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07 sept 2012     Swapnil Jadhav               M.sc-1AKI’S Poona College
What is a DAC? A digital to analog converter (DAC) converts a digital signal to an analog voltage or current output.10010...
Block Diagram
Types of DACs Many types of DACs available. Usually switches, resistors, and op-amps used to  implement conversion Two ...
Binary Weighted Resistor Utilizes a summing op-amp circuit Weighted resistors are used to distinguish each bit  from the...
Binary Weighted Resistor Assume Ideal    Op-amp No current into op-amp   Vref Virtual ground at               R  invert...
Binary Weighted ResistorVoltages V1 through Vn are either                                       VrefVref if corresponding ...
Binary Weighted Resistor    Advantages     Simple Construction/Analysis     Fast Conversion    Disadvantages     Requ...
R-2R Ladder                                   Each bit correspondsVref                               to a switch:         ...
R-2R Ladder Advantages    Only two resistor values (R and 2R)    Does not require high precision resistors Disadvantag...
Specifications of DACs• Resolution• Speed• Linearity• Settling Time• Reference Voltages• Errors
Resolution Smallest analog increment corresponding to 1 LSB  change An N-bit resolution can resolve 2N distinct analog  ...
Speed Rate of conversion of a single digital input to its analog  equivalent Conversion rate depends on   clock speed o...
Linearity The difference between the desired analog output and the actual output over the full range of expected values  ...
Linearity                        Ideally, a DAC should produce a linear relationship                        between the d...
Settling Time Time required for the output signal to settle within +/- ½ LSB  of its final value after a given change in ...
Reference Voltages Used to determine how each digital input will be  assigned to each voltage division Types:   Non-mul...
Types of Errors Associated with DACs Gain Offset Full Scale Resolution Non-Linearity Non-Monotonic Settling Time an...
Applications Digital Motor Control Computer Printers Sound Equipment (e.g. CD/MP3 Players, etc.) Electronic Cruise Con...
References Google INTERNET wikipedia
THANK YOU
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  1. 1. 07 sept 2012 Swapnil Jadhav M.sc-1AKI’S Poona College
  2. 2. What is a DAC? A digital to analog converter (DAC) converts a digital signal to an analog voltage or current output.100101… DAC
  3. 3. Block Diagram
  4. 4. Types of DACs Many types of DACs available. Usually switches, resistors, and op-amps used to implement conversion Two Types:  Binary Weighted Resistor  R-2R Ladder
  5. 5. Binary Weighted Resistor Utilizes a summing op-amp circuit Weighted resistors are used to distinguish each bit from the most significant to the least significant Transistors are used to switch between Vref and ground (bit high or low)
  6. 6. Binary Weighted Resistor Assume Ideal Op-amp No current into op-amp Vref Virtual ground at R inverting input 2R I Rf Vout= -IRf 4R - Vout + 2nR
  7. 7. Binary Weighted ResistorVoltages V1 through Vn are either VrefVref if corresponding bit is high or V1ground if corresponding bit is low R V2 2R I RfV1 is most significant bit V3 4RVn is least significant bit - Vout + Vn 2n-1R MSB LSB V1 V2 V3 Vn Vout IRf Rf  n -1 R 2R 4R 2 R
  8. 8. Binary Weighted Resistor Advantages  Simple Construction/Analysis  Fast Conversion Disadvantages  Requires large range of resistors (2000:1 for 12-bit DAC) with necessary high precision for low resistors  Requires low switch resistances in transistors  Can be expensive. Therefore, usually limited to 8-bit resolution.
  9. 9. R-2R Ladder Each bit correspondsVref to a switch: If the bit is high, the corresponding switch is connected to the inverting input of the op-amp. If the bit is low, the corresponding switch Bit: 0 0 0 0 Vout is connected to ground. 4-Bit Converter
  10. 10. R-2R Ladder Advantages  Only two resistor values (R and 2R)  Does not require high precision resistors Disadvantage  Lower conversion speed than binary weighted DAC
  11. 11. Specifications of DACs• Resolution• Speed• Linearity• Settling Time• Reference Voltages• Errors
  12. 12. Resolution Smallest analog increment corresponding to 1 LSB change An N-bit resolution can resolve 2N distinct analog levels Common DAC has a 8-16 bit resolution Vref Resolution VLSB N 2 where N number of bits
  13. 13. Speed Rate of conversion of a single digital input to its analog equivalent Conversion rate depends on  clock speed of input signal  settling time of converter When the input changes rapidly, the DAC conversion speed must be high.
  14. 14. Linearity The difference between the desired analog output and the actual output over the full range of expected values Analog Output Signal 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 Digital Input Signal
  15. 15. Linearity  Ideally, a DAC should produce a linear relationship between the digital input and analog output Linearity (Ideal) Non-LinearityAnalog Output Signal Analog Output Signal 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 Digital Input Signal Digital Input Signal
  16. 16. Settling Time Time required for the output signal to settle within +/- ½ LSB of its final value after a given change in input scale Limited by slew rate of output amplifier Ideally, an instantaneous change in analog voltage would occur when a new binary word enters into DAC
  17. 17. Reference Voltages Used to determine how each digital input will be assigned to each voltage division Types:  Non-multiplier DAC: Vref is fixed  Multiplier DAC: Vref provided by external source
  18. 18. Types of Errors Associated with DACs Gain Offset Full Scale Resolution Non-Linearity Non-Monotonic Settling Time and Overshoot
  19. 19. Applications Digital Motor Control Computer Printers Sound Equipment (e.g. CD/MP3 Players, etc.) Electronic Cruise Control Digital Thermostat
  20. 20. References Google INTERNET wikipedia
  21. 21. THANK YOU
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