idrA:l wdldrfhka iudc yeiSrSuzys wfkHdakH iqyonj yd jsYajikSh nj jrAOkh lr.ksuska mj;ajd .ekSu msKsi Ndjs;hg .ekSugyelshdj we;30 jsfYaIfhkau fn#oaO idrOrAu! ish,a,lau mdfya mdol jS we;af;a fu;a;dixl,amh flaJ|@fldgf.k nj meyeos,sju fmfkkakg ;sfnz thg fya;`jla nq|=iuh b;du;awjsysxidjdoS oyula jSuhs fndfyda fokd nq|=oyug jvd iSudka;sl jQ mru wjsysxidjla ffckiuh ;`< jsoHudk fj;ehs mjikafka th w;a;ls,u:dkQfhda.S wjsysxid orAYkhla bosrsm;a lrknejsks fuz ;`< wkHhka jsIfhys fu;a;d ixl,amh ksis wdldrfhka l@shd;aul jSu fmfkkakg;sfn;;a" ;ukag b;du;a mSvdckl ;;ajhka flfrys fhduq lrk nejska ;ud flfrys fu;a;dixl,amh h:d whqrska l@shd;aul fjz hehs mejiSug wmyiqh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ksis iudcl@shdldrSFjh oel.ekSug kuz th wkHhka jsIfhys fukau ;ud jsIfhys o tlf,igu iSudiuzfNaohlska f;drj l@shd;auljsh hq;`h fuz fya;`j ksid nq|=iufhys ;ruz mqZM,a iajrEmfhkaffck oyu ;`< fu;a;d ixl,amh iunrj l@shd;aul fkdfjz fuz ksid nq|=iuhg jvd mqZM,ajmirshl jQ mru wjsysxidjla fjk;a lsis|= iuhjdohl fkd b.ekafj;ehs mejish yelsh31iudc l@shdldrsFjfhys il@shldrS iajNdjh flfrys fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,meu meyeos,sjuoel.; yelsh ienjskau fu;a;d ixl,amh wF:! iuzmkak jkqfha iudc l@shdldrSFjh ksiduh32 idrOrAu!j, ish,af,ysu;a" iodpdr iuzmkak lghq;` is,af,ysu;a moku fu;a;dixl,amh f,i wF:! oelajsh yelafla ta is,a,lau wF:! iuzmkak jkqfha iudc miq;,h mdol 199
  10. 10. lrf.k yg.ekSu yd ;j|=rg;a fkdkeiS rZod meje;au ksidh33 fuz ksid iudc miq;,hlskamrsndysrj hful`g idrOrAu! fyda iodpdrh wF:! iuzmkak l< yelalla fkdfjz34 tf,iiudcfhka mrsndysrj idrOrAu!j,g fyda iodpdrhg fyda meje;aula ;snsh fkdyelafla taish,a,f.au iSudjka usksia jgskdluz yd we.hquz wkqju ;SrKh flrekq iajrEmhla ta ;`<ujsoHudk nejsks usksia jgskdluz yd huz huz we.hquz tajdg ysus lrfokq ,nkafka iudch ;`<oSiduQysl jYfhka tlZ.jkq ,nk ksyZv iuzuq;Ska j,oSh35 ixl,amSh mCIfhka jshqla;j yodrkq,nk idrOrAu! fuz wkqj Ndjs;fhys oS Ndjs;hg .kq ,nk ia:dkh" mqoa., iajrEmh wkqj l,ska;SrKh l< fkdyels wdldrfhys jsjsO mrsjrA;kSh iajrEmhkag jsp,khjSu fuz wdldrfhkafkdje<lajsh yels fohla jkq we; idrOrAu! jsjsO iajrEmfhka mej;sh;a tys moku f,iie,flk fu;a;d ixl,amh ;j |=rg;a tys uq,a iajrEmfhkau l@shd;aul jSu u; tlSidrOrAu!fhys iudcuh jeo.;alu rZod mj;S usksia iudch ;`< iudcuh taldnoaO;djh rZodmj;skafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjh ta iudch ;`< l`uk wdldrfhka mejf;kafkaohk lreK u;h36 huz wdldrhlska usksfil` ;j flfkl`f.a uq<sl usksia whs;sjdisluzW,a,x>kh lrhso tjsg fkdoekqj;au fya ;ukaf.a meje;auugu jsk lr.kafkl` njg fuzksrhdifhkau m;afjz37 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys meje;au tnZ|= mqoa.,hd w;ska lvflfrk nejsksiudcfhys jQ huz mqoa.,fhl` w;ska fu;a;d ixl,amfhka mrsndysrj iudc iuzu; huz fohlalvjk wjia:djl oS th wfkl`;a mqoa.,hka flfrys n,mdkq ,nk iajrEmh wkqj th yqfolawdpdr Ou! w,a,x>khla o idrOrAu! mCIfhys jQ msrsySula o fkdtfia kuz wmrdOhliajrEmfhys jrola o hkak ;SrKh flfrA38 huz pdrs;@hla nsys jkafka iudcfhysfjfik fmd|= ishZM fokdf.au iuzuq;sfhks pdrs;@ jdrs;@fofldgilg fuys fnoSu olakg ,efnz jdrs;@ hkqhuzlsis fohla fkd l< hq;` hehs iduQyslj we;slr.kakd ,o ;SrKhla jk w;r jdrs;@ hkq fuzwdldrfhkau huz huz foa fkd l< hq;` hehs we;slr.kakd ,o iduQysl neZoSu fjz isrs;a jsrs;a f,iyeZoskafjkafkao pdrs;@ yd jdrs;@ jYfhka wF:! olajk ,ofohu fjz fujeks foa iudcfhys yg.kq ,nkafka iudcmoaO;sh ;`< fjfikakd jQ mqoa.,hka Tjqfkdjqka w;riduQyslj we;s lr.kakd ,o udkqIsl neZoSu ksihsudkqIslFjh cks; jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,meuksidh39 fuz whqrska mqoa.,hka ;`< iduQyslFjh cks;lrk fu;a;d ixl,amh ixjrAOkSh mCIfhka ;j ;j;afudard h;au wdpdrOu! jmirsfhka o Tnzng hdug iu;afjz tjsg wdpdr Ou! ;j|=rg;a wdpdrOu! f,i 200
  11. 11. fkdyeZoskafjk w;r tjd yeZoskafjkafka idrOrAu! f,ih idrOrAu! j,g meyeos,sju wd.usl miq;,hla" ixialD;sl miqnsula we;wd.usl" wdrA:sl yd iudchSh miqnsu fmd|=fjz .;al< th ixialD;sl miq;,h jYfhkayeZoskafjz fuz wkqj fu;a;d ixl,amh o yqfola wdpdrOu! miqnsfuka wdruzN jS" pdrs;@ jdrs;@Tiafia bosrshg .uka lr irOu! ;,hg <Z.d fjz fmd|=fjz .;a l< ishZM wdpdrOu! yd idrOrAu!iZoyd iudchSh iyNd.SFjh wfmaCIs; nejska yd iudc odhlFjh ,ensh hq;` nejska fu;a;dixl,amh Tiafia ishZM foh fm< .iajkq ,nhs ishZM iudc ixia:djka w;frys hq;`luz ydj.lSuz wF:! oelafjkafka o fu;a;d ixl,amh l@shd;aul jk jsg nejska hq;`luz yd j.lSuzj,u;j;a iajrEmhlau jQ wdpdr Ou! fukau idrOrAu! o fu;a;d ixl,amhu mdolj yg .efka40fu;a;d ixl,amh ishZM fofhys mokuhs cSjhhs usksidf.a ishZM l@shdldrluz hym;a wxYhg.uka lrjkafka tfukau iudch yd tjka iudc iuznJO;d flfrys l@shdldrS mCIfhka odhllrjkafka fu;a;d ixl,amhhs41 fuz ksid fu;a;d ixl,amh wfkla ixl,amj,g idfmaCIljb;du;a by< iudc l@shdldrSFjhla fmkajk ixl,amhla jYfhka o we.hqug md;@ l< yelshjsfYaIfhka fu;a;d ixl,amg iudk wfkla iuh ixl,amj, jsoHdudk fkdjk m@dfhda.sl yrmoaO;shla yd iuia;uh mrsmQrAK njla fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jsoHdudkjSug tys nqoaOs mdoljrAOkSh YlH;dj fkduZoj bjy,aa jS ;sfnz idrOrAu! ksrka;rfhkau iudch;a" mqoa.,hd;a Okd;aul wxYfhka bosrshg.uka lrjSu msKsi uQ<slFjh imhk kshuqldrlhhs fufyhquz m@OdkFjh .kakd idrOrAu!ish,a,lau fu;a;d ixl,amfhka cSjh ,nhs nz,Qlhsuz mjid we;s mrsos iudc nJOkhla f,iidrOrAu! l@shd;auljSfuz oS iudcfhys tla tl iudc ixia:djka wrUhd o tla tla iudcixia:djla ;`< ixia:d.;jk mqoa.,hka w;r iduQyslnjla" us;@Fjhla cks;lrjSu wrUhd o"fu;a;d ixl,amh iDcq f,iu ueosy;a fjz fuz ueosy;ajSu iudc ixia:djka iEu tlla flfrysuiudk f,i yd ;sria fukau isria iuznJO;djhka f,i o l@shd;aul fjz fuys isriaiuznJO;djhka f,i wF:!h:kh jkafka iudcfhys m@OdkFjh .kakd wkqms<sfj< hgf;ys by<isg wjidk mqrel olajd mqoa.,dka;r iy ixia:duh iuznJO;djhka jk w;r" ;sriaiuznJO;djhka jkafka tl iudc ix;shlu fyda tlu fY@aKsfhys jQ mqoa.,dka;r iy iudcixia:duh iuznJO;djhkah wmg iudcfhys jsjsO mqoa.,hka iuz. lghq;` lsrSfuz oS fuls ;sriayd isria iuznJO;djhkaj,g wkqj wm iudch keue;s wm jeksu mqoa.,hskaf.ka iqieos iqjsYd,moaO;sh yd tla jS jsjsO l@shdldruzys fhfokafkda fjuq42 oKavkh" kS;sh ms<snZo oDIaGs fldaKfhka jsuid ne,Sfuys oS" huzlsis jrolahkak wF:!l:kh lr we;af;a iudcfhys cSj;ajk ishZM fokdf.au iduQysl meje;augtlZ.Fjhg jsreoaOj hdula fyda tu iduQysl nj LKavkh lsrSug uQ,dY@ iemhSula f,ih tjsgta iZoyd m@;slu!h jYfhka kej;;a iudcfhys tlS iduQysl nju we;s fldg th uekjska 201
  12. 12. m@;sIaGdmkhg m;alrjSu msKsi;a" iduh yd iuZ.sh jrAOkh lrjSu msKsi;a kS;sh keue;sjHia:d moaO;sh wkqj lghq;` lr tu kS;shg wkq.;j tys iZoyka jk mrsoafoka tlS jrog iq|=iq oKavk l@ufjzohla ;`<ska tu jro ksjeros lsrSu msKsi;a" m<s.ekSfuys fpz;kdfjka mrsndysrj wod< pqos;hd flfrys ioaNdjfhka lghq;` ms<sfh< lrkq ,nhs iudcfhys kS;sh keue;s fmd|= yd iduqysl jHjia:dud<dj ilia jS we;af;a o fulS wruqKq bgqlr.ekSu uZ.ska iudc iduQyslFjh iqrCIs; lr,Su iZoydh tla tla iudc ixia:d w;r udkqIsluh me;slv Tiafia jsYajikSh id idOdrK .Kqfokqj,g uZ.yir fy<s fmfy<s lr.ekSu wrNhdh tu ksid kS;sh iEu jsgu irAjidOdrK yd irAj ksrAfodaIs ish,a,ka jsiskau w.hfldg ie,lsh hq;a;lao jkafkahtfukau kS;sh l@shd;aul jkafka ieu mqoa.,fhl`f.au fm#oa.,sl iudc ;;ajh wkqj fkdjish,a,kau iudkFjfhka ie,ls,a,g f.kh tu ksid kS;shg olajk f.#rjh jkdyS yqfolajHjia:d ud<djlg muKla olajk mCImd;SFjhla fkdj iudcfhys fmd|= nj iduQyslFjhgtlZ.Fjhg olajk ie,ls,a,la yd f.#rjhla fjz iudc taldnoaO;djh rZod meje;au iZoydfuu lreK w;sYhska jeo.;a fjz43 kS;sh jkdyS iudcfhys fjfik mqoa.,hska w;r mKjd .kakd ,o fmd|=jHjia:d ud<djls meKjSuz moaO;shls fuu jHjia:djka meKjSu fyda ilia lsrSug ;ksmqoa.,fhl`g muKla ksfYaOs; n,hla fkdue;s w;r th iudcfhys wfkl`;a idudcslhka w;rwe;s lr.kq ,nk fmd|= tlZ.Fjhla u;" tu tlZ.Fjh iqrCIs; lr.kq iZoydu is|= lr.kq,nk meKjSulau jsh hq;`h44 tu meKjsu uZ.ska yqfola iudcfhys fmd|= tlZ.Fjh iqyoFjhus;@Fjh iqrCIs; jsh hq;` w;r fuz ;`<ska lsishuz mqoa.,fhl`g fyda mqoa.,hska lKavdhulrsojSfuz fyda m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdjla fkdjsh hq;`h fyj;a oafjzIfhka f;drj us;@Fjfhka hq;`jiEu flfkl`g ;j;a mqoa.,fhl` iuZ. lghq;` lsrSfuz yelshdj iqrCIs; lsrSfuz woyiskaujHjia:dj iEu fokd jsiskau wdrCId lsrSug neZoS isgs;s 202
