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  • Dear Steven,
    Thanks to comment,
    In AD590 is a temp transducer and in our project we interface it with labview software to find its voltage characteristics simulation that is dependent on temp.
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  • Page 70, output of AD590 is a temp dependant current source, not a voltage, your text implies a fixed Vout, this is not the case and is dependant on sense resistor that current flows through to create your Voltage sensed, a scalar of the current output of the AD590 device.
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  • 1. Characterization & Optimization of Temperature Sensor Using LABVIEW Completed By : Shabnam Niknezhad Samreen Shaikh Guide :MSc Electronic Science Prof. SAJID NAEEMDepartment of Electronic SciencePoona College of Arts , Science & Commerce Powerpoint Templates Page 1
  • 2. AIM & OBJECTIVESAim :• To study of LabVIEW and its application.Objectives :• Characterization and Optimization of temperature sensors.• To interface DAQ card with LabVIEW.• To design ON/OFF controller to control Heater.• To develop basic programming architectures.• To develop Lab VIEW software for data acquisition, display and/or control purpose.• To create application that use plug in DAQ device• To develop necessary interface hard ware so as to accumulate variety of test and measurement procedure.• To study different transducers under the control of virtual lab. Powerpoint Templates Page 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION• The primary objective of process control is to control physical parameter such as temperature, pressure, flow rate, level, force, light intensity and so on. As these parameter can change either spontaneously or because of external influences, we must constantly provide corrective action to keep these parameters constant or within the specified range. • To control process parameter, we must know the value of that parameter and hence it is necessary to measure that parameter. Powerpoint Templates Page 3
  • 4. • An instrumentation system consists of three major elements :1. input device2. signal conditioning circuit3. output device. The input quantity for most instrumentation systemis non electrical in order to use electrical methods andtechniques for measurement the non electrical quantity isconverted into proportional electrical signal by a devicecalled “transducer”. Powerpoint Templates Page 4
  • 5. Transducer• A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy to another. Energy types include electrical, mechanical, electromagnetic (including light), chemical, acoustic or thermal energy.• While the term transducer commonly implies the use of a sensor/detector, any device which converts energy can be considered a transducer.• Transducers are widely used in measuring instruments. Bioelectrical Technology At the heart of this system a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor in the contact lens that acts as a transducer, antenna, and mechanical Powerpoint Templates support for read-out electronics. Page 5
  • 6. Temperature sensor - overview• In many systems, temperature control is fundamental. There are a number of passive and active temperature sensors that can be used to measure system temperature, including:1. thermocouple,2. resistive temperature detector,3. thermistor,4. silicon temperature sensors.• These sensors provide temperature feedback to the system controller to make decisions such as, over- temperature shutdown, turn-on/off cooling fan, temperature compensation or general purpose temperature monitor. Templates Powerpoint Page 6
  • 7. Common Methods of Interfacing a Sensor Powerpoint Templates Page 7
  • 8. Block Diagram• Signals are input to a sensor, conditioned, converted into bits that a computer can read, and analyzed to extract meaningful information. Powerpoint Templates Page 8
  • 9. Study of LabVIEW Powerpoint Templates Page 9
  • 10. Lab VIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench.)• Lab VIEW is a graphical programming language that uses icons instead of lines of text to create programs.• Lab VIEW is a platform and development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments. Powerpoint Templates Page 10
  • 11. virtual instruments• Lab VIEW programs are called virtual instruments, or VIs, because their appearance and operation imitate physical instruments, such as oscilloscopes and multimeters.• After build the user interface, add code using VIs and structures to control the front panel objects. The block diagram contains this code. Powerpoint Templates Page 11
