Irrigation water recycling in the greenhouse

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Presented at the 2013 Utah Green Conference sponsored by the Utah Nursery and Landscape Association, 28 January 2013.

The entire slide set was recorded with audio and you can view it at: http://youtu.be/GCd6P85dBmg

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Irrigation water recycling in the greenhouse

  1. 1. Greenhouse WaterRecycling and Reusing Water Steven E. Newman, Ph.D., A.A.F. Greenhouse Crops Extension Specialist and Professor of Floriculture Colorado State University Extension
  2. 2. Water QualityWater is the one factor that will more than likely ultimately control the population growth of ColoradoWater is also one of the major factors of a greenhouse that influence crop productivityWater quality is just as important as water quantity
  3. 3. Water Quality Greenhouses get their water from three sources: – Agricultural wells
  4. 4. Water Quality Greenhouses get their water from three sources: – Agricultural wells – Surface irrigation canals or reservoirs
  5. 5. Water Quality Greenhouses get their water from three sources: – Agricultural wells – Surface irrigation canals or reservoirs – Municipal providers • well or surface
  6. 6. How do we measure water quality? Alkalinity Salinity pH Sodium Absorption Ratio Specific Ions Suspended Solids
  7. 7. Alkalinity The ability to neutralize acid (meq·L-1) or ppm (upper limits) – 2 meq·L-1 = 100 ppm alkalinity as total carbonates – 122 ppm bicarbonates (HCO3 ) 1 meq·L-1 = 122 ppm – Hardness (Ca + Mg) 150 ppm as CaCO3 Restrictions to use: – <2 None – 2-8.5 Slight to moderate – > 8.5 Severe
  8. 8. Salinity Total dissolved solids Measured by electrical conductivity – determined by passing a current through the solution and determining its electrical conductance – units are millimhos/cm, or – decisiemens/meter (dS/m)
  9. 9. Irrigation Water Sanitation Pythium Plant pathogens have been found in irrigation water Fusarium NematodesPhytophthora Tobacco mosaic virus Erwinia
  10. 10. Irrigation Water and FungicidesFungicides are often considered to be the grower’sfirst line of defense.• Intended to be applied to the substrate• May be applied through the irrigation system• Blending with irrigation is a violation of the label
  11. 11. Irrigation Water DisinfectionUV-C SterilizationHeat TreatmentChlorinationOzone TreatmentHydrogen Peroxide
  12. 12. Ultraviolet (UV) RadiationUV-radiation is electro- Visible light 200magnetic energy between and 400 nm200 and 400 nm
  13. 13. UV Radiation UV Radiation UV-A UV-B 315-400 nm 290-315 nm Smog, fades Effects plants fabrics and animals UV-C 220-290Movie courtesy of the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Absorbed byCenter Scientific Visualization Studio ozone layer
  14. 14. UV-C Sterilization UV-C dose assuming Plant Diseases 25% clarity Priva@ Vialux system Bacteria, nematodesPythium, Phytophthora 80 and Fusarium Pepino mosaic virus 150 Other viruses 250 0 50 100 150 200 250 2 UV-C dose (mJ/cm ) H 310 Greenhouse Management
  15. 15. UV-C for Greenhouse Irrigation H 310 Greenhouse Management
  16. 16. Vialux Disinfection System H 310 Greenhouse Management
  17. 17. Vialux Disinfection SystemMultimedia Acid injectionfilter H 310 Greenhouse Management
  18. 18. Vialux Disinfection SystemUV-C Lampchamber H 310 Greenhouse Management
  19. 19. Issues With UV-C Disinfection Issues: • Turbidity • Scale • No residual disinfection H 310 Greenhouse Management
  20. 20. Heat Pasteurization of Water Heat Pasteurization 203 F for 30 seconds H 310 Greenhouse Management
  21. 21. Heat Pasteurization of WaterHot water pasteurization for greenhouse irrigation water H 310 Greenhouse Management
  22. 22. Cost of Heat Pasteurization Natural Gas Consumption 270-530 ft3 fuel / 100 gallons water or 3-5 therms / 100 gallons water H 310 Greenhouse Management
  23. 23. Oxidation ReductionOxidation is defined as anincrease in the positiveoxidation number with acorresponding loss of electronsReduction is a decrease inthe positive number ofions with a correspondinggain in electrons H 310 Greenhouse Management
  24. 24. Industrial Oxidizing CompoundsCommon industrial oxidizers and their potential relative to chlorine Oxidation potential Oxidation relativeOxidant (mV) to chlorineFluorine 3,050 2.25Ozone 2,070 1.52Hydrogen peroxide 1,780 1.31Potassium permanganate 1,680 1.25Chlorine dioxide 1,570 1.15Chlorine 1,360 1.00Bromine 1,070 0.70 H 310 Greenhouse Management