  13. 13. jrola is|=lrkq ,nkafka iudc iduQyslFjhg tfrysj nejska oKavkfhysmoku jsh hq;af;a mqoa.,fhl`f.ka fyda mqoa., lKavdhfuka m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdfjka fkdjknejska oKavkfhys wruqK jsh hq;af;a o iudc yd mqoa., m<s.ekSulska f;drj mqoa., ydiudc iduQyslFjh we;s lrjSuhs fuz fya;`j ksid mqoa.,hd jroska uqojd .ekSu;a" iudchiqrCIs; lsrSu;a hk folu tlajr iq|=iq wdldrfhka m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdfjka f;drj fhdokq,nk oKavkh ;`<ska wfmaCIs;hs nq|=rcdKka jykafia ldhsl oKavkfhka neyerj udkisloKavkh wkqu; lr we;af;a o mqoa.,hd jroska uqojd hym;g .ekSfuz yelshdjla ta ;`< we;snejsks udkisl oKavkh l@shd;aul jkafka mqoa.,hd jroska uqqojd Tyqg;a" fiiq iudchg;a"hym;la is|=lr,Sfuz ffu;@S mQrAjl fpz;kdj Tiafia nejska th iq|=iq l@ufjzohla f,i ks.ukhl< yelsh45 fu;a;d ixl,amh Tiafia ish pska;kh fufyhjk mqoa.,hd w;ska ;ukag;aiudchg;a hym;lau muKla Wodfjhs Wolau ;ud ;`< we;s mqyq|=ka iajNdjh ksidu"yosisfhka we;sjk jsjsO ps;a;fjz.sl is;sjs,s yd iakdhquh wdfjz.hka ksid huz jrolg fydajroldrS njlg fyda mqoa.,hd fhduq jqj o jyd ;u jro isysjSfuka fyda fjk;a flfkl` jsiskafmkajd fokq ,enSfuka miq Tyqg ksjerosjSug wjldY ie,fikafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIhksrka;rfhkau ,enSu ksid Tyq ;`< wNHka;r wys;lr wxYfhys ps;a;fjz.d;aul md,khlaf.dvkeZ.S ;snSu;a os.` l,la ;siafia tnZ|= iajlSh md,khlg fu;a is; fmrgq fldgf.k ;@sjsOoajdrfhka lgqhq;` lsrSug mqoa.,hd uekjska yqre mqre|=j isgSu;a ksidh46 ;ud ;`< fu;a;dixl,amh jrAOkhjSu lsisfia;a huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` iudch;`< wl@shdldrS WodiSk mqoa.,fhl`njg m;a fkd lrjk w;r iudch ;`< fnfyjska l@shdldrS prs; .;lrkafka fu;a;dixl,amfhka iukajs; is;a we;af;dau fj;s47 usksia iudchla hkq ksrka;rfhka ir< frALshj ir< iudka;rj yeujsgu.uka lrkakla" jsldYh jkakla fkdfjz iudch fndfyda ixlSrAK ia:dkhls tnejska tysiudc iuznJO;djhka o fnfyjska ixlSrAKh fujka ixlSrAK iudc iuznJO;djhka mj;ajd tata iudc ixia:dj,g wh;a mqoa.,hka o ir< fkdjQ cSjs; .; lrkakka fj;s48 fujka ixlSrAKffoksl cSjk rgdjla .;lrkakg jSu ksid jrA;udkfhys fnfyjska usksiqka ;`< isrefrysffcjuh wiu;`<s;;djh fya;`fjka yg.efkk fkdfhl`;a ldhsl frda.dndOhka" wOsl f,iudkisl f;fygzgqjg m;ajSu fya;`fjka oevs udkisl wd;;sh ksid yg.kakd udkislfrda.dndOhka yd fud<fhys iakdhq.; frda.dndOhka nyq, f,i jHdma;j we; tfiau tuixlSrAK frda.dndOhkag m@;sldr m;d frday,a .;jkakka o nyq,h fujka iudcfhys mj;skjsIu ;;ajhka ksid yg.kakd jsjsO ldhsl |=rAj,;djhka yd udkisl wd;;Skaf.ka usksia ukiksrka;rfhka mSvdjg m;ajk nejska fulS frda.dndO iqjlr .ekSu msKsi jrA;udkfhys 203
  14. 14. fndfyda mqoa.,hka YdrSrsl yd udkisl bys,anjla we;slr .ekSu msKsi ldhsl yd udkislwNHdi mqyqKq lrjkakd jQ ia:dk lrd fndfyda fia weoS h;s49 nq|=iuh fmkajd fokq ,nkafka wOsl jev lghq;` j,ska f;dr iqjodhl ieye,a,q nj mqoa., ukig jsfjzlh yd iykYS,;djh f.k fok njhs tfiau fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d lsrSu uZ.ska mqoa., uki b;du;a blaukska ieye,a,q yd iqjodhs iajNdjhlg mrsjrA;kh jk wdldrh nq|=iuh uekjska js.@yfldg fmkajhs50 usksia ukfiys wd;;s iukhg fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d lsrSu ;ruz ;j;a fjkhuz Tiqjla fkdue;s ;rug tuZ.ska ,efnk mqoa., yd iudc iykYS,;djh buy;ah fuuZ.ska ,efnk iudc iykYS,;djh fl;ruz o lsjfyd;a fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d lrkq ,nk mqoa.,hd flfrys wdlrAIKhla olajkafka yqfola ukqIHhkau muKla fkdj jsjsO ik`ka hCI fm@a; foaj;d yd n@yau jeks fldgzGdY uy;a rdYshla jQ wukqIH fldgia o we;s nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz fuhska fmfkkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;dfjka jrA;udkfhys wm is;d isgk iudch jk usksiqkaf.ka muKla iqieos iudchg;a jvd mqZM,a jQ w;sYhskau jsYd,s;j jQ iudc moaO;shla yd ta ;`< jsjsO iudc iuznJOdjhka wka;rA.; ikaksfjzok cd,hla fu;a;dixl,amh Ndjs;d lsrSu ksrka;rfhkau mqre|= mqyqKq lsrSu ;`< mqoa.,hkayg Wreu jk njhs51 wm jrA;udkfhys iudch hkakg usksiqkaf.ka muKla iukajs; iudchla wF:!olajkq ,enQj;a nq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.a wF:!l:kh wkqj iudch fuu usksia iudch blaujdiFjhska wukqIHhska we;`ZMj jsYajSh iudch flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrjd tu jsYajshiudcfhys usksid jsish hq;af;a fldhs wdldrhlg o yd tu iudcfhys usksid fiiq iFjhskaiuZ. iudcuh iuznJO;d f.dvkZ.d .; hq;af;a yd iudc iuznJO;d mj;ajd.; hq;af;a l`ukmqoa.,hska iuZ. l`ukdldrhg oehs hkdoS jYfhka b;du;a mqZM,a oelaulska hqla;j Wmfoia ,ndoS ;sfnz52 ta iEu jsgloSu ksrka;rfhkau mqoa.,hd wjfYaI iFjhska iuZ. lghq;` l< hq;af;afu;a;d ixl,amh fmroersj nj Wkajykafia jsiska wjOdrKh lrkq ,en we; tjsg usksidg;uka fkdis;k wdldrhg ;ukag lsisosk msysg fjzhehs fkdis;k jsjsO wukqIH iFjfldgzGdYjs,ska mjd msysg yd wdrCIdj ie,fik nj fuysoS jevs |=rg;a Wkajykafia jsiskameyeos,s lr oS ;sfnz ffu;@sh ish is;a i;kays we;s lr.kakd yd jv jvd;a th jO!kh lrf.kta wkqj lghq;` lrkakd mqoa.,hd wukqIHhskag mjd m@sh ukdm jk nj yd wukqIHhkaf.ka mjdmsysg ie,fik wdldrh b;d m@dfhda.slj Tmamqlr fmkajd oS ;sfnz53 204
  15. 15. fu;a;d ixl,amh fmroersj lghq;` lrkq ,nk mqoa.,hkag jsjsO ffcjfldgzGdY w;sYhskau m@shlrk nj o fuu ffcj fldgzGdY w;rg usksidg wu;rj jsjsO ffcjjsfYaIhka o wka;rA.; jk nj o nq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiska fmkajd oS we;af;a usksid ;`< ;udyer wfkl`;a iFjhska ms<snZoj lsishuz idkqluzms; oelaula my<jSu uZ.ska usksid iajNdjfhkauus;@YS,S iudc iuznJO;d mj;ajkakd jQ wh njg mrsjrA;kh lsrSu msKsih wju jYfhka wmcSjSka jYfhka i,lkq ,nk Ydl f,dalh flfrys mjd fu;a;d ixl,amh fmroersj l@shdlrkfuka NsCIqka jykafia,dyg fkdfhl`;a jsg Wmfoia ,nd oS we;s wdldrh wkqj nq|=rdcKkajykafia ieneu mrsirfjzosfhl` jYfhka l@shdldrS jS we;s wdldrh yZ|=kd.; yel54 wdydroduhl ksIamdolhd f,i usksid we;`ZM ffcj mrsirh mj;skafka yd rZod mj;skafka Ydlf,dalh mokuz lrf.k nejska usksia l@shdldrluz fu;a;d ixl,amh mdolj Ydl f,dalh /l.ekSu iZoyd o jsYd, odhlFjhla iemhsh hq;`h hkak nq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.a woyi njfuhska meyeos,sh iudcfhys;a iudc l@shdldrSFjfhys;a wdruzNl ia:dkh mqoa.,hd yd mqoa.,l@shdldrSFjh f,i ms<s.kakd nq|= iuh ksrka;rfhkau mqoa.,.; l@shdldrSFjh wrUhd wkHhkajsIfhys ys;dkqluzmSj lghq;` lsrSu yd wfkHdkH iuQmldr meje;au wkqu; lr we;af;a hym;amrudorAYS iudc iuznJO;d f.dkeZ.Sfuz oS yd tajd uekjska mj;ajdf.k hefuz oS wkHhkaf.amqoa., prs; iajNdjh yd wdfjzKsl huz huz .;s isrs;a ksid ps;a; wdfjz.hkag k;`jSu uZ.ska tuiudc iuznJO;djhka nsZoS hEfuys bvlv nyq, nejsks55 tuZ.ska iudc iuznJO;d f.dvkeZ.SfuzoS yd meje;ajSfuz oS tla mdrAYpjhla w;ska is|=jk yd is|=jsh yels b;du;au iqZM iqZM wvqmdvqluzfkd i,ld yer wfkla mdrAYpjh foi ohdkqluzmdfjka ne,Sug yelshdj we;s mqoa.,hskafldgzGdYhla nsyslsrSu fuu orAYkfhys moku f,i ie,fla56 iudc nsZojegSula fyda iudc wr.,hla ksrAudKhjSug;a th jrAOkhjsug;aiudch ;`< tla mqoa., fldgzGdYhla ;j;a mqoa., fldgzGdYhla fm<uska urAOkh lruskaTjqkaf.a whs;sjdisluz N`la;sjsZoSu fya;` idOl fjz fufia jkqfha n,h ms<snZo we;sjk ;Kaydjfya;`fjka mqoa., whs;sh md.d urd oeuSu ksidh fuh lsisfia;a fifkyi udkj ohdjuq,afldgf.k is|=jkakd jQ l@shdjla fkdfjz oafjzI iy.; is;ska l`rsre wdl,amj,ska is|= lrkq,nkakla jk w;r m@;sM,h ixudc ixia:djka w;r iudc iuznJO;djhka mZM|= jS hEuhmqoa., yd iudc iuznJO;djhkays f.#rjKSh iajNdjh fifkyi us;@Fjh yd iqrCIs; lsrSugfu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d jSu fuz ksid wjYHu jQ fohls57 fu;a;d ixl,amfhka mrsndysrjis|=lrkq ,nk mqoa., iuznJO;djhla fyda iudc ixjrAOkhla wF:! iuzmkak fkdfjz fu;a;dixl,afmys wF:!h rZod mj;skafka o th mqoa., iuznJO;djh blaujd iudc iuznJO;djh lrdfhduq jk wjia:dj ;`< oSh mqoa., iuznJO;djhkays oS fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d fkdjk njla 205
  16. 16. fuhska woyia fkdfjz mqoa., iuznJO;djhkaj, oS Ndjs;d flfrkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amfhys mgqiajrEmh jk w;r iudc iuznJO;djhka ys oS tys mqZM,a iajrEmh Ndjs;hg .kq ,nhs58 fu;a;d ixl,amh fnfyjska mqZM,a udkqIsl YlH;djhlska iukajs; ixl,amhla jk w;r m@cdkk" wdfjzok" prAhduh" Z{dk jsNd.Sh yd iudcuh jeks me;slv .Kkdjlska iukajs; jQjls fuz fya;`j ksidu fu;a;d ixl,amh fiiq ixl,amj,g jvd iudcuh iuznJO;djhka flfrys jevs jYfhka odhlFjhla iemhsh yels yd imhkakd jQ ixl,amhls i;H jYfhkau iudc iuznJO;d werUSfuz oS f.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS jrAOkh lsrSfuz oS mj;ajd .ekSfuz oS fu;a;d ixl,amfhys hf:dala; jsjsO me;slv jsjsOdldrfhka odhlFjhla ta msKsi imhkq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys m@cdkk me;slv iudc iuznJO;djhkays wdruzNl ia:dkhhs uQ<slju usksia ukfiys Wmosk us;@YS,S wdl,am ckkh jkafka yd wjfndaOlr.kq ,nkafka m@cdkkh fya;`fjks fu;a;d ixl,amh wkHhka flfrys we;slr .ekSu fukau wkH mqoa.,hka ;ud fj; olajk fu;a;d ixl,amh uekjska jgydf.k ta wkqj Tjqkayg m@;spdr oelajSu o is|=lrkq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys m@cdkk me;slv iudcuh wxYfhka l@shd;aul jSfuys oSh59 tfukau uQ<slju ;u isf;yswkHhka fjkqfjka yg.kq ,enQ fu;a;d ixl,amh ;j ;j;a jO!kh lr .ksuska wLKavjmj;ajdf.k hkafka yd fiiq me;slvjk wdfjzok" prAhduh" Z{dk jsNd. yd iudcuh me;slvTiafia us;@YS,sFjh jO!kh lr.ekSu Wfoid wod< tla tla me;slv w;r iudfhdackldrAhNdrh uekjska bgqlrkq ,nkafka o fu;a;d ixl,amfhys m@cdkk me;slv wdOdrfhks60 wdfjzok me;slv uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjz.YS,S nj fyj;a yeZ.Suzckkh lsrSufuz yd th biau;` lsrSfuz wjia:dj Wod lrkq ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amh mdollrf.k we;sjk wdfjz.hka b;du;au ishquz ugis,sgs wdfjzokhka jk w;r th b;du;auieye,a,q is; ksjd,k iqZM wdfjzokhka fjz idudkHhka wm fiiq wdfjzokhka uZ.ska is|=lrkq ,nkNdjd;aul mCIh l<Uk iqZM iajNdjh fjkqjg fuhska is|=jkqfha is; tlZ. njg m;alsrSumuKs61 tu yeZ.Suz yd Ndjhka u;`lsrSu WoaoSmkh lsrSu uZ.ska iudcfhys tla tla mqoa.,hkaw;r we;sjk Ndjuh ;;ajhka uq,a lr.kakd ,o ifydaord;aul fukau us;@YS,S yeZ.Suz ckkhlrkq ,nhs ;udg fukau fiiq iudcfhys fjfikakd jQ TzkEu mqoa.,fhl` wrUhd isf;ysckkh jk m@S;sh yg.ekSu iZoyd fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv mqoa.,fhl`yg uy;afia Wmldrj;a fjz62 tla mqoa.,fhl` ;`< uqyqKska isrerska ckkh jk m@shukdm jQ us;@YS,S 206