  • 12. LABVIEW INTRODUCTION Two “sets” for development  Front Panel  Block Diagram Wiring connections LabVIEW Conventions Running LabVIEW programs Powerpoint Templates Page 12
  • 13. LABVIEW Front Panel• It is the user interface for the VI.• Used to display Controls or Indicators.• It contains the Controls palette.• Highly customizable. Powerpoint Templates Page 13
  • 14. LABVIEW Block DiagramThe block diagram provides the area for the graphical code • Actual program. • Invisible to user. • Read left to right, like a book. The Functions Palette Powerpoint Templates Page 14
  • 15. LabVIEW Palettes1- The Front panel contains: The Controls Palette2- The Block Diagram panel contains: The Functions Palette Powerpoint Templates Page 15
  • 16. 1- Controls Palette• To open the control palette from the front panel :• Or click the mouse right button. Powerpoint Templates Page 16
  • 17. • The Controls palette contains the controls and indicators that used to create the front panel. Controls Indicators Powerpoint Templates Page 17
  • 18. Some Controls & Indicators Powerpoint Templates Page 18
  • 19. 2- Functions Palette• To open the Functions palette from the block diagram window :• Or click the mouse right button. Powerpoint Templates Page 19
  • 20. Some Functions Powerpoint Templates Page 20
  • 21. Terminals :When you place a control(or indicator) on the FRONT PANEL LabVIEW automatically creates a corresponding control (or indicator) terminal on the BLOCK DIAGRAM Powerpoint Templates Page 21
  • 22. Basic wires used in block diagrams and corresponding types:• Each wire has different style or color, depending on the data type that flows through the wire: Powerpoint Templates Page 22
  • 23. LabVIEW Conventions• Front panel items Controls and indicators• Block diagram items Program structures (loops, case structures, math, etc.)• Controls vs. Indicators Wires attach to controls on the right (give values) Wires attach to indicators on the left (receive values)• Wiring colors Wires are color coded to correspond to data types Powerpoint Templates Page 23
  • 24. Controls and Functions Palettes Graphical, floating palettes used to place controls and indicators on the front panel, or to build the block diagram.Controls Palette Functions Palette (Front Panel) Powerpoint Templates (Block Diagram) Page 24
  • 25. Creating a front panel• Right click to select the controls palette • Drag and drop the components• As you place components a corresponding terminal will appear in the diagram window Powerpoint Templates Page 25
  • 26. Wiring the diagram • Right click to select the functions palette • Drag and drop functions• Select the wiring tool• Drag the wire between terminalsPowerpoint Templates Page 26
  • 27. Powerpoint Templates Page 27
  • 28. Basic Examples :• LabVIEW is written on graphical structure.• While in LabVIEW summation is a function and it is represent by following symbol.• In LabVIEW, such mathematical and logical functions are represented graphically. Powerpoint Templates Page 28
  • 29. Add and multiply two given numbers and display the results Powerpoint Templates Page 29
  • 30. Converting ºC to ºF °F = (1.8 * °C) + 32 Control Indicator Powerpoint Templates Page 30
  • 31. Introduction of DAQ card Powerpoint Templates Page 31
  • 32. What is DAQ System• DAQ systems capture, measure, and analyze physical phenomena from the real world.• Light, temperature and pressure are examples of the different types of signals that a DAQ system can measure.• Data acquisition is the process of collecting and measuring electrical signals and sending them to a computer for processing.• Electrical signals comes from Transducers. Powerpoint Templates Page 32
  • 33. The building blocks of a DAQ system includes:1. Transducer: A device that converts a physical phenomenon such as light, temperature, pressure, or sound into a measurable electrical signal such as voltage or current.2. Signal: The output of the transducer.3. Signal conditioning: Hardware that you can connect to the DAQ device to make the signal suitable for measurement or to improve accuracy or reduce noise.4. DAQ hardware: Hardware you use to acquire, measure, and analyze data.5. Software: NI application software is designed to help you easily design and program your measurement and control Powerpoint Templates application (LABVIEW). Page 33
  • 34. Why Signal Conditioning To measure signals from transducers, you must convert them into a form a measurement device can accept.• Common types of signal conditioning include amplification, linearization, transducer excitation, and isolation. Powerpoint Templates Page 34
