A Systematic Review of Textile Consumption in Brazil, China, Inida, Sri Lanka, and Turkey

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Fourth Subsistence Marketplaces Conference

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  • The textile industry is one that exhibits an economic legacy to convert emerging markets into global trade giants. Both modernization and structural theories of development lend themselves to this difference between growth and development. Modernization leans to assume interest in Western culture and gets in the way of for-profits attempting to increase a standard of living by engaging in the emerging marketplaces. Emerging markets may eventually acquire the Western traits, and the less developed economy almost passes through an evolutionary-like and predictable process. Some degree of trickle down can be predicted for the subsistence marketplaces. Structural theory adds some tension here because of its imbalance to favor the high SES consumers before low SES, and needs go unaddressed. Added to a level of cultural identity that is manifested through dress, consumers may fight back through cultural ethnocentricities.
  • This is how the Western value corporations look at the textile category from a consumer perspective e.g. no industrial use of textiles. The global sector is expected to increase at a rate of 3.2% CAGR through 2015. APAC: 5.8% EE: 5.3% LA: 4.8% MEA: 3.2% While these numbers are growing, the marketplaces under study show a pattern of significant decreases in income through the year 2015. Therefore, the relationship between comparatively low and now decreasing incomes coupled with moderate industry growth allows a lens through which to approach textile products consumption as a possible context through which to increase standard of living. This should be a study about textiles and not just apparel. Terms like fashion, clothing, styles, and apparel are often used interchangeably with textiles: TEXTILES ARE CLOTH OR MATERIAL MADE FROM FIBER BY WEAVING, KNITTING, BRAIDING, FELTING, CROCHETING, KNOTTING, LAMINATING, OR BONDING One objective of this synthesis is to integrate the extensive interpretations of textile consumer products, so any good constructed by this definition may be reviewed to establish study inclusion and exclusion upon coding.
  • The global apparel sector (defined by sales of finished clothing and footwear) reached $1.622 trillion in 2011. Despite CAGR, the industry is characterized by paradox. First, a range of definitions construct the meaning of clothing and footwear. According to Alimen and Cerit (2010), “Fashion generally refers to clothing and it is described as “a process which determines particular design, products or social behaviors for a specific period of time and replaces them regularly with the new ones” (p.539). Rathnayake (2010) posits that clothing extends beyond styles and silhouettes “is considered to be a universal tool of aesthetic self-management” (p.121). Category definition varies, but there is influence by the developed countries on the developing markets both through development of the industry and growth in possible economic outcomes. Category definition varies, yet the influence of developed countries on the industry’s development and contribution to developing countries is without argument. “Mature European markets” (Rocha, Hammond, and Hawkins, p. 380, 2005) lead the industry “at the forefront of emerging industries,” (p. 380), yet Rathnayake (2010) confirms “almost all studies related to fashion consciousness have been conducted in the developed countries, and comparatively very limited attention has been paid on fashion consciousness of consumers in developing countries” (p. 121). Therefore, this research synthesis seeks to add meaning understand the correlation of textile consumption on economic outcomes in developing, and under-researched,countries. Interested in whether the effects of textile consumption is moderated by economic indicators…  
  • Every study does not have an equal chance of being retrieved Together, these studies should more closely approximate the target population intended to be studied by the primary researcher. MFA: an agreement that restricted exports of textiles to developed countries (US, Canada, and the EU) from developing countries (China, et al). Since 1974, import quotas had been applied to 73 countries in the global South, mostly in Asia, but starting in 1995 they were phased out.  The quota system was abolished completely in 2005, drastically changing the game for garment-producing countries. Also important to note that the literature review process is one done in partnership with library specialist and in this case, 2 specialists: both business and education. Various advanced search details become critical to consider e.g. use of proximity searches, Boolean logic, etc. must all be considered. Full-text resources is also very generic: quality-controlled channels are important for the search, so scholarly journals and conference proceedings are prioritized. Also need to look to secondary channels . . . Reference lists, databases, citation indexes. In some cases peer review goes out the window because we want the gray research, the footnote chased research, to also be included. Will talk more about this as a limitation.
  • What is the year of appearance of the report or publication? What type of report was this? Was this a peer-reviewed document? What type of organization produced this report? Which of the following characteristics were part of the textile survey? preferences for choice of fashion and clothing consumption (ID1) consumer motivations for purchase (ID2) fashion product innovation (ID2) branding (knowledge, awareness, image, personality) (ID3) consumer self-esteem (ID4) perceived risk What demographics were included in the study? Gender, education, income How was the data collected? This is perhaps the most misleading: Case Studies tend to be the biggest perpetrator How was the data analyzed? Were findings significant?