  17. 17. udkisl wdjzokhka olsk ;j;a mqoa.,fhl`f.a fyda mqoa.,hka msrsilf.a o is;ays tu lreKwrUhd us;@YS,S wdl,am we;sjSug Okd;aul jYfhka we;s iuzNdjs;dj b;du;au wOsl nejzmeyeos,sh iudcfhys fjfikakd jQ wkH mqoa.,hka flfrys us;@YS,S wdfjzok j,ska iukajs;jlghq;` lrkakd jQ mqoa.,fhl`f.a isf;ys ;j ;j;a tu is;sjs,s frdamKh jS tu mqoa.,hdf.amuKla fkdj Tyq iuZ. lghq;` lrk fiiq whf.a o is;a i;ka ksjS iekyS hkafka fndfydaieye,a,q wdldrfhka jSu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys m@n,Fjh fudkjg biau;`fldg fmkajkwjia:djls63 fN#;sl jYfhka .;al< mqoa.,hdf.a isrefrys fydafudak ls@hdldrSFjh hym;aw;g mrsjrA;khjSug;a f,a Od;`j mjs;@jSug;a udkisl yd ldhsl kSfrda.S;djh yg .ekSug;aus;@YS,S wdfjzok j,ska iukajs;j ish ffoksl osjs fmfj; .;lsrSu yd iudchSh lghq;`j,ksr;jSu uy;a msgsjy,la jk nejz fmkajd osh yelsh64 iudc cSjs;fhys uy;a fia WmldrSjk fu;a;d ixl,amfhys fiiq me;slvla kuz prAhduh me;slvhs wkHhkayg WmldrlsrSu" jsmf;ys oS ;ukag jsm;la meusKshd fia is;d thg msysgjSu" jeks foa uZ.ska ndysrj iudch iuZ. fN#;slj lghq;` lsrSu fuhg we;`<;a fjz fu;a;d ixla,mh mdol lrf.k iudcYS,SNdjhg meusfKk mqoa.,hd m@cdkk me;slfvka ixl,am .ukdruzNj wdjzok me;slv ;`< .ukalr f;jk woshr f,i .uka lrkakd jQ osYdk;sh prAhduh me;slv uZ.ska uQrA;su;a flfrA fu;a;d ixla,mfhys prAhduh me;slv ;`<ska iudc iuznJO;d werUSu" mj;ajdf.k hdug fm<fUk mqoa.,hdf.a mqjsfYaIs;djh jkqfha ieu jsgloSu us;@YS,S wdl,amj,ska iukajs;j ;udf.a yeisrSuz rgdj wkHhkaf.a is;a fkdrsfok mrsos f.dvkZ.d .ekSug tu mqoa.,hka ;`< mj;sk iqjsYd, oCI;djhhs65 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Z{dk jsNd.Sh me;slv uZ.ska mqoa.,hdf.a iudc iuznJO;djhkays oS tlS mqoa., udkisl iajNdjh ljrdldrfhka nqoaOsuh odhlFjhla iudciuznJO;d f.dvkeZ.Su yd f.dvkZ.d .kq ,enQ iudc iuznJO;djhka uekjska mj;ajdf.k hEumsKsi ,ndfokafkaoehs jsuid ne,Su is|=lrkq ,nhs lsishuz mqoa.,fhl` yqol,dj jikafka kuzfyda tlS mqoa.,hd iudchla ;`< iudc iuznJO;d fkdm;ajhs kuz tlS mqoa.,hdf.a nqoaOsuhmCIh ms<snZoj t;ruz |=rglg jsuid l@shdlsrSu wjYH fkdjk lreKls ukao yqfola TzkEuiFjfhl`f.a uQ<sl wjYH;d wju jYfhka ix;Dma; lsrSu iZoyd wjYHjk Z{dk jsNd.ixorANhla muKla wejeisjk ;;ajhla ;`< thg jvd nqoaOsuh ixorANhla mej;su fydafkdmej;su iudchg fyj;a wkH mqoa.,hkayg .egZMjla fkdjkakd jq fm#oa.,sl jq lreKla 207
  18. 18. jk nejsks kuq;a Z{dk jsNd.h iuznJOfhka iudch mCIh js.@ylr ne,Sfuz oS yqfola ;ksmqoa.,fhl`f.a wjYH;djhka blaujd .sh iudcuh wjYH;djhka uekjska ix;Dma; lsrSu msKsi,ndfok nqoaOsuh odhlFjh ms<snZoj jsurAYkh lsrSug wjYH fjz66 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh me;slv ielfikafka fulS ishZM me;slvj,odhlFjh ,enSu fya;`fjka iudc moaO;sfhys taldnoaO;djh uekjska mj;ajdf.k hEu flfrysfldmuK Wmfhda.S;djhla olajkjdo hk lreK flaJ|@fldg f.khs fu;a;d ixl,amhfndfydafldgu iudc me;slv fnfyjska jsoHudk ixl,amhls huzlsis mqoa.,fhl` yqol,djfjfikjdg jvd iudch iuZ. iyfhda.fhka lghq;` lsrSfuz oS us;@YS,S wdl,am we;slr.ekSuw;HjYHh tnejska ksrdifhkau mqoa.,hd us;@YS,Sj iyfhda.fhka lghq;` lsrSfuz oS fu;a;dixl,amfhys iudc me;slv m@fhda.slj l@shdjg kZ.kafka fjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wjidkksIaGdj jkqfha o fulS iudcuh me;slvu fjz fuys woyi mqoa.,fhl` ;udyg muKla fkdjiudchg;a jevodhl mqoa.,fhl` njg mrsjrA;kh jSuhs67 mqoa.,hd ;`< ksirA. jYfhkaumj;skakd jQ wd;audrA:lduS iajNdjh myj hkafka o fulS iudc me;slv Tyq ;`< udkjskajO!kh jSfuys oSh ;ud;a wkH mqoa.,hkq;a w;r is;ska we;slr f.k isgskakd jQ iSud iuzfNaohis;ska |=rej hkqfha o wd;audrA:lduS iajNdjh wvq jQ ;rugh wd;audrA:h ;uka yd wkqka w;rjsYd, udkisl mjqrla we;s lrjkq ,nhs fuz mjqr nsZo oefukqfha jv jvd;a jOkh lr.kq ,enQfu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.sks lsishuz mqoa.,fhl` b;d fydZo iudcYS,s osjs fmfj;la .; lrkq,nkafka tu mqoa.,hdf.a isf;ys wd;audrA:lduS is;sjs,s fkdue;s jk ;rug fu;a;d ixl,amhjO!kh jS we;s jsg muKs fu;a;d ixl,amh mqoa.,fhl` iudc cSjs;h hym;aj .; lsrSu msKsifm<fUk yqre lrjk ixl,amhls fiiq idrOrAu! w;rska fu;a;d ixl,amhg iqjsfYaIs ia:dkhlajeo.;alula ,efnkafka fiiq idrOrAu! wF:!j;a jkafka fu;a;d ixla,m mqoa., uki ;`<l@shdldrS jkafka kuz muKla nejsks mrs;Hd.h .;fyd;a fjkhuz flfkl`yg hula mrs;Hd.lsrSfuz is;la bmfokafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys n,mEu ksidh wkHhka fj; fjkhuz fyda lsis|=Wmldrhla lsrSu msKsi lsishuz fyda mqoa.,fhl` fm<fukafka tu mqoa.,hdf.a isf;ys wkHhkams<snZo us;@YS,S wdl,am yg.kakd nejsks fuz fya;`j ksid idrOrAu! isf;ys yg.ekajSug fu;a;dixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjh b;du;a il@Sh f,i wjYH jkjd muKla fkdj fu;a;d ixl,amhisf;ys mQrAjx.u jYfhka yg.ekSug o fuz wkqj iduQysl meje;au fya;`jk nj meyeos,sjoelajsh yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amh iudc cSjs;fhys oS;a mqoa.,sl cSjs;fhys oS;a tl yd iudkjmqoa.,hdyg jeo.;a jkafka ukaoehs fidhd ne,Sfuz oS th ;uka yd fiiq wh w;r we;s lr.kq,nk tla;rd wdldrhl woDIHudk .sjsiqula jeks fohla l@shd;aul jSu ksid nj fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdNdIhg ,la jQ mqoa.,hdg jegyS hd yelsh thg fya;`j kuz i;Hh jYfhkauiudch yd mqoa.,hd w;r fmd|= tlZ.Fjhla we;sjSu u; idOkSh udkisl iuznJO;djhkaus;@Fjh Tiafia yg.eksuhs68 fuu udkisl iuznJO;djh yg.efkkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amh 208
  19. 19. l@shd;aul jk fudfydf;ys oS tla tla mqoa.,hdf.a udkisl iajNdjh fu;a;d ixla,mh Tiafialsishuz tlZ.Fjhlg meusKSu ksidh fyj;a us;@YS,S wdl,am" us;@YS,S yeZ.Suz yd us;@YS,S prAhdrgdjka ksid iEu mqoa.,fhl`gu ;uka wkH mqoa.,hd hkqfjka ndysr f,dalh is;ska f.dvkZ.df.k ;sfnk mjqr us;Hdjla nj jegfykakg mgka .kS us;@YS,S wdl,amj,ska iukajs; tlndysr iudc moaO;shla jqj o yZ.skq ,nkafka ;uka fjka fjka mqoa.,hska rdYshla jYfhka fkdjtla mqoa.,fhl` jYfhks fuh iudcuh taldnoaO;djfhys wdruzNl wjia:dj jYfhka oyZ|=kajd osh yelsh fujka iudcuh taldnoaO;djh uZ.ska ukd uki YsCIKh lr.kq ,nkmqoa.,hska lKavdhula yqfola l@shd;aul jkafka o ;ks ;ks mqoa.,hska jYfhka fkdj iduQyslpska;khlska iukajs; tla ;ks mqoa.,fhl` jYfhks69 i;H jYfhkau iudcuh talShFjfhysuq,au w;a;sjdru jefgkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amh mqoa., ps;a; wNHka;rhg m@fjzYj tys ;ekam;ajmqoa., l@shdldrSFjh iudc iuznJO;d meje;ajSu Tiafia tys l@shdldrSFjhg iudc foayhk;`jSu;a iu.uh mqoa., l@shdldrSjfhys yd iudcuh ls@hdldrSFjfhys tald;ausljSu ke;fyd;atlajSu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmrsu iudc M,h f,i iudc jsoHdZ{hska jsiska yZ|=kdf.k ;sfnz usksid iajNdjfhkau iudcSh iFjfhls iudc cSjs;hg iy iudcYS,SNdjhgWm;skau usksid ,eoshdj olajkafkls th Tyqqf.a iychhs huz flfkl` wmrdOhla l< jsg kS;sbosrsfhys jrolrefjl` jk nj Tmamq jQ jsg Tyq isr.; lsrSu hkqfjka is|=lrkakd jQl@shdj<sfhys mku jkqfha Tyqg oZvqjula jYfhka wjfYaI iudcfhka fjkafldg ;enSuh fuhTyqg YdrSrsl fukau udkisl o oKavkhls fuuZ.ska Tyqg ;udf.a wjfndaO fldgf.k bkaksjeros ms<sfj;g meusKSu wod< oZvqjuz ,ndoSfuz mrudrA:hhs boska usksid ;`< iudchShiFjfhl` jYfhka osjs f.jSfuz iych ke;fyd;a iycdYdj fkd;snqfka jS kuz" Tyq isr.;fldg ;enSu uZ.ska Tyqg ovqjuz ,ndoSu f;areula fkdue;s l@shdjla njg m;a fjz ta Tyq jvdleu;s" m@sh lrk fohska fjka lsrSu uZ.ska Tyqg ldhsl yd udkisl wmyiq njla cks; lrjSuhshuz fyhlska usksid iudchSh iFjfhl` fkdjqkd kuz iycfhkau yqol,dj m@sh lrkafkl` jSkuz tjsg by; olajk ,o ovqju ;j|=rg;a oKavkhla fkdj wdYsrAjdohla njg bfnzumrsjrA;kh fjz kuq;a h:d iajNdjh th fkdjk nj wms oksuq boska usksidf.a o iycdYdjwkH mqoa.,hka iu. iyfhda.fhka iycSjkfhka iuQmldrfhka l@shdlsrSu kuz ta us;@YS,S njwe;s lsrSu msKsi lsishuz iychla o ksrdhdifhka Tyq ;`< f.dvkeZ.S ;snsh hq;`uh fuz iychkuz fu;a;d ixl,amhhs ienjskau fu;a;d ixl,amh neyerska usksia is;a i;ka ;`<g m@fjzYlr.kq ,nkakla fkdj th ksrdhdifhkau ujzl`i ;`< oSu iycfhkau wdfjzKsfhkau usksidg ofiiq iFj jsfYaIhkag o Wreu jkakla f,i fmkajd osh yelsh usksid fukau fiiq iFjjsfYaIhka o iajNdjfhkau ke;sj yqol,dj yeisrSug jvd rxpq jYfhka .ejiSug jevsukdmhla olaj;s fuhg fya;` jYfhka iZoyka l< yelafla Tjqkaf.a wdrCIdjg ksrdhdifhkauTjqka ;`< iycfhkau u;`jk iychka f,isks th ffcj jsoHd;aulj iFj jsfYaIhkaf.a bosrsmeje;au iqrCIs; lsrSu iZoyd ksrdhdifhkau mejf;uska tk iyc cdkuh jQ ,CIKhls usksido iFj jsfYaIhlg wh;a cSjsfhl` jk nejska fuu ,CIKh usksidg o Wreuh wE; w;S;fha 209