  • 35. What type of device to useThe trade-off usually falls between :• 1- Resolution (bits) & Code Width• 2- Sampling rate (samples/second)• 3- Number of channels, and data transfer rate (usually limited by “bus” type: USB, PCI, PXI, etc.). Powerpoint Templates Page 35
  • 36. Types of Data Acquisition and Control Devices Powerpoint Templates Page 36
  • 37. DAQ Device PropertiesDAQ devices have four standard elements:1. Analog input (AI)2. Analog output (AO)3. Digital I/O (DIO)4. Counter/Timers Powerpoint Templates Page 37
  • 38. USB DAQ :• USB -6008 & USB -6009 Low – Cost USB DAQ.The National Instruments USB-6009 provides basic dataacqusitionfunctionality for applications such as simple data logging,portable measurements , and academic lab experiments.The NI USB _6008 and NI USB 6009 are ideal for students.Create measurement applicationby programing the NI USB-6009using LabVIEW and NI_DAQmxdriver software for Windows. Powerpoint Templates Page 38
  • 39. Feature of DAQ 6009• Eight 14-bit analog inputs.• 12 digital I/O lines.• 2 analog outputs.• 1 counter. 17 1 Analog Digital Powerpoint Templates 32 16 Page 39
  • 40. DAQ6009 DetailsOverlay Label with Pin Orientation Guide Comb icon JackScrew Terminal BlocksSignal Labels Powerpoint Templates Page 40
  • 41. NI USB-6009 Pins Powerpoint Templates Page 41
  • 42. How to Select DAQ Device & Accessories• Open the Labview program, in the Block Diagram select functions, express input then select the DAQ Assistant icon. Powerpoint Templates Page 42
  • 43. How to Select DAQ Device (Input & Output Channels)• Select “Analog Input” so as to input your analog data to the computer and Labview. Powerpoint Templates Page 43
  • 44. How to Select DAQ Device (Input & Output Channels)• We have 16 physical input channels from ai0 to ai15, select a channel like ai0. Powerpoint Templates Page 44
  • 45. How to Select DAQ Device (Input & Output Channels)• Select your input voltage setup Powerpoint Templates Page 45
  • 46. How to Select DAQ Device (Input & Output Channels)• Now make the connections and select test then Run to see the input voltage. Powerpoint Templates Page 46
  • 47. How to Select DAQ Device (Input & Output Channels)• Example Powerpoint Templates Page 47
  • 48. Introduction of Sensors Powerpoint Templates Page 48
  • 49. LM35• The LM35 is an integrated circuit sensor that can be used to measure temperature with an electrical output proportional to the temperature (in oC). Powerpoint Templates Page 49
  • 50. What Can Expect When Use An LM35?• The output voltage is converted to temperature by a simple conversion factor.• The sensor has a sensitivity of 10mV / oC.• Use a conversion factor that is the reciprocal, that is 100 oC/V.• The general equation used to convert output voltage to temperature is:  Temperature ( oC) = Vout * (100 oC/V) – So if Vout is 1V , then, Temperature = 100 oC• The output voltage varies linearly with temperature. Powerpoint Templates Page 50
  • 51. Why Use LM35s To Measure Temperature?• Measure temperature more accurately than a using a thermistor.• The sensor circuitry is sealed and not subject to oxidation, etc.• The LM35 generates a higher output voltage than thermocouples and may not require that the output voltage be amplified. Powerpoint Templates Page 51
  • 52. How does LM35 work?• It has an output voltage that is proportional to the Celsius temperature.• The scale factor is 10mV/oC .• The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming and maintains an accuracy of +/-0.4 oC at room temperature and +/- 0.8 oC over a range of 0 oC to +100oC. • Vc = 4 to 30v • 5v or 12 v are typical values used. Powerpoint Templates Page 52
  • 53. Photo of the LM 35 wired on a circuit board. – The white wire in the photo goes to the power supply. – Both the resistor and the black wire go to ground. – The output voltage is measured from the middle pin into ground . Power supplyOutput voltage Powerpoint Templates Ground Page 53
  • 54. Real Picture LM35 Powerpoint Templates Page 54
  • 55. Result in Block DiagramTemperature ( oC)= Vout * (100 oC/V) Convert from Dynamic Data Powerpoint Templates Page 55
  • 56. Result in Front Panel (heating) XY Graph Powerpoint Templates Page 56
  • 57. Result in Front Panel (cooling) XY Graph Powerpoint Templates Page 57
  • 58. Thermistor• Thermistors are built with semiconductor materials and can have either a positive (PTC) or negative (NTC) temperature coefficient. However, the NTC is typically used for temperature sensing. NTC Powerpoint Templates Page 58