  • Setting: Were the participants living within a country considered developing or subsistence? Country and region Where were the primary researchers ’ surveys collected Participant and Sample Characteristics What was the socioeconomic status of the consumers in the sample? How involved were consumers in the textile industry? heavy, light, moderate Gender? What IV did this DV measure? Consumer motivation Consumer innovativeness Product and brand usage Evaluation attributes Personality What type of measure is this? Was evidence presented regarding validity/reliability of this outcome measured reached an acceptable criterion?
  • The goal becomes to identify and apply criteria to separate studies in ways that correspond with the research question from those that do not. GOOD studies: PERMIT INFERENCES MOST CORRESPONDENT WITH INFERENCES YOU WISH TO MAKE
  • B&C: looking at the physical, identity, and lifestyle (PIL) indicators for consumption considering social variables (education, income, age, ethnicity, and religion) 3 random surveys collected with consumers 15+ years of age n=307 valid 4 point Likert scale used factor analysis China only: India: measured by personality, opinion leadership, and optimum stimulation level; perceived risk was reviewed; n=239, Pearson correlation and t-tests Turkey : brand awareness of both domestic and imported brands; perceived risk, competitive advantage through education. T-tests and Cronbach alpha Sri Lanka : attitude and identity lead to self-esteem, freedom of choice, uniqueness, factor analysis n=215
  • To identify and apply criteria that separate studies in ways that correspond with the research question form studies that do not. GOOD studies: PERMIT INFERENCES MOST CORRESPONDENT WITH INFERENCES YOU WISH TO MAKE
  • You might also be prepared to answer questions about the findings of the higher "quality" studies - does the presence of a textile industry seem to increase economic outcomes? Or, what are these studies saying? I can imagine someone will ask what your preliminary findings are in addition to understanding what is or is not in the literature. Publication bias: published research is more likely to present statistically significant findings: there is a bias against the null findings; studies are only being submitted about 6% of the time when non-significant results arise. Leads into coding quality: the higher quality studies may exist, but keeping the coding forms broad enough to properly include and exclude may not allow for qualitative studies. B2B interactions are also not captured through this study, and given the macro, industrial implications, a synthesis of B2B instead of B2C may be needed. Also handicrafts are not coming into the data… Effect sizes: d-index: standardized mean difference: look for a common s.d. with t-tests or F-tests 2. r-index: Pearson Correlation 3. Odds Ratio: often used in medical research and both variables must be dichotomous. Sensitivity analysis too? Business Source Complete only keyword searches wages and textile workers = 127 36 results with TEXTILE industry, TEXTILE workers, WAGES, WAGES – Textile workers, CLOTHING industry + 2000; 24 when moved to 2005
  • A Systematic Review of Textile Consumption in Brazil, China, Inida, Sri Lanka, and Turkey

    1. 1. A Systematic Review of Textile Consumption in Brazil, China, India, Sri Lanka, and Turkey Stacy B. NeierPhD Student, Research Methods School of Education Loyola University Chicago 29 July 2012
    2. 2. Overview of the Textile Industry
    3. 3. Existing Category Definitions
    4. 4. Research Question & Purpose Research Question:What economic indicators show association with consumption of textile products in subsistence marketplaces? Research Purpose: To conduct a systematic review of studies that examine the correlation between textile industry presence and variouseconomic outcomes experienced by consumers in subsistence markets. Meta-analysis will be used to assess correlations across consumer populations given an appropriate quantity of quality studies.
    5. 5. First Step: Literature Search1. Wilson OmniFile EBSCOHost keyword search: “textile” – 28240 full-text resources (1981-2012)1. Business Source Premier & EconLit keyword search: “textile” – 81354 full-text resources (1887-present)1. Adding “income” as a keyword – 904 full-text resources (1931-2012)1. Restricted time range 2005-present 1. 333 full-text resources2. Adding keywords “subsistence” and “correlation” – no additional resources
    6. 6. Results so far
    7. 7. Information about TextileConsumptionComplete these questions separately foreach textile consumption survey describedin the report.I1. What is this study’s ID number?I2. Which of the following characteristicswere part of the textile survey? (Place a1 in each column that applies, 0 if not, ? ifnot reported.) 1. preferences for choice of fashion and clothing consumption (ID1) 2. consumer motivations for purchase (ID2) 3. fashion product innovation (ID2) 4. branding (knowledge, awareness, image, personality) (ID3) 5. consumer self-esteem (ID4) 6. perceived riskI3. What demographics were included inthe study? a. gender b. education c. income d. other (specify) __________I4. How was the data collected? a. survey b. qualitative (interviews, observations) c. other (specify) __________I5. How was the data analyzed? a. factor analysis b. t-tests c. ANOVA d. other (specify) __________I6. Were findings significant? a. 0=yes b. 1=no c. ?=did not specifyOTHERS