  20. 20. isgu usksia ckdjdi uq,skau nsys jQ od isg usksid yqre mqre|= jQfha yqol,dj cSj;ajSug fkdjiuQy jYfhka lKavdhuz jYfhka osjs f.jSugh ixpdrl hq.fha oS mjd usksiqka lKavdhuzjYfhka rglska rglg m<d;lska m<d;lg iuzfm@aIKh jkakg yqre mqre|= jS isgs njg mqrdjsoHd;aul idOl wo mjd jsoHudkh jsfYaIfhkau f,dal YsIaGdpdrfhys jsjsO ck lKavdhuzfndfyda wE; w;S;fha oS tlu ck lKavdhulska mej; js;a jsjsO rgj, wdfjzKsl iajNdjslmrsir ;;ajhkag ukdj wkq.; jSfuka miq Tjqka w;r jrA;udkfhys jsoHdudk fN#;sljsjsO;djhka yg.;a nj udkj jsoHdZ{hska jsiska ffcj jsoHd;aul idOl iys;j fmkajd oS we; rglska rglg k.rfhka k.rhlg m<d;lska m<d;lg usksiqka YsIaGdpdrfhatla;rd hq.hl oS ixl@uKh fjuska yqfola ixpdrl hq.hla .; lroaoS jqj;a usksiqkaf.aiduQysl yeisrSfuz iychka fkdfjkiaj mejf;uska ;snsKs usksid l@ufhka YsIaGFjfhkaixjO!khg m;afj;au udkisl mCIfhka b;du;a by< nqoaOsuh mrsmdlhg .uka .ks;au Tyq;`< uQ<slj mejf;uska meusKs iyfhda.S;djh oshqKq ;,hlg m;ajSfuz m@jK;djhla we;sjSuudkj wjYH;djhla njg ksrdhdifhkau m;ajsKs usksid fN#;sl jYfhka ixjrAOkfha by<u;,h lrd iuzm@dma; njska isgsh o Tyq jsiska wfmaCIs; wdOHd;ausl ixjrAOkfha m@;sM, ;ju,nd fkdisgsk fihla Tyqf.a jrA;udk prAhd rgd wOHhk lrk l, fmkS hhs ndysrskaixjrAOkfhys m@;sM, iamrAY l< o ta yd iudkju ukiska wdOHd;ausl ;;ajfha wfmaCIs;ksIaGdjg meusKSug mqoa.,hd wfmdfydi;ajSu iudcfha oejeka; lvd jegSug uQ<sljufya;`jhs70 mqoa.,hd ;`< n,mj;ajk Tyqf.a wdOHd;ausl ;,h ls,sgs lrk huz huz Ou!;djhkagTyq ksrdhdifhkau k;`jSu fya;`fjka yd tu ;;ajhkag Yla;su;aj uqyqK oSug ;ruz Tyqf.awdOHd;auh Yla;su;a fkdjSu fya;`fjka jrA;udk usksid iudc mrsydkshg m;aj isgshs BrAIHdj" ffjrh" fl@daOh yd m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdj hk iDKd;aulixl,amhkaf.a fm<UjSu ksid usksidf.a wdOHd;auh wfmaCIs; idrOrAu! ksIaGdjg meusKSugwfmdfydi;aj we; fuz fya;`j ksid iudc ixia:d w;r wiu.sh jO!kh fjuska mj;S71 iudcixia:d tlska tl lvd jegSug mgka f.k we; fu;a;d ixl,amh fulS wdOHd;ausl ;;ajh kZ.disgqjSug .; yels fydZou jsiZ|=uhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .enz jkqfha mqoa., .; |=l fukauiudc.; |=l o ix;Dma; lrk wdldrfha b;d oejeka; udkisl bys,a njls fu;a;d ixl,amhish cSjs;hg <Z.d lr.eksu uZ.ska mqoa., fm#reIFjh f.dvkZ.d .ekSug wjYH bvkviemsfrkjd muKla fkdj iudc.; fm#reIFjh jrAOkh lr .ekSug o fuhska wjldYie,fia mqoa.,.; fukau iudc.; oshqKqj i,id .ekSu msKsi fu;a;d ixl,amfhysodhlFjh b;d uy;ah wkHhkaf.a oshqKqj oel th fu;a is;ska bjiSug bka ;u is;g o i;`glaWmojd .ekSug o wkHhka yd wkjYH f,i ;rZ.ldrS osjs fmfj;lg fkdf.dia ;ukag ;sfnkm@udKfhka iEySulg m;a jS osjs f.jSug wjYH udkisl jd;djrKh ilia lr fokq ,nkafka 210
  21. 21. fu;a;d ixl,amhhs iaj,amfhka iEySug m;ajSu yd ;ukag ;sfnk m@udKfhka iekiSu hym;aiudc iuznJO;djhla f.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS yd f.dvkZ.d .kakd ,o iudc iuznJO;djhkamj;ajdf.k hEfuys oS w;sYhskau jeo.;ajk isoaOdka;hls ieye,a,q osjsfmfj;la .; lrkakdjQ mqoa.,hdg bka w;am;a jk ldhsl yd udkisl iqjh yereKq jg iudcuh jYfhka thska,efnk iykYS,S cSjk rgdj ;`< ;rZ.ldrS nj ksid mek kZ.sk whym;a jsIu iudcuh.egZMj,ska usksid uqojd ,kq ,nhs fndfyda jsg .egZM mek kZ.skq ,nkafka;a" huz huz mSvdldrS;;ajhkayg mqoa.,hskayg uqyqK mEug is|= jkafka;a ;rZ.ldrS nj ksid mek kZ.sk n,h flfiaw;am;a lr.kafkaoehs ta ms<snZo we;s jkakd jQ iSudka;sl wjYH;djh usksia iudchgoefkkakgjSfuz oS yd tfia oekqkq jqukdj u; usksiqka ;ud iuZ. isgskakd jQ wkH mqoa.,hka iuZ.lghq;` lrkakg yd jsjsO iudc iuznJO;d meje;ajSug hdfuzoS;a h jsfYaIfhkau iudciuznJO;djhka meje;ajSfuz oS th ksis whqrska j.lSulska iys;j yd jsOsu;a whqrska is|= lsrSuiudc moaO;shg wh;a iEu mqoa.,fhl`f.au j.lSu yd hq;`lu fjz fuu hq;`lu yd j.lsu ksiswdldrfhka bgq lsrSug kuz iEu mqoa.,fhl`u wkH mqoa.,hka iuZ. b;du;a iyfhda.fhkaiqyoYS,Sj lghq;` lsrSu jeo.;ah iudchla ;`< iuQmldr meje;au fydZoska is|= jkqfha us;@YS,Swdl,amj,ska huzlsis iudc moaO;shla iukajs;j we;s jsgloSh72 iudc osjsfha oS fu;a;d ixl,amfhys olakg ,efnk iqjsfYaIS;djh Tyqf.a thixl,amSh ;,h blaujd m@dfhda.sl ;,hg meusKSuhs fndfyda ixl,am wdl,amuh ;,fhys oSidrA:l jqj;a" m@fhda.sl ;,fhys oS widrA:l jkqfha tajdfhys lsis|= m@dfhda.sl iajrEmhla .enzfkdjSu ksidhs kuq;a fuz w;ska fu;a;d ixl,am tys wdl,amuh ;,hg yd iudkju jeo.;alula m@fhda.sl ;,fhys o fmkajk nejska iudc osjsfhys oS b;d iqjsYd, jeo.;a lulaWreulr .kshs iyfhda.S;djh yd wkHhka fj; Wmldr lsrSu iudc.; osjsfhys oS fu;a;dixl,amfhys m@fhda.sl mCIh f,i jsoHudk jk fohhs fuz Tiafia iudcfhys TzkEumqoa.,fhl`f.a is; oskd .ekSug;a" wkHhka w;r lemS fmkSug;a" wjldY ie,fia mQK! kuHYS,Sosjs fmfj;la .;lrk iudc fiajlfhl`g uqo,la f.jdj;a ,nd .; fkdyels m@isoaOsh ydwkHhkaf.a is;a oskd .ekSu fuz uZ.ska ksrdhdifhka ,efnz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ksrdhdifhkau.enz jk w;sYhskau m@fhda.sl iajNdjh th fkdfhla ldrAhhka iZoyd odhl lr.ekSfuz oSw;sYhskau jeo.;a fjz tfukau jsjsOdldrfha mqoa.,hka wjk; lr.ekSfuz uy;a n,hla ofu;a;d ixl,amfhys wka;rA.; fjz idudkHfhka iudc ixia:djkays fukau iudch ;`<l@shd;aul jkakd jQ l`vd iuQy jk wdh;k yd mqoa., lKavdhuz ;`< iuZ.sh yd l@shdldrSFjhjO!kh lsrSu wrnhd o fu;a;d ixl,amh fnfyjska Ndjs;d lrkq ,nhs l<uKdlrkfCIa;@fhys oS fndfyda jsg jsjsO jD;a;slhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys w.h olshs mqoa.,hka Tjqkaf.aoCI;dj,g wkq.; jk mrsos jsjsO ldrAhhkays ksr; lrjSu ioyd;a" Tjqkaj ukdj yeisrjSumsKsi;a jrA;udkfhys fu;a;d ixl,amh l<uKdlrk l@shdj<sh idrA:lj yiqrjd,Su iZoydodhl lr .kshs 211
  22. 22. mqrdKfhys f.@da;sl iudc nsysj ;snq hq.fhys mgka kQ;kfhys iduQysl cSjkrgdj olajd iEu ukqIHfhl`f.au ffoksl osjs fmfj; yd fu;a;d ixl,amh b;du;au mq|=udldrf,iska yd jsYajikShFjhlska neZoS we; tl w;lska th idudkH ukqIH iajNdjh blaujdfoajFjh lrd md ;nk ysksuZ.la jeksh fN#;sl oshqKq jk ;rugu usksid wNHka;rfhka rZMfkdjkafka kuz fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska fcj jsoHd;aulj ksrdhdifhka Tyqf.a yoj; mqnq|=lrjk ukqIHFjfhys mdvu ijka fkdoS isgSug Tyqg lsis|= wjldYhla uska fkdie,fia neyerska,efnk iudcuh iuzmrAlh ksid u;`jk wd.ka;`l ixl,amj,ska usksia uki ls,sgs fkdjkakgusksia ukfiys h:drA:h mru mjs;@ jQ fu;a;d ixl,amhhs fuhg fydZou ksoiqkla kuz l`vdjsfhys bkakd <orejdhs <orejkaf.a is;a ixfjzoS nejska yd jevsysgs is;a ;ruz wmjs;@ jS fkdue;snejska <orejkaf.a f,dalh jevsysgshkaf.a f,dalh ;ruz oafjzIfhka msrS fkd mj;shsjsfYaIfhkau l`vd orejka b;du;a us;@YS,S nj fmfkkakg ;sfnz th jevsysgshka mjd,ecAcdfjka yl`ZMjk iqZMh wOHdmk jsoHdfjz mqfrda.dushka m@lg wOHdmkZ{hska mjd mjidwe;af;a jevysgshka jQ wmg l`vd orejkaf.ka bf.k .; yels jgskd mdvuz mj;sk njhs ,udf,dj jevsysgs f,djg jvd iqkaor jkafka tys oafjzIh" fl@daOh yd m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdj fkdue;snejsks wjdikdj jkqfha l@u l@ufhka <orejd jshm;a jS jevsysgs f,djg mshjr ;n;au" jevsysgsf,dalfhys ffkirA.sl .;s ,CIK f,iska yZ|=kd .kakd ,o oafjzI" fl@daO yd jsysxidixl,amj,g yqremqre|= j Tyq o iDKd;aul is;sjs,sj, fldaIaGd.drhla njg mrsjrA;kh jSuhlsis|= fya;`jla ksid iudcuh osjsfhys oS fu;a;d ixl,amhg jvd oafjzIh" fl@daOh yd jsysxidjjsoHd;aul pska;kh wkqj w;am;a lr.kafka b;du;au my< pska;duh yd udkisl ia:rhls tlSwdfjzokhkaf.ka uqim;aj is|=lrkq ,nk l@shdjka we;euzjsgl oS pdrs;@ jdrs;@" idrOrAu!"wdpdrOu! yd iodpdrd;aul fkdjkakd jQ l@shdjl iajrEmh blaujd f.dia wmrdOhla kdufhka.efkk nrm;, is|=jSuz olajd .uka lrjk ;rug tys m@;sjsmdl nsysiqKqh fujka nsysiqKqis|=jSuz ksrka;rfhka isrs;la f,i is|=jk iudc ugzgul jrA;udkfhys usksia iudch miqjSu;`< jrA;udkfhys iudc iuznJO;dj, iajrEmh fl;ruz msrsyS f.dia we;aoehs hkak fijSugfuhg jvd fydZo ksrAKdhlhla ;j;a fkdue;s ;ruzh oshqKq hehs wmg fkdfhla jr weZ.s,af,kawek ;ukaf.a ndysr ixjrAOkh usksia YsIaGdpdrfhys m@drm@dma; oshqKqj f,i yd tluksrAKdhlh jYfhka yqjd olajk fN#;sl jYfhka oshqKq rgj,ska jdrA;djk tnZ|= wmrdO ydis|=jSuz foi wjOdkh fhduq lrk jsg ienjskau Tjqka jsiska wmyg fmkajd fokq ,nk oshqKqjmj;akafka ld iZoyd o hk meKh ksrdhdifhkau keZ.sug wmg is|= fjz usksia iudch Wkqka yd.kqfokq lrk iajrEmh fuz id my;a ugzgulg jegS we;akuz ksrka;rfhkau ;srsika.;iFjhkaf.a yeisrSuz isyshg kxjhs kuz ienjskau fN#;sl oshqfjys we;s m@;sM,h wod< lr.kq,nkafka ljqreka jsiska l`ula iZoyd oehs hk .egZMj kej; kej;;a meK kZ.shs usksidf.aoshqKqj usksid iZoydu kuz ukqIHFjhg tfrysj hkakd jQ fujka ieyeis yd nrm;, ysxidldrS;;ajhla mek fkdkZ.skq we; usksiqka tlsfkld flfrys ksrdhdifhkau yg.kakd jQus;@YS,SFjh mdol fldg.;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhka hqla;j jdih lrkq we; kuq;a ksrAKdlhf,i Ndjs;d lrkq ,nk rgj, iudc w.h fufia kuz tu iudc moaO;Ska ;`< fu;a;d 212