  • 59. • Advantages of thermistors include a very high sensitivity to changes in temperature (having a thermal response of up to - 100Ω/°C at 25°C),fast response time and low cost.• The main drawback of thermistors is that the change in resistance with temperature is highly non-linear at temperatures below 0°C and greater than 70°C. Powerpoint Templates Page 59
  • 60. Electrical Connections of Thermistor • A simple voltage divider is created with a reference resistor (R1) and the thermistor (RT). • A constant voltage source is supplied (VREF) with the output of the voltage divider (Vout)directly correlating to temperature. Powerpoint Templates Page 60
  • 61. • The response is shown in the graph of temperature vs. output voltage to the right• of the circuit. It is fairly linear in the range of 0-70°C. LINEAR Powerpoint Templates Page 61
  • 62. Why Use Thermistors To Measure Temperature?• They are inexpensive, rugged and reliable.• They respond quickly. Powerpoint Templates Page 62
  • 63. Thermistor – Block diagram (Heating & Cooling) Convert temp(F) to (C)T= ((1/298) +(1/4038)*ln(v/(5-v)))**(-1)*1.8-460 of Powerpoint Templates Page 63
  • 64. Thermistor-Front panel (Heating) Powerpoint Templates Page 64
  • 65. Thermistor –Front panel (Cooling) Powerpoint Templates Page 65
  • 66. Real PictureThermistor Powerpoint Templates Page 66
  • 67. AD590 Circuit Powerpoint Templates Page 67
  • 68. Solid State Temperature Sensor (Linear 1 Microamp per Kelvin Output)• Solid state temperature sensor has an easy to use linear voltage output, unlike conventional resistive sensors.• The AD590 is a small temperature transducer that converts a temperature input into a proportional current output.• The advanced technology in the AD590 is especially suited for special temperature measurement and control applications between -55 and 150°C (-67 to 302°F) when solid state reliability, linearity and accuracy are required.• The size and responsiveness of the AD590 make it perfect for uses where size is a consideration, such as on PC boards or heat sinks. Powerpoint Templates Page 68
  • 69. Specifications• Absolute Maximum Ratings • Calibration Error: J: ±5.0°C• Forward Voltage (E+ to E-): +44V maximum (K: ±2.5°C)• Reverse Voltage (E+ to E-): -20V • Absolute Error: Without external• Breakdown Voltage • Calibration Adjustment: J: ±10.0°C max (K: ±5.5°C);• (case to E+ or E-): ±200V W/25°C error set to zero J: ±3.0°C• Lead Temperature: 300°C max (K: ±2.0°C)• Voltage Range: 4 to 30 Vdc • Repeatability: ±0.1°C max• Nominal Current Output at 25°C • Long-Term Drift:• (298.2 K): 298.2 μA ±0.1°C/month max• Nominal Temperature Coefficient: 1 μA/K Powerpoint Templates Page 69
  • 70. AD590• The AD590 solid-state temperature sensor produces an output of 100mV per degree Celsius : Temperature = Voltage * 100• For example we have 0.35(v) in 35(degree Celsius). Powerpoint Templates Page 70
  • 71. AD590 –block diagram (Heating & Cooling)Temperature = Voltage * 100 Powerpoint Templates Page 71
  • 72. AD590- Front Panel (Heating) Powerpoint Templates Page 72
  • 73. AD590- Front Panel (Cooling) Powerpoint Templates Page 73
  • 74. Response temperature vs voltage (Heating) Powerpoint Templates Page 74
  • 75. Response temperature vs voltage (Cooling) Powerpoint Templates Page 75
  • 76. Real Picture AD590Powerpoint Templates Page 76
  • 77. PT100• The principle of operation is to measure the resistance of a platinum element. The most common type (PT100) has a resistance of 100 Ω at 0 °C and 138.4 ohms at 100 °C. There are also PT1000 sensors that have a resistance of 1000 ohms at 0 °C.• The relationship between temperature and resistance is approximately linear over a small temperature range: for example, if you assume that it is linear over the 0 to 100 °C range, the error at 50 °C is 0.4 °C. Powerpoint Templates Page 77
  • 78. Circuit Diagram of PT100 Powerpoint Templates Page 78
  • 79. Features1. Extremely accurate.2. Fairly good linearity.3. Variety of packages.4. Wire wound or thin film. Powerpoint Templates Page 79
  • 80. Applications1. Industrial instrumentation.2. Hot wire anemometers.3. Laboratory quality measurements.4. Air , gas and liquid monitoring.5. Petrochemical. Powerpoint Templates Page 80
  • 81. Real picture PT100Powerpoint Templates Page 81
  • 82. PT100-Block Diagram (Heating) R=100(1+(t*0.00385)) Powerpoint Templates Page 82
  • 83. PT100-Block Diagram (Cooling) R=100(1+(t*0.00385)) Powerpoint Templates Page 83
  • 84. PT100-Front Panel (Heating) Powerpoint Templates Page 84
  • 85. PT100-Front Panel (Cooling) Powerpoint Templates Page 85
  • 86. Response graph oftemperature vs. output voltage (Heating) Powerpoint Templates Page 86
  • 87. Response graph ofTemperature vs. output Voltage (Cooling) Powerpoint Templates Page 87
  • 88. Powerpoint Templates Page 88