    8. 8. Setting Characteristics Outcome MeasureS1. Were the participants: (Place a 1 ineach column that applies, 0 if not, ? if not Complete these questions separately forreported.) each relevant outcome within each 1. In a marketplace considered as subsistence sample. 2. In a marketplace considered as developing O1. What is this outcome’s ID number?S2. What country was the study O2. What IV did this DV measure?conducted in? 1. consumer motivationS3. In which region is this countrylocated? 2. consumer innovativeness a. Eastern Europe 3. product and brand usage b. Southeast Asia c. Africa 4. consumer evaluation attributes d. other (specify) __________ 5. consumer personalityS4. Where were surveys collected? a. In an educational environment 6. brand knowledge (awareness + (specify) _________________________ image) b. In a commercial environment (specify) _________________________ 7. fashion consciousness c. other (specify) __________________ 8. other (specify) __________OTHERS Participant and Sample O3. What type of measure is this? Characteristics Complete these questions separately for a. Psychological each sample within a textile consumption synthesis for which there is a separate b. Economic outcome. c. other (specify) __________ P1. What is the sample’s ID number? P2. Which of the following labels were O4. Was evidence presented regarding applied to consumers in this sample. (Place a 1 in each column that applies, 0 validity/reliability of this outcome if not, ? if not reported.) . P3. What was the socioeconomic status measured reached an acceptable of the consumers in the sample? 1. 2. low SES low-middle SES criterion? (Note: Place a 1 in each 3. 4. middle SES middle-upper SES column if acceptable, 0 if not, 9 if not 5. 6. upper SES assumed to be mixed reported. A statement indicating that 7. other (specify) __________ P4. How involved were the consumers in internal consistency was “acceptable” is the textile industry? a. b. heavy users moderate users sufficient, even if the specific value was c. d. light users users based on occasion not reported. A citation to an external e. other (specify) __________ source is sufficient.) P5. What sexes were represented in the sample? (Place a 1 in each column that a. Internal consistency applies, 0 if not.) a. Males b. Test-retest correlation b. Females c. No sex information is given c. other (specify) __________ P5a. If reported, what was the percentage of females in the sample? OTHERS (Use ? if not reported.) OTHERS
    9. 9. Overview of the StudiesBrazil & China Rocha, M.A.V., Hammond, L., & Hawkins, D. (2005).Age, gender, and national factors in fashion consumption. Journal ofFashion Marketing and Management, 9, 380-390.China Cass, A. & Choy, E. (2008). Studying Chinese generation Yconsumers’ involvement in fashion clothing and perceived brand status.Journal of Product and Brand Management, 17, 341-352.India Chakrabarti, S. & Baisya, R. K. (2009). The influences of consumerinnovativeness and consumer evaluation attributes in the purchase offashionable ethnic wear in India. Journal of Consumer Studies, 33, 706-714.Turkey Alimen, N. & Cerit, A. G. (2009). Dimensions of brandknowledge: Turkish university students’ consumption of internationalfashion brands. Journal of Enterprise Management, 23, 538-558.Sri Lanka Rathnayake, C. V. (2010). An empirical investigation of fashionconsciousness of young fashion consumers in Sri Lanka. YoungConsumers, 12, 121-132.
    10. 10. Overview of the StudiesBrazil & China“The research aims to reveal real behavioral preferences for fashion and clothingconsumption in an ageing society.” (Rocha, Hammond, & Hawkins, 2005)China“As such, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of consumer involvement ofChinese Gen Y using clothing as the focal object to understand various consumerbehaviors…” (Cass & Choy, 2008)India[This research] “seeks to explore whether there is statistically significant correlationsbetween the number of brands purchased in the category and relevant consumerinnovativeness constructs.” (Chakrabarti & Baisya, 2009)Turkey“The purpose of this paper is to ascertain these possible effects by comparing the brandknowledge of Turkish students. (Alimen & Cerit, 2009)Sri Lanka“The main objective of this research is to examine the fashion consciousness of youngSri Lankan consumers in the age group between 16 and 25 years.” (Rathnayake, 2010)
    11. 11. Examples: Coding QualityAlatas, V. & Cameron, L. A. (2008). The impact of minimum wages on employment in a low-income country: a quasi-natural experiment in Indonesia. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 61, 201-223.Geda A. & Meskel, A. G. (2008). China and India’s Growth Surge: Is it a curse or blessing for Africa? The Case of Manufactured Exports. © The Authors. Journal compilation © AfricanDevelopment Bank.Kilduff, P. & Chi T. (2007). Analysis of comparative advantage in the textile complex A study of Eastern European and former Soviet Union nations. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 11, 82-105.
    12. 12. Final Considerations1. LIMITATIONS – Expectancy effects – Publication bias2. THREATS TO VALIDITY – External validity: literature search easily replicable? – Construct validity: agreed upon variable definitions3. NEXT STEPS – Continued literature search emphasizing search by individual country – Compile effect sizes
    13. 13. Thank you!Stacy Neier, MBALecturerDepartment of MarketingQuinlan School of BusinessPhD Student, Research MethodsSchool of EducationLoyola University Chicago1 East Pearson #454Chicago, Illinois 60611312.915.6581sneier@luc.edu

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