  23. 23. ixl,amh mj;S fyda fu;a;d ixl,amh l@shd;aul jsug iq|=iq mrsirhla iliaj we;soehs jgyd.ekSug wiSre fkdfjz tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amh l@shd;aul fkdjkakd fyda l@shd;auljSfuz wjYHbvlv uqZMukskau weysrekd jQ ffjrfhka fl@daOfhka |+Is;j .sh iudchla ixjrAOkh uekne,Sfuz tlu ksrAKdhlh f,i Ndjs;d lsrSu b;du;au wufkda{ jQjla nj jegyS hhs iudcfhys hy meje;au iZoyd usksia ufkda uQ<hka b;du;au ishquzj .fjzIKh lsrSfuz oS usksid i;` iychla jk fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh .;s ,CIK ms<snZoj wjOdkh fhduq lsrSu jeo.;a f,i fmfka fu;a;d ixl,amh wdl,amhla jYfhka o wdfjzokhla jYfhka o prAhd rgdjla jYfhka o f.k lreKq js.@y lsrSu wOHdmk jsoHdZ{hska jsiska ksrka;rfhka is|=lrkq ,nk l@shd mgsmdgshls wOHdmk jsoHd oDIaGs fldaKfhka jsYaf,aIKh lrk jsg" mqoa., prAhdjka uZ.ska m@lg flfrkakd jQ usksia .;s ,CIK ms<snZo t<fUkq ,nkakd jQ wOHdmk jsoHd;aul js.@yhka yd tuZ.ska is|=jk wOHdmk" wOHhk ldrAhNdrh idrA:l lr.; yels wkaofuz hym;a Okd;aul l@ufjzohka ms<snZo ie,iquz iuzmdokh lsrSfuka tu ldrAhNdrh b;du;au idrA:l f,i iudc.; l< yels hehs wOHdmkZ{fhda l,amkd lr;s ck ikaksfjzokh uZ.ska is|= flfrkakd jQ f;dr;`re iuzmdok ldrAhfhys oS mjd buy;a fia bjy,a lr.; yels uQf,damdhhka wOHdmk jsoHd isoaOdka;hkays wka;rA.;h hf:dla; ldrAhfhys ksrka;rfhka fhoS isgskakd jQ ckudOHfjzoSka ish ldrAhNdrh uekjska yiqrjd,Su msKsi fnfyjska bjy,a lr.kq ,nkqfhafujeks ffikaOdka;sl lreKqh tfukau Tjqkayg tys we;s jeo.;alu o wjsjdos;h tysh:drA:h jkqfha iudch ;`< fjfikakd jQ wkH mqoa.,hka iuZ. ksrka;rfhka ixjdofhysfhfokakg yd NdIK l@shdj<sfhys ksr;jSu msKsi mQrAj iQodkula jYfhka Tjqkaf.a prAhdrgdjka flf,i ilia jS we;aoehs wOHhkh lsrSu miq ld,Skj is|= lrkq ,nk ck ikaksfjzoklghq;a; iZoyd myiqjla jk nejsks73 tfukau ck ikaksfjzokh o jsoHd;aul mokula u;f.dvkZ.d we;s jsoHdkQl~, pska;khla nejska jsoHd;aul jsOsl@uhkag wkql~,j mqoa.,dka;rikaksfjzokh idrA:lj is|=l< yels jkafka mqoa., lKavdhuz us;@YS,s wdl,amj,ska iukajs; jQl< nj fuys uQ<OrAu w;r jeo.;a ia:dkhla ia:dkhla .kakd m@Odk;u uQ<OrAuh fjz74usksiqka w;r huz huz iudc ;;ajhka uZ.ska mr;rhla ;ndf.k hym;a ikaksfjzolfhl` f,iyDohdx.u f,i ck ikaksfjzok ldrAhNdrfhys ksr;jsh fkdyels w;r yels;dla mqoa.,hdfj;g iuSm jQ ;rugu ck ikaksfjzok ldrAhNdrh jvd;a iM,odhl fohla njg m;a lr.;yelsh hkak fuhska lshfjz75 213
  24. 24. usksiqka yd Tjqkaf.a weoys,s yd jsYajdi ms<snZo wOHhkhkays oS jsfYaIfhkau;`<kd;aul ixialD;sl wOHhkhkays oS usksiqka w;r tlsfkld w;r neZo ;nd .kakd iudcuhue,shula f,i o fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d jk nejska fuys iudcuh ldrAhNdrfhys oSmqoa.,hka w;r iqyonj jO!kh lsrSfuys ,d is|= lrkakd jQ ldrAhNdrh ms<snZoj jspdr mQrAjlwjOdkh fhduq lsrSu w;sYhskau jeo.;ah usksia jsYajdihka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh,enSu ksid mqoa.,fhla ;j;a mqoa.,fhl`g fyda mqoa., fldgzGdYhlg wdlrAYkh fjz fuhisoaOdka;hla jYfhka i;Hjk lreKls m@fhda.slj ksrSCIKh fldg ne,Q l, o by; lSks.ukh yd tlZ.jSug wjldY ie,fikq we; jrA;udkfhys fukau YsIaGdpdrfhys b;du;auwe; hq.j, oS mjd usksia l@shdldrSFjh fu;a;d ixl,amh weiqrska fmdaIK jQ njg idOliemfha b;d we; w;S;fha oS f.da;@sl iudc i;`j lsishuz wd.usl ixfla;hla uZ.ska tlSf.da;@fhys ishZMu idudcslhka tlg neZo ;nd .kakd ,oS ta iZoyd tla tla f.da;@fhysidudcslhka w;r taldnoaO;djh uekjska mj;ajd .ekSu msKsi ta tla tla f.da;@hgu wkHkHjqKq wd.usl ixfla;hka" foaj ixl,amhka yd wNspdr jsOSka ksrAudKh jsh fu;a;d ixl,amhyd iuznJO wd.usl woyia iy wNspdr jsOSka wdruzN jQfha;a" l@udkQl~,j jrAOkh jkakgjQfha;a" tla tla mqoa.,hd w;r mej;sh hq;` jQ iudc iuznJO;dfjz udkqIsl iajrEmh ydwksjdrAhh;djh wE; w;S;fhys jsiQ usksia iudch mjd ms<sf.k ;snQ nejsks jrA;udkfhysiudch Tjqka jsiska w;am;a lr.kakd ,o fN#;sl oshqKqjg idfmaCIlj bosrshg hd hq;` jqj;a"uq,a hq.fhys mej;s iudc iuznJO;d mjd jrA;udk hq.h jk jsg msrsyS f.dia" nsZo jegS we;af;awiSus;j kQ;k usksid fm<fUk fl@daOh yd oafjzIh hk Ndjd;aul ixl,amhkays wdNdIhgk;`jSu ksidh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh Ndjs;dfjz we;s wfkla wka;h jkqfha usksiaiudch ksrdhdifhkau iyfhda.S iuznJO;djhka mj;ajkafka kuz Tjqka w;r iudciuznJOdjhka ms<snZo jQ .egZM wju kuz tlS iudcfhys jdih lrkakd jQ mqoa.,hka oksrdhdifhkau fu;a;d ixl,amh Tiafia iajlSh pska;kh fufyhjSug W;aiy lrkqfha ishiudc iuznJO;djhka uekjska mj;ajd .ekSu flfrys Tjqka olajk repsh ksidh tfukauiudc iuznJO;djhkag tla jk kj idudcslhka o ish merKs idudcslhkaj wkq.ukh lruska;uka jsiska o fu;a;d ixl,amh uekjska Ndjs;d lsrSug fydZoska yqre mqre|= fjz kuq;a fulSlreK jrA;udkfhys oS ta wdldrfhau l@shd;aul fkdfjz ta fjkqjg mqoa.,hd bosrsfhys we;af;a;ukag fkdue;s iem jsyrK wkHhska jsiska mrsyrKh lrkq n,uska Wkqka flfrys BrAIHdjnyq, fpz;kdfjka hqla;j iudc iuznJO;djhka f.dvkZ.d .kakd yd mj;ajkakd jQ mqoa.,hkaiukajs; jQ oaafjzIfhka |+Is; jQ fuz iudc moaO;shhs fuz iudc moaO;shg wh;ajk iudc ixia:diEu tllau mdfya fuz fya;`j ksid jrA;udk hq.h jk jsg" oreKq nsZo jegsulg ,laj iudciuznJO;d jskdY jS f.dia we; oshqKqfjys tlu yd wjidk ksrAKdhlh usksid jsiska w;am;alr.kakd ,o fN#;sl ixjrAOkh f,i ie,lSu ksid jrA;udk iduch fufia fuz wdldrfhka 214
  25. 25. oreKq lvd jegSulg yd uy;a iudcuh mrsydkshlg m;aj we; ta ksid fuz iudcfhysfjfikakka osjs f.jkqfha b;du;au oevs wiykfhka l< lsrSfuka yd |=llsks fuz fya;`j ksidjrA;udkfhys fndfyda fokd w;r wOsl reOsr mSvkh" oshjevshdj" ixlSrAK yDo frda." jsjsOiakdhq wdndO yd oreKq udkisl frda. ;;ajhka jrAOkhjSfuz iuzNdjs;dj wOsl jS ;sfnz fuzwhqrska mqo., ldhsl yd udkisl ;;ajh msrsyS hdug oafjzI uQ<slj lghq;` lrk" iudciuznJO;d mj;ajk jrA;udk usksia l@shdldrSFjhu m@Odk fya;`jla jS ;sfnz76 idudkHfhka usksia l@shdldrluzyeisrSuz ksrdhdifhkau md,khlska f;drj .,dhdugwjYHlrk bvlv ie,eiajqjfyd;a" th iudkHfhkaukqIHFjh jO!kh lrkakd jQ osYdjg fkdjukqIHFjfhka o my< ;srsika iFj ugzgu olajdl@shd;auljSfuz iuzNdjs;djla jsoHudk fjz kuq;a usksidnqoaOsuh w;ska wiia udkisl ugzgula yd oshqKqixialD;sl mrsirhla Wreu lr.kq ,enQ iFjfldgzGdYhls fuz fya;`j u; usksidf.a iEu iudciuznJO;djhlau Tyqf.a wdOHd;ausl yd ndysrYlH;djhkag yd;amiskau ieifZok mrsoafokaf.dvkZ.d .ekSug;a" mj;ajd .ekSug;a ksirA.l`i,;djhla usksid i;`jsh hq;`uh fuz ksirA.l`i,;djh udkjhd jsiska w;am;a lr.; hq;af;amd,khlska f;drj usksia wdl,am" wdfjzok yd usksial@shdldrluz ksoe,af,a is|= lsrsug bvoSu uZ.ska fkdj"jsOsu;a ixhuhla" md,khla iys;j ld,hla uqZM,af,ayqre mqre|= lrjSu uZ.sks udkj pska;kh" udkjffp;isl ugzgu huz ;;ajhlg ixjrAOkh lsrSug kuz m<uqj is;g ksrka;rfhka wiSus;j.,d tk is;sjs,s flfrys usksid ksrka;rfhka wjOsfhka yd isysfhka hqla;j lghq;` lsrSug yqremqre|= jS isgsh hq;`h tjsg mqo.,dka;r iuznJO;d f.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS yd mj;ajdf.k hEfuz oStla tla mqoa.,hdf.a ffp;isl ugzguz yd mqoa., fjzu;a;;djhg wkql~,jk mrsoafoka jrska jriudc iuznJO;d mj;ajkakd jQ rgdfjys iajrEmh jsp,kh lsrSu uZ.ska tys ukd meje;auiqrCIs; yd ia:sridr njg m;a l< yelsh77 fndfydajsg jkafka" fjkia jkakd jQ iudcuhmiq;,h fya;`fldg f.k mqoa.,hka ;`< iajNdjfhka mj;sk jsp,khjSug olajk wlue;siajrEmh ksidu fjkiajk iudcuh ;;ajh flfrys is; ;`< oafjzIhla Wmojdf.k ta wkqjlghq;` lsrSug mqoa.,hd fm<USuhs tjsg mqoa.,hka jsiska f.dvkZ.d .kakd yd mj;ajkakd jQiudc iuznJO;djhka idrA:ljSug we;s bvlv wju fjz 215
  26. 26. idrA:l iudc iuznJO;djhla iZoyd w;HdjYHu idOlh kuz yels;dla bjiSu;ud ;`< .`K Ou!hla f,i jO!kh lr .ekSug;a" us;@YS,S wdl,amj,ska hqla;j wkHhka iuZ.lghq;` lsrSug yqre mqre|= jSu;a fjz iudc iuznJO;d meje;ajSfuz oS yd kj iudc iuznJO;df.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS wkH mqoa.,hka ienjskau wfmaCId lrkqfha ;uka mj;ajkakd jQ fydaf.dvkZ.d .kakd jQ iudc iuznJO;djhka ;`<ska m<uq fldgu ;uka ;Dma;su;ajSu yd ;ukaf.awjYH;djhka tuZ.ska imqrd .ekSuhs tfia ;Dma;su;ajSu yd wjYH;djhka imqrd .ekSu ishZMfokdf.au wruqK kuz ishZM fokdu tl f,iskau tls wruqK YdlaId;a lr.ekSu iZoydffOrAhhu;aj ls@hdlrkafka kuz ishZM fokdgu ;uka n,dfmdfrd;a;`jk wruqK jk wd;au;Dma;sh yd wjYH;djhka bgqjSu hk lreKq iuzmQrAK lr.ekSfuz wjYH bvlv tuZ.ska,nd.; yelsjkq we; kuq;a ienjskau wm cSj;ajk ienE iudcfhys iajrEmh t;ruz idOdrKidulduS yd h:drA:jdoS fohla fkdfjz wixjsOs; iudc iuznJO;djhkaf.ka fyns fnfyjskaw;Dma;sfhka l,af.jk mqoa.,hka nyq, ixlSrAK iudchla wm yuqfjz we; ;ukan,dfmdfrd;a;` jkakd jQ ienE iekiSu yd ;Dma;sh ienjskau <Z.d lr .ekSug fndfydafofkl`g fyda gsl fofkl`g wjxlju wjYH jqj;a" iEu flfkl` ygu ta wjYH;djh tawdldrfhkau ienjskau we;ehs wmg iy;sl jsh fkdyelsh wmg ksrAjHdcj wjxlju mejiSugyels jkafka ta iZoyd wm;a huz muKl wjxl odhlFjhla Wmrsufhka oelajQjd hk ldrKhmuKs tfia kuz fiiq ish,a, ffojh u;g nerlr tys wjidk m@;sM,h brKug mjrd ksyZvjisgSu jsoHd;aul pska;khg mgyeksh iudc iuznJO;djhkays h:d iajrEmh fijSu ffojhgndr lrkjd kuz tys kshu ijrEmh jsoHd;aul miqnsulska fy<slr .ekSu iZoyd wjYH bvlvweysrS hkq we; kuq;a tf,i lsrSfuz wjYH;djhla ienjskau we;s fkdfjz kshu iudciuznJO;djhkays iajrEmh jsoHd;aul pska;kh uZ.ska myod .; yelsh jsoHd;au; pska;kfhysWmfhda.S;djh jkqfhao fuys oS iudc iuznJO;djhka ksis wdldrfhka jsurAYkhkag yiqlr.ekSu msKsi iyh jSuhs iudc iuznJO;djhkays meyeos,sj olakg ,efnk Okd;auljsmrAhdihka yg.efkkqfha th jvdla udkqIsluh uqyqKqjrlska hqla;j mj;sk l,h iudciuznJO;djhka udkqIsluh jYfhka usksia iudch ;`< fjfikakd jQ iEu mqoa.,fhl`ygupska;kuh m@fndaOh is;g tla lrhs fulS pska;kuh m@fndaOh fifkyi" f.