  25. 25. Hypochlorous Acid and pHWater solutions of sodium hypochlorite and its impact onoxidation reduction potential and pH Oxidation potential NaOCl (%) (mV) pH Water 210 6.8 0.3 715 8.9 0.5 690 9.6 1.0 655 10.1 1.5 630 10.6 2.0 599 11.2 3.0 570 11.7 H 310 Greenhouse Management
  26. 26. Oxidation Reduction and pH OCl- pH HOCl H 310 Greenhouse Management
  27. 27. Oxidation Reduction and pH Acid injectionRegal geraniumstock plants ------------------Hypochlorousacid injected intoirrigation water H 310 Greenhouse Management
  28. 28. Oxidation Reduction and Cl Colorado Greenhouse Example --------------------- With acid injection ORP=825 mV Free Cl=1.4 Total Cl=2.25 H 310 Greenhouse Management
  29. 29. ORP and Pathogen SurvivalPathogen survival from laboratory simulations and hydrocooler studies according to Suslow (2003) Survival at ORP (mV)Pathogen < 485 550<X<620 >665E. coli O157:H7 > 300 s < 60 s < 10 sSalmonella spp. > 300 s > 300 s < 20 sL. monocytogenes > 300 s > 300 s < 20 sThermotolerant coliform > 48 hr > 48 hr < 30 s H 310 Greenhouse Management
  30. 30. ORP Measurement and ChlorinePanel Mount with Installed Handheld ORP Electrode ORP Meter $135-$150 Free Chlorine H 310 Greenhouse Management
  31. 31. Chlorine SourcesSources Chlorine reaction in waterChlorine gas Cl2 + H2O 4 HCl + HOClSodium hypochlorite NaOCl + H2O 4 NaOH + HOClCalcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2 + 2 H2O 4 Ca(OH)2 + 2 HOClChlorine dioxide HOCl+HCl+2NaClO2 4 2ClO2+2NaCl+H2O H 310 Greenhouse Management
  32. 32. Chlorine Gas Chlorine Gas -------------------------- Cheapest sourceInject at 25-200 ppmMost active pH 6-7.5Dangerous to handle H 310 Greenhouse Management
  33. 33. Sodium Hypochlorite Chemical InjectorsH 310 GreenhouseManagement
  34. 34. Hypochlorous Acid (OxcideTM)MeteringPumps H 310 Greenhouse Management
  35. 35. Calcium Hypochlorite High volume systemTabletreservoir HOCl concentrate H 310 Greenhouse Management
  36. 36. Calcium Hypochlorite Medium volume system Water StorageTabletfeeder H 310 Greenhouse Management
  37. 37. Chlorine Dioxide Gas pure membraneSodiumchloritefrom storage 25x more active + than chlorate No Cell Water trihalomethanes Water Pump Weak caustic Control - soda system H 310 Greenhouse Management
  38. 38. Ozonation of Irrigation WaterOzone occurs naturally-------------------------------LighteningAutomobile exhaustArc weldersCopy machines Single bond of ozone is unstable and will oxidize organic materials H 310 Greenhouse Management
  39. 39. Ozone Generator Electrode chambersAir inletO3 outlet Air pump H 310 Greenhouse Management
  40. 40. Ozone GeneratorH 310 GreenhouseManagement
  41. 41. Hydrogen PeroxideCommon industrial oxidizers and their potential relative to chlorine Oxidation potential Oxidation relativeOxidant (mV) to chlorineFluorine 3,050 2.25Ozone 2,070 1.52Hydrogen peroxide 1,780 1.31Potassium permanganate 1,680 1.25Chlorine dioxide 1,570 1.15Chlorine 1,360 1.00Bromine 1,070 0.70 H 310 Greenhouse Management
  42. 42. Hydrogen Peroxide 3% as a disinfectant 10% for hair treatment 35% for greenhouse and industrialH 310 GreenhouseManagement
  43. 43. Hydrogen Peroxide ZeroTol (hydrogen dioxide) – Contaminated water • 1:500 dilution • 540 ppm H2O2 – Clean water • 1:10,000 dilution • 27 ppm H2O2 H 310 Greenhouse Management
  44. 44. Water in the WestWith water, the law of theWest is simple: The first one to use it gets it.This doctrine, known as "priorappropriation," originatedduring the California GoldRush days, with miners whoneeded water for their placeroperations on public lands.To this day, prior appropriationgoverns water in nine Western Frederick Remington’s 1903 painting “Fight for the Water Hole”states.
  45. 45. Western Water Rights"Farms and friendshipshave been lost over waterrights, and the tension itcreates is more real thanin any HollywoodWestern." Elizabeth Arnold National Public Radio 28 Aug 2003 Discussing Water Rights, A Western Pastime Duckboy Cards – Paul Stanton
  46. 46. Developing Water in the WestIn 1878, explorer and scientist JohnWesley Powell published a report, whichlaid out a concrete strategy for settling theWest without fighting over scarce water.He wanted to stall the waves ofhomesteaders moving across the plainsand mountains. He proposed plannedsettlements based in part on thecooperative model practiced in Utah byMormon settlers.“If Congress had listened to Powell 125years ago, the American West today mightbe an entirely different place.” Howard Berkes National Public Radio 26 Aug 2003

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