#rjh" us;@YS,SiajNdjh" mfrdamldrh iy iyfhda.h jeks fmd|= nj .enzjqkq yeZ.Suz mdol lrf.k is|=lrkq,nkakd jQ prAhduh ,CIK uZ.ska neyerska jsoHdudk fjz jsoHd;aul pska;kh Tiafia iudcmoaO;shla js.@yfldg tys iuznJO;djhka w;r mj;akd udkqIsl uqyqKqjr fy<s fmfy<s lr.; yelsh udkqIsl uqyqKqjr yg.kq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh ,enSu ;`<sks idudkHfhka ps;a;fjz.sl yeZ.Sula fyda Ndjd;aul mCIfhys hulg wh;a jkixl,am jsYaf,aIKh lr jsjrKh lsrSu msKsi lsishuz jsoHdkQl~, jsOsl@uhla Ndjs;d l<fkdyel ufkda jsoHdfjzoS huz huz udkisl .;s ,CIK js.@y lr jsYaf,aIKh fldg oelajSumsKsi bjy,a lr.kq ,nkakd jQ l@ufjzohla f,i wod< ixl,amh we;s mqoa.,hdf.a iudcuhl@shdldrSFjh ndysrska ksrSCIKh lr ta wkqj jsjsO ks.ukhkaj,g t<USfuz yelshdjla mj;S 216
  27. 27. fuu l@ufjzoh idudkHfhka wF:! olajkq ,nkafka prAhdjdoh jYfhks ufkda jsoHdfjz jsjsOisoaOdka; yd uQ<OrAu f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a iFj l@shdldrSFjh fuz wdldrfhka ksrSCIKh lsrSu uZ.sks fuys we;euz isoaOdka; iFj l@shdldrSFjh weiqrska o we;euz isoaOdka; usksia l@shdldrSFjh weiqrska o iliaj we; mqoa.,.; prAhdj iduQysl prAhdjg n,mdkq ,nkafka fldhs wdldrfhkaoehs jsjsO mrAfhaIK uy;a rdYshla mqoa., lKavdhuz jsYd, m@udKhla Ndjs;d lsrSu uZ.ska ksrSCIKh fldg we; tfiau lKavdhuz prAhdjka mqoa.,.; prAhdj flfrys we;s lrjk n,mEu o fuysoS wjOdkhg ,lalr ;sfnz mqoa.,hd yd lKavdhuz flfrys n,mdk mrsir jeks fjk;a idOl flfrys o fuysoS ie,ls,a, fhduq jS ;sfnz lsishuz iudc moaO;shla ;`< o ta iudc moaO;sh ;`< fjfik udkjhkaf.a udkj l@shdldrSFjh yd Tjqka jsiska f.dv kZ.d .kakd jsjsO iudc iuznJO;djhkaj, iajrEmh jsOsu;aj jsYaf,aIKh lsrsu iZoyd Ndjs;d lrkq ,nk fuj,u f,i usksia udkisl l@shdldrSFjh msg;g fmkajk tlu iajrEmh jk ndysr prAhdjka oelajsh yelsh fuu ndysr prAhdjka ksrSCIKh lsrSfuzoS meyeos,ju fy<s jQ b;du;a jeo.;a lreKla jkqfha tlsfkld fj; ;oska wdldrAYKh jqKqtfiau b;d iyfhda.fhka osjs fmfj;la .; lrkq ,nk udkj lKavhuz ;`< jsjsOm@;sjsfrdaOdjhka w,amjsu fya;`fldgf.k Tjqka w;r mq|=udldr iuZ.shla ;snqKq nj yd tlSiuZ.sh fya;`fldgf.k tu iudc iuznJO;djhkaj, iajrEmh o jvd;a hym;a yd idulduSksrrAnqo tlla jQ njhs fuz wkqj tlS iudc moaO;sh ;`< fjfikakd jQ udkjhska Tjqfkdjqkatlsfkldg m@;s Wmldr lr.ksuska yels;dla wrAnqoj,ska jshqla;j osjs f.jhso tu iudchfu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh ,nd we;ehs ks.ukh l< yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amhkshudldrfhka l@shd;aul jkakd jQ iudch ika;Dma; iudchla jYfhka yZ|=kajdoSug o 78yelsh th wdrA:sl jsoHd kHdhkag wkql~,j yqfola NdKav yd fiajd mrsfNdackh uZ.ska ,efnkndysr ika;Dma;shg jvd oshqKq wNHka;r.; ix;Dma;shls fuu ix;Dma;sh Wmfhda.S;djhjYfhka wdrA:sl jsoHdj ;`< wF:! olajkq ,efnz flf;la wOsl;r iqL jsyrK f.kk NdKav ydfiajdjla jqj;a os.ska os.gu mrsfNdackh lsrSu ;`<ska usksidg ;j |=rg;a we;sjkqfha iqLhlafkdj lsishuz tmd jSuls l<lsrSuls fuh l@udkQl~,j we;sjkakla jk w;r fuys wdrA:sljsoHdfjz ySkjk Wmfhda.S;djh f,i js.@ylr olajhs nq|=iuh ;`< |=lL ,CIKh f,ioelafjkqfhao flf;la wOsl;r iqL jsyrKhla mjd os.ska os.g jskaokh lsrSfuzoS thskal<lsrSug m;ajk iajNdjhhs wiykldrS ;;ajhhs usksid NdKav yd fiajd mrsfNdackhlsrSfuka ,nkqfha o wjidk js.@yfha os udkisl i;`gu jk nejska iDcqju udkisl i;`gla 217
  28. 28. ix;Dma;shla NdKav yd fiajd mrsfNdackhlska f;drj ,nd.; yels kuz iajNdjfhkaf,dalfhys wdrA:sl NdKav yd fiajdjkaf.a ysZ.lu yd ta ysZ.;djh ksidu tajd Wkqka w;r;rZ.ldrS f,i w;am;a lr.ekSfuz wjYH;djh ksid yg.kq ,nkakd jQ w;Dma;slr wdYdjkaf.ka.yk jrA;udk iudchg fuuZ.ska ,nd.; yels udkisl iykh wus, fohla jkq we;79 usksiqka fndfyda jsg iudc iuznJO;d f.dvkZ.d .ekSfuz oS Tjqkaf.a fm#oa.,slreps wrepsluz yd wdfjzKsl usksia .;s iajNdjhka wkqj tajdg wkq.; jk mrsos" lghq;` lsrSugjevs keUqrejla olajk nj fkdfhla jsg ksrSCIKhg yiqj we;s ;j;a lreKls fuysos ;u;ukaf.a wdfjzKsl iajNdjhkag wkql~,jsu iZoyd orK ,o m@h;akhkays oS Tjqka jsiskaf.dvkZ.d .kakd ,o fyda f.dvkZ.d .ekSug huzlsis m@h;akhla orK ,o iudciuznJO;djhla fj;akuz tu iudc iuznJO;djhkays iajrEmh o jsOsu;a ;,fha isg wjsOsu;a;,hg ixl@uKh fjz fndfyda jsg iudc iuznJO;djhkays jsOsu;a iajrEmhla w;S;fhaoSg jvdjrA;udkfhys wju jkqfha iudc mrsKduKfhys oS mqoa., prAhdjka woyia yd iyc wdfjzKsliajNdjhka o ixlSrAK ;;ajhkaf.ka jsldYh fjuska meusKs nejsks tjsg iudcfhys fjfikakdjQ usksiqka w;r mj;akd jQ mqoa., prAhdfjz iajrEmh o jsmrs;j f.dia wjsOsu;a iajrEmhlgm;aj we; we;euzjsg jsOsu;a iuznJO;djhka meje;ajSug jvd;a repshla olajkakd jQ mqoa.,hkayd mqoa., lKavdhuz fuz fya;`fjka oevs wiSre;djhlg o uqyqK meug is|= fjz wjsOsu;aiuznJO;djhka mjka;d jQ mqoa.,hkaf.a prAhdj w;r lsishuz >gzGkhla iudc moaO;shla ;`< oSis|=jk nejska iudch o fjz.fhka ;j ;j;a jsmrAhdihkag ,lafjz fuz .egqu iodld,sl ydwksjdrAh .egquls mrsKdukh jSu hkqfjka wm yZ|=kajk jsldYh is|=jSug fun|= iudc >gzGkwksjdrAhh we; w;S;fha oS ;snQ iudch yd jrA;udk iudch w;r wo mj;sk jsYd, fjkiksrAudKh jS ;sfnkqfha fulS >gzGkfhys m@;sM,hla jYfhka hehs fmkajd osh yelsh fujeks>gzGk iudcfha jsldYhg Wojzjla usi ydkshla we;s fkdlrhs tfy;a iudcfhys fjfikakd jQfndfyda fofkla jsfYaIfhkau jevsuyZM mrmqr is;kqfha fuhska iudch jskdYhg m;ajk njhsiudch |+IKhg m;ajk njhs fuf,i iudc >gzGkhkaf.ka is|=jk w;`re jsmdl w;r fydZojsmdl fukau krl jsmdl o we; tys fydZo krl uZ.yer krl jsmdl foh muKla wjOdkhfhduq lr ta ieu jsglu iudc >gzGhkaf.ka iudch jskdY fj;ehs ks.ukhlg meusKSuw;sYhska u fnd<Zo jQjls fn#oaO ixorANh ;`< wks;H ,CIKh uZ.ska jsYaf,aIKh lrkq,nkafka o fulS >gzGkh ksid yg.efkk jsmrsKduS ;;ajhhs tysoS ksrka;rfhka fjkiajknj ishZM ixialdr Ou!hkays wksjdrAh ,CIKhla nejska th ms<sf.k ta wkqj iajlSh pska;khilialr .ekSu msKsi wjYHjk l@shdudrA.h meyeos,s lrfokq ,efnz fulS jsmrsKduS ,CIKhmqoa., ps;a; ika;dkh ;`< muKla fkdj bka neyer iudc mrsirfhys,d o tl f,iu jeo.;ajk nj nq|=iuh wjOdrKh lrhs iudc >gzGkhkaf.a fydZo m@;sM, Wodlrkafka fu;a;dixl,amh n,mEu uZ.ska jk w;r wys;lr m@;sM, Wodlrkafka fl@daOh" ffjrh" BrAIHdj"m<s.ekSfuz fpz;kdj jeks wdl,amhkaf.a n,mEu ksidh iudch fjkiajk nj yd iudc>gzGkh wksjdrAh fohla kuz thska Wlyd.; hq;af;a fydZo m@;sM, muKlau kuz iudcfhys 218
  29. 29. fjfikakd jQ ishZMu fokd ;`< cks; l< hq;af;a o jv jvd;a jO!kh l< hq;af;a o fu;a;dixl,amhhs fu;a;d ixl,amh ksid ;uka yd wkHhka w;r mj;skakd jQ iSudiys; wd;aurA:lduSudkisl mjqr is;ska bj;alr oud w;sYhskau mqZM,a ukilska iudch foi n,d lghq;` lsrSugusksiqka fm<fuz tjsg lKaydj" fl@daOh" BrAIHdj" udkh m<s.ekSfuz fp;kdj usksia is;a ;`<ska;`rkaj f.dia iuZ.sh" us;@Fjh" iyfhda.h yd iycSjkh usksiqka ;`<g m@fjzY fjz80 jsoHd;aul pska;kh Tiafia iudc iuznJO;d jsYaf,aIKh lsrSfuz oS uqyqK fokakg is|=jk B<Z. .egZMj jkqfha iudc >gzGkhka ;`<ska we;sjk m@;sM,j, iajNdjh ljrdldroehs ksrSCIKh lsrSuhs jsoHd;aul pska;kh ;u pska;k l@ufjzoh f,i Ndjs;dlrkq ,nk jsoHdZ{hska jsiska fuz iZoyd meyeos,s lrfokq ,nk Wmdh udrA.h kuz kj jsIhhka Tiafia pska;kh fufyhjSuhs tu jsIh kuz" iudc jsoHdjhs iudc jsoHdj kS;sh" wmrdO jsoHdj" wOHdmk jsoHdj" ufkda jsoHdj ikaksfjzoh jeks usksia l@shdldrluz ms<snZo js.@yhka jsoHd;aul pska;khg wkqj jsYaf,aIKh fldg js.@yfldg ne,Su wruqK lruska nsys jQ oDIaGSka ish,a, idudcSh jsoHdjka f,i jsoHdZ{hska jsiska wF:! olajd we; fuz hgf;a fuys tk ljr oDIaGshlskaj;a iudch js.@yl<;a" jsYaf,aIKh l<;a" is|=lr n,kafka usksia jgskdluz mdol lr.kakd ,o iudcix>gzGkhhkays w;`reM, ms<sno jsYaf,aIKhls81 tys kHdh isoaOdka; f.dvkZ.d we; ta Tiafiabosrs oelau ms<snZo ks.ukhkag meusKSu;a" l@u jsYaf,aIKh;a olakg ,efnz ta wkqj iudchms<snZo jsoHd;aul pska;kh mdol lrf.k jsYaf,aIKhla is|= lrkq ,nkafka iudc jsoHdZ{hskajsisks iudc jsoHdfjzoS Wml,amk" ksheos" iuzmrSCIK wdosh Ndjs;d lr.ksuska is|= lrkq,nkafka iudc jsoHd kHdh isoaOdka; weiqrska iudc l@shdldrSFjh uekjska wOHhkh lsrSuhsufkda jsoHdfjys prAhdjdoh js.@y lr oelajSfuz oS usksiqkaf.a yd i;`kaf.a ndysr prAhdrgdjkafjkiajk iajrEmh wkqj tu usksiqkaf.a yd i;`kaf.a ps;a;fjz.sl miqnsu iliajk wdldrhlsishuz jsHd;aul l@u fjzohlg wkqj fmkajd oSu msKsi jsoHd;aul pska;kh Ndjs;d lrkakdlafukau iudc jsoHdZ{hska jsiska lsishuz iudc moaO;shla ;`< udkjhkaf.a yeisrSuz rgdjkawOHhkh lsrSfuz wruqKska Wps; f,i iajlSh kHdhhka" yd isoaOdka; Ndjs;d lruska usksiaprAhdjka ms<snZoj huz huz ks.ukhkag t<USu iudc jsoHd;aul mrAfhaIKhkays ldrAhNdrh 219
  30. 30. fjz tu kHdh yd isoaOdka; uZ.ska if;HCIKh lrkq ,nkafka usksia yeisrSuzys huz huzjsp,Hhkah usksia yeisrSuzys wfmaCIs; ;;ajh kuz iyfhda.h yd iuZ.shhs82 fuh iudciuznJO;djhkays uq,au mqrelhs iudc taldnoaO;djh we;s jkafka iuZ.sh yd us;@YS,S yeZ.SuuZ.ska we;s lrkq ,nk iyfhda.h lrKfldg f.kh fuz wkqj fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;djSums<snZoj prAhdj uZ.ska uefkk m@;sM,h uZ.ska iudch flfrys fld;ruz |=rlg fu;a;dixl,amfhys wdNdIh ,nd ;sfnzo hkak lshfjz flfia fyda iudc moaO;shl idrA:l iudciuznJO;d f.dvkeZ.Sfuz ldrAhNdrfha oS fu;a;d ixl,amh b;du;au iqjsYd, jeo.;alula.kakd jQ ixl,amhla nj fuys m@;sM, uZ.ska ikd: fjz83 iudc foayhl huz jgskdlula ;SrKhjSu" jgskdlula we;s lrjSu yd ksYaps;f,i th Ndjs;d lsrSu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh wkqoekqu wkqj is|= fjz fu;a;d ixl,amhtys iudcuh jgskdlula wkqj b;du;a iqjsfYaIS ia:dkhl miqjk ixl,amhls iudciuznJO;djhkays jsoHd;aul iajrEmh h:drA:jdoS f,i jsYaf,aIKh lsrSu iZoyd;a" js.@yfldgoelajSu iZoyd;a fu;a;d ixl,amh idrA:l f,i bjy,a lrf.k we; fu;a;d ixl,amfhysmj;skakd jQ us;@YS,S nj iyfhda.h jeks lreKq idrA:l iudc iuznJO;djhla f.dvkeZ.SuiZoyd uy;a fia wdOdr Wmldrj;a fjz tfuka hym;a ps;a;fjz.sl wdl,amhka we;slr .ekSutfiau tjeks ps;a;fjz.hka mqoa., jYfhka iudcuh jYfhka M,odhsl f,i Ndjs;hg .ekSuiZoyd fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jsoHduk Wmfhda.S;djh lsisfia;a wu;l l< fkd yel fiiq ps;a;ixl,amhkag idfmaCIlj fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;fha oS meyeos,sju jsoHudkjk ir< nj;ameyeos,s l@shdldrSFjh;a mqoa., jsIu;djhlska f;drj Ndjs;fhys we;s iq.u iajNdjh;a ksidjeks iqjsfYaI;d .Kkdjla fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jgskdlu Tmj;a lrhs tfukau fu;a;dixl,amfhys wNHka;rfhys .enzjk nJOkSh iajNdjh ksidu" iudc taldnoaO;djh msKsiuy;a fia Wmfhda.S lr.; yels m@Odku ixl,amh f,i fiiq ps;a; ixl,amhka jO!khlsrSfuys,d mdol lr.ekSfuz yelshdj" fu;a;d ixl,amfhys nyq, jYfhka wka;rA.;h usksiapska;kh yd pska;k rgdj ilia lsrSfuz l@shdj<sfhys oS fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wka;rA.; huz huzm@cdkk" wdfjzok yd prAhduh ,CIK fiiq ps;a; ixl,amhka iuZ. b;du;a idrA:l f,iixfhdackh lsrSu uZ.ska jvd;a iudcdkqfhda.S ps;a; .;s iajNdjhka f.dvkxjd.; yelsh84 iudchla ia:r .Kkla yd fCI;@ .Kklska iukajs; moaO;shls moaO;shlatu fCI;@ rdYsh w;r iuznjO;d uy;a rdYshlska ilia jS we; tu iuznJO;djhka w;r neZoSumj;sk iajrEmh udkqIsl kuz tu moaO;sh ;`< fjfik ishZM udkjhskag th iqjodhs njla ysusjSug lreKls kuq;a huz fyhlska fyda ishZM iuznJO;djhkays jsYajikSh iajNdjh udkjohdj yd udkj ys;jdoS nj /ZoS mj;skafka w;sYhskau ixfjzoSjQ;a ysff;IS jQ;a udkj iuznJO;dmoaO;shla w;frys muKs85 tfia fkdjqkq l< tlS udkj iuznJO;djhkays iajrEmh yqfolahdka;@sl l@shdldrSFjhlg muKla iSud jkq we;86 tfia jk l< tlS udkqIsl iuznJO;djhkaysh:d iajrEmh jsh hq;`jQ <f;;a nj uqiqjqkq us;@YS,S wdl,amh flfrka th |=riaj hkq we; 220
  31. 31. udkqIsl iuznJO;djhl ffcjuh meje;aula o we; ishZM cSjSkaf.a ffcj l@shdldrSFjfhysOkd;aul mCIh rZod mj;skqfha usksid ffcj ys;jdoS nj flfrys olajk ys;lr wdl,amhu;h th ienjskau tfia fkdjqkq l, ta meje;afuys iunr;djh |=re jS hhs usksidg fuzusys;,h u; meje;aula we;af;a usksia l@shdldrSFjh iunr njlska ffcj ys;jdoS nj flfrysolajk Okd;aul wdl,amh Wv muKs87 tfia is|= fkdjk l< usksia iajNdjh yqfola hdka;@sliajrEmfhka usksi;a nj udkqIsl nj us;@YS,S nj jshelS hd kuz tjsg wys;lr whqrskamrsjrA;khg ,lajk nj nq|=iufhys wjOdrKh lr ;sfnz ngysr oekqu yd tu wdl,am usksid we;`ZM fiiq iuia; iFj m@cdj mrsirfhkajshqla; fldg is;kakg wkqn, yd osrs fok l, nq|= oyu we;`ZM fmros. ixialD;sh mrsirhusksid we;`ZM ffcjSkaf.ka jshqla; fkdlr th yqfola tlu moaO;shla f,i is;kakg yd ta wkql@shdlrkakg wkqn, ,nd fohs fuu pska;kh jsOSka folskau jvd;a ffcj ys;jdoS nj ,ndfokafka nq|=iuh m@uqL fmros. ixialD;sh nj fmkajd osh yelsh fmros. ixialD;sh ;`<;ajvd;a nq|=iuh ;`< fuu mrsirh iuznJO idlpzPd fnfyjska is|= jQ nj nqoaO foaYkd wkqjmeyeos,s fjz88 uq,a nq|=iufhys iZoyka mrsir ys;jdoS iajrEmh nq|=iuh b;du;a iS>@fhkaixialD;sl .;jSu flfrys ;oskau n,mdk ,o lreKls nqoaO foaYkd ;`< ksrka;rfhkauiZoyka jkafka usksid ;uka flfrysu;a wkH cSjSka flfrys;a mrsirh flfrys;a mej;sh hq;`us;@YS,S wdl,amhhs udkj ys;jdoS njska hqla;j oevs us;@YS,S ms<sfj;la wkq.ukh lsrSu ;`<skauZ.ska muKla usksidg usysu; u; jvd;a iunr iqjodhs osjs fmfj;la .; l< yels nj tys oSfmkajd oS ;sfnz89 tfiau tjka usksfil`yg fndfyda frda.dndO wju nj o ishZM f,#lsl oshqKqjTyq lrd b;du;au blaukska <Z.d jk nj o jevs |=rg;a fmkajd oS ;sfnz usksia yeisrSuz us;@YS,Swdl,amhlska hqla;j iliajsh hq;` wdldrh wfkl`;a ukqIHhska yd ffiq iFjhska iuZ. l@shdl<hq;` iajrEmh uekjska jsYaf,aIKh lsrSu uZ.ska o meyeos,s lrfokq ,nkqfha us;@YS,S yeisrSuzrgdj iudc iuznJO;d meje;ajSfuz oS yd mj;ajkakd jQ iudc iuznJO;djhka jsOsu;awdldrhlska ilia lr.ekSfuzys oS mej;sh hq;` jQ yd iliajsh hq;` jQ iajrEmhhhs tfiau Bgwod< jkakd jq fiiq .`Kdx.hka o biau;` fldg olajd we;90 usksiqka ;`< iajlSh ps;a; wNHka;rfhys we;s jk yd we;s jsh yels wys;lrwdl,am" ixl,am" wdfjzok iukhlg m;alr iqjodhs udkisl iajNdjhlska iukajs; jSu ;`<skaiym;a iudc iuznJO;d f.dvkZ.d .ekSu msKsi jvd;a Wps; udkisl jgdmsgdjla ;uka ;`<ksrAudKh lr .; yels wdldrh nq|=iuh jsia;r lr fohs fulS usksia yeisrSuz rgdfjys;sfnkakd jQ wdfjzokd;aul iajrEmh mjd ilia jsh hq;af;a o Ndjd;sYh jsh hq;af;a o us;@YS,Smiq;,hla u; nj fmkajd fokq ,nhs usksid iajNdjfhkau wdfjzokYS,S iFjfhl` kuz Tyqf.apska;k ud;@hka mej;sh hq;` jkafka wdfjzokhka iukh jk whqrsks91 ;on, wdfjzokhkaf.kamsreKq wdfjzokYS,S yeisrSuz rgdjka iys; usksiqka iykYS,S iudc rgdjlg Wps; fkdjkq we;tnZ|= mqoa.,hka iudcfhys jdih lsrSu lsisfjl`yg keje;ajsh fkdyel tfiakuz tnZ|= 221
  32. 32. mqoa.,hkayg iudc moaO;sh ksrjq,aj meje;su msKsi lsishuz fjfyila ord iajlSh wdfjzokhkausksia iudchg ys;lr jk iajrEmfhka kej; ilialr .ekSug Wps; udrAf.damfoaYkhnq|=iuh uZ.ska ,ndfoa nq|=iuh uZ.ska tnZ|= mqoa.,hkayg ,ndfokakd jQ fulS udrAf.damfoaYkjsOsl@uhka lsisfia;au ;djld,sl jsiZ|=uz f,i ie,lsh fkdyelafla tlS ieu jsOs l@uhlau uekjskaw;ayod n,d w;sYhskau m@fhda.slj m@;HCI fldgf.k bka wk;`rej fmkajd fokq ,nkl@ufjzohla nejsks tfiau tu l@ufjzohka ilaij we;af;a Bg ksis nqoaOsuh mrsmdlh fhda.Hwhqrska we;s ish is;a i;kays lsis|= wys;lr wdfjzokhla fkdue;s ishZM wys;lr wdfjzohkaiajlSh is;a i;ka ;`<ska uqZM ukskau m@ySK l<d jQ W;`uz mqoa.,hkaf.a cSjk w;aoelSuz weiqrska jSutys m@fhda.sl jgskdluz ;j;a Tma kxjhs92 nq|=iuh usksiqka yd Tjqkaf.a pska;khka flfia iliajsh hq;`oehs fmkajd fokq,nkafka o iudcuh jsma,jhla we;slrkq ,enqfha o lsis|= ysxiduh l@shdudrA.hlg wj;SrAKfkdfjuska jSu nq|=iufhys we;s b.ekajSuzj, jgskdlu f,djg fmkajd oSuls tfiau uq,skauiudch fjkia lsrSu mfil ;nd mqoa.,hka fjkia lsrSu yd uekjska ilia lsrSu Tiafia iudchfjkia lsrSu yd iudc .uka uZ. ksjeros osYdjlg ilia lsrSu is|= lr we; nq|=iuh wkqjjvd;au jeo.;a jkqfha tla tla mqoa.,hd i;`j we;s pska;khhhs iudc l@shdldrSFjh js.@ylsrSfuz oS yd iudch jsiska f.dvkZ.df.k we;a;d jQ jsjsO iudc ixl,amj,g kj wF:!l:kbosrsm;a lsrSfuz oS mj;skakd jQ l@ufjzohg uqZMukskau wjk; fkdfjuska yd m@;sfCIamfldguqZMukau fy<d oelSulska f;drj wjYH wdldrhg mj;skakd jQ iudc ixl,am ioyd nq|=r|=kajsiska iajlSh kj wF:! js.@yhka Bg iq|=iq Wmdh udrA.hka Ndjs; fldg bosrsm;a lrwe; fuzfya;`j ksidu nq|=iuh b;du;au flgs l,lska iuia; Ndr;h mqrdu jsYd, f,i jHdma; jQ njft;sydisl idOl jsoHudkh93 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys we;s nsh jsrys; Ndjh ksidu th m@Z{dj W;amdo lsrSfuys,d iu;a luz olajhs nsh we;s jsg ishZM nqoaOsh hgm;a fjz yeZ.Suz biau;` jS nqoaOsh hgm;a jknejsks kuq;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhys mj;skakd jQ hg;a fkdjkakd jQ iajNdjh ;`< biau;` jkakdjQ m@Z{dj uZ.ska nsh ;`<ska we;s jk nqoaOsuh wdjrKh |=re lrkq ,nkafka kej; thyg.ekajSug fya;`jk ufkdauh uQ<hka o isZo nsZo ouusks fulS ufkda uq<hka yg.ekajSu msKsiNdjs;djk m@Odk;u fya;~ka jk oafjzIh wdYdj yd uq<dj hk idOl ;`k uq,skqmqgd oukq ,nhsishZM fida |=la ixld yg.kq ,nkqfha fulS idOl ;`fkys n,mEug k;`jSh iudcuh cSjs;h ;`<oS nsh rys; Ndjh iudc taldnoaO;djh flfrys w;sYhskau bjy,a fjz uq,skau mqoa.,fhl` ;ud;`< nsh rys; iajNdjhla we;s lr .ekSu uZ.ska ;j |=rg;a tlS mqoa.,hd ygu iudch jsIfhysnsh rys; iajNdjhla we;s lr.ekSu flrys n,mdkq ,nhs iudc.; osjsh mqrdj nsh rys;iajNdjh uQ,slju yg.kq ,nk fu;a;d ixl,amh m@Z{dj wjOslrkq ,nhs m@Z{d iuzmkakmej;`uz we;s mqoa.,hd iuia; iudch flfrysu;a ;uka flfrys;a nsh fkdolskakd jQmqoa.,fhl` njg m;ajkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ukd wdNdIh ksiduh tfukau iuia; 222
  33. 33. iudcuh cSjs;g wF:! iuzmkak jkqfha o fulS nsh rys; njlg mqoa., osjs meje;au mrsjrA;khjQ l,uh94 ienjskau mxpYS, m@;smodfjka wF:!j;a jkqfha o fujeks nsh rys; iudcuhjgdmsgdjla usksidg Wreu lr oSuh usksid iajNdjfhkau wfkla ishZM iFj jrA.hd fukau nsh;ukaf.a fod;ska /f.k meusfKk cSjsfhls boska usksidf.a idudkH iajNdjh jQ nsh iys; nj|=re lrkq ,nkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh iuia; iudchuh l@shd;drSFjh ;`< iq,Njh oelsh yels,CIKhla njg mrsjrA;kh jQ l,uh hg;a msrsfihska iudcfhys cSj;a jk tla mqoa.,fhl`fyda fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d lsrSu tlS iudch nsh rys; m@Z{d iuzmkak iudchla njg m;alsrSfuz uq<sl wvs;d,u njg m;a lrjsh yelsh wk;`rej ishZMu mqoa.,hkaf.a fu;a;d ixl,amjrAOkh uZ.ska ;j |=rg;a iudcuh Ndjs;dj yd iudcuh taldnoaO;djh jv jvd;a m@p,s;lsrSug yd ixjrAOkh lsrSug yelshdj ,efnkq we;95 usksia iudch jsgska jsg fkdfhl`;a mrsjrA;kSh iajNdjh ,la jSu jsYajidOdrK jQ OrAu;djhla f,iska ie,fla fjkia fkdjkakd jQ iudchla ;nd fjkia fkdjkakdjQ lsishuz uQ< modrA:hlaj;a fkdue;s hehs ie,flk nejsks boska iudch wkjr;fhka fulSfjkia jSfuz l@shdj<shg uqyqK mdhs kuz tnZ|= fjkiajSula ;`< usksid iudcfhys fiiq mqoa.,hkaiuZ. lghq;` lsrSfuz oS jv jvd;a us;@YS,S osjs meje;aulg fhduq jSu uZ.ska fjkia jkakd jQ usksiaixl,amh yd wdl,am l@udkQl~, wkaouska usksidf.a ffp;isl ixjrAOkh msKsi odhl lr.ekSfuz jsYd, iuzNdjs;djla we;s nj fmfkkakg ;sfnz fjkiajSu ;`<u usksia yeisrSuz ydl@shdldrSFjhka wkHhkaf.a ys; iqj ie,iSfuz wruqK lrd fhduq jQ jsg tu fjkiajSu usksidguy;a wdYsrAjdohla lr.; yelsh96 jrA;udkfhys fulS iudcfhys jsp,H;djh fu;a;dixl,amh weiqfrka ilia lr fkd.ekSfuz nshlre m@;sjsmdlh kuz hf:dla; fjkiajSuixialD;sl iudcuh yd fm#oa.,sl jYfhka tla tla mqoa.,hd flfrys yd iuia; iudchflfrys;a b;du;au wys;lr wkaouska n,md we;s iajNdjhka jsoHudk jSuhs fjkiajSu ;`< usksiayeisrSfuz ys m@;scdkkd;aul md,kh yd ixjsOdkh uZ.ska tlS fjkialu usksidf.au hym;iZoyd Ndjs;d lr.ekSug yelshdj we;s w;r tlS wruqK fu;a;d ixl,amh mdolj l@shd;auljsh hq;`h97 usksia yeisrSuz uZ.ska iudch fj; is|= jkakd jQ whym;a n,mEu wju lr.ekSfuzwruqKska hqla;j th lsishuz jsOsl@uhlg wkqj f.dvkeZ.Su w;HjYH fjz tfiau usksia yeisrSuziudc m@.ukh lrd jsOs wdldrfhka odhl lr.ekSfuz jHdhduh o fuhska is|= jSu wfmaCId l<hq;` fohls tfiau lsishuz wd.usl ixl,am moaO;shlg iSud jQ fldg oelajsh fkdyels irAjld,Sk yd irAj idOrK wdpdr Ou! moaO;shla jsh hq;`h mxpYS, m@;smodfjys jsoHudk jkwdpdr Ou! moaO;sh uZ.ska iudch fj; ;s<sK lrkq ,nkafka o fulS wjYH;dhjhka iZoydirs,k wdldrfha jsiZ|=uls iEu iudc wjYH;djhlau mqoa., wjYH;djhla fkdfjz tfiau iEumqoa., wjYH;djhlau iudch wjYH;djhla o fkdfjz kuq;a iEu mqoa., wjYH;djhlau iudcwjYH;djhla iuZ. o iEu iudc wjYH;djhlau mqoa., wjYH;djhla iuZ.u lsishuz 223
  34. 34. iajrEmhlska iuznJO fjz we;euz jsg fulS iuznJO;djfhys iajrEmh u;`msgska jsoHdudk jQjlajsh yels w;r we;euz jsgl oS ta wdldrfhka u;`msgska fkdj wNHka;rj jsysfok iajNdjhla jshyelsh we;euz jsgl oS fuz fohdldrfhys iuznJO;djhka mjd jsoHudk jsh yelsh mqoa.,wjYH;djhka yd iudc wjYH;djhka w;r lsishuz iduQysl njla tlZ.Fjhla we;s lr.ekSufu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska is|= flfrA fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh Ndjs;dj ilia jkqfha o fuzwdldrfhka mqoa., yd iudc ixorANfhys ,d th l@shd;aul jk iajNdjh wkqjh fu;a;dixl,amfhys mqoa., yd iudc l@shdldrSFjh tl iudk jeo.;a lulska hqla; njla .enz jSmj;S us;@YS,S nj kshu jYfhka oelajSu hkqfjka woyia lrkqfha ;uka yd wkHhka w;rm@cdkk iduHhla f.dvkZ.d .ekSu jk nejsks tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdkkh nqoaOsf.dapr iajNdjhla .kq ,nk w;r tuZ.ska ishZM wdldrfha oDIaGSka w;yer ksoyi udkjhd ygWreu fldg fohs usksia l@shdldrSFjh iuia; ffcj ys;jdoS nj u; mokuz jk jsg muKlafu;a;d ixl,amh mQrAK jYfhka iudcfhys uq,a nei .kafka hehs ks.ukh l< yels jkq we;i;H jYfhkau mqoa., fjzu;a;;djh ffcj jsjsOFjh jeks idOl mej;sfha jqj o ishZMfjkialuz Nskak repslFjhka mfil ,d iduQyslFjh ;`<ska Tmj;a jQ us;@YS<S wdl,amhkaf.kaiukajs; jsYajSh m@cdjla ilia lsrSfuys ,d fu;a;d ixl,amh ,nd fokafka fkduZo msgqjy,lsfu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh Ndjs;dj by< w.hl mj;ska jsg oS muKla th iduQysliudchla jYfhka yeZoskajSu jvd;a ksrjoH jkq we; fuhska woyia jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amhjshqla; ixl,amhla fkdj fnfyjska m@fhda.sl ;,fhys rZod mj;akd jQ w.hla njhs fu;a;dixl,amfhys jgskdlu ;j |=rg;a Tma kexfjkafka th m@cdkk me;slv blaujd wdfjzok;,fhys mjd ish il@Sh odhlFjh ,ndfok wdldrfhks lsishuz iudc moaO;shl oS m@cdkkfCIa;@hg iu.duSj thg iudk w.hla wdfjzok me;slv fj; ;s<sK lrkq ,nk fyhskafu;a;d ixl,amh ishZMu jsp,Hhka ;`<kh lrkq ,nk jgskdluz tlajr ,ndfokq ,nkixl,amhla f,i oelajsh yelsh fndfyda ixl,amhka j, fuz jgskdlu oel.; fkdyels w;rw.hkays jsp,Hhka w;r fulS .e,mSu o jsoHudk fkdfjz iudcuh Ndjs;djl oS fujeks .e,mSuzwe;s ixl,amhl we;s w.h fuz ksid wjsjdos;h98 tfiau iudchla hkq fkdfhla wdldrfha Nskak repshlFjhka yd NskakwjYH;djhka iys; msrsilf.ka iukajs; ixia:duh fohla nejska tjka msrsila ksr;`rejuix;Dma; lsrSu Tjqfkdjqkaf.a wka;rA l@shdldrSFjh uZ.skau is|= jsh hq;a;la ksid ta wka;rAl@shdldrSFjh irAj iudkj yd idOdrK wdldrfhka is|= jSug wjYH miq;,h fu;a;d ixl,amhuZ.ska ksrka;rfhka ilia lr fokq ,nhs99 fuz fya;`j ksid fu;a;d ixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjhidudkHfhka us;@Fjfha iSudfjka Tnzng;a jsyso me;sr hkaklaa fjz iudc foayhl ksrjq,ameje;au ia:sr jYfhkau rZod mj;afka tlS iudch fld;ruz |=rlg fu;a;d ixl,amh fuzwdldrfhka Ndjs;hg f.k ish meje;au ta Tiafia ilia lr .kakjdo hkak u;hs fu;a;dixl,amfhys iudcuh w.h fuz fya;`j ksid wksjdrAhfhkau mqoa., w.h wNsnjd fmruqK.ekSug iu;a fjz100 tfiau fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wjidk mrudrA:uh ksIaGdj yd ixl,amSh 224
  35. 35. l~Gdm@dma;sh is|= jkafka th yels;dla iudc.; jSu ;`< yd th flfia flf;la |=rlg wkHhkajsIfhys irAj idOrK jkafka o hk lreK u;h101 fuz fya;` ksid fu;a;d ixl,amfhysjHdma;sh yd iSudjka l`ulaoehs mQrAjfhka jsksYaphkg t<Ush yels fkdfjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhysiSudjka yd jHdma;sh wdruzNl uq,a woshr ;`< fiiq ixl,amhkays fuka jqj;a tys wjidk ydl~Gdm@dma;s wjia:djka ixl,amSh iSudjka w;sl@uKh lruska talFjh lrd <Z.d jkakla fjz fuysidlpzPdjk talFjh jkdyS mQrAK flduskshqiagz yd iudcjdoS iudcj, jHqyhkays mrudorAYf,i ie,flk iudcfhys ndysrska jsoHudk jk jsjsO iudc ixia:d yd iudc iuQy w;rjsoHudk jsjsO;djhka wfydaislr oeuSu ;`<ska iudc foayfhys u;`msg ia:rh fjkia lsrSumuKlau woyia fkdfjz fuys talFjh hkafkka woyia jkqfha mqoa., m@cdkk me;slv fukauiudcuh m@cdkk me;slv o tl f,iu tlu mrudorAYhla jgd f.dkq lsrSug huzlsis idOrKm@h;akhla .ekSuhs fuh iudc foayfhys ndysr iajrEmh iudk lsrSug jvd b;du;au wmyiqjQjla jk w;r kuq;a Bg jvd fnfyjska m@dfhda.sl jQjla o fjz tnejska ndysr fjkia lsrSulgjvd iudch wNHka;rslj fjkia lsrSug m@h;ak oerSu wiSre jQjla hehs yd iuyr jsgl oS lsisf,ilska fkdyels jQjla hehs fmfkkag ;snqK;a th b;du;au m@dfhda.s; jQjla jk w;r l<hq;`u foh jkqfha o thhs iudch ndysrska fjkialsrSulg m@Odk fuj,u f,i oafjzIh mdollr.ksuska lsishuz udkj >gzgkhla is|= lsrSu wjYH jk w;r iudcfhys wNHka;r jsma,jhlais|= lsrSu iZoyd wjYH jkafka mqoa., ps;a; ika;dkh jsOsu;a mrsos ksjd ouuska wkHhka ms<snZoixfjzoS iajNdjhla ukfiys we;s jSug bvlv ,efnk mrsos fu;a;d ixl,amh yels;dla Ndjs;dlsrSu msKsi udkjhka fm<USuhs fuu fm<Uqfuys wksjdrAhfhkau m@OdkFjh bis,sh hq;af;aiudcfhys cSj;ajk mqoa.,hka fldhs ljqre;a ;u ;ud jsiskauh tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amhNdjs;d l< hq;af;a o ;uka jsiskau nj iudcfhys fjfik wkHhkayg o ta;a;` .efkk mrsoslghq;` lsrSug ishZM fokdygu fjka fjka mqoa.,sl j.lSula wksjdrAhfhkau we;102 fuz j.lSuziys;Ndjh rZod mj;skakd jQ iajrEmh u; yd ;ukayg tfia lsrSfuka ,efnk iudcuhm@;s,dNh flf;ruz jsYd, o hkak fydZoska wjfndaO jQ jsg usksiqka ;j |=rg;a fu;a;d ixl,amhNdjs;d lsrSu iZoyd W;aiyfhka fm<Ush hq;` fkdfjz103 fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh Ndjs;djtfia iudcuh Ndjs;dj ;`<ska ,efnk Wmfhda.S;djh u;u rod mj;akjd jskd ndysr fm<UqulauZ.ska mqoa.,hka ;`<g megjsh yelalla fkdfjz104 usksia YsIaGdpdrfhys wdruzNfha isgu jrA;udkh olajd wkql@ufhka mejf;kiudcuh jrAOkh ;`< oS jvd;a jeo.;a jQ ldrKh jkqfha usksid jrA;udkh jk jsg usysu;skajZo jS fkdf.dia b;srs jQfha usksia iudch fnfyjska iduQyslj cSj;a jQ jevs msrsilf.ka iukajs;jSu ksid hk lreKhs usksid iajNdjfhkau .egqulska f;drj osjs fmfj; .;lsrSugrepslFjhla olajkafkls usksia YsIaGdpdrfhys wE; w;S;fha isgu ta ta f.da;@sl ixfla;hka f,ius;@ ixl,amh jsjsO iajrEmfhka Ndjs;djSu wkqj fmkS hkafka o fulS woyihs fu;a;dixl,amfhys oDIHudk iajNdjh us;@ hkqfjka ksrEms; foajFjhlg kxjuska thg .re i;aldrlrkjd hkafkys wF:!h jkqfha us;`re nj iudcfhys mj;ajdf.k hkakg lsishuz